Professor Richard Ramsay
Richard Ramsay: Professor Emeritus of Social Work
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University of Calgary Home Page
Increasing Awareness of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Two Spirit, Queer... Suicide Issues
Faculty of Social Work Home Page
To Search For Anything At This Site!

GLBTTsQQ: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Two Spirit, Queer, Questioning.
A: Heterosexual Identified, but "Homosexuality Factor" Applies:
Has Engaged in Same-Sex Sex, or
Reports Same-Sex Desires, or is Assumed
by Others to be Non-Heterosexual... with possible Associated Abuse/Harrasment.
Some Gender Nonconformity Might Apply When A Person is Assumed to be Non-Heterosexual.

"
The Heterosexual Homosexuality Factor" Practice / Research Suicidality Alert Downloads
Dimensions of Suicide Conference: Exploring Cause and Effect
Waterloo, Ontario: November 8, 2007

For Explorer Browser: Best Viewed With "Smaller" Font Setting! Go to "Page" & "Text Size"

Lesbian Study Participants Needed!
Dissertation study by Adrien Purvis, Walden University
To: Additional Information & Questionnaire
(No affiliations with Webpage Owner)


 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


GLBTTsQQA Suicide Issues

This web site is the latest Internet resource in a series - all related to homosexuality & suicide, or issues related to gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, transgender, and Two Spirit people - that have become available since 1996: "Youth Suicide Problems: Gay/Bisexual Male Focus!" (1996), Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality N/A (2003*: Now Available Here), The Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Information Pages N/A (2003*: Now Available Here), and Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two Spirit Information Pages and Suicide Issues (2006).  * These web resources were available online at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003 as part of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley. The collection of Internet resources includes a new website (2010) being developed as a PIE (Person-In-Environment) resource.

ASIST: Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training: GLBT Focus
United Church of Christ (UCC) Coalition for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Concerns.

Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010).
Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011)
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Why should LGBTQ students have to wait for it to get better? We have the power to make it better now.
School should not be about survival. PDF.
Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Anti-gay bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide (2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
Make It Better Project (2011). - Does it ever really get better? (2011)
Negative gay community description, with the white racism missing.

The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!

Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough
.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.

"American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention" Website

"Honouring Life Network," Canada: Aboriginal Youth Suicide


"Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention," USA


Web Site Index

The Home Page
A History of Concern by Calgary Suicidologists About Homosexuality Related Suicidality Risks.

Pioneering Suicidality Research in Calgary, Including Homosexuality & Suicidality Research.

Review Papers Related to GLBT Suicidality and Mental Health.

Books Related to GLBT Suicide & Suicidality.

Other Web Sections or Pages
"Attempted Suicide" Results as related to homosexually oriented and transgender people.
All Studies (Includes: The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!) - This web page contains about 110 North American, European, Australia & New Zealand studies, including some studies from other countries such as Korea and South Africa. Studies are predominantly of non-random samples, but there are studies of Random & Special Population Studies (e.g. Birth Cohorts, Twins).

All Random & Special Sample Studies:
This web page contain the results of 45 peer reviewed studies of homosexually oriented people who have "attempted suicide," including one transgender study. The study samples are mostly been random in nature. Some are of Special Population Studies such as Birth Cohorts, Twins.

All American & Canadian Studies:
This page contain the results of about 85 American and Canadian studies (+/- 70 published in peer reviewed journals) that have reported "attempted suicide" incidences for varying samples of sexual minority individuals, including transgender people.

All European Studies:
The web page contain the results of 39+ European studies (19+ published in peer reviewed journals) that have reported "attempted suicide" incidences for varying sample of sexual minority individuals.

Transgender & Transsexual Studies.
Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.

Conference Card

Homosexually Oriented People Are At Greater Risk For More Serious Suicidal Behaviors.

Gender nonconformable GLBTTs and Transgender Males at Greater Risk for Attempting Suicide.

A History of Ignoring Homosexuality Issues In the Helping Professions, and in Mainstream Suicidology.
Conference Presentations Related to Homosexuality Issues & Suicide.

A 2004 Conference Related Web Page: The "At Risk: Status of Homosexually Oriented People
A related Paper: "The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality:  Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide problems" & Poster Presentation / Conference HandoutAlternate Link.
Personal/Professional Information: Teaching - Publications (Some Full Text Papers) - Research - Interests - Links.

Whole System Social Work, Including PIE (Person-In-Environment) - Being Developed.

External Professional Activities: LivingWorks: Suicide Education & Prevention / Alberta Centre for Injury Control & Research.


King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry, 8: 70. - Conclusion of Meta-Analysis: LGB people are at higher risk of mental disorder, suicidal ideation, substance misuse, and deliberate self harm than heterosexual people... lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt was especially high in gay and bisexual men (RR 4.28, CI 2.32, 7.88).
Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.

Related Alert: The Paul et al (2002) results (Full Text) (Full Text) - random sampling of American homosexually oriented males in 5 cities - indicates that Aboriginal GB males are 3-times more at risk for having attempted suicide than other GB males. They are therefore maybe 12 times more at risk for having attempted suicide compared to white heterosexual males.
See... Related WebSite!

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003).  Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result!

See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009)
. Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does NOT mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(2): 111-7. PDF Download. PDF Download. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."

