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American Social Surveys

American National Election Study, 1960 [ DRAT ]

Campbell, Angus, and Philip Converse, et al.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07216

SUMMARY: This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation.

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS and Card Image

SUBJECT TERMS: candidates. class identity. congressional elections. domestic affairs. economic mobility. election studies. elections. foreign affairs. geographical mobility. group political orientation. issues. mass media. membership. minority affairs. political attitudes and behavior. political efficacy. political history. political interaction. political issues. political participation. political party preference. presidential elections. quality of life. religion. social class structure. social mobility. trust, personal and political. voting attitudes and behavior. Eisenhower administration.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Campbell, Angus, et al. Elections and the Political Order New York: Wiley, 1966,
See especially the following articles: Converse, Philip E., et al., ''Stability and Change in 1960: A Reinstating Election,''
Converse, Philip E., ''Religion and Politics: The 1960 Election,''
Converse, Philip E., ''On the Possibility of Major Political Realignment in the South,''
and Converse, Philip E., ''The Concept of a Normal Vote.''

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American National Election Study, 1980 [ DRAT ]

Miller, Warren E., and National Election Studies/Center for Political Studies.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07763

SUMMARY: This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1980 Election Study is comprised of several integrated survey data collections occurring at strategically chosen periods in the course of the election year, along with vote validation and contextual data. Four areas were targeted for special attention: new measurement of party identification, the measurement of voter attitudes concerning issues of public policy, new content concerning public perceptions of and responses to political leadership, and the exploration of social networks in the crystallization of the vote choice. The National Election Studies Board established a 1980 Presidential Elections Committee that consisted of three Board members (Merrill Shanks, John Jackson, David Sears) and three additional scholars (Richard S. Brody, Jack Dennis, Donald R. Kinder). This committee along with the Center for Political Studies project staff was responsible for the planning of the year-long study. The Pre- and Post-Election Surveys file [C-3/C3po] contains the traditional election survey data. Contextual measures provided along with the survey data include election returns, interest group ratings of incumbents, and Federal Election Commission campaign contribution data. The Major Panel File [P1-P4] presents a year-long four-wave panel. The panel began in late January as a national cross-section of 1,008 cases, and interviewing ended before the New Hampshire primary on February 24. Respondents from the first wave [P-1] were reinterviewed in June immediately after the last set of primary elections that were held on June 3. The third panel interview [P-3] was taken during the month of September, and the fourth and final wave [P-4] was taken immediately after the general election and includes reinterviews with respondents who did not participate in wave 3. Wave 4 was a fifteen-minute telephone interview. The Integrated File (ICPSR Version), in addition to the pre/post survey data and 4-wave panel data, contains an independent cross-section sample [C-1] of 965 cases who were interviewed in the midst of the primary season during the three-week ''window'' following the early April primaries. These respondents were reinterviewed following the general election [C-4] with a telephone interview essentially the same as that administered to P-4 respondents. This complex file was prepared to facilitate the analytic use of the large body of data gathered in 1980. Virtually all of the 1980 data are included in this file, with data merged as appropriate for panel samples. The individual files for each of the 1980 surveys have been reformatted to a standardized data record structure in such a manner that the data for identical questions across studies are always stored under the same variable number and in a fixed and specified record location in the integrated file. Filters are included to allow users to retrieve specific samples from the file. Vote validation data are included in the file. Hard copy documentation includes composite codebook and questionnaire, and frequency addendum.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 3 data files + machine-readable documentation + SPSS Control Cards.

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS and Card Image, with SPSS Control Cards for each

SUBJECT TERMS: candidates. congressional elections. county-level. districts. domestic affairs. economic conditions. election studies. elections. foreign affairs. issues. political attitudes and behavior. political party preference. presidential elections. trust, personal and political. voting attitudes and behavior. United States.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Miller, Warren E. and J. Merril Shanks. ''Policy Directions and Presidential Leadership: Alternative Interpretations of the 1980 Presidential Election.'' BRITISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. September 1982.
Markus, Gregory B. ''Political Attitudes during an Election Year: A Report on the 1980 NES Panel Study.'' AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW, Sept. 1982.
Abelson, Robert P., Donald R. Kinder, Mark D. Peters, and Susan T. Fiske. ''Affective Responses to Political Candidates.'' JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.
Wattenberg, Martin P., and Arthur H. Miller. ''Party Coalitions in Decay: Processes of Regional Partisan Change.'' In Seymour Martin Lipset (ed.), PARTY COALITIONS IN THE 1980s. San Francisco, CA: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1981.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American National Election Study, 1984 [ DRAT ]

Miller, Warren E. and National Election Studies/Center for Political Studies.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08298

SUMMARY: This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. Part 1 of this collection contains the traditional Pre- and Post-Election Survey (ICPSR Version). Interviews were conducted in-person prior to the 1984 election, and in the post-election wave, half of the respondents were randomly assigned to be reinterviewed in person, and the other half to be reinterviewed by telephone using a shortened version of the questionnaire. In addition to the standard core questions, new topic areas (most of which had been piloted in 1983) included economic individualism and egalitarian items, and group identification items. Vote validation data also are provided. Continuous Monitoring, January 11, 1984 through December 31, 1984 (Part 3) was designed to examine the impact of the election campaign on voters' perceptions, beliefs, and preferences. Respondents were questioned about their knowledge of the candidates' stand on the issues, about their own stand on the issues, and about their opinions and evaluations of the candidates. Interviews were conducted by telephone throughout the year, with a total of 46 separate cross-section samples selected by a random digit dialing design, and an average of 76 respondents interviewed in each of the 46 sample weeks. Although the survey instrument was very much the same from one sample week to the next, some questions were deleted and others added during the course of the campaign, as issues became more or less relevant. Thirteen versions of the questionnaire were incorporated into this data file. Each telephone number selected in the Continuous Monitoring Study generated a labeled coversheet with an administrative history: number of calls, household composition, final disposition, and so forth. Information from every coversheet generated during the course of the study, including non-interviews, is provided in the Field Administration Data File for Continuous Monitoring (Part 22). The file contains zip codes for working residential telephone numbers (where the selected respondent agreed to give that information), but does not contain respondent interview numbers, so it cannot be merged with the Continuous Monitoring File (Part 3).

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 3 data files + machine-readable documentation + SPSS Control Cards.

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS and Card Image, with SPSS Control Cards for each (Parts 1 and 3), and LRECL with OSIRIS dictionary (Part 22)

SUBJECT TERMS: aging. candidates. congressional elections. economic attitudes and behavior. education. election studies. employment. government effectiveness. income. issues. marital status. methodology. political attitudes and behavior. political interaction. political participation. political party preference. presidential performance. random digit dialing. religion. social attitudes and behavior. United States. ZIP code areas.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American National Election Study, 1988 [ DRAT ]

Miller, Warren E., and the National Election Studies.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09196

SUMMARY: This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. In addition to the standard or ''core'' content items, new topics include evaluations of the presidential primary candidates, respondent's primary vote, the budget deficit, health insurance, foreign policy, equal rights for women, the drug problem, the Reagan presidency, recall of the 1984 presidential vote, parental party identification, evaluation of Bush and Dukakis on the issues of environment and crime, the death penalty, and new system support and political efficacy items. The file also contains post-election vote validation and election administration survey data. The Nonresponse ''Bias'' File (Part 22) presents information concerning the 2,040 complete or partial interviews that comprise the pre/post survey plus refusals, no-contact, and non-sample cases in order to permit analysis of the causes and consequences of nonresponse. Included in these data is information from the Interviewer's Description Booklet, a form used for the first time in 1988 to describe attempts at contact with each household within the 1988 NES selected sample. The Pre- and Post-Election Call Record Files (Parts 23 and 24) provide information for each call made at a sampling unit (e.g., time of day, day of the week, and the result of the call), while Part 25 contains data collected in 1991 to revalidate the 1988 respondents in order to assess the reliability of the vote validation process.

SOURCE: personal interviews

UNIVERSE: All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 8, 1988, residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

SAMPLE: National multistage area probability sample.

NOTE: Two forms were used in both the pre- and post-election surveys so that a maximum amount of content could be included. For both the pre- and post-election surveys, half the sample was assigned to Form A, the other half to Form B. In particular, the lengthy section containing Reagan retrospective evaluation items was split between the two waves and the two forms in order not to make either the pre- or post-election instrument unacceptably long, and to study the effects of post-election media analysis of the presidency. The other major use of the two forms was to conduct an experiment in survey response. The EXTENT OF PROCESSING field applies to Part 1 of this collection only. For Parts 22-25, the following descriptors apply: CONCHK.PR/ MDATA/ UNDOCCHK.PR.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 5 data files + OSIRIS dictionaries + machine-readable documentation (text) + SPSS Control Cards + data collection instrument.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS and Card Image with SPSS Control Cards for each (Part 1), LRECL (Part 22), OSIRIS (Parts 23-25)

TIME PERIOD: 1988

DATE OF COLLECTION: 1988, 1989, July-August 1991 (Part 25)

FUNDING AGENCY: National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER: SOC77-08885 and SES-8341310

SUBJECT TERMS: aging. blacks. candidates. congressional elections. economic attitudes and behavior. education. election studies. employment. government effectiveness. income. issues. marital status. membership. political attitudes and behavior. political interaction. political participation. political party preference. presidential performance. race relations. racial attitudes. religion. social attitudes and behavior. social security. United States.

