GLBTTsQQA Suicide Issues
This web site is the latest Internet resource in a series - all related to homosexuality & suicide, or issues related to gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, transgender, and Two Spirit people - that have become available since 1996: "Youth Suicide Problems: Gay/Bisexual Male Focus!" (1996), Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality N/A (2003*: Now Available Here), The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Information Pages N/A (2003*: Now Available Here), and Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two Spirit Information Pages and Suicide Issues (2006). * These web resources were available online at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003 as part of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley. The collection of Internet resources includes a new website (2010) being developed as a PIE (Person-In-Environment) resource.
Web Site Index
A History of Concern by Calgary Suicidologists About Homosexuality Related Suicidality Risks.
Other Web Sections or Pages
"Attempted Suicide" Results as related to homosexually oriented and transgender people.
All Studies (Includes: The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!) - This web page contains about 110 North American, European, Australia & New Zealand studies, including some studies from other countries such as Korea and South Africa. Studies are predominantly of non-random samples, but there are studies of Random & Special Population Studies (e.g. Birth Cohorts, Twins).
Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.
Conference Presentations Related to Homosexuality Issues & Suicide.
The evidence shows that ignoring homosexuality issues in the helping professions - such as clinical psychology, family therapy, social work, nursing, mainstream suicidology, etc. - has been the rule as highlighted by the following titles indicate: ""I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research [in clinical psychology] on the mental health of lesbians and gay men" (Rothblum, 1994), "Twenty years and still in the dark? Content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in marriage and family therapy journals" (Clark & Seovich, 1997), "Among the Missing: Content on Lesbian and Gay People in Social Work Journals" (van Voorhis & Wagner, 2002), "Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse" (McAndrew & Warne, 2004), "Death by Denial [of GLB youth risk for suicide in mainstream suicidology]: Studies of Suicide in Gay and Lesbian Teenagers (Remafedi, 1994a), "Ignored to death: representations of young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in Australian youth suicide policy and programs" (Emslie, 1996): Note 1.Suicide intervention training in face-to-face and telephone situations was mostly pioneered in California in the 1950s and 60s, primarily at the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center (Note 2) and The Institute of Suicidology (Note 3). Also, much of the early data supporting homosexual persons being at greater risk for suicidal behaviors was from California. The Saghir and Robins (1970a, 1970b, 1973) study samples were from Chicago and San Francisco. The Bell and Weinberg (1978) sample was from the San Francisco Bay Area. As well, many individuals concerned about elevated risk were from California. Eric Rofes, author of the first book on suicide risk for homosexual persons, "I thought people like that killed themselves": Lesbians, gay men and suicide, published his book in San Francisco (Rofes, 1983). Paul Gibson, the author of the commissioned and highly controversial 1989 paper, “Gay and lesbian youth suicide” in the Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Youth Suicide, was a therapist and program consultant from San Francisco.
In 1985, the California Department of Mental Health funded a 5-year youth suicide prevention program that included training programs for caregivers. The following year, they commissioned the Alberta developers to adapt their program for statewide dissemination. At a stakeholders meeting in 1987, spokespersons for a gay, lesbian, bisexual stakeholder group from San Francisco drew attention to the emerging body of knowledge about homosexually oriented persons and suicidality. Their advocacy was effective and information about this knowledge was included in the first edition of the California Suicide Intervention Training Program: Trainer’s Handbook (1987). It has been updated and included in all subsequent training program handbooks and trainer manuals (Note 4).
In 1991, LivingWorks Education was formed as an incorporated company with support from the University of Calgary to further develop the program and extend the dissemination of training beyond Alberta. Alberta dissemination continued under the auspices of the Canadian Mental Health Association. An update of the national task force report on suicide - Suicide in Canada" - was scheduled for publication in 1994. Sexual orientation and suicidality information was initially not included but added before its final publication with the help of a GLBT advocate and a LivingWorks developer/UofC social work faculty member (Note 5). In 2003, sexual identity and suicidality issues were recommended as a cross-cutting research priority in suicide research at a national meeting of “experts” sponsored by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR).
1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1993) or in computerised questionnaires that were deemed to be more effective - than are paper and pencil questionnaires - in having study participants report sensitive information such as childhood sexual abuse (Bagley & Genuis, 1991). Given such results, it was suspected and argued that computerized questionnaires would likely also be more effective when seeking other sensitive information, such as homosexuality (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997, 1998).