Frisch M, Simonsen J (2013). Marriage, cohabitation and mortality in Denmark: national cohort study of 6.5 million persons followed for up to three decades (1982-2011). International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(2): 559-578. Abstract. "Results: HRs for overall mortality changed markedly over time, most notably for persons in same-sex marriage. In 2000-2011, opposite-sex married persons (reference, HR = 1) had consistently lower mortality than persons in other marital status categories in women (HRs 1.37-1.89) and men (HRs 1.37-1.66). Mortality was particularly high for same-sex married women (HR = 1.89), notably from suicide (HR = 6.40) and cancer (HR = 1.62), whereas rates for same-sex married men (HR = 1.38) were equal to or lower than those for unmarried, divorced and widowed men. Prior marriages (whether opposite-sex or same-sex) were associated with increased mortality in both women and men (HR = 1.16-1.45 per additional prior marriage)... Of note, mortality among same-sex married men has declined markedly since the mid-1990s and is now at or below that of unmarried, divorced and widowed men, whereas same-sex married women emerge as the group of women with highest and, in recent years, even further increasing mortality.

Better support needed for Suicide Surfers. - Online suicide support needed:
"Dr Harris said his study involved more than 1000 people from 40 countries, aged from 18 to 74 years. Many had symptoms of depression. The group at the greatest risk of suicide was young gay or bisexual men, because they were in the group least likely to seek face-to-face help from doctors or support services. It led to calls from Dr Harris for support service workers dealing with suicidal people to take a different approach when talking to gay, lesbian and bisexual people..."


A History of Concern by Calgary Suicidologists About Homosexuality Related Suicidality Risks.

By the 1970s the young science of suicidology noted a growing body of knowledge that needed to be better disseminated. Practitioners were also reporting the need for continuing education training to help persons at risk of suicide. A decade later, four mental health professionals at the University of Calgary (two professors in medicine and social work: Bryan Tanney & Richard Ramsay, and two graduates in Educational Psychology: Roger Tierney & William Lang) took up the challenge of developing standardized suicide prevention training for community caregivers. Initially, as volunteers for the local mental health association, they developed a dissemination system to implement province-wide training for Alberta’s suicide prevention strategy. The program soon spread to other parts of Canada and it was recommended as a model for others to adopt in the National Task Force Report on Suicide in Canada (1987). However, in the start-up years of the training program, the evolving knowledge about suicide risk and homosexually oriented persons was not noted in early editions of trainer handbooks.
The evidence shows that ignoring homosexuality issues in the helping professions - such as clinical psychology, family therapy, social work, nursing, mainstream suicidology, etc. - has been the rule as highlighted by the following titles indicate: ""I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research [in clinical psychology] on the mental health of lesbians and gay men" (Rothblum, 1994), "Twenty years and still in the dark? Content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in marriage and family therapy journals" (Clark & Seovich, 1997), "Among the Missing: Content on Lesbian and Gay People in Social Work Journals" (van Voorhis & Wagner, 2002),  "Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse" (McAndrew & Warne, 2004), "Death by Denial [of GLB youth risk for suicide in mainstream suicidology]: Studies of Suicide in Gay and Lesbian Teenagers (Remafedi, 1994a), "Ignored to death: representations of young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in Australian youth suicide policy and programs" (Emslie, 1996): Note 1.
Suicide intervention training in face-to-face and telephone situations was mostly pioneered in California in the 1950s and 60s, primarily at the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center (Note 2) and The Institute of Suicidology (Note 3). Also, much of the early data supporting homosexual persons being at greater risk for suicidal behaviors was from California. The Saghir and Robins (1970a, 1970b, 1973) study samples were from Chicago and San Francisco. The Bell and Weinberg (1978) sample was from the San Francisco Bay Area. As well, many individuals concerned about elevated risk were from California. Eric Rofes, author of the first book on suicide risk for homosexual persons, "I thought people like that killed themselves": Lesbians, gay men and suicide, published his book in San Francisco (Rofes, 1983). Paul Gibson, the author of the commissioned and highly controversial 1989 paper, “Gay and lesbian youth suicide” in the Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Youth Suicide, was a therapist and program consultant from San Francisco.
 
In 1985, the California Department of Mental Health funded a 5-year youth suicide prevention program that included training programs for caregivers. The following year, they commissioned the Alberta developers to adapt their program for statewide dissemination. At a stakeholders meeting in 1987, spokespersons for a gay, lesbian, bisexual stakeholder group from San Francisco drew attention to the emerging body of knowledge about homosexually oriented persons and suicidality. Their advocacy was effective and information about this knowledge was included in the first edition of the California Suicide Intervention Training Program: Trainer’s Handbook (1987). It has been updated and included in all subsequent training program handbooks and trainer manuals (Note 4).
 
In 1991, LivingWorks Education was formed as an incorporated company with support from the University of Calgary to further develop the program and extend the dissemination of training beyond Alberta. Alberta dissemination continued under the auspices of the Canadian Mental Health Association. An update of the national task force report on suicide - Suicide in Canada" - was scheduled for publication in 1994. Sexual orientation and suicidality information was initially not included but added before its final publication with the help of a GLBT advocate and a LivingWorks developer/UofC social work faculty member (Note 5). In 2003, sexual identity and suicidality issues were recommended as a cross-cutting research priority in suicide research at a national meeting of “experts” sponsored by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR).

