Undergraduate Analog I.C. Design - ENEL 465

Welcome to ENEL 465, a course that deals primarily with analog bipolar and some CMOS circuit design issues. In this course, we examine building blocks for IC design, and then we build a bipolar Operational Amplifier using discrete components in the lab.

We also examine applications of linear integrated circuits, including waveform generators, power supply voltage and current regulators, and a variety of other IC's.

The course outline can be examined by clicking here and the lab schedule is found here.

The student version of PSPICE can be downloaded here. (The file is 27 MBytes). When you install this program, do not install the Orcad Capture program, only PSPICE A/D and Schematics. The full commercial version of Cadence PSPICE is available on the departmental CITRIX Server. Note, that once you run a schematic on the commercial version, it cannot be run on the student version. I recommend using the student version everywhere if you plan on moving files between home and school.

NOTE! In all of the work we do in ENEL465, we use a simplified small-signal model for the bipolar transistor that ignores the feedback resistance between collector and base. While this simplifies the calculations considerably, it will lead to errors of up to a factor of two in some quantities such as output resistance, etc. Most textbooks and PSPICE itself also make this approximation, but the reader should be aware that it is not strictly correct. In some instances, such as switching regulator design, this simplification leads to unacceptable results, so one must proceed with caution, particularily when accepting PSPICE results at face value. For our work in this course, the theoretical predictions are well within the limits of variability between devices in the practical sense, and we will ignore this feedback element at all times.

Teaching Modules for ENEL 465   Please note: Due to some system problems, the dynamic links in these modules may not work correctly. To avoid the problem, download the Visual Basic executables from the bottom of this page, and also download the VBrun300.dll and VB40032.dll files and put them in the same directory. Then double click on an executable to run it. To run the PSPICE schematic files, download them directly from the bottom of this page, and also download the Bipolar465.lib file. Place the .lib file in C:\Program Files\Orcad_Demo\PSPICE\library on your local machine. Then in PSPICE, open the analysis menu, choose library and include files, and add the .lib file globally. The schematics should then run properly.

Module: Physical Operation of the Bipolar Transistor
The purpose of this module is to introduce the reader to the physical
operation of bipolar transistors. Cross-sectional views of a BJT are
provided, along with graphic displays of minority carrier concentrations
and their dependence on base-emitter and base-collector bias. A simple
Visual Basic program is included to provide some animation of device behavior.

Module: Bipolar Transistor Characteristics
 This module describes the basic static and small-signal characteristics
of bipolar transistors that are important for analog circuit designers.

Module: PSPICEBasics
 This module describes the basic commands and actions required to draw and
simulate a circuit schematic in PSPICE. It is intended for new and novice users.
For a more detailed description of program operation, see the online manuals
that are supplied with the program.

Module: PSPICE Bipolar Transistor Models
This module describes the basic model parameters for bipolar transistors
that are used in OrCad's PSPICE program, and relates the simple
Ebers-Moll model to the more sophisticated models used in the PSPICE

Module: Current Mirrors
 This module describes the basic behaviour of unity gain current
mirrors that are used extensively in analog IC design as
biasing sources and as high resistance active loads.

Module: Widlar Current Sources

This is a basic lesson dealing with a fundamental building
block for monolithic integrated circuits. The ideal circuit is
covered, and Early Effect is included as the main non-ideality
in the circuit.

Module:Basic Operational Amplifiers
 This module examines the basic bipolar opamp that is constructed in lab experiment #2.

Module:Bode Plots and Operational Amplifier Stability
 This module describes the theory behind Bode Plots, and explains their
usefulness in determining the stability of negative feedback circuits
using operational amplifiers. A useful visual basic program is included
to help the reader to develop a feeling for the issues involved.

Module: Voltage-to-Frequency Converters (VFC's)
This lesson deals with a circuit that provides a variable output
frequency based on a varying voltage, or by varying resistors
in the circuit.

Module: Sinusoidal Phase Shift Oscillator
This lesson deals with a sinusoidal positive feedback oscillator
that uses all-pass networks to achieve variable phase shift for
easy adjustment of oscillator frequency. An Automatic Gain Control
(AGC) circuit is used to stabilize the output amplitude.

Module: Automotive Voltage Regulators
 This module describes the linear transistor-based voltage
regulators commonly used in North American Vehicles.

Module: Switching Regulators
 This module describes the basic theory behind switching
regulators, with emphasis on step-down (or Buck) regulators.
Commercial circuits and software are also examined.

Module: Crystal Oscillators
 This module describes the basics of crystal oscillator
design, for clock generation and other applications. Theoretical
equations are presented for determining the frequency of
oscillation and the power dissipated in the crystal.

Module: Tips for Troubleshooting Circuits
This module describes some basic techniques for troubleshooting
analog electronic circuits in the laboratory.

The DOS analog active filter design program can be downloaded by holding down the shift key and clicking here.

These are the files for the PSPICE orientation Lab: npnmodelpnpmodel

Here are links to some of the major manufacturers of linear integrated circuits:

The Visual Basic executables that appear in the lesson plans can be downloaded by clicking on the links below. These are stand alone programs, but to run them you must have VBrun300.dll available to your system. If you don't have it, download it from my main home page.

The programs below can be downloaded and run directly if you also download VBRun300.dll and VB40032.dll (see top of page) onto your local machine.


If you don't have PKUNZIP for windows 95 and NT, download it by clicking here.
If you need PKUNZIP for DOS, download it by clicking here.