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: NONNUM/ BLANKS/ CONCHK.ICPSR/ MDATA/FREQ.ICPSR / UNDOCCHK.ICPSR/ RECODE

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American National Election Study, 1992: Pre- And Post-Election Survey [enhanced With 1990 And 1991 Data] [ DRAT ]

Miller, Warren E., Donald R. Kinder, Steven J. Rosenstone, and the National Election Studies.

ICPSR NUMBER: 06067

SUMMARY: This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1992 National Election Study entailed both a pre-election interview and a post-election reinterview. Approximately half of the 1992 cases are comprised of empaneled respondents who were first interviewed in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1990: POST-ELECTION SURVEY (ICPSR 9548) and later in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1990-1991 PANEL STUDY OF THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR/1991 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 9673). The other half of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study design provides an opportunity to trace how the changing fortunes of the Bush presidency, from the high levels of approval at the start of the Gulf War through the decline after the onset of a recession, affected voting in the November 1992 presidential election. It also permits analysts to investigate the origins of the Clinton and Perot coalitions as well as changes in the public's political preferences over the two years preceding the 1992 election. In the 1990 Post-Election Survey two forms of the survey instrument were used, with about 75 percent of the content being the same on both forms. Survey questions included the now-standard National Election Studies battery of questions, along with items on presidential performance and the Persian Gulf conflict. Additionally, Form A contained questions relating to values and individualism, while Form B had content relating to foreign relations. In 1991, respondents were reinterviewed several months after hostilities in the Persian Gulf ended, and in this second wave the survey content consisted of a repeat of a subset of questions from the 1990 Post-Election Survey, along with additional items especially relevant to the Gulf War. A number of contextual variables also are provided, including summary variables that combine the respondent's recall of his or her senator's and representative's vote on the use of force with that congressperson's actual vote. The content for the 1992 Election Study reflects its dual purpose, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as the third wave of a panel study. In addition to the standard or core content items, respondents were asked their positions on social issues such as altruism, abortion, the death penalty, prayer in the schools, the rights of homosexuals, sexual harassment, women's rights, and feminist consciousness. Other substantive themes included racial and ethnic stereotypes, opinions on school integration and affirmative action, attitudes towards immigrants (particularly Hispanics and Asians), opinions on immigration policy and bilingual education, assessments of United States foreign policy goals, and United States involvement in the Persian Gulf War. The Nonresponse ''Bias'' File (Part 23), designed to permit analysis of the causes and consequences of nonresponse, presents information concerning 3,690 cases that include complete or partial interviews for the Pre-/Post-Election Survey plus refusals, no-contact, and nonsample cases.

SOURCE: personal interviews and telephone interviews

UNIVERSE: All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 6, 1990 (for those interviewed in 1990 and 1991), and on or before November 3, 1992 (for those interviewed in 1992 and 1993), residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

SAMPLE: A national multistage area probability sample was employed for the 1990 Post-Election Survey and the 1992 Pre- and Post-Election Survey. For the 1990-1991 Panel Study of the Political Consequences of the War, 615 respondents were not reinterviewed either due to panel mortality (e.g., they had moved or died), or were effectively nonsample for telephone reinterview because they were extremely hard of hearing, could not be reached by telephone, or needed to be interviewed in a language other than English.

NOTE: A total of 2,485 citizens were interviewed in the nine weeks prior to the November 3, 1992, election. To permit analysis of the impact of the unfolding election campaign, a random half of the sample was released to the field on September 1 and the other half on October 1. Of the pre-election interviews, 1,359 were conducted with panel respondents and 1,126 with cross-section respondents. In the weeks following the election, 2,255 pre-election respondents (1,250 panel and 1,005 cross-section) were reinterviewed. Variables 2008 (91: RESULT CODE), 7000 (92: TIME SERIES WEIGHT), and 7001 (92: TYPE OF INCUMBENT) are new additions to this collection. All other variables retain their original numbers from when they first appeared in either AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1990: POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ICPSR VERSION] (ICPSR 9548), AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1990-1991 PANEL STUDY OF THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR/1991 PILOT STUDY [CPS VERSION] and [ICPSR VERSION] (ICPSR 9673), or AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [CPS EARLY RELEASE VERSION]. Variables from 1990 and 1991 have been padded with missing data values for all 1992 cross-section respondents.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 2 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + OSIRIS dictionary + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements + data collection instrument + machine-readable frequencies.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

TIME PERIOD: 1990-1992

DATE OF COLLECTION: November 6, 1990-January 26, 1991, June 4-July 31, 1991, and September 1, 1992-January 13, 1993

FUNDING AGENCY: National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER: SES-8808361, SOC77-08885, SOC77-8341310, and SES-8808361

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: NONNUM/ BLANKS/ CONCHK.PR/ MDATA/FREQ.ICPSR/ UNDOCCHK.PR/ RECODE.PR

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American National Election Study, 1996: Pre- And Post-Election Survey [DRAT]

STUDYNO = 6896

INVESTIGATOR= Rosenstone, Steven J., Donald R. Kinder, Warren E. Miller, and the National Election Studies.

SUMMARY= This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1996 National Election Study contains both pre- and post-election components. The Pre-Election Survey includes interviews in which approximately 77 percent of the cases are comprised of empaneled respondents first interviewed in either AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067) or in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1994: POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1992 AND 1993 DATA] (ICPSR 6507). The other 23 percent of the pre-election cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. Of the 1,714 citizens who were interviewed during the pre-election stage, 1,534 (89.5 percent) also participated in the Post-Election Survey (1,197 of these were panel cases and 337 were cross-section). The content of the 1996 Election Study reflects its dual function, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as a panel study. Substantive themes presented in the 1996 questionnaires include interest in the political campaigns, concern about the outcome, attentiveness to the media's coverage of the campaign, information about politics, evaluation of the presidential candidates and placement of presidential candidates on various issue dimensions, partisanship and evaluations of the political parties, knowledge of and evaluation of House candidates, political participation (including turnout in the presidential primaries and in the November general election and other forms of electoral campaign activity), and vote choice for president, the United States House, and the United States Senate, including second choice for president. Additional items focused on perceptions of personal and national economic well-being, positions on social welfare issues (including government health insurance, federal budget priorities, and the role of government in the provision of jobs and a good standard of living), positions on social issues (including abortion, women's roles, prayer in the schools, the rights of homosexuals, and the death penalty), racial and ethnic stereotypes, opinions on affirmative action, attitudes toward immigrants, opinions about the nation's most important problem, political predispositions (including moral traditionalism, political efficacy, egalitarianism, humanitarianism, individualism, and trust in government), social altruism, social connectedness, feeling thermometers on a wide range of political figures and political groups, affinity with various social groups, and detailed demographic information and measures of religious affiliation and religiosity. Several new content areas were also added to this survey, including a core battery of campaign-related items in the pre-election wave to better understand the dynamics of congressional campaigns, several questions related to issue importance and uncertainty both in relation to respondents and to candidates, an eight-minute module of questions developed by a consortium of electoral scholars from 52 polities to facilitate comparative analysis of political attitudes and voting behavior, new issue items in the areas of crime, gun control, and income inequality, new items tapping perceptions of environmental conditions (air quality and the safety of drinking water in the nation and in the respondent's own community), environmental priorities (ranging from global warming to cleaning up lakes and parks), self-placements and placements of candidates and parties on environmental issues (trading off environmental protection against jobs and living standards, and supporting or opposing government environmental regulations on businesses), and the relative effectiveness of national, state, and local governments in dealing with environmental problems. Other new items included several measures of social connectedness and a battery of items on membership and activity in a wide variety of social, political, religious, and civic organizations. New media exposure, reception, and attention items were also introduced, including questions on talk radio, network and television news, and items asking respondents to match news anchors with the networks they work for. Also added was a battery of exposure items for entertainment television programs as an indirect measure of exposure to campaign advertisements, as well as a new open-ended item on recollection of campaign ads and questions on respondent attention to the campaign in various media.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 1 data file + machine-readable documentation (text) + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements

EXTENT OF PROCESSING= CONCHK.PR/ MDATA.PR/ UNDOCCHK.PR/ FREQ.PR

SERIES NAME= AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY SERIES

SERIES INFO= The American National Election Studies are national surveys carried out by the Survey Research Center (SRC) or by the Center for Political Studies (CPS) of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. They are based on multistage representative cross-section samples of citizens of voting age, living in private households. Each study contains information from interviews conducted with 1,000 to 2,000 respondents. The samples are representative of the four major regions (Northeast, North Central, South, and West) of the coterminous United States as defined by the Census Bureau. Descriptions of the sampling procedures can be found in Leslie Kish, SURVEY SAMPLING (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964). Interviewing was conducted after the presidential election of 1948, before and after presidential elections from 1952 through 1996, but only after the congressional elections of 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, and 1994. Also, in 1980, data were collected at six time periods in addition to the traditional pre- and post-presidential election surveys. Interviews range from one to three hours in length. Many questions are replicated across studies, although each has questions not asked in the others. The major substantive areas covered in all studies may be roughly grouped as follows: - Respondents' expectations about the outcome of the election, perceptions and evaluations of the major parties and candidates, and perceived importance of the election. - Party identification and political history of respondents and their parents. - Measurement of respondents' interest in politics and their political motivation. - Respondents' issue positions, the strength of these positions, and respondents' perceptions of the major parties' stands and differences relating to these issues. - Respondents' perceptions of economic, ethnic, and religious group political orientation and feelings of closeness and trust toward these groups. - Respondents' assessments of the relative importance of major problems facing the country and general appraisals of the foreign and domestic state of affairs. - Self- reported assessments of financial situation and class identity and questions relating to economic, social, and geographical mobility. - Sources of political information, degree of political interaction with family and friends, and organizational membership and activities. - Measures of political efficacy, conservatism versus liberalism, and trust in government. - Personal data yielding information on sex, race, age, education, occupation, father's occupation, ethnic background, religious affiliation, income, family composition, and region of the country in which the respondent grew up and is presently living. - Post-election questions on actual voting behavior and awareness of, and participation in, the campaign. For further discussion of the data, the user is referred to Warren E. Miller and Santa A. Traugott, AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDIES DATA SOURCEBOOK, 1952-1986 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989) and John P. Robinson, Jerrold G. Rusk, and Kendra B. Head, MEASURES OF POLITICAL ATTITUDES (Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, 1968).

