Topics from Sanders, Judaism, Chapter Thirteen: Common Theology
- Covenant with Israel
- Revelation of Torah
- Obedience to God s Law
- Historical Providence
- Exclusive monotheism : Denial of other gods.
- Diaspora Jews had more tolerant tradition.
- Problem of graven images :
- Were all images forbidden by Second Commandment, or only those that could be worshipped?
- In Palestine observed very strictly, as indicated by archeological evidence, and historical events: e.g., opposition to introduction of Roman eagle standards in Jerusalem. Different from Rabbinic period.
- Certain images (e.g., vines, Jewish religious symbols) were considered acceptable.
- Problem of using foreign coins.
- Sun worship among Essenes?
- Belief in supernatural beings (angels, demons, etc.)
Creation and its implications:
- God s control of individuals and history, including tragedies.
- Attitudes towards dualism Range of approaches:
- Dualism: Role of Satan; Children of Light vs. Children of Darkness (ruled by Angel of darkness ).
- Evil comes from God.
- Determinism: Differences among three parties. Implication with respect to accountability (reward and punishment)?
Theology of offerings Relations between ritual and spiritual aspects:
- Purification and cleansing.
- Atonement and repentance.
- Thanksgiving and honouring God.
- Communion with God (?).
- Petition (?)
- For the welfare of the whole world (?).
- Participation in communal occasions.
Summaries of the Torah:
- Love of God and of one's fellow.
- Golden Rule-- positive and negative formulations.
- X is equal to all the commands of the Torah [study of Torah]; honesty in business; charity; rejection of idolatry.
Aspects of Covenantal Nomism:
- God, Creator of the universe, chose Israel and gave them the Torah.
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