Pioneering Suicidality Research in Calgary, Including Homosexuality & Suicidality Research

The above noted involvement in suicide prevention by myself and others had followed research work carried out in Calgary with Dr. Chris Bagley, a co-researcher in the Faculty of Social Work at the University of Calgary.  In some way, the research had also been pioneering in nature, especially with respect to identifying individuals who carried out 'true attempts to kill oneself' from those who self-harmed. This was done using the last two questions of 6 suicidality questions (see below) either in structured interview settings with study participants (Ramsay & Bagley, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1993) or in computerised questionnaires that were deemed to be more effective - than are paper and pencil questionnaires - in having study participants report sensitive information such as childhood sexual abuse (Bagley & Genuis, 1991). Given such results, it was suspected and argued that computerized questionnaires would likely also be more effective when seeking other sensitive information, such as homosexuality (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997, 1998).

During the past six (6) months: (Answers Required: Yes / No)

1. Have you ever felt that life was not worth living?
2. Have you ever felt/wished that you were dead - for instance you could go to sleep and not wake up?
3.  Have you ever thought of taking your life, even if you would not really do it?
4.  Have you ever reached the point where you seriously considered taking your life or perhaps made plans for how you would go about doing it?

Lifetime: (Answers Required: Yes / No)

5. Have you ever deliberately harmed your self, but in a way that stopped short of a real intent to take your life?
6. Have you ever (in your whole life time) made an intentional attempt to take your life?

Note 6: The Effectiveness of Questions # 5 and # 6.


Moscicki (1989) commented as follows on the Bagley & Ramsay suicidality research:

This is the only known community survey that has addressed the important distinction between deliberate self-harm without intent to die, which the authors called "parasuicide," and a lethal suicide attempt [defined by the intent to die]. (p. 136)

More on this subject is located on the web page:


To date, however, efforts to separate 'true suicide attempters' from 'false suicide attempters' in suicidality studies have mostly only been done with samples of sexual minority youth, with little known about what the outcomes would be for heterosexual or predominantly homosexual individuals.

By 1997, my research colleague, Dr. Christopher Bagley (now professor emeritus at the University of Southampton) and Pierre Tremblay published male homosexuality and suicidality results from a random sample of young adult males living in Calgary. The Bagley and Tremblay (1997) study was the first in the world to show, using a random population sample, that homosexually oriented males were much more at risk for serious attempts at suicide, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. A version of the paper was also published in the book Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents and Adults (Bagley & Ramsay, 1997),. Replication of "at risk" findings in the United States first occurred for adolescents via papers that reported the suicidality result of random surveys known as Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or similar school-based surveys (e.g. Remafedi et al, 1998: Minnesota; Faulkner & Cranston, 1998: Vermont; Garofalo, 1999: Massachusetts; Pinhey & Millman, 2004: Guam) and also from adult surveys (Cochran & Mays, 2000: NHANES Survey: USA, National; Gilman et al., 2001: Comorbidity II Survey: USA, National). Similar results were also produced using the American Vietnam Era win Registry (Herrell et al., 1999) and in other parts of the world (Fergusson et al., 1999: New Zealand Birth Cohort; Wichstrom & Hegna, 2003: Norway, School-Based Sample; de Graaf et al., 2006: Netherlands, National; Lhomond & Saurel-Cubizolles, 2006: France, National). Summaries of these studies and other studies (about 110 studies) are available on the web page:


The 1997 Calgary results (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997) also suggested that, at least for homosexually oriented males, they would be more at risk for the more serious suicidal behavior and this phenomenon has been replicated in many studies as summarized on the web page:




Notes

Note 1

Sexual Minorities in Psychiatry, Psychology, Community Psychology, Family Therapy, Social Work, Health / Medicine, and Suicidology: A History of Slow Changes from Outright “Harm” to Harmful “Avoidance” & “Indifference.”

“Outright and Indifference” Harm by Mental Health Professions: to 1973/1992

The profession of psychiatry decreed adult homosexuality as a “Mental Disorder”, sanctioning unquestioned harmful practices for many decades until it was finally declassified as a disorder from the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders in 1973/74 and completely removed in 1986. However, it remained a mental disorder until 1992 for those using the ICD: WHO’s International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (Herek, 1998-2007). Adolescent homosexuality, on the other hand, had been viewed as a normal part of adolescence that was not pathologised nor minoritised by developmental psychologists. By the early 1970s, however, “silence” about this subject became the rule (Spurlock, 2002), almost as if the attribute should NOT exist, or that its place in human development applied to so few (giving it a rare “sexual minority” status) that it could be ignored. This outcome left for psychologists and other mental health professions to foster harmful practices of avoidance and indifference.

Avoidance & Indifference: 1973-2000

American/Canadian Psychology (1994): What contemporary psychology had been doing to advance the knowledge and understanding of homosexual development is best summed up in the title of a paper “"I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men” (Rothblum, 1994). Some recent improvements have been described by Phillips et al. (2003) and Morrow (2003), the latter noting that serious problems still exist: “Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns continue to be underrepresented in the counseling literature, although progress was made in the 1990s in the content and quantity of literature dealing with these issues. Despite progress in several areas, the scholarship on specific marginalized groups within the LGB community is particularly sparse: LGB people of color, bisexual women and men, lesbian women, LGB people with disabilities, and transgendered individuals.” Phillips et al. (2003) also noted the lack of “attention to within-group differences (e.g., bisexual people and LGB people of color).”