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1990-1996

DATE OF COLLECTION = September 3, 1996-January 1, 1997

FUNDING AGENCY = National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER = SBR-9317631

DATA SOURCE = personal and telephone interviews

DATA FORMAT = LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

SAMPLING = National multistage area probability sample.

UNIVERSE = All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 5, 1996, residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

CITATION = Rosenstone, Steven J., Donald R. Kinder, Warren E. Miller, and the National Election Studies. AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1996: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [Computer file]. 2nd release. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies [producer], 1997. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter- university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1997.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


American Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1986 [ DRAT ]

Chicago Council on Foreign Relations.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08712

SUMMARY: This data collection offers information on the opinions and attitudes of the general public and a select group of elites, or opinion leaders, on matters relating to foreign policy. The primary objectives of this study were to define the parameters of public opinion within which decision makers must operate and to compare the attitudes of the general public with those of opinion leaders. For the purposes of this study, ''opinion leaders'' are defined as those who are in positions of leadership in government, academia, business and labor, the media, religious institutions, special interest groups, and private foreign policy organizations. Variables in the general public cross-section file and the elite file include opinions on specific foreign policy problems, economic and military aid to other countries, the role of the United States in foreign affairs, use of United States troops in other parts of the world, a nuclear freeze, the proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (''Star Wars''), and terrorism. Demographic characteristics such as age, sex, race, income, marital status, and educational achievement are also supplied in the cross-section file, along with feeling thermometers which probe for the respondent's attitudes toward various foreign countries and toward well-known political figures. A follow-up survey of the general public was also undertaken to identify changes in attitudes that might have occurred in the aftermath of the Iran/Contra affair. This follow-up file contains a limited set of pertinent variables from the original general public cross-section study.

SOURCE: personal interviews, and telephone interviews

SAMPLE: File 1: national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population, aged 18 and older. File 2: selected opinion leaders from the Reagan administration, the House of Representatives, the Senate, business, labor, media, education, religious organizations, special interest groups, and private foreign policy organizations. File 3: national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population, aged 18 and older.

NOTE: The design of the survey was developed by the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations and a group of professional consultants working together with the Gallup Organization. Data were collected by the Gallup Organization.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 3 data files + SPSS Control Cards.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: LRECL and Card Image, with SPSS Control Cards for each

DATE OF COLLECTION: File 1: October 30, 1986-November 12, 1986. File 2: September 20, 1986-November 18, 1986. File 3: January 18, 1987-February 6, 1987.

FUNDING AGENCY: Chicago Council on Foreign Relations.

SUBJECT TERMS: arms race. diplomatic relations. domestic affairs. economic involvement-United States. foreign affairs. foreign policy. international interactions. leadership. political participation. United States.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


American Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1990 [ DRAT ]

Chicago Council on Foreign Relations.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09564

SUMMARY: This data collection is the 1990 version of a quadrennial study designed to investigate the opinions and attitudes of the general public and of a select group of opinion leaders (or elites) on matters relating to foreign policy. The primary objectives of this study were to define the parameters of public opinion within which decision makers must operate and to compare the attitudes of the general public with those of opinion leaders. For the purposes of this study, ''opinion leaders'' are defined as those who are in positions of leadership in government, academia, business and labor, the media, religious institutions, special interest groups, and private foreign policy organizations. Both general public and elite respondents were questioned regarding the biggest problems/foreign policy problems facing the United States today, spending levels for various federal government programs, the role of Congress in determining foreign policy, the impact of foreign policy on things such as prices and unemployment, economic aid to other nations, military aid/selling military equipment to other nations, the role of the United States in world affairs, the Bush administration's handling of various problems, government reactions to situations in Kuwait, Panama, and China, the importance of various countries to America's vital interests, possible threats/adversaries to the United States in coming years, and the use of United States military troops in other parts of the world. Other topics covered include the relative importance of several foreign policy goals, United States relations with the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Vietnam, NATO and keeping troops in western Europe, the military role of Japan and Germany, the economic unification of western Europe, the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, policy options to reduce dependence on foreign oil, the illegal drug problem, free trade, and the respondent's political party affiliation and the strength of that affiliation. In addition, general populace respondents were asked to indicate their level of political activity, how closely they followed news about several current issues and events, and to rate various foreign countries and American and foreign leaders on a feeling thermometer scale. Demographic characteristics such as religious preference, marital status, employment status, household composition, education, age, Hispanic origin, race, sex, and income also were gathered for these respondents.

SOURCE: personal interviews, and telephone interviews

UNIVERSE: Part 1: Individuals in positions of leadership in the Bush administration, the House of Representatives, the Senate, business, labor, media, education, and religious organizations, special interest groups, and private foreign policy organizations, and Part 2: Civilian adults aged 18 and older, living in the United States.

SAMPLE: Part 1: Purposive sampling of selected opinion leaders designed to replicate samples used in previous years, and Part 2: Replicated national probability sample.

NOTE: The data contain blanks and nonnumeric codes. Part 2 contains a weight variable that should be used in any analysis. See ICPSR data collections 5808, 7748, 7786, 8130, and 8712 for similar collections from previous years.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 2 data files + machine-readable documentation.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: Card Image

DATE OF COLLECTION: Part 1: October 19-November 16, 1990, Part 2: October 23-November 19, 1990

FUNDING AGENCY: Chicago Council on Foreign Relations.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.

Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample (B Sample): 1/1000 Sample
[
DRAT ]

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census.

ICPSR NUMER: 08211

SUMMARY: The Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) from the 1980 Census contain person- and household-level information from the ''long-form'' questionnaires distributed to a sample of the population enumerated in the 1980 Census. The B Sample contains information for each state, and for households and persons residing in metropolitan areas that are too small to be separately identified and/or that cross state boundaries. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and county groups are defined differently here than in the A Sample [CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SAMPLE (A SAMPLE): 5-PERCENT SAMPLE (ICPSR 8101)]. Most states cannot be identified in their entirety. As a percentage of the l-Percent Public Use Microdata Sample (B Sample) [CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SAMPLE (B SAMPLE): 1-PERCENT SAMPLE (ICPSR 8170)], this file constitutes a 1-in-1000 sample, and contains all household- and person-level variables from the original B Sample. Household-level variables include housing tenure, year structure was built, number and types of rooms in dwelling, plumbing facilities, heating equipment, taxes and mortgage costs, number of children, and household and family income. Person-level variables include sex, age, marital status, race, Spanish origin, income, occupation, transportation to work, and education.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 1 data file + database dictionary

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = MDATA.PR/ SCAN

DATA TYPE = census/enumeration data

TIME PERIOD = 1980

DATE OF COLLECTION = April 1, 1980

DATA SOURCE = self-enumerated forms

DATA FORMAT = LRECL

COLLECTION NOTE = The household and person records in the data file have a record length of 193 characters and contain a combined total of 320,778 records.

SAMPLING = This sample, extracted from CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SAMPLE (B SAMPLE): 1-PERCENT SAMPLE (ICPSR 8170) using a systematic selection procedure, comprises 0.1 percent of all households enumerated in the Census. The B Sample is a stratified sample of households that received the ''long-form'' questionnaire.

UNIVERSE = All persons and housing units in the United States.

RELATED PUBLICATION
United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. PHC80-R1: USERS' GUIDE. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

CITATION = U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: PUBLIC USE MICRODATA SAMPLE (B SAMPLE): 1/1000 SAMPLE [Computer file]. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producer], 198?. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, 1966-1992 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 07610

DATE-ADDED = May 11, 1984

DATE-UPDATED = Aug. 16, 1995

INVESTIGATOR = Center for Human Resource Research. The Ohio State University.