Moscicki (1989) commented as follows on the Bagley & Ramsay suicidality research:
This is the only known community survey that has addressed the important distinction between deliberate self-harm without intent to die, which the authors called "parasuicide," and a lethal suicide attempt [defined by the intent to die]. (p. 136)
More on this subject is located on the web page:
To date, however, efforts to separate 'true suicide attempters' from 'false suicide attempters' in suicidality studies have mostly only been done with samples of sexual minority youth, with little known about what the outcomes would be for heterosexual or predominantly homosexual individuals.
By 1997, my research colleague, Dr. Christopher Bagley (now professor emeritus at the University of Southampton) and Pierre Tremblay published male homosexuality and suicidality results from a random sample of young adult males living in Calgary. The Bagley and Tremblay (1997) study was the first in the world to show, using a random population sample, that homosexually oriented males were much more at risk for serious attempts at suicide, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. A version of the paper was also published in the book Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents and Adults (Bagley & Ramsay, 1997),. Replication of "at risk" findings in the United States first occurred for adolescents via papers that reported the suicidality result of random surveys known as Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or similar school-based surveys (e.g. Remafedi et al, 1998: Minnesota; Faulkner & Cranston, 1998: Vermont; Garofalo, 1999: Massachusetts; Pinhey & Millman, 2004: Guam) and also from adult surveys (Cochran & Mays, 2000: NHANES Survey: USA, National; Gilman et al., 2001: Comorbidity II Survey: USA, National). Similar results were also produced using the American Vietnam Era win Registry (Herrell et al., 1999) and in other parts of the world (Fergusson et al., 1999: New Zealand Birth Cohort; Wichstrom & Hegna, 2003: Norway, School-Based Sample; de Graaf et al., 2006: Netherlands, National; Lhomond & Saurel-Cubizolles, 2006: France, National). Summaries of these studies and other studies (about 110 studies) are available on the web page:
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender "Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Studies From 1970 to 2013.
The 1997 Calgary results (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997) also suggested that, at least for homosexually oriented males, they would be more at risk for the more serious suicidal behavior and this phenomenon has been replicated in many studies as summarized on the web page:
Sexual Minorities in Psychiatry, Psychology, Community Psychology, Family Therapy, Social Work, Health / Medicine, and Suicidology: A History of Slow Changes from Outright “Harm” to Harmful “Avoidance” & “Indifference.”
“Outright and Indifference” Harm by Mental Health Professions: to 1973/1992
The profession of psychiatry decreed adult homosexuality as a “Mental
Disorder”, sanctioning unquestioned harmful practices for many decades
until it was finally declassified as a disorder from the DSM (Diagnostic
Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders in 1973/74 and completely
removed in 1986. However, it remained a mental disorder until 1992 for
those using the ICD: WHO’s International Classification of Diseases and
Related Health Problems (Herek, 1998-2007). Adolescent
homosexuality, on the other hand, had been viewed as a normal part of adolescence
that was not pathologised nor minoritised by developmental psychologists.
By the early 1970s, however, “silence” about this subject became the rule
(Spurlock, 2002), almost as if the attribute should
NOT exist, or that its place in human development applied to so few (giving
it a rare “sexual minority” status) that it could be ignored. This outcome
left for psychologists and other mental health professions to foster harmful
practices of avoidance and indifference.
Avoidance & Indifference: 1973-2000
American/Canadian Psychology (1994): What contemporary psychology had been doing to advance the knowledge and understanding of homosexual development is best summed up in the title of a paper “"I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men” (Rothblum, 1994). Some recent improvements have been described by Phillips et al. (2003) and Morrow (2003), the latter noting that serious problems still exist: “Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns continue to be underrepresented in the counseling literature, although progress was made in the 1990s in the content and quantity of literature dealing with these issues. Despite progress in several areas, the scholarship on specific marginalized groups within the LGB community is particularly sparse: LGB people of color, bisexual women and men, lesbian women, LGB people with disabilities, and transgendered individuals.” Phillips et al. (2003) also noted the lack of “attention to within-group differences (e.g., bisexual people and LGB people of color).”
Family Therapy (1997): “Twenty years and still in the dark?” by Clark & Seovich in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 1997. This was a content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in marriage and family therapy journals. Very little published on “gay/lesbian” issues (0.6% of articles). Bisexuality was almost totally ignored. This reflects the recent common (hegemonic?) belief that sexual orientation is binary in nature. On individuals is either heterosexual or homosexual.