Family Therapy (1997): “Twenty years and still in the dark?” by Clark & Seovich in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 1997. This was a content analysis of articles pertaining to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in marriage and family therapy journals. Very little published on “gay/lesbian” issues (0.6% of articles). Bisexuality was almost totally ignored. This reflects the recent common (hegemonic?) belief that sexual orientation is binary in nature. On individuals is either heterosexual or homosexual.

Social Work (2001): Coverage of Gay and Lesbian Subject Matter in 12 mainstream Social Work Journals by Van Voorhis & Wagner in the Journal of Social Work Education, 2001. The most coverage (two-thirds) in four major social work journals from 1988 to1997 was AIDS-related. Heterosexism is the rule as Voorhis & Wagner (2002) noted in a paper with a telling title: “Among the Missing: Content on Lesbian and Gay People in Social Work Journals.” Bisexuality is almost totally ignored. In a 1998 Interview, Ann Hartman reports: “"I remember one of my friends overheard several of the male deans at a social work Dean's meeting communicating with each other saying, 'The lesbians are taking over the field.' I am sure there is still plenty going on underground, as you can imagine. For instance five or six years ago there was a concerted, but rather quiet effort led by some of the deans to keep homosexuality out of the Council on Social Work Education guidelines" (Miller, 1998).

Community Psychology (2003): Special GLBT Issue in American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3/4). D'Augelli (2003: 345) describes the lack of coverage of GLB issues in community psychology: "...little work was done by community psychologists on LGB issues until the very late 1990s. Harper and Schneider (2003: 244-5) reported on two studies of GLB content in major community psychology journals: no more than one percent of published articles had been related to GLB issues. Bisexuality is almost totally ignored.

Suicidology: Remafedi, G. (1994a), in his book Death by Denial, reported on a part of the story related to mainstream suicidologists often denying that sexual minority youth are at risk for suicide: "Fueling the intrusion of politics into the science, well-funded scholars sometimes oppose new perspectives in their own field of research. Writing in the New Yorker magazine, a prominent suicidologist dismissed existing data on the risk for suicide for homosexual youth based on his perception that the participants [suggesting an "at risk" suicide situation for homosexually oriented people, including youth] status had been 'unusual groups of gays' and criticized activists for using the data to justify social tolerance. He concluded; 'Suicide is usually a story of misperceptions and misunderstandings, of feelings of despair and lack of control; it cannot be attributed simply to having a difficult life. And it has no place in anyone's political agenda, no matter how worthy.' It is ironic that such critiques of peer-reviewed, published research are aired in popular magazines, rather than submitted to comparable scientific scrutiny. Even more disturbing is the fact that scholars themselves try to foreclose discussion of promising new ideas in defense of their own viewpoints and interests (p. 8-9)."

Emslie (1996) summarized the situation existing in mainstream suicidology with the title of the paper "Ignored to death: representations of young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in Australian youth suicide policy and programs" and, more recently, McAndrew & Warne (2004) spoke to similar problems existing in the United Kingdom. However, all review papers on the subject have expressed concerned about the "at risk" status of homosexually oriented people for lifetime suicidal behavior, and especially by youth (See: Bibliography: Review Papers). However, "word on paper" - or in review papers - does not necessarily mean that related "actions" will be taken. For example, the vast majority of mainstrean suicidology studies continue to ignore homosexuality when soliciting information from study participants. The CDC (Centrers for Disease Control) also continues to produce "official" Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaires that avoid sexual orientation issues (CDC, 2007).

Health/Medicine: Healthy People 2010 (USA): In 1998, “outrage at the exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered health issues in an 800-page federal health plan, the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association [GLMA] has announced a plan of action…” When inclusion happened: "This marks the first time, LGBT health concerns, other than HIV, have been addressed in any significant way," said Patricia Dunn, GLMA policy director. "This is a major step forward in national health policy. Such issues as the lack of adequate research, barriers to quality health care, and insensitivity to LGBT people within the medical community, are finally being addressed" (GLMA News Release, 1998, 2000) Canada: The first Health Canada sponsored meeting of invited individuals concerned about GLBT health issues (T = Two-Spirited, Transgender Issues Not Included) occurred in 2001 at McGill University.

Inclusion in Healthy People 2010 eventually occurred as reported in GLMA News Release (2000), which reported on the publication of a related White Paper (Dean L, et al., 2000): “Both Dunn and Carter believe that the GLMA-Columbia white paper begins to address the serious deficit of public knowledge about the health care needs of LGBT people. The GLMA-Columbia white paper is a precursor to an even more comprehensive companion piece on LGBT health that will follow the final Healthy People 2010 document to be published by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) later this year.” For a companion document, see: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association and LGBT health Experts (2001). Many problems, however, still are to be overcome as indicated in the title of O'Hanlan’s paper “Advocacy for Women's Health Should Include Lesbian Health” (O’Hanlon, 2004) that maybe should have been titled “Advocacy for Women's Health Should Include Health Issues for Lesbian and Bisexual Females” to make sure the whole continuum of Women’s Health is included.