SUMMARY = The primary purpose of the five sets of surveys that comprise the National Longitudinal Surveys is the collection of data on the labor force experience of specific age-sex groups of Americans: Older Men aged 45-59 in 1966, Mature Women aged 30-44 in 1967, Young Men aged 14-24 in 1966, Young Women aged 14-24 in 1968, and Youth aged 14-21 in 1979. Each of the 1960s cohorts has been surveyed 12 or more times over the years, and the Youth cohort has been surveyed yearly since 1979. The major topics covered within the surveys of each cohort include: (1) labor market experience variables (including labor force participation, unemployment, job history, and job mobility), (2) socioeconomic and human capital variables (including education, training, health and physical condition, marital and family characteristics, financial characteristics, and job attitudes), and (3) selected environmental variables (size of labor force and unemployment rates for local area). While the surveys of each cohort have collected data on the above core sets of variables, cohort- specific data have been gathered over the years focusing on the particular stage of labor market attachment that each group was experiencing. Thus, the surveys of young people have collected data on their educational goals, high school and college experiences, high school characteristics, and occupational aspirations and expectations, as well as military service. The surveys of women have gathered data on topics such as fertility, child care, responsibility for household tasks, care of parents, volunteer work, attitudes towards women working, and job discrimination. As the older-aged cohorts of men and women approached labor force withdrawal, surveys for these groups collected information on their retirement plans, health status, and pension benefits. Respondents within the 1979 Youth cohort have been the focus of a number of special surveys, including the collection of data on: (1) last secondary school attended, including transcript information and selected aptitude/intelligence scores, (2) test scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), (3) illegal activities participation including police contacts, and (4) alcohol use and substance abuse. Finally, the 1986 and 1988 surveys of the Youth cohort included the administration of a battery of cognitive-socioemotional assessments to the approximately 7,000 children of the female 1979 Youth respondents. Data for the five cohorts are provided within main file releases, i.e., Mature Women 1967-1989, Young Women 1968-1991, Young Men 1966-1981, Older Men 1966-1990, and NLSY (Youth) 1979-1992. In addition, the following specially constructed data files are available: (1) a file that specifies the relationships among members of the four original cohorts living in the same household at the time of the initial surveys, i.e., husband-wife, mother-daughter, brother-sister, etc., (2) an NLSY workhistory tape detailing the week-by-week labor force attachment of the youth respondents from 1978 through the most current survey date, (3) an NLSY child-mother file linking the child assessment data to other information on children and mothers within the NLSY, (4) a supplemental NLSY file of constructed and edited fertility variables, (5) a women's support network tape detailing the geographic proximity of the relatives, friends, and acquaintances of 6,308 female NLSY respondents who were interviewed during the 1983-1985 surveys, and (6) two 1989 Mature Women's pension file detailing information on pensions and other employer-provided benefits.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 83 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + database dictionaries + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements + data collection instruments

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = CONCHK.PR

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1966-1992

DATE OF COLLECTION = 1966-1992

DATA SOURCE = personal interviews and self-enumerated forms

DATA FORMAT = Card Image (Parts 59-64), and LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

COLLECTION NOTE = (1) Due to the consolidation of files and removal of obsolete errata files, there are no Parts 45, 66, 114, 115, or 117 in this collection. These data occupy over 30 reels of tape when written at 6,250 bpi, and over 120 reels when written at 1,600 bpi. Due to the magnitude of this collection, interested users should initially request the introductory report that describes the file structure and content prior to submitting their orders. Codebooks are electronic although some supplementary materials are available only on microfiche. Numeric and KWIC indexes and various attachments are supplied as electronic files. Users will need to order Numeric and KWIC indexes along with data files to determine column locations for variables. (2) A change has been made to the structure of the 1979-1992 Youth Workhistory data file. The size of the file necessitated splitting the data into two records per case. The first record contains the data for the A, HOURS and DUALJOBS arrays and the second record contains the remainder of the data pertaining to specific job characteristics, gaps in employment, and summary labor force activity variables.

SAMPLING = Each of the first four cohorts is represented by a national probability sample of approximately 5,000 individuals-- 1,500 Blacks and 3,500 Whites. These four ''original cohorts'' have been interviewed at least once in every two-year period since the 1960s. Retention rates have remained high, with around two-thirds of the active samples continuing to be interviewed. Three independent probability samples, designed to be representative of the entire population of youth born in the United States between 1957 and 1964, were drawn for the NLSY: (1) a cross-sectional sample of 6,111 respondents designed to be representative of the noninstitutionalized civilian segment of American young people aged 14-21 as of January 1, 1979, (2) a supplemental sample of 5,295 respondents designed to oversample civilian Hispanic, Black, and economically disadvantaged non-Hispanic, non-Black youth, and (3) a military sample of 1,280 respondents designed to represent the population aged 17-21 as of January 1, 1979, and serving in the military as of September 30, 1978. The retention rate for the NLSY, interviewed yearly since 1979, remains at over 90 percent. The military sample was interviewed from 1979-1984.

UNIVERSE = Five cohorts are represented in this collection: Older Men aged 45 to 59 years of age in 1966, Mature Women aged 30 to 44 years in 1967, Young Men aged 14 to 24 years in 1966, Young Women aged 14 to 24 years in 1968, and NLSY (Youth--both males and females) aged 14 to 21 years in 1979.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS
Center for Human Resource Research. The Ohio State University. NLS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1991. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University, 1991.
Bielby, William T., Clifford B. Hawby, and David Bills. ''Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys.'' R AND D MONOGRAPHS 62, United States Department of Labor, 1979.
Daymont, Thomas N., and Paul J. Andrisani. ''Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys: An Update.'' REVIEW OF PUBLIC DATA USE (October 1983), 203-310.

CITATION = Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL SURVEYS OF LABOR MARKET EXPERIENCE, 1966-1992 [Computer file]. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University/Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producers], 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Convention Delegate Study, 1988 : [United States] [ DRAT ]

Warren E. Miller and M. Kent Jennings

ICPSR NUMBER: 06366

SUMMARY: These data represent the fourth in a series of data collection efforts begun in 1972 to gather information on the careers and political perspectives of delegates to the Democratic and Republican National Conventions. Respondents were asked questions regarding their political participation and preferences, life histories, political goals and expectations, and affiliations with various groups in society. The dataset also documents delegates' attitudes toward political actors such as Jimmy Carter, Ted Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, Walter Mondale, Jesse Jackson, Michael Dukakis, Al Gore, Bob Dole, and Jack Kemp, among many others. Attitudes toward the women's movement, the moral majority, gay rights groups, abortion, environmentalists, business interests, defense, and minorities are among the issues also investigated.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation (text) + SPSS data definition statements

DATA FORMAT: Card Image with SPSS data definition statements

UNIVERSE: Delegates to the 1988 Republican and Democratic National Conventions and respondents to CONVENTION DELEGATE STUDY, 1980: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 8367) and CONVENTION DELEGATE STUDY, 1984: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 8967).

RESTRICTIONS: To preserve respondent confidentiality, certain identifying variables have been restricted from general dissemination. Aggregations of this information for statistical purposes that preserve the anonymity of individual respondents can be obtained from ICPSR in accordance with existing servicing policies.

EXTENT OF PROCESSING: CONCHK.ICPSR/ MDATA.ICPSR/ RECODE/ UNDOCCHK.ICPSR/ REFORM.DOC/ DDEF.ICPSR

RELATED PUBLICATION:
Jennings, M. Kent. "Ideological Thinking Among Mass Public and Political Elites." PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY 56, 415-441.

DOCUMENTATION: machine-readable only

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services.


Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Survey of Mental Disorders, Wave I (Household), 1980-1985 : [United States] [ DRAT ]

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Mental Health.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08993

SUMMARY: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) program of research was initiated in response to the 1977 report of the President's Commission on Mental Health. The purpose was to collect data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders and on the use of and need for services by the mentally ill. The ECA Survey is the largest and most comprehensive survey of mental disorders ever conducted in the United States. The scope and complexity of the survey design were made possible because of the confluence of the recent standardization of psychiatric diagnostic criteria and the availability of advanced computer data processing systems. Independent research teams at five universities (Yale, Johns Hopkins, Washington University, Duke University, and University of California at Los Angeles), in collaboration with NIMH, conducted the studies with a core of common questions and sample characteristics. The sites were areas that had previously been designated as Community Mental Health Center catchment areas (New Haven, CN, Baltimore, MD, St. Louis, MO, Durham, NC, and Los Angeles, CA). The ECA encompassed a Household Survey and an Institutional Survey at each site, with two waves of personal interviews administered one year apart and a brief telephone interview in between. The structured psychiatric diagnostic interview used in the ECA was the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), version III (with the exception of the Yale Wave I survey, which used version II). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) diagnoses derived from the DIS include manic episode, major depressive episode, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, alcohol abuse or dependence, drug abuse or dependence, schizophrenia, schizophreniform, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, somatization, panic, antisocial personality, and anorexia nervosa. The DIS elicits diagnoses across the respondent's full life span and also indicates when symptoms appeared during the last year (within last two weeks, last month, last six months, and last full year). The DIS uses the Mini-Mental State Examination to screen, when respondents appear confused, for cognitive impairment and inability to complete the interview, and continuation by a proxy interview.

SOURCE: personal interviews

UNIVERSE: Community Mental Health Center catchment areas (defined as geographic areas with populations of 75,000-250,000) in the United States. A minimum population size of 200,000 was required at each site, to enable study of specific mental disorders that have prevalence rates below one percent in the general population. The household population was defined as all persons 18 years or older, residing in a household geographically located within the catchment area and having no other usual place of residence.

SAMPLE: Multistage probability sampling was used at each site, with initial sampling from geographic clusters at some sites, and household and respondent samples at all sites. There was a minimum sample size at each site of 3,000 adults in the Household Survey, and a minimum of 500 residents of institutions. Elderly household residents were oversampled at the New Haven, Durham, and Baltimore sites. The St. Louis site oversampled Blacks and the Los Angeles site oversampled Hispanics.