Social Work (2001): Coverage of Gay and Lesbian Subject Matter in 12 mainstream Social Work Journals by Van Voorhis & Wagner in the Journal of Social Work Education, 2001. The most coverage (two-thirds) in four major social work journals from 1988 to1997 was AIDS-related. Heterosexism is the rule as Voorhis & Wagner (2002) noted in a paper with a telling title: “Among the Missing: Content on Lesbian and Gay People in Social Work Journals.” Bisexuality is almost totally ignored. In a 1998 Interview, Ann Hartman reports: “"I remember one of my friends overheard several of the male deans at a social work Dean's meeting communicating with each other saying, 'The lesbians are taking over the field.' I am sure there is still plenty going on underground, as you can imagine. For instance five or six years ago there was a concerted, but rather quiet effort led by some of the deans to keep homosexuality out of the Council on Social Work Education guidelines" (Miller, 1998).
Community Psychology (2003): Special GLBT Issue in American Journal
of Community Psychology, 31(3/4). D'Augelli (2003:
345) describes the lack of coverage of GLB issues in community psychology:
"...little work was done by community psychologists on LGB issues until
the very late 1990s. Harper and Schneider (2003:
244-5) reported on two studies of GLB content in major community psychology
journals: no more than one percent of published articles had been related
to GLB issues. Bisexuality is almost totally ignored.
Suicidology: Remafedi, G. (1994a), in his book Death
reported on a part of the story related to mainstream suicidologists
often denying that sexual minority youth are at risk for suicide:
"Fueling the intrusion of politics into the science,
well-funded scholars sometimes oppose new perspectives in their own
of research. Writing in the New Yorker magazine, a prominent
dismissed existing data on the risk for suicide for homosexual youth
on his perception that the participants [suggesting an "at risk"
suicide situation for homosexually oriented people, including youth]
status had been 'unusual groups of gays'
and criticized activists for using the data to justify social
He concluded; 'Suicide is usually a story of misperceptions and
of feelings of despair and lack of control; it cannot be attributed
to having a difficult life. And it has no place in anyone's political
no matter how worthy.' It is ironic that such critiques of
published research are aired in popular magazines, rather than
to comparable scientific scrutiny. Even more disturbing is the fact
scholars themselves try to foreclose discussion of promising new ideas
in defense of their own viewpoints and interests (p. 8-9)."
Emslie (1996) summarized the situation existing in mainstream suicidology with the title of the paper "Ignored
to death: representations of young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in
Australian youth suicide policy and programs" and, more recently, McAndrew & Warne (2004)
spoke to similar problems existing in the United Kingdom. However, all
review papers on the subject have expressed concerned about the "at
risk" status of homosexually oriented people for lifetime suicidal
behavior, and especially by youth (See: Bibliography: Review Papers).
However, "word on paper" - or in review papers - does not necessarily
mean that related "actions" will be taken. For example, the vast
majority of mainstrean suicidology studies continue to ignore
homosexuality when soliciting information from study participants. The
CDC (Centrers for Disease Control) also continues to produce "official"
Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaires that avoid sexual orientation
issues (CDC, 2007).
Health/Medicine: Healthy People 2010 (USA): In 1998, “outrage at the exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered health issues in an 800-page federal health plan, the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association [GLMA] has announced a plan of action…” When inclusion happened: "This marks the first time, LGBT health concerns, other than HIV, have been addressed in any significant way," said Patricia Dunn, GLMA policy director. "This is a major step forward in national health policy. Such issues as the lack of adequate research, barriers to quality health care, and insensitivity to LGBT people within the medical community, are finally being addressed" (GLMA News Release, 1998, 2000) Canada: The first Health Canada sponsored meeting of invited individuals concerned about GLBT health issues (T = Two-Spirited, Transgender Issues Not Included) occurred in 2001 at McGill University.