Note on Bisexuality: The avoidance/exclusion/erasure of bisexuality issues was reported by Yoshino (2000) in the109-page law paper “The epistemic contract of bisexual erasure.” For relevant quotations, see Tremblay (2000a). For a summary of the “bisexuality” situation, see Tremblay & Ramsay (2000). For the “at risk” status of adolescents and adults in the “bisexual” categories presented in a Power Point presentation form and within the context of other “at risk” population (including the “at risk” situation of Multi-Race people) who are category/boundary violators/criminals in our all-too-common “binary” perceptions of things, see Tremblay & Ramsay (2003). Researchers often have the same harmful biases of populations they may be studying and collaborating with, and they may therefore participate in harming certain minority groups. For example, using the word “gay” to describe all sexual minority individuals is a way that those who describe themselves as “gay” privilege themselves over homo-oriented individuals or sub-groups they have marginalised and harmed. In an attempt to prioritise “bisexuality” with respect to some “at risk” issues such as mental health and suicidality, Tremblay & Ramsay (2003a) gave the following title to the male sexual minority suicidality information pages: “Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality” as a highlighted contrast to the title at the companion web site by Tremblay (1996-2007): “Youth Suicide Problems: Gay/Bisexual Male Focus!”


Note 2

The early years of suicide prevention in Los Angeles.

Excerpts from Norman Farberow (1968): "Suicide Prevention: A View From The Bridge":

"The future of suicide prevention activities is seen in terms of developments over the past decade. Seventy-four suicide prevention services have been established since the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center was opened in I958. While many models have developed, principles of crisis therapy, transfer of patients rather than referral, use of the telephone in therapy, integration of the center into the community network of helping agencies, and use of nonprofessional volunteers are present as common elements in all."

"When the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center was established in 1958, there was no field of suicide prevention and there were no precedents from which it could develop. The Center emerged from the need to provide some resource for persons who had attempted suicide and had entered a hospital where they had received medical treatment, but were then returned to the environment and conflicts that had contributed to and produced their suicidal crisis (Farberow & Shneidman, 1961).

In its development the Center underwent many changes. The first concept of the Center was as a bridge, which attempted suicides could not cross
on their discharge without being interviewed and recommended to a treatment plan. The first major change in the functioning of the Center occurred with the development of the telephone as the primary means of contact with persons needing help, a procedure much different from the staff wandering through the wards of the County Hospital looking for patients admitted for a suicide attempt. With the acceptance of the telephone, the Center was able to focus on people who were calling for help before they hurt themselves rather than after the suicidal acting-out had occurred. As the case load zoomed, it forced a basic conceptualization of a suicide prevention center: the center best serves as an emergency, crisis-oriented community agency, focusing on the immediate stressful situation and offering crisis therapy, not long-term rehabilitative care. This developed another basic concept: that the center is but one agency in the community in the web of helping resources for emotionally disturbed individuals, and that it can function only in dose liaison with them all (Litman, Farberow, Heilig, Shneidman, & Kramer, 1965).

Note 3

The Institute in Suicidology

Under the heading "Future For The Los Angeles Center" Farberow (1968) announced plans for and institute that might be called "The Institute for the Study of Self-Destruction" and its role in suicide prevention:
 
:The Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center, primarily through the development of its research activities, will evolve into an institute, probably named "The Institute for the Study of Self-Destruction." The title will reflect not only the involvement of many related disciplines but also the broadening of the subject area to include many pertinent topics, ranging from overt suicidal behavior to indirect self-destructive behavior seen in diabetes, circulatory and heart syndromes, alcoholism, drug addiction, obesity, traffic accident, violence and aggression, risk-taking behavior, and others. It becomes apparent that some familiar indirect self-destructive behavior is well within the scope of usual, normal behavior. The training activities of the Center will also increase. The Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center is, as of now and probably for the next several years, the primary source in this country for training in suicide prevention. The Center is even now expanding its program of training of professionals, semiprofessionals, nonprofessionals, and related groups in the community, coordinating in the training of fellows in suicidology, and assisting in the development of films, training tapes, manuals, and other training aids. A complete library is being developed, and a continuing active role is planned in educational activities directed primarily to the general public."

By 1971, the institute has been named "The Institute in Suicidology" and "suicide education" announcements were being place in journals such as The Community Mental Health Journal (Vol 7(4), 1971, page 279:

ANNOUNCEMENT: INSTITUTE IN SUICIDOLOGY
WEST LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
January 27, 28, and 29, 1972

Comprehensive training for people interested in the practice and study of suicide prevention and crisis services will be stressed.
Scheduled for January 27th, 28th and 29th at the Wilshire Hyatt House, the Institute is sponsored by the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center and the Center for Studies in Suicide Prevention of the National Institute of Mental Health.
Staff members of the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. Centers will conduct training sessions in such areas as: Prediction of Lethality, Epidemiology, Current Research, Other Life-Threatening Behaviors, Community Involvement, Special Risk Populations, Telephone Interviewing and Training of Volunteers.
A special focus on the problems of "SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR AMONG LEADERS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY," will be
highlighted. The registration fee is $20.00.

A document related to The Institute in Suicidology -
"Summary and Commentary on the Institute in Suicidology in Los Angeles" - was written by Meyer Moldeven in 1971, as reported in "Memoir: Suicide Prevention, The Viet Nam War, 1969-1974" (Moldeven, 2002):

"Later that same year (1985), I secured copies of studies, plans, directives, motivational guides and other documents published by NIMH, the American Association of Suicidology (AAS), and the Army on their in- house suicide prevention programs and which they provided to me in response to my appeals. I published in book form the material that I received, and marketed it on a not-for-profit basis to cover my printing and related costs. My initial report, printed on Feb 26, 1971 (during Viet Nam) was 'Summary and Commentary on the Institute in Suicidology in Los Angeles January 23-27 1971' and had limited distribution within the Air Force, and the next compilation was in June 1985, 'Military-Civilian Teamwork in Suicide Prevention.' A subsequent update was published in 1988 'Suicide Prevention Programs in the Department of Defense', and the last update, in 1994, returned to the original title 'Military-Civilian Teamwork in Suicide Prevention.'"