NOTE: The age distribution across the five sites, is: ages 18-44 (N = 8,773), ages 45-54 (N = 1,732), ages 55-64 (N = 2,355), ages 65-74 (N = 3,503), ages 75-84 (N = 1,759), ages 85-94 (N = 420), ages 95+ (N = 22). The data contain blank and dash (-) codes. ICPSR produced the EBCDIC data file and accompanying OSIRIS dictionary for this release from a SAS system file provided by NIMH. This study is replaced by EPIDEMIOLOGIC CATCHMENT AREA STUDY, 1980-1985: [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 6153).

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + OSIRIS dictionary.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: LRECL

TIME PERIOD: 1980-1985

DATE OF COLLECTION: New Haven (July 1980-July 1981), Baltimore (January 1981-November 1981), Seattle (April 1981-March 1982), Durham (June 1982-May 1983), Los Angeles (January 1983-August 1984.)

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Eaton, W.W., and L. Kessler (eds). EPIDEMIOLOGY FIELD METHODS IN PSYCHIATRY: THE NIMH EPIDEMIOLOGIC CATCHMENT AREA PROGRAM. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc., 1985.
Folstein, M.F., S.E. Folstein, and P.R. McHugh. ''Mini Mental State: A Practical Method for Grading the Cognitive State of Patients for a Clinician.'' JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 12 (1975), 189-198.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


General Social Surveys, 1972-1993 : [Cumulative File] [ DRAT ]

Davis, James A., and Tom W. Smith.

ICPSR NUMBER: 06217

SUMMARY: The General Social Surveys (GSS) are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time trend studies. This collection is a cumulative dataset that merges 19 years of the General Social Surveys. In 1993, the topical module focused on culture. Respondents were queried about musical preferences, leisure time activities, television viewing, desired attributes of friends, important areas of life, the meaning of life, basic values, collective memory, favorite high school course, and college majors. Questions from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) module covered scientific and environmental knowledge, pro-environmental activities (e.g., recycling, joining a ''green'' organization), concern about matters such as air and water pollution, global warming, and nuclear energy, and support for various governmental programs to deal with environmental problems. The National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance sponsored three items on perceptions of poverty and minimum income. New data for 1993 were added for household structure, ISCO (International Standard Classification of Occupation) codes, SEI (Socioeconomic Index) occupational codes, and date of interview.

SOURCE: personal interviews

UNIVERSE: All noninstitutionalized English-speaking persons 18 years of age or older, living in the United States.

SAMPLE: National Opinion Research Center national probability sample. Block quota sampling was used in 1972-1974 and for half of the 1975 and 1976 surveys. Full probability sampling was employed in 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982-1991, 1993, and in half of the 1975 and 1976 surveys.

NOTE: A WordPerfect 5.1 version of the hardcopy documentation is available in 13 files on diskette and for FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation (WP 5.1) + SPSS data definition statements.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: LRECL with SPSS data definition statements

TIME PERIOD: 1972-1993

DATE OF COLLECTION: February, March, and April of 1972-1978, 1980, 1982-1991, and 1993

FUNDING AGENCY: National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER: SES-91-22462

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: FREQ.PR/ UNDOCCHK.PR/ CONCHK.PR/MDATA.PR

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Inmate Victimization in State Prisons in the United States, 1979 [ DRAT ]

Schreiber, Jan E.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08087

SUMMARY: This data collection was designed to determine the nature and extent of victimization in state prisons across the nation. In particular, it examines such quantitative areas as prison living conditions, prison programs, prison safety, and inmates' participation in or victimization by other inmates in several types of property and bodily crimes. It also contains a set of attitudinal measures dealing with inmates' thoughts and perceptions on a variety of subjects including their reactions to general statements about prison life and to a series of hypothetical situations. Data are available in both OSIRIS and card-image formats, with machine-readable documentation. The data file contains 339 variables for each of the 487 cases and has a logical record length of 545 characters.

SUBJECT TERMS: assaults. correctional facilties. crime. criminal justice system. inmates. parole system. social attitudes and behavior. victimization. violence. United States.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Mortality Detail Files, 1968-1991 [ DRAT ]

Please Note: The Academic Data Centre has V.7-10 ONLY

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Health Statistics.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07632

SUMMARY: This data collection describes every death or fetal death registered per year in the United States from 1968-1991. Information includes the month and day of death for deaths prior to 1989 and the month of death for deaths in 1989 and after, the sex of the deceased, the age of the deceased at the time of death, the deceased's place of residence, place of death, and whether an autopsy was performed. Causes of death are coded using the eighth and ninth revisions of THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES.

SOURCE: death certificates filed in vital statistics offices of each state and the District of Columbia

UNIVERSE: All deaths in the United States.

NOTE: There are no Parts 1-5 for this collection. The Reason-for-Death codes for 1968-1978 are different from those in subsequent years. A revised United States Standard Certificate of Death was recommended for state use beginning on January 1, 1989. Among the changes were the addition of a new item on educational attainment and changes to improve the medical certification of cause of death. In addition, for the first time, the United States Standard Certificate of Death includes a question on the Hispanic origin of the decedent. Starting with the 1989 vital event files, a new policy on the release of vital statistics unit record data files was implemented to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of the identities of individuals and institutions. As a result, the 1989 and later year files do not contain the actual day of the death or date of birth of the decedent. The geographic detail is also restricted. The previous title for this collection was MORTALITY DETAIL FILES, 1968-1978 [VOLUME I], 1979-1980 [VOLUME II], 1981-1982 [VOLUME III], 1983-1984 [VOLUME IV], 1985 [VOLUME V], 1986-1987 [VOLUME VI], 1988 [VOLUME VII], and 1989 [VOLUME VIII]. The EXTENT OF PROCESSING field applies to Parts 6-18 of this collection only. For Parts 19-29, the following descriptors apply: NONNUM/ BLANKS/ MDATA.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 24 data files + machine-readable documentation (text).

RESTRICTIONS: In preparing the data tape(s) for this collection, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has removed direct identifiers and characteristics that might lead to identification of data subjects. As an additional precaution, NCHS requires, under section 308(d) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242m), that data collected by NCHS not be used for any purpose other than statistical analysis and reporting. NCHS further requires that analysts not use the data to learn the identity of any persons or establishments and that the director of NCHS be notified if any identities are inadvertently discovered. ICPSR member institutions and other users ordering data from ICPSR are expected to adhere to these restrictions.

DATA TYPE: administrative records

DATA FORMAT: Card Image and OSIRIS (Parts 6-16), LRECL and OSIRIS (Parts 17 and 18), and LRECL (Parts 19-29)

TIME PERIOD: 1968-1991

DATE OF COLLECTION: 1968-1991

SUBJECT TERMS: deaths. health. mortality. United States.

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: MDATA/ CONCHK.ICPSR/ UNDOCCHK.ICPSR/RECODE

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, 1992-1993 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 06241

DATE-ADDED = Oct. 12, 1995

DATE-UPDATED = Oct. 12, 1995

INVESTIGATOR = Reynolds, Paul D., and Sammis B. White.

SUMMARY = This study examines people's perceptions of the entrepreneurial process, the various sources of help and hindrance that beginning businesses encounter, the impact of new businesses on the economy, and the experiences of individuals involved in creating new businesses. Representative adults in Wisconsin were asked for their opinions regarding entrepreneurs and business opportunity, and were also asked about their own backgrounds and careers, and about any entrepreneurs in their own families or social networks. Individuals identified as entrepreneurs during the representative adult interview were asked about their knowledge of public and private sources of assistance for small business, their reactions to the state and local infrastructures, sources of financing they may have employed, start-up problems, products or services offered, and the nature of ownership of their business. Owners and managers of new firms that were identified by new unemployment insurance filings were asked about past and current sales, job creation, out-of-state exports, current management focus, and future plans for their businesses.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 3 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements + data collection instrument

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = DDEF.ICPSR/ REFORM.DATA

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1992-1993

DATE OF COLLECTION = 1992-1993

FUNDING AGENCY = Wisconsin Housing and Economic Development Agency

DATA SOURCE = mailed questionnaires and CATI telephone interviews

DATA FORMAT = LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements and SPSS export files

SAMPLING = This study sampled three populations, the total adult population of Wisconsin, nascent and discouraged entrepreneurs, and new firms. A random sample of the adult population of Wisconsin was augmented by further sampling of the minority population using purchased phone lists, state agency listings, and oversampling of minority-rich regions of Wisconsin. Nascent and discouraged entrepreneurs were nominated or self-nominated during the representative adult interviews (network/multiplicative sampling). For new firms, several sampling methods were employed. One random sample was drawn from new unemployment insurance filings stratified for geographical region and industry, and a second sample from new unemployment insurance filers considered to have a high technology emphasis. Additional new firm interviews were conducted with respondents identified as managers of new firms during the representative adult interviews. A sample of new Native American firms was generated from lists of Native American businesses and from the personal contacts of the study staff.

UNIVERSE = Adult population of Wisconsin, nascent and discouraged entrepreneurs, and new firms.