Inclusion in Healthy People 2010 eventually occurred as reported in GLMA News Release (2000), which reported on the publication of a related White Paper (Dean L, et al., 2000): “Both Dunn and Carter believe that the GLMA-Columbia white paper begins to address the serious deficit of public knowledge about the health care needs of LGBT people. The GLMA-Columbia white paper is a precursor to an even more comprehensive companion piece on LGBT health that will follow the final Healthy People 2010 document to be published by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) later this year.” For a companion document, see: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association and LGBT health Experts (2001). Many problems, however, still are to be overcome as indicated in the title of O'Hanlan’s paper “Advocacy for Women's Health Should Include Lesbian Health” (O’Hanlon, 2004) that maybe should have been titled “Advocacy for Women's Health Should Include Health Issues for Lesbian and Bisexual Females” to make sure the whole continuum of Women’s Health is included.Note on Bisexuality: The avoidance/exclusion/erasure of bisexuality issues was reported by Yoshino (2000) in the109-page law paper “The epistemic contract of bisexual erasure.” For relevant quotations, see Tremblay (2000a). For a summary of the “bisexuality” situation, see Tremblay & Ramsay (2000). For the “at risk” status of adolescents and adults in the “bisexual” categories presented in a Power Point presentation form and within the context of other “at risk” population (including the “at risk” situation of Multi-Race people) who are category/boundary violators/criminals in our all-too-common “binary” perceptions of things, see Tremblay & Ramsay (2003). Researchers often have the same harmful biases of populations they may be studying and collaborating with, and they may therefore participate in harming certain minority groups. For example, using the word “gay” to describe all sexual minority individuals is a way that those who describe themselves as “gay” privilege themselves over homo-oriented individuals or sub-groups they have marginalised and harmed. In an attempt to prioritise “bisexuality” with respect to some “at risk” issues such as mental health and suicidality, Tremblay & Ramsay (2003a) gave the following title to the male sexual minority suicidality information pages: “Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality” as a highlighted contrast to the title at the companion web site by Tremblay (1996-2007): “Youth Suicide Problems: Gay/Bisexual Male Focus!”
The early years of suicide prevention in Los Angeles.
Excerpts from Norman Farberow (1968): "Suicide Prevention: A View From The Bridge":
"The future of suicide prevention activities is seen in terms of developments over the past decade. Seventy-four suicide prevention services have been established since the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center was opened in I958. While many models have developed, principles of crisis therapy, transfer of patients rather than referral, use of the telephone in therapy, integration of the center into the community network of helping agencies, and use of nonprofessional volunteers are present as common elements in all."
"When the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center was established in 1958, there was no field of suicide prevention and there were no precedents from which it could develop. The Center emerged from the need to provide some resource for persons who had attempted suicide and had entered a hospital where they had received medical treatment, but were then returned to the environment and conflicts that had contributed to and produced their suicidal crisis (Farberow & Shneidman, 1961).
In its development the Center underwent many changes. The first concept of the Center was as a bridge, which attempted suicides could not cross
on their discharge without being interviewed and recommended to a treatment plan. The first major change in the functioning of the Center occurred with the development of the telephone as the primary means of contact with persons needing help, a procedure much different from the staff wandering through the wards of the County Hospital looking for patients admitted for a suicide attempt. With the acceptance of the telephone, the Center was able to focus on people who were calling for help before they hurt themselves rather than after the suicidal acting-out had occurred. As the case load zoomed, it forced a basic conceptualization of a suicide prevention center: the center best serves as an emergency, crisis-oriented community agency, focusing on the immediate stressful situation and offering crisis therapy, not long-term rehabilitative care. This developed another basic concept: that the center is but one agency in the community in the web of helping resources for emotionally disturbed individuals, and that it can function only in dose liaison with them all (Litman, Farberow, Heilig, Shneidman, & Kramer, 1965).
The Institute in Suicidology
Under the heading "Future For The Los Angeles Center" Farberow (1968) announced plans for and institute that might be called "The Institute for the Study of Self-Destruction" and its role in suicide prevention:
:The Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center, primarily through the development of its research activities, will evolve into an institute, probably named "The Institute for the Study of Self-Destruction." The title will reflect not only the involvement of many related disciplines but also the broadening of the subject area to include many pertinent topics, ranging from overt suicidal behavior to indirect self-destructive behavior seen in diabetes, circulatory and heart syndromes, alcoholism, drug addiction, obesity, traffic accident, violence and aggression, risk-taking behavior, and others. It becomes apparent that some familiar indirect self-destructive behavior is well within the scope of usual, normal behavior. The training activities of the Center will also increase. The Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center is, as of now and probably for the next several years, the primary source in this country for training in suicide prevention. The Center is even now expanding its program of training of professionals, semiprofessionals, nonprofessionals, and related groups in the community, coordinating in the training of fellows in suicidology, and assisting in the development of films, training tapes, manuals, and other training aids. A complete library is being developed, and a continuing active role is planned in educational activities directed primarily to the general public."
