(probably = the Qumran Sect that composed the "Dead Sea Scrolls")
|Meaning of Name:||Descendants of Zadok, members of the old (pre-Hasmonean) High Priestly family||"Separatists"
--probably because their special dietary restrictions and purity rules limited their social interactions with outsiders
--Possibly "healers" because of their reputation for performing miraculous cures
|Factors related to their political and social class|
|Social Class:||Aristocratic priests||Common people||N/A|
|Figures of Authority:||Priests||Scholars and Scribes
They challenged the importance of the priesthood, limiting it to the performance of Temple rituals.
|The "Teacher of Righteousness"|
The apparent founder of the sect was probably a Zadokite priest who rejected the Jerusalem leadership
|Factors related to their reliance on the Bible or other sources of tradition|
|Attitude to Bible:||Literalist:
As a hereditary leadership they did not have to justify their authority, and did not have to develop special skills in interpreting it.
|Sophisticated scholarly interpretations:
This was proposed as an alternative to priestly authority: Leadership had to earned through knowledge and ability, not inherited.
--distinctive intepretations of their own sect, especially those of the "Teacher of Righteousness"
|Attitude to "Oral Torah":||Accepted only what was explicitly written in the Torah||Believed in authority of "ancestral traditions" even if they had no basis in the Torah.||The Dead Sea Scrolls demonstrate their distinctive Biblical interpretations and rules, similar in purpose--but not in content-- to the Pharisees' "Oral Torah."|
|Practices:||Based directly on the Torah||Accepted many additional laws and interpretations based on the "Oral Torah" and their own interpretations.||"Inspired Exegesis"|
|Emphasis on priestly rituals and obligations (which enhanced the priests' holiness and and authority)||Extention of priestly laws (e.g., purity of food) to non-priests||Accepted many additional laws and interpretations based on their own interpretations.|
|"Luni-solar" calendar||Solar calendar|
Rejection of ideas that have no clear basis in the Bible, such as life-after-death.
Assertion of human freedom and accountability for their actions.
Acceptance of some non-Biblical beliefs that had been accepted by the people, e.g., Physical resurrection of the dead.
Believed in limited free will: "Everything is in the power of Heaven except for the fear of Heaven."
Believed in spiritual survival after death.
Dualistic determinism: Humanity has been divided into "Children of Light and Children of Darkness," who will soon clash in an apocalyptic war.