Note 4

In the documents...

Ramsay RF, Tanney BL, Tierney RJ, Lang WA. (1987, 1991). Suicide Intervention Skills Workshop: Trainer's Handbook. CA: State of California Department of Mental Health.

The following was written:

1987: "Sexual identity issues are now recognized as stressful events that may precipitate suicidal behaviors. Several studies have shown that homosexuals of both sexes are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide that comparable control group of unmarried heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). Recent clinical studies report similar results (Marten, Cleninger, Guze & Clayton, 1985). Comparable data on completed suicide among homosexuals is not available. These studies indicate that adolescence is highly stressful for young people who are struggling to accept their homosexual identity. Gay men are reported to more likely attempt suicide in their adolescent years during the time when they are trying to “come out”. Lesbian womens’ attempts occur at a later age and are more commonly related to breakup of relationships. The recent epidemic of AIDS and the stress of dealing with the multiple losses associated with the disease have increased case reports of attempted and completed suicide among homosexuals (Harry, 1986). "

1991: "Sexual orientation issues are now recognized as stressful events that may precipitate suicidal behaviors. Several studies have shown that homosexuals of both sexes are up to six times more likely to attempt suicide than a comparable control group of unmarried heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). Recent clinical studies report similar results (Marten, Cloninger, Guze & Clayton, 1985). Comparable data on completed suicide among homosexuals is not available. These studies indicate that adolescence is highly stressful for young people who are struggling to accept their homosexual orientation. Gay men are reported more likely to attempt suicide in their adolescent years during the time when they are trying to “come out”. Lesbian women’s attempts occur at a later age and are more commonly related to breakup of relationships. The recent epidemic of AIDS and the stress of dealing with the multiple losses associated with the disease have increased case reports of attempted and completed suicide among homosexuals (Harry, 1989).



Note 5

Suicide In Canada (Health Canada, 1994): Section on Sexual Orientation (pp. 24-25)

Gay men and Lesbians

"Several studies have found male and female homosexuals to be up to six and two times, respectively, more likely to attempt suicide than comparable control groups of unmarried male and female heterosexuals (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Saghir & Robins, 1973; Jay & Young, 1979). The U.S. Secretary’s Task Force Report on Youth Suicide reviewed more recent studies and found similar results (Gibson, 1989). Gay men are reported to be more likely to attempt suicide during their adolescent years, in the context of the stresses associated with acknowledging their sexual orientation to their families, their communities and themselves. Lesbian women are reported to be more likely to attempt suicide at a later age, in the context of the breakup of a relationship.

Further research is required to clarify the epidemiology of suicide and parasuicide among gay men and lesbians. Tanney (1992, p. 303) argues that the existing data base linking suicidal behaviour with sexual orientation “is too thin and the studies too overinterpreted to allow meaningful conclusions at present.” Data on completed suicides in these populations are scarce. Established data collection methods do not include sexual orientation as a variable, and the stigma and discrimination associated with homosexual orientation discourage disclosure by persons at risk and by relatives of suicide victims. However, the available data on the prevalence of known risk factors (e.g. previous attempts, substance abuse, interrupted social ties) in gay and lesbian populations suggests that the rate of completed suicide may be quite high. Theoretical models linking suicide risk to stress and alienation tend to support this view (Saunders & Valente, 1987). Gibson (1989) estimates that gay and lesbian youth account for as many as 30 percent of completed youth suicides each year. He attributes the problem to a society which discriminates against and stigmatizes homosexuals, and which fails to recognize that a substantial number of young people have a gay or lesbian orientation. This makes it difficult for gay and lesbian youth to identify positive role models, obtain appropriate counselling, and maintain the self-esteem, skills and social, family and interpersonal ties that protect against suicide."



Note 6

Using questions 5 and 6:

  • Lifetime: (Answers Required: Yes / No)
  • 5. Have you ever deliberately harmed your self, but in a way that stopped short of a real intent to take your life?
  • 6. Have you ever (in your whole life time) made an intentional attempt to take your life?
that were initially used in structured interview situations (Ramsay & Bagley, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1985; Bagley & Ramsay, 1993) - proved to be highly effective in separating what some have called "true suicide attempters" from individuals who, for example, might have begun a suicide attempt and then stopped it, or called an ermergency service so that they would be rescued from a potentially deadly outcome. Such suicide attempts have sometimes been called "aborted attempts."

By using
questions 5 and 6 in the Calgary random survey of 750 young adult males (Bagley & Tremblay, 1997, 1997a: Anonymous data intake using a computer), there were only 8 males who replied in the affirmative to question # 6. That is, only about one percent (1%) of males (8 / 750) had acknowledged having attempted suicide. Five of these suicide attempters were also homosexual/bisexual self-identified and/or had reported having been homosexually active in the past 6 months. The other three who had attempted suicide were heterosexual self-idendified.

Such a low incidence of true suicide attempters in a young adult male population (8 / 750) also means that very large random study samples would be needed to produce the much greater number of suicide attempters required so that comprehensive statistical analyses can be carried out.