CITATION
Reynolds, Paul D., and Sammis B. White. WISCONSIN ENTREPRENEURIAL CLIMATE STUDY, 1992-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Marquette, WI: Paul D. Reynolds and Sammis B. White [producers], 1993. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Youth-Parent Socialization Panel Study, 1965-1982 : Three Waves Combined [ DRAT ]

Jennings, M. Kent, Gregory B. Markus, and Richard G. Niemi.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09553

SUMMARY: For this panel survey a national sample of high school seniors and their parents were interviewed in 1965, and again in 1973 and 1982. The survey gauges the impact of life-stage events and historical trends on the behaviors and attitudes of respondents. Each wave has a distinct focus. The 1965 data focus on high school experiences, while the 1973 data deal with the protest era. Data gathered in 1982 emphasize the maturing process and offer information relating to parental issues and family relationships. Other major areas of investigation include political participation, issue positions, group evaluations, civic orientations, personal change over time, stability in attitudes and behaviors over time, and partisanship and electoral behavior.

SOURCE: personal interviews and self-enumerated forms

UNIVERSE: All twelfth-graders in the United States in 1965.

SAMPLE: The original 1965 youth sample was chosen from a national probability sample of 97 secondary schools (including 11 nonpublic schools) selected with a probability proportionate to their size. Within each school, 15 to 21 randomly designated seniors were interviewed. In 1973, 1,119 of the original 1,669 youths who completed the 1965 interview were reinterviewed, and an additional 229 completed mail-back questionnaires. In 1982, 958 youths were reinterviewed, and 82 completed mail-back questionnaires. The 1965 parents were selected randomly such that for one-third of the students the fathers were interviewed, for another one-third the mothers were interviewed, and for the remaining third both parents were interviewed. In 1973, 1,118 of the original 1,562 parents were reinterviewed, and 62 completed mail-back questionnaires. In 1982, 816 parents were reinterviewed, and 82 completed mail-back questionnaires.

NOTE: This data collection combines all three waves of this study. The first two waves of this collection are released as YOUTH-PARENT SOCIALIZATION PANEL STUDY, 1965-1973 (ICPSR 7779). The third wave is released as YOUTH-PARENT SOCIALIZATION PANEL STUDY, 1965-1982: WAVE III (ICPSR 9134).

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 2 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements.

DATA TYPE: survey data, and event/transaction data

DATA FORMAT: LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

TIME PERIOD: 1965-1982

DATE OF COLLECTION: 1965, 1973, and 1982

FUNDING AGENCY: United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Health. National Institute on Aging.

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: MDATA

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Jennings, M. Kent, and Gregory B. Markus. ''Partisan Orientations Over the Long Haul: Results From the Three-Wave Political Socialization Panel Study.'' AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 78 (December 1984), 1000-1018.
Markus, Gregory B. ''Stability and Change in Political Attitudes: Observed, Recalled, and Explained.'' POLITICAL BEHAVIOR 8, 1 (1986), 21-44.
Jennings, M. Kent. ''Residues of a Movement: The Aging of the American Protest Generation.'' AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 81 (June 1987), 367-382.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian Surveys

Canadian Census and Election Data, 1908-1968 [ DRAT ]

Blake, Donald E.

ICPSR No. : 00039

SUMMARY = This collection contains seven machine-readable files of Canadian census and election data, each corresponding to a particular electoral period when the number of constituencies was fixed. The files include returns from the federal elections of 1908 and 1911 and data from the 1911 census, the elections of 1917 and 1921 and the census of 1921, the elections of 1925, 1926, and 1930, the elections of 1935, 1940, and 1945, the election of 1949 and the census of 1951, the elections of 1953, 1957, 1958, 1962, 1963, and 1965 and the census of 1961, and the election of 1968. The election data include the total valid vote cast and the percentage of the total vote received by each of the major parties as well as a total for all other parties. The census data include variables describing religion and ethnicity, as well as information on education, occupation, and income from the census of 1961. There are approximately 5,000 card-image equivalents.

CITATION
Blake, Donald E. CANADIAN CENSUS AND ELECTION DATA, 1908-1968 [Computer file]. New Haven, CT: Dept. of Political Science [producer], 1971. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 197?.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Canadian Election Study, 1993: Incorporating the 1992 Referendum Survey on the Charlottetown Accord [ DRAT ]

Richard Johnston, Andre Blais, Henry Brady, Elisabeth Gidengil, and Neil Nevitte

ICPSR NUMBER: 06571

SUMMARY: These data were collected to assess the importance of campaign dynamics and the impact of events in the understanding of election results. The study consists of five related surveys grouped around two main survey components: the referendum surveys and the election surveys. Respondents participated in at least two surveys, but not in all five. The election surveys were completed just prior to and after the October 25, 1993, Canadian election, and consist of campaign period, post-election, and mail-back components. The referendum surveys were completed just prior to and after the October 26, 1992, referendum on the Charlottetown Accord. The Charlottetown Accord contained various proposals, including the separation of Quebec from Canada as a sovereignty, the guarantee of one-quarter of the seats in the House of Commons to Quebec, and recognition of the right of Canada's aboriginal peoples to govern themselves. The major areas of investigation across all surveys were political and social awareness, attitudes, voting intentions, and behavior centered around major issues of representation, job and employment, government spending, taxes, social programs, crime and punishment, and continentalism. Variables assessed public interest in the referendum by asking respondents about the perceived effect of the referendum on their living standards, their vote intentions, predictions of the outcome of the vote, reactions to the results of the vote, knowledge about and opinions of specific provisions of the Accord, and awareness of the stand taken by political leaders, groups, and organizations regarding the Accord. Other variables probed respondents' opinions of the parties and leaders, Kim Campbell's performance in her cabinet job before she became Prime Minister, women and racial minorities, party preference, ideological leanings, vote history, and position on several policy issues. Additional items address general attitudes toward the deficit and higher taxes, abortion, Senate reform, aboriginal people, Canadian unity and Quebec sovereignty, feminists, homosexuals, immigrants, the business community, the media, unions, God, democracy, unemployment, inflation, and pensions. Demographic data collected on respondents include age, marital status, level of education, employment status, income level, religious affiliation, union affiliation, citizenship, ethnicity, language, and gender.

UNIVERSE: Adult noninstitutionalized population of Canada living in households.

SAMPLING: A rolling cross-section sample of Canadian citizens 18 years of age or older in private homes who speak one of Canada's official languages in the ten Canadian provinces.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements

EXTENT OF PROCESSING: CONCHK.PR/ DDEF.ICPSR/ REFORM.DOC/ REFORM.DATA

DATA FORMAT: Logical Record Length with SAS and SPSS data definition statements with SPSS export file

RELATED PUBLICATION:
Johnston, Richard, Andre Blais, Henry E. Brady, and Jean Crete. LETTING THE PEOPLE DECIDE: DYNAMICS OF A CANADIAN ELECTION. Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian Federal Election Study, 1968 [ DRAT ]

Meisel, John.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07009

SUMMARY: Data for this study were obtained from a probability cross-section sample of adults interviewed following the June 1968 federal election. Besides basic background information, questions were asked about reactions to the election outcome, evaluations of the parties and candidates, regional conflicts within Canada, and a wide variety of issues that were salient during the campaign. 2,767 respondents, 11 cards of data per respondent, and 530 variables.

SUBJECT TERMS: campaigns. candidates. election studies. elections. political attitudes and behavior. political issues. Canada.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Meisel, John. Working Papers on Canadian Politics. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1972.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian National Election Study, 1965 [ DRAT ]

Converse, Philip, John Meisel, Maurice Pinard, Peter Regenstreif, and Mildred Schwartz.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07225

SUMMARY: The respondents were administered a post-election questionnaire during the winter (January-March) of 1966 and form a stratified probability cross-section sample of the Canadian population eligible to vote. Open-ended questions measured the respondents' attitudes toward the problems confronting Canada, campaign issues, and also their political efficacy and trust in government. The respondents were questioned about their political party attachments, voting behavior, campaign activities, and attitudes toward campaign financing. 2,118 respondents, weighted to 8,193 (integer weight) or 2,719.04 (decimal weight), 7 cards of data per respondent, and 337 variables.

SUBJECT TERMS: campaigns. election studies. political attitudes and behavior. political efficacy. political party preference. trust, personal and political. voting attitudes and behavior. Canada.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Meisel, John, and Richard Van Loon. ''Canadian Attitudes to Election Expenses 1965-1966,'' in Committee on Election Expenses, Studies in Canadian Party Finance. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1966.
Meisel, John. ''Party Images in Canada: A Report on Work in Progress,'' Working Papers in Canadian Politics. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University 1972.
Schwartz, Mildred A. Politics and Territory. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1973.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian National Election Study, 1972 [ DRAT ]

Canadian Market Opinion Research.

ICPSR NUMBER: 07410

SUMMARY: Three studies are included in this set of national Canadian election surveys of 1972. All three were conducted by telephone, two were administered prior to the national election, and one following the October 31st election date. The first study, conducted between June and July 1972, focused on the respondents' opinions of the political parties, and of issues and personalities in Federal politics. The issues that were assessed included inflation, constitutional reform, campaign spending, marijuana legislation, and the right of federal employees to strike. The respondents were also asked to assess the performance of the Prime Minister and also the qualifications of the main opposition candidates. Finally, the respondents were asked about their partisan affiliation and their voting behavior over the past few elections. The dataset included information on 1,000 respondents (two cards of data per respondent). The only demographic information in this study is the sex of the respondent. The second study was conducted in September 1972 and assessed the respondents' opinions on political issues such as unemployment, Canadian/United States relations, environment, taxes, price controls, and certain federal programs. In addition, the respondents were questioned about their candidate preference, partisan identification, and party preference for the upcoming election. Basic demographic data were also included for the 1,255 respondents (three cards of data per respondent). The third study in this series was administered in early November. The respondents were asked to evaluate the federal election campaign, the candidates, parties, and political issues. The respondents were also questioned about their voting behavior in both the federal and local elections. Two forms of questionnaires were used, one for voters and the other for non-voters. Demographic information was obtained for all respondents. The dataset contains information on approximately 1,298 respondents (four cards of data per respondent).