By 1971, the institute has been named "The Institute in Suicidology" and "suicide education" announcements were being place in journals such as The Community Mental Health Journal (Vol 7(4), 1971, page 279:
A document related to The Institute in Suicidology - "Summary and Commentary on the Institute in Suicidology in Los Angeles" - was written by Meyer Moldeven in 1971, as reported in "Memoir: Suicide Prevention, The Viet Nam War, 1969-1974" (Moldeven, 2002):
In the documents...
Ramsay RF, Tanney BL, Tierney RJ, Lang WA. (1987, 1991). Suicide Intervention Skills Workshop: Trainer's Handbook. CA: State of California Department of Mental Health.
The following was written:
1987: "Sexual identity issues are now recognized as stressful events that may precipitate suicidal behaviors. Several studies have shown that homosexuals of both sexes are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide that comparable control group of unmarried heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). Recent clinical studies report similar results (Marten, Cleninger, Guze & Clayton, 1985). Comparable data on completed suicide among homosexuals is not available. These studies indicate that adolescence is highly stressful for young people who are struggling to accept their homosexual identity. Gay men are reported to more likely attempt suicide in their adolescent years during the time when they are trying to “come out”. Lesbian womens’ attempts occur at a later age and are more commonly related to breakup of relationships. The recent epidemic of AIDS and the stress of dealing with the multiple losses associated with the disease have increased case reports of attempted and completed suicide among homosexuals (Harry, 1986). "
1991: "Sexual orientation issues are now recognized as stressful events that may precipitate suicidal behaviors. Several studies have shown that homosexuals of both sexes are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than a comparable control group of unmarried heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). Recent clinical studies report similar results (Marten, Cloninger, Guze & Clayton, 1985). Comparable data on completed suicide among homosexuals is not available. These studies indicate that adolescence is highly stressful for young people who are struggling to accept their homosexual orientation. Gay men are reported more likely to attempt suicide in their adolescent years during the time when they are trying to “come out”. Lesbian women’s attempts occur at a later age and are more commonly related to breakup of relationships. The recent epidemic of AIDS and the stress of dealing with the multiple losses associated with the disease have increased case reports of attempted and completed suicide among homosexuals (Harry, 1989).
Suicide In Canada (Health Canada, 1994): Section on Sexual Orientation (pp. 24-25)
Gay men and Lesbians
"Several studies have found male and female homosexuals to be up to six and two times, respectively, more likely to attempt suicide than comparable control groups of unmarried male and female heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). The U.S. Secretary’s Task Force Report on Youth Suicide reviewed more recent studies and found similar results (Gibson, 1989). Gay men are reported to be more likely to attempt suicide during their adolescent years, in the context of the stresses associated with acknowledging their sexual orientation to their families, their communities and themselves. Lesbian women are reported to be more likely to attempt suicide at a later age, in the context of the breakup of a relationship.
Further research is required to clarify the epidemiology of suicide and parasuicide among gay men and lesbians. Tanney (1992, p. 303) argues that the existing data base linking suicidal behaviour with sexual orientation “is too thin and the studies too overinterpreted to allow meaningful conclusions at present.” Data on completed suicides in these populations are scarce. Established data collection methods do not include sexual orientation as a variable, and the stigma and discrimination associated with homosexual orientation discourage disclosure by persons at risk and by relatives of suicide victims. However, the available data on the prevalence of known risk factors (e.g. previous attempts, substance abuse, interrupted social ties) in gay and lesbian populations suggests that the rate of completed suicide may be quite high. Theoretical models linking suicide risk to stress and alienation tend to support this view (Saunders & Valente, 1987). Gibson (1989) estimates that gay and lesbian youth account for as many as 30 percent of completed youth suicides each year. He attributes the problem to a society which discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals, and which fails to recognize that a substantial number of young people have a gay or lesbian orientation. This makes it difficult for gay and lesbian youth to identify positive role models, obtain appropriate counselling, and maintain the self-esteem, skills and social, family and interpersonal ties that protect against suicide."
