A summary from Rothwell and Kazanas (1999), Ch. 12 / for your directed study
Given that you know what the training gaps are, what tasks need to be trained, what the work and learner characteristics are, you have a clear idea of the training content and sequence, and you have clearly written training objectives, you have chosen an instructional strategy. Now all you need is to select or create the instructional materials.
It is based on the instructional strategy
It is based on measurable, sequenced performance objectives
It should be based on the instructional events .. here’s “cheat sheet” for the standard instructional event culminating from your clever instructional strategy, using the Old Ways of Gagne & Briggs (pre constructivist design philosophy):
Identify the materials that are inside the organization and outside it.
Identify if you need funding to develop the materials. Sometimes you need to sub contract graphics, video, or educational materials productions. This is particularly the case in distributed learning / training environments.
Identify knowledgeable people as to what they are familiar with as learning materials – and see if they are open to innovations if you require them (example: role play at a remote site via interactive television instead of role play in a classroom).
Consider that companies believe today that they can cut their training travel costs by 70% if they use distributed training systems and learning content management systems.
Ask the knowledgeable people 3 questions:
Check out your CBT notes to evaluate computer based training materials and designs (yes you will need to evaluate them to see if they could fit your instructional strategy… not every training program is built from the ground up, you can use existing materials or “chunks” if they fit your strategy – this saves the client a lot of investment (potentially). Materials that depend on delivery technologies of the day, remember, are very expensive because the technologies get outdated quickly.
Expect to make minor revisions
Storyboarding helps you figure out a multimode program and sequence .. (all media and personnel are sketched out).
Formatting Modules, guide sheets or web page design is critical for proper independent learning / training materials. Refer to your EDER 677, 673, 679 classes.
Student manuals (online is good, but remember students do not like to have to download them.. and reading online is not some learners’ favorite mode).
Instructor Materials: need to be clear and efficient, always referencing design considerations (goals, sequence, evaluation…. Pacing). Lessons are the best way to assure that the instruction can occur on design (but this takes a special instructor to use them in a training session ).
Trainer Guides are very effective for group-oriented training. See page 251 for an excellent training guide outline.
Tests should be chosen as you chose the instructional strategy – to match the learning events and outcomes. Use performance tests for performance or skill training evaluation, use other tests for cognitive knowledge acquisition testing. Remember that formative tests and practice are essential to a good design – summative tests only give people an exit grade, doing little to enhance their mastery.
2 types of activates exist: Individual or Group.
Almost any type of experience can be transformed into an individual learning activity, if:
To do this, decide how much instructor involvement is needed – and prepare scaffolding materials too.
A learning contract can work well for self-directed learners (Knowles, 1986). The key parts the contract specifies are:
Panel discussions (experts) can be a great addition to performance-based training – (high) competencies and exemplars “meet the learners”.
Case studies work well as simulations of real world problem solving, and cases can isolate specific learning constructs.