SUBJECT TERMS: campaigns. candidates. constitutional reform. election studies. elections. environment. inflation. political attitudes and behavior. political issues. political parties. political party preference. prime minister-Canada. taxation. unemployment. voting attitudes and behavior. Canada. Marijuana use.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian National Election Study, 1984 [ DRAT ]

Lambert, Ronald D., Steven D. Brown, James E. Curtis, Barry J. Kay, and John M. Wilson.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08544

SUMMARY: Topics covered in this survey include the respondent's interest in politics in general and in the 1984 Federal Election in particular, political trust, respondent assessment of the most important issues in the 1984 election, party identification at both the federal and provincial level, exposure to the campaign including the television debates, respondent's vote and reasons for that decision, attitudes towards the parties and their leaders, feeling thermometer ratings of party leaders and various groups, attitudes toward social class, and various other social and political attitudes. Background information such as education, occupation, religion, language, and group memberships was also obtained from respondents. In addition, the interview data were augmented with information about the socio-demographic and political characteristics of the consituency in which each respondent resided.

SOURCE: personal interviews, and (1) Reports of Chief Electoral Officers, (2) PARLIAMENTARY GUIDE/HANDBOOK, and (3) STATISTICS CANADA. 1981 CENSUS OF CANADA CATALOGUE 95-941 (VOLUME 3-PROFILE SERIES B) FEDERAL ELECTION DISTRICTS

UNIVERSE: Population of Canada aged 18 years and over with the following exceptions: the Northwest Territories and Yukon, some inaccessible and sparsely populated areas in each province, inmates of institutions and inhabitants of lumber and mining camps, members of the armed forces not living at home, and persons living on Indian reservations.

SAMPLE: Four-stage stratified sample.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation + SPSS Control Cards.

DATA TYPE: survey data, and aggregate data

DATA FORMAT: Card Image with SPSS Control Cards

TIME PERIOD: October 1984-February 1985

DATE OF COLLECTION: October 1984-February 1985

FUNDING AGENCY: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

GRANT NUMBER: 411-83-0006

SUBJECT TERMS: demographic characteristics. education. election studies. groups. mass media. membership. occupations. party leadership. political attitudes and behavior. political elites. political issues. provinces. religion. social attitudes and behavior. television. voting attitudes and behavior. Canada. .

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Canadian National Election Study, 1988 [ DRAT ]

Johnston, Richard, et al.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09386

SUMMARY: This collection, containing information on the voting behavior and political attitudes of Canadians, consists of three waves of data gathered before and after the 1988 Canadian national election. The first wave, conducted by telephone in October and November 1988 before the November 21st election, focused on respondents' interest in the election, perceptions of the media, voting intentions, attitudes toward policy and campaign issues, assessments of government performance, and ratings of leaders, parties, and candidates. Other items included respondents' sociodemographic and economic characteristics, as well as party, candidate, and constituency identification. The second wave, conducted by telephone after the election from November 1988 through January 1989, contained some of the same items covered in the first wave but also included questions on voting behavior, campaign activities, and groups in Canadian society, along with a special battery on free trade. The third wave, conducted by mail from December 1988 through March 1989, explored fiscal priorities, the economy, policy issues, changes to Canadian society, political efficacy, societal goals, capitalist values, rights and liberties, and conceptions of community.

SOURCE: telephone interviews, and mailed questionnaires

UNIVERSE: Canadian citizens, 18 years of age or older, resident in one of the provinces (excluding the Yukon and Northwest Territories).

SAMPLE: Probability sample by random digit dialing stratified by province. There was an official-language minority oversample for exchanges in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Selection within household was by last birthday.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + SPSS Control Cards + machine-readable documentation (text) + data collection instrument.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: Card Image with SPSS Control Cards

TIME PERIOD: October 1988-March 1989

DATE OF COLLECTION: Wave I: October 9-November 20, 1988, Wave II: November 23, 1988-January 26, 1989, and Wave III: December 1988-March 1989

FUNDING AGENCY: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

GRANT NUMBER: 411-88-0030

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: MDATA/ UNDOCCHK.PI

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


The 1974-1979-1980 Canadian National Elections And Quebec Referendum Panel Study [ DRAT ]

Clarke, Harold, Jane Jenson, Lawrence LeDuc, and Jon Pammett.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08079

SUMMARY: This study is a continuation of the 1974 Canadian Election Study which consisted of extensive personal interviews with a national sample of 2,562 respondents following the federal election of July 8, 1974. Immediately following the federal election of May 22, 1979, 1,295 of the original respondents were successfully contacted and interviewed, thereby creating a 1974-1979 panel study. In addition, a new national sample of the l979 electorate and a supplementary sample of young voters (age 18-23) were drawn and personal interviews utilizing the same questionnaire were conducted with respondents in these samples. After the federal election of February 18, 1980, 1,748 respondents in both the panel and cross-section samples were contacted by telephone and reinterviewed. No new respondents were added to the 1980 sample. When the Quebec referendum was called for May 20, 1980, a decision was made to again contact by telephone Quebec respondents original sampled in l974 or 1979 and interviewed in 1980. 325 of these respondents were successfully contacted and reinterviewed, approximately half of the interviews were conducted immediately prior to the referendum, and the remaining half immediately afterward. The 1974 post election survey covered a wide range of areas involving citizen participation in politics. The 1979 survey continued the theme of citizen interest and involvement in politics and probed into respondents' attitudes about regions, provinces, and national unity. The 1980 telephone interview asked about vote choice in 1980, party identification, and also brought up the issue of energy. The Quebec referendum centered around the respondents' views on constitutional options for Quebec. The study is available in card-image and logical record length format. An OSIRIS dataset can be supplied. Processing of this study to its present form was carried out at the University of Windsor under the supervision of Kai Hildebrandt.

SUBJECT TERMS: election studies. family. party leadership. political attitudes and behavior. political elites. political issues. political participation. political party preference. voting attitudes and behavior. Canada.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Clarke, Harold D., Jane Jenson, Lawrence LeDuc, and Jon H. Pammett. Political Choice in Canada. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


Political Support in Canada, 1990
[
DRAT ]

STUDY NUMBER = 06309

DATE ADDED = Oct. 19, 1994

DATE UPDATED = Oct. 19, 1994

INVESTIGATOR = Clarke, Harold D., and Allan Kornberg.

SUMMARY = This study was conducted as part of the ''Support for Democratic Polities: The Case of Canada'' study funded by the United States National Science Foundation. Its purpose was to study the political attitudes and behavior of the Canadian electorate. The 1990 survey represented one of a series of interlocking panels, the others being 1988 pre- and post-election surveys (see POLITICAL SUPPORT IN CANADA, 1983-1988 [ICPSR 9874]) and the 1993 post-election survey. The 1990 survey's 161 variables are derived from an extensive battery of questions on respondents' evaluations of national and personal economies and their support for national political authorities and for regional and community politics. Respondents were asked to indicate how closely they followed politics, how much they discussed and participated in politics, and how warm or cool (on a 100-degree scale) they felt toward the country, their community, and government at several levels, including political parties and party leaders. They were asked to state their agreement or disagreement with a number of attitudinal statements regarding taxes, equal treatment of citizens by the federal government, equal representation and opportunities for participation in government, and economic opportunity. Specific opinions were obtained on the Meech Lake Accord, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the separation of Quebec. A number of questions asked respondents to assess their own economic welfare as well as its relation to the federal government's management of the national economy. Membership in national and regional parties was identified. Also included are demographic characteristics of respondents, such as occupation, education, language, age, life satisfaction, and income.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 1 data file + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements + database dictionary + data collection instrument

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = CONCHK.ICPSR/ UNDOCCHK.ICPSR/ RECODE

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1990

DATE OF COLLECTION = fall 1990

FUNDING AGENCY = National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER = SES881-1628

DATA SOURCE = personal interviews

DATA FORMAT = LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements and SPSS Export File

COLLECTION NOTE = There is no codebook provided with this dataset. The investigators note that the weight variable CWGT90W3 should be used to achieve the representative national sample of 1,967 from the 1,907 interviews. Persons wishing additional information regarding the sample design or other aspects of the survey should contact the principal investigators. ICPSR has recoded a single variable in the original data file, CDATTIME, to a numeric format variable, CDATCONV. The variable is a 10-character indicator of interview date and time. No data were modified in the process. The data collection instrument is available only in hardcopy form upon request from ICPSR.

SAMPLING = Stratified random sample.

UNIVERSE = Canadian adult population aged 18 or older.

