The Mishnah: Berakhot Chapter 1

Texts Related to the Shema

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD;

and you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might.

And these words which I command you this day shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way,

* Recitation of morning and evening Shema'
and when you lie down, and when you rise.
* "Phylacteries" (tefillin ) on arm and forehead
And you shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes.
* Mezuzah on doorposts
And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.

(Deuteronomy 6).

And if you will obey my commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul, he will give the rain for your land in its season, the early rain and the later rain, that you may ga ther in your grain and your wine and your oil. And he will give grass in your fields for your cattle, and you shall eat and be full. Take heed lest your heart be deceived, and you turn aside and serve other gods and worshi p them, and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and he shut up the heavens, so that there be no rain, and the land yield no fruit, and you perish quickly off the good land which the LORD gives you.

You shall therefore lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul;

* Phylacteries (tefillin) on arm and forehead
and you shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes.
And you shall teach them to your children, talking of them when you are sitting in your house, and when you are walking by the way,


Fragments from a Phylacteries (Tefillin) Case from Qumran

* Recitation of morning and evening Shema'
and when you lie down, and when you rise.
* Mezuzah on doorposts
And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house and upon your gates,
that your days and the days of your children may be multiplied in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers to give them, as long as the heavens are above the earth.

(Deuteronomy 11:1-32).

From the Mishnah, Berakhot:

1:1: From what time does one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time when the priests go in to eat of their heave-offering until the end of the first watch. ...

1:3: The House of Shammai say: In the evening everyone should recite it while reclining, and in the morning they should be standing, as it says: and when you lie down, and when you rise.

And the House of Hillel say: Every one should recite it in their normal manner, as it says: and when you walk by the way.

If this is so, then why does it say and when you lie down, and when you rise ? At the time when people lie down and at the time when people rise up.

Rabbi Tarfon said: I was once traveling on the road and lay down in order to recite, according to the view of the House of Shammai, and I placed myself in peril of robbers.

They said to him: You deserved to pay the penalty for disregarding the view of the House of Hillel.

2:2: Said Rabbi Joshua ben Qorhah: Why does the Shema' precede the And if you will obey... ?

Rather: In order that one should first of all accept upon oneself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, and afterwards accept the yoke of commandments...


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