Selecting a highlighted phrase will bring you to an appropriate bibliographic entry
Introduction of "Peshat" (literal, contextual study) of the Bible, in
addition to continuation of Rabbinic "Midrash" (homiletical interpretation).
Scientific grammar and lexicography.
"Masorah"--precise rules to determine text, pronunciation, cantillation of
Systematic "Orders of prayer"--Sa'adia, Amram.
Piyyut (liturgical poetry): Especially in Palestine. Elaborate and
erudite poetic versions of the standard prayers.
Especially in Germany, France and Provence. Rarely in Spain.
Disputational literature: Mostly for debates with Christians.
Inner-Jewish sectarianism: Karaites--Accepted Bible alone (the entire
Bible generally held to be of equal sanctity), rejecting the Talmud and
Rabbinic "Oral Tradition."
(determining normative law based primarily on Babylonian Talmud):
Varying types of organization, degrees of comprehensiveness, relationships
between law and theology.
Collected answers to questions on law and interpretation by leading Rabbis.
of  Biblical Commandments (e.g., Halakhot Gedolot, Maimonides, Hinnukh, R.
Moses of Coucy's Sefer Mitzvot Gadol).
Treatises on areas of Jewish law (in Arabic, by Babylonian Ge'onim)
(including "ethical wills").
and History (Yosippon, Epistle of R. Sherira, Ibn Daud's "Sefer ha-Qabbalah,"
Return to Index.