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Halpert, Stephen  C (1999)Suicidal behavior among gay male youth:  Fact or fiction? Ph.D. Thesis, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Abstract supplied by author on August 21, 2001. A paper related to this study is in press, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy. (Link to Abstract)

Haas AP, Eliason M, Mays VM, Mathy RM, Cochran SD, D'Augelli AR, Silverman MM, Fisher PW, Hughes T, Rosario M, Russell ST, Malley E, Reed J, Litts DA, Haller E, Sell RL, Remafedi G, Bradford J, Beautrais AL, Brown GK, Diamond GM, Friedman MS, Garofalo R, Turner MS, Hollibaugh A, Clayton PJ (2011). Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1): 10-51. Abstract. Full Text: Open Access. Full Text.

Julien D, Chartrand (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon probabiliste sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 46(4): 235-250. APA Abstract.

King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Full Text. Full Text. Abstract. 

Kulkin HS, Chauvin EA, Percle GA (2000). Suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and young adults: a review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(1): 1-29. (Review) PubMed Abstract.

Lebson M (2002). Suicide among homosexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(4): 107-17. PubMed Abstract.

Leu, Christian (2008). Orientation sexuelle et comportements suicidaires: Une enquête sur les résultats de la recherche internationale et nationale sur les facteurs de risque et de protection pour les adolescents homosexuels et bisexuels. Berne, La Suisse / Switzerland: Le collectif Formation de PINK CROSS, LOS et fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Translation N/A. Download Page N/A. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.

Leu, Christian (2008). Sexuelle Orientierung und Suizidalität: Eine Untersuchung der internationalen und nationalen Forschungs-ergebnisse der Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren für adoleszente Homo- und Bisexuelle. bern, Switzrland: PINK CROSS, LOS und fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Download Page N/A. Translation N/A. PDF Download N/A. Translation N/A. Full Text. Download Page Translation.

Lewis NM (2009). Mental health in sexual minorities: recent indicators, trends, and their relationships to place in North America and Europe. Health Place, 15(4): 1029-45. Abstract.

Lhomond B, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ (2009). Orientation sexuelle et santé mentale: une revue de la littérature [Sexual orientation and mental health: a review]. Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, 57(6): 437-50. Abstract. Dowload Page: In two Documents: Text & Tables. Download Page.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download.

McAndrew S, Warne T (2004). Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(4): 428-34. PubMed Abstract.

McDaniel JS, Purcell DW, D'Augelli AR (2001). The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: research findings and future directions for research and prevention.. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.): 84-105. (Review). PDF Download. PubMed Reference.
 
Meyer, IH (2003). Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674–697. Full Text. Summary.

Morrison LL, L'Heureux J (2001). Suicide and gay / lesbian / bisexual youth: implications for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 39-49. PubMed Abstract. Full Text: PDF Download. PDF Download.

Plöderl M, Tremblay P (2015-2016). Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review. International Review of Psychiatry. Abstract.  Online First. To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2015.1083949

Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.

Plöderl M, Sauer J,  Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract. Related Conference Presentation PDF. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.

Plŏderl M, Wagenmakers EJ, Tremblay P,  Ramsay R, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2013). Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(5): 715-727. Includes a meta-analysis. Download Page for Paper Draft PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website. ResearchGate Full Text. -- Online Additions to the Paper: "A Critical Examination of the Shaffer et al. (1995) & Renaud et al. (2010) Psychological Autopsy Studies of Adolescent Suicides" & "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide."

Remafedi G (1999). Sexual orientation and youth suicide. JAMA, 282(13): 1291-2. Full Text (Must Scroll): PDF Download. Full Text.

Russell ST (2003). Sexual minority youth and suicide risk. American Behavioral Scientist,  46, 1241-1257. Full Text: PDF Download.

Schlatter J, Irala J, Escamilla I (2005). Psicopatología asociada a la homosexualidad [Psychopathology related to homosexuality.]. Revista de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra, 49(3): 69-79. PDF Download. Translation.

Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf. A Related Google Cache Document.

Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2000). Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problème suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. Le Vis-À-Vie, 10(2): 5-8. Internet English version of the paper: Internet English version of the paper: Full Text. Full Text (French). Translation.

Books Related to GLBT Suicide & Suicidality

I Thought People Like That Killed Themselves” Lesbians, Gay Men and Suicide by Eric Rofes (1983).
English Translation of Abstract for the 2000 Québec Study "Mort Ou Fif":
Excerpts (Translation)
The book begins with the story of two Quebec boys who committed suicide.
It is available in English: "Dead Boys Can't Dance:
Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Suicide" par Michel Dorais (2004)
See also: "Homosexualité & suicide" par E. Verdier et J.M. Firdion (2001) - - Book Review 1 (Translation). 2 (Translation).
Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes à orientation sexuelle non conventionnelle
par Jean-Marie Firdion, Eric Verdier (2003). PDF Download (Translation).
Plus: Death by Denial: Studies of Suicide in Gay and Lesbian Teenagers. Review.
Edited by Gary Remafedi (1994) - Introduction. Review.
  "Sexuelle Orientierung, Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit" - 2005 - von Martin Plöderl (Google books).
Cultural Diversity and Suicide: Ethnic, Religious, Gender
And Sexual Orientation Perspectives
- 2006 - by Mark M Leach (Contents) (Google Books) (Review).