Using questions 5 and 6:
that were initially used in structured interview situations (Ramsay & Bagley, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1993) - proved to be highly effective in separating what some have called "true suicide attempters" from individuals who, for example, might have begun a suicide attempt and then stopped it, or called an ermergency service so that they would be rescued from a potentially deadly outcome. Such suicide attempts have sometimes been called "aborted attempts."
By using questions 5 and 6 in the Calgary random survey of 750 young adult males (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997, 1997a: Anonymous data intake using a computer), there were only 8 males who replied in the affirmative to question # 6. That is, only about one percent (1%) of males (8 / 750) had acknowledged having attempted suicide. Five of these suicide attempters were also homosexual/bisexual self-identified and/or had reported having been homosexually active in the past 6 months. The other three who had attempted suicide were heterosexual self-idendified.
Such a low incidence of true suicide attempters in a young adult male population (8 / 750) also means that very large random study samples would be needed to produce the much greater number of suicide attempters required so that comprehensive statistical analyses can be carried out.
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Books Related to GLBT Suicide & Suicidality
“I Thought People Like That Killed Themselves” Lesbians, Gay Men and Suicide by Eric Rofes (1983).
marriage and anti-bullying policies will not prevent the high rate of
suicide among young gay people, according to a researcher at The
University of Western Australia... "Same-sex marriage can increase the
distinctions between queer people, making some feel more alienated and
unable to aspire to happiness," Associate Professor Cover said. "It is
not where resources for improving the lives of queer youth ought to be
directed - more needs to be done around bullying and representation."
Associate Professor Cover's research points out that marriage and
relationships are not the primary concerns of the small but important
minority of gay youth struggling with intolerable emotional pain,
bullying, identity issues or pressures leading to mental health
concerns... "Young queer people are coming out much earlier and there is
broader family and community acceptance." Yet while life is
significantly better for many gay adults, Associate Professor Cover
argues that young gay people still seek suicide as an escape from
unbearable or unliveable lives. See Also: WA Prof queries role of legalising gay marriage in reducing gay suicide (2012). Is same-sex marriage an adequate response to queer youth suicide? (2012).
On August 11, The Trevor Project launched The Trevor Helpline, the first round-the-clock national toll-free suicide hotline for gay and questioning youth. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Teens with nowhere to turn can call 1-866-4-U-TREVOR. - Gay and Lesbian Helpline (1-888) 340-4528: The national toll-free Gay and Lesbian Helpline is operated by Fenway Community Health Center in Boston. It provides free confidential information, referrals, crisis intervention, and support to callers seven evenings a week. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Helpline - 617-267-9001 - Toll-free 888-340-4528. - Peer Listening Line 1-617-267-2535. Toll-free 1-800-399-PEER (1-800-399-7337). USA: Suicide & Crisis Lines.
GLBT National Help Center (http://glbtnationalhelpcenter.org): The GLBT National Help Center offers several important programs, in addition to our two national hotlines. They operate two local GLBT hotlines in New York and San Francisco, and they also offer other programming to help independent organizations build the infrastructure needed to provide strong support to GLBT communities at the local level. Toll-free 1-888-THE-GLNH (1-888-843-4564). See related information, such as operation hours, at the website.
Help Phone, Canada: 1-800-668-6868 - The
Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada:
You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line at 1-800-268-YOUTH
(1-800-268-9688) across Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688)
in the 416/905 local calling area. The Youth Line Website: http://www.youthline.ca/.
Transgender Help Lines (NorthEast Indiana Transgender Support Groups): http://www.neitsg.com/helplines.html.
A Quick Search to Locate Help Lines Worldwide! Made Available by Befrienders: http://www.befrienders.org/.
The Two Best Search Engines
The Google search engine (http://www.google.com/) is likely the best search engine available. As with all search engines, however, not all web pages on the Internet are referenced. Google's reputation is based on the fact that it indexes the entire content of the listed web pages so that, for example, if the title of a known book is located anywhere within a web page, Google will locate this web page. For such searches, it is very important to place the full title of the book (e.g. "Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals": Search Results) - or a part of the full title (e.g. "Stigma and Sexual Orientation": Search Results) in quotations. In such cases, Google will prioritize the results, listing first the web pages where the word string is located the web page title. Most important, however, is that the Google search results most often include a short section of the text on the web pages where the searched word, words, word string, or word strings are located. Additional information related to searching with Google is available at - http://www.google.com/help.html .
This Section on "Search Engines" - There are Many More Search Engines! - Continues on This Page!