"The legal process, which began in Europe with the French Revolution, of granting to the Jews equal civic rights in the countries in which they reside."

By Extension:

"The whole cultural and social movement promoting directly and indirectly Jewish integration."


Implications of Emancipation:


The cost:

The Ideological Expression of Emancipation = "Enlightenment."

The Religious Expression of Emancipation = "Reform."

Challenges to traditional Jewish religious ideas:

Moses Mendelssohn (1729-86): Pioneer of Jewish Enlghtenment


A traditionally observant Jew who also excelled as a philosopher and literary figure. Relationship with Gottfried Lessing (Nathan der Weise).

Challenge by Johann Lavater to either refute Christianity or convert.


Click here to read passage from Jerusalem

Presentation of Judaism as more universal than Christianity.

Mendelssohn's Programme:

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