Être homo aujourd’hui en France: Enquête Le Refuge auprès de 500 jeunes gais et lesbiennes,
Michel Dorais en collaboration avec Isabelle Chollet, H&O Essai, 2012. Summary (Translation).
30% of the study sample - mean age: 28.5 years, 76% urban - reported having attempted suicide.
Interview avec Michel Dorais (Translation).
Cover, Rob (2012). Queer Youth Suicide, Culture and Identity. Introduction. News Item: Same-sex marriage not the answer: expert (2012)...

Same-sex marriage and anti-bullying policies will not prevent the high rate of suicide among young gay people, according to a researcher at The University of Western Australia... "Same-sex marriage can increase the distinctions between queer people, making some feel more alienated and unable to aspire to happiness," Associate Professor Cover said. "It is not where resources for improving the lives of queer youth ought to be directed - more needs to be done around bullying and representation." Associate Professor Cover's research points out that marriage and relationships are not the primary concerns of the small but important minority of gay youth struggling with intolerable emotional pain, bullying, identity issues or pressures leading to mental health concerns... "Young queer people are coming out much earlier and there is broader family and community acceptance." Yet while life is significantly better for many gay adults, Associate Professor Cover argues that young gay people still seek suicide as an escape from unbearable or unliveable lives. See Also: WA Prof queries role of legalising gay marriage in reducing gay suicide (2012). Is same-sex marriage an adequate response to queer youth suicide? (2012).

Elizabeth McDermott, Katrina Roen (2016). Reframing Queer Youth Suicide and Self-Harm. Download, Chapter 1: Reframing Queer Youth Suicide and Self-Harm.

Queer Youth Suicide: Book Cover

Queer Youth Suicide by Rob Coverdorais-2012-book-etre-homo-franceleach-06-book-suicide-sexual-orientation-plus
Mort Ou FifDead Boys Can't DanceHomosexualites et Suicide
Death by Denial by Gary RemafediBook By Eric Rofes - 1983Book by Martin Ploderl






Help Lines

On August 11, The Trevor Project launched The Trevor Helpline, the first round-the-clock national toll-free suicide hotline for gay and questioning youth. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Teens with nowhere to turn can call 1-866-4-U-TREVOR. - Gay and Lesbian Helpline (1-888) 340-4528: The national toll-free Gay and Lesbian Helpline is operated by Fenway Community Health Center in Boston. It provides free confidential information, referrals, crisis intervention, and support to callers seven evenings a week. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Helpline - 617-267-9001 - Toll-free 888-340-4528. - Peer Listening Line 1-617-267-2535. Toll-free 1-800-399-PEER (1-800-399-7337)USA: Suicide & Crisis Lines.

GLBT National Help Center (http://glbtnationalhelpcenter.org): The GLBT National Help Center offers several important programs, in addition to our two national hotlines. They operate two local GLBT hotlines in New York and San Francisco, and they also offer other programming to help independent organizations build the infrastructure needed to provide strong support to GLBT communities at the local level. Toll-free 1-888-THE-GLNH (1-888-843-4564). See related information, such as operation hours,  at the website.

Kids Help Phone, Canada: 1-800-668-6868 - The Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada: You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line at 1-800-268-YOUTH (1-800-268-9688) across Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688) in the 416/905 local calling area. The Youth Line Website: http://www.youthline.ca/.

Gay Boys Support (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/): Listing of International Resources (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/helplines.htm).

Transgender Help Lines (NorthEast Indiana Transgender Support Groups): http://www.neitsg.com/helplines.html.

A Quick Search to Locate Help Lines Worldwide! Made Available by Befrienders: http://www.befrienders.org/.




Suggestions for Internet Searches

One of the better platforms available for Internet searching is Proteus Search located at the Middletown Thrall Library - http://www.thrall.org/proteus.html .
Ptoteus Internet Search Platform
Once the search words (separated by a space and no commas), or word strings (which need to be in quotation) are placed in the search window, a choice of 24 search engines and 5 metasearch engines are then available for a search. Each one, however, has different properties, and varying results may be explored so that, for one's purposes, the best search engines become known and more commonly used. When a search has been done on one search engine, the back button (one alternative being the "go" function on Netscape or Mozilla Browsers, and clicking on "Proteus") is used to return to the Proteus Search Platform, thus permitting the selection of another search engine. The search words remain in the search window and need not to be retyped as is the case when accessing search engines separately - without using such a platform.

The Two Best Search Engines

The Google search engine (http://www.google.com/) is likely the best search engine available. As with all search engines, however, not all web pages on the Internet are referenced. Google's reputation is based on the fact that it indexes the entire content of the listed web pages so that, for example, if the title of a known book is located anywhere within a web page, Google will locate this web page. For such searches, it is very important to place the full title of the book (e.g. "Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals": Search Results) - or a part of the full title (e.g. "Stigma and Sexual Orientation": Search Results) in quotations. In such cases, Google will prioritize the results, listing first the web pages where the word string is located the web page title. Most important, however, is that the Google search results most often include a short section of the text on the web pages where the searched word, words, word string, or word strings are located. Additional information related to searching with Google is available at - http://www.google.com/help.html .

Google Search
AllTheWeb (http://www.alltheweb.com/) is similar to Google but search results will vary given that different search engines use different criteria for result placements and that the web pages indexed vary in different indexing systems. Some web pages may only be indexed in one search engine.
Fast Search

This Section on "Search Engines" - There are Many More Search Engines! - Continues on This Page!


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