RELATED PUBLICATION
Kornberg, Allan, and Harold D. Clarke. CITIZENS AND COMMUNITY POLITICAL SUPPORT IN A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

CITATION = Clarke, Harold D., and Allan Kornberg. POLITICAL SUPPORT IN CANADA, 1990 [Computer file]. Toronto, Canada: Harold D. Clarke, Allan Kornberg, and Canadian Facts [producers], 1992. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Political Support in Canada, 1983-1988 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 09874

DATE ADDED = April 9, 1993

DATE UPDATED = April 9, 1993

INVESTIGATOR = Clarke, Harold D., and Allan Kornberg.

SUMMARY = The purpose of this data collection was to study the distribution, causes, and consequences of public support for Canada's national political authorities, regime, and community. Major areas of investigation include political attitudes, electoral behavior, conventional and unconventional forms of political behavior, evaluations of government performance (economy and other policy areas), and judgments of the equity and fairness of the political system. The surveys included in the collection have cross-sectional and panel components which permit the study of the dynamics of Canadian political attitudes and behavior. Specific variables for Part 1, 1988 National Pre- Election Survey Raw Data, include respondents' party affiliation, voting history, language, and cultural group affiliation, as well as opinions on the free trade agreement, the most important issue in the election, and which leaders were most impressive in the debates. Variables in Part 2, 1988 Post-Election Survey and 1988 Pre-Post Election Panel Survey Raw Data, cover respondents' opinions on free trade, civil service, taxes, trusting federal officials, and protection of the environment. For Part 3, 1983 National Cross-Sectional Survey Raw Data, information is provided on topics such as the respondents' involvement in the campaign, opinions on the effectiveness of the judicial system, Parliament, and taxation policies, and views on the importance of the welfare system, the armed forces, and employment opportunities. Data in Part 4, 1984 National Cross-Sectional Survey and 1983-1984 National Panel Survey Raw Data, cover respondents' views on the most important election issue for them as opposed to the most important issue for the candidates. All files offer demographic information as well, including age, race, sex, religious affiliation, education, occupation, employment status, and income level.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 4 data files + database dictionaries + data collection instruments

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = NONNUM/ CONCHK.PI/ UNDOCCHK.PI/ BLANKS

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1983-1988

DATE OF COLLECTION = after the 1984 federal election, during and after the 1988 federal election

FUNDING AGENCY = National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER = SES 831-1077 and SES 882-1628

DATA SOURCE = telephone surveys

DATA FORMAT = LRECL and SPSS Export Files

SAMPLING = Stratified random national samples, with oversampling in smaller provinces.

UNIVERSE = Canadian electorate (persons 18 years of age and older).

RELATED PUBLICATION
Kornberg, Allan, and Harold D. Clarke. CITIZENS AND COMMUNITY: POLITICAL SUPPORT IN A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

CITATION = Clarke, Harold D., and Allan Kornberg. POLITICAL SUPPORT IN CANADA, 1983-1988 [Computer file]. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Facts [producer], 1992. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1993.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


International Social Surveys

British Election Study : February 1974, Cross- section [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 07868

INVESTIGATOR = Crewe, Ivor, Bo Saerlvik, and James Alt.

SUMMARY = The British Election Study series conducted at the University of Essex has the overall purposes of providing an accurate and comprehensive historical record of the attitudes and behavior of the British electorate at the general elections, to study long-term political and electoral change in Britain, and to contribute to an accumulating archive of data on the political attitudes and behavior of the British electorate over time. The February 1974 cross-section interviewed 2,462 eligible electors in Britain. The personal interviews took place in March-April 1974. Respondents were selected into a multi-stage, self-weighting, stratified, probability sample. The focus of the interview was the general election of February 28, 1974. Respondents answered questions relating to the mass media, to political parties, to their past voting behavior, and regarding their attitudes toward a range of social issues relating to domestic and foreign affairs. Other sets of questions probed for opinions on social mores and life satisfaction. Standard background variables are included. These data were provided by the Social Science Research Council Survey Archive, University of Essex, England. The data and accompanying documentation are disseminated, under an agreement with the SSRC, exactly as they were received, without modification by ICPSR. This agreement also provides that ICPSR will disseminate the data only for use within ordering institutions and that users wishing multiple copies of the documentation must obtain them from SSRC.

CITATION = Crewe, Ivor, Bo Saerlvik, and James Alt. BRITISH ELECTION STUDY: FEBRUARY 1974, CROSS-SECTION [Computer file]. Colchester, England: Ivor Crewe, et al., University of Essex [producers], 197?. Colchester, England: ESRC Data Archive and Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 197?.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


British General Election Cross-Section Survey, 1992 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 6453

INVESTIGATOR = Heath, A., R. Jowell, J.K. Curtice, J.A. Brand, and J.C. Mitchell.

SUMMARY = Respondents were interviewed for this cross-section survey following the 1992 British General Election. Part 1, Main Data File, covers the political and social attitudes and life experiences of the respondents, including their political interests and party preferences, opinions on comparisons between various parties, employment and union affiliations, and life satisfaction. Numerous questions are replications from previous British Election Studies and British Social Attitudes Surveys. The ''international'' scales in the cross-section personal interview questionnaire were taken from previous American National Election Studies. In addition, a split-sample experiment was conducted to detect whether there was a question-order effect, with respect to whether respondents were asked first about their vote and then about their party identification or vice versa. Demographic data such as sex, age, region, and religious preference appear in this file as well. Part 2, Sample Demographic File, includes information on sex, age, and region of residence for all 5,232 persons in the original sample.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 2 data files + machine-readable documentation (text) + SPSS data definition statements

SERIES NAME = BRITISH GENERAL ELECTION SURVEYS

SERIES INFO = The British Election Study (BES) at the University of Essex was initiated in 1974 to continue the series of election surveys previously conducted by David Butler and Donald Stokes (Political Change in Britain, 1963-1970). Surveys were conducted following the general elections of February 1974, October 1974, and May 1979, and following the Referendum on Britain's membership in the European Economic Community in 1975. The series has continued under the name British General Election Surveys (BGES), with surveys carried out at the time of the general elections of 1983, 1987, and 1992. The British General Election Survey has three general aims: (1) to collect data with a view to describing and explaining the outcome of general elections, (2) to analyze long-term changes in political attitudes and behavior from the early 1960s to the present, and (3) to organize and make available these data in a form suitable for a wide range of research. In 1992, a grant by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) to the University of Strathclyde enabled the representation of Scottish electors in the sample to be boosted substantially. This ''oversampling'' of the Scots was undertaken to permit more detailed investigation of voting behavior in Scotland than has usually been the case with the British General Election Surveys.

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1992

DATE OF COLLECTION = 1992

DATA SOURCE = personal interviews, telephone interviews, and self-enumerated questionnaires

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = REFORM.DOC

DATA FORMAT = Card Image with SPSS data definition statements

COLLECTION NOTE = These data were provided to the Consortium by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Archive, University of Essex, England. The data are disseminated, under an agreement with the ESRC, exactly as they were received without modification by ICPSR. This agreement also provides that ICPSR will disseminate the data only for use within its member institutions, and that additional copies of the documentation must be obtained from the ESRC.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Correlates of Crime : A Study of 52 Nations, 1960-1984 [ DRAT ]

Bennett, Richard R.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09258

SUMMARY: This collection contains data on crime and on relevant social, economic, and political measures hypothesized to be related to crime for 52 nations over a 25-year period. These time-series data are divided into five substantive areas: offense, offender, and national social, political, and economic data. Nations included in the collection were drawn from seven major regions of the world.

SOURCE: (1) International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), (2) the United Nations, (3) the World Bank, (4) the International Monetary Fund, and (5) other national and international sources

UNIVERSE: All nations in the world.

SAMPLE: This is not a random sample, but the 52 nations in the collection were drawn from the seven major regions of the world and represent a wide range of levels of development, types of economy, political environments, and criminal justice system structures. Three criteria for selecting the sample were employed: (1) the nation had to be a member of INTERPOL between the years 1960 and 1984, (2) the nation had to report crime data to the Secretariat of INTERPOL between the years 1960 and 1984, and (3) the nation could skip no more than three of INTERPOL's two-year crime data reporting periods.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 2 data files + machine-readable documentation.

DATA TYPE: aggregate data

DATA FORMAT: Card Image

TIME PERIOD: 1960-1984

DATE OF COLLECTION: 1988

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Bennett, Richard R., and Louise Shelley. ''Criminalite et Developpement Economique: Une Analyse Internationale Longitudinale.'' ANNALES DE VACRESSON 22 (1985), 13-31.
Simon, Rita J., and Sandra Baxter. ''Women and Violent Crime.'' VIOLENT CRIME. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1989.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


European Communities Studies, 1970-1989: Cumulative File [ DRAT ]

Inglehart, Ronald, Karlheinz Reif, and Anna Melich.

ICPSR NUMBER: 09361

SUMMARY: This data collection contains 28 attitudinal and 22 demographic variables selected from the European Communities Studies, 1970-1973, and Euro-Barometers 3-31A. Question items chosen from the individual surveys for inclusion in the cumulative file have appeared in at least four different surveys. Most items, however, were included in nearly all of the studies carried out during the 19-year period from 1970 to 1989. Attitudinal variables selected from the individual studies include respondent's overall life satisfaction, amount of social change desired, left/right political orientation, support of the Common Market, strength of religious attachment, and the political party for which the respondent would vote. Other variables record respondents' opinions on topics such as the unification of Europe, elections to the European Parliament, nuclear power, income equality, terrorism, military defense, public ownership vs. private industry, and pollution. Three indices constructed by the principal investigators--cognitive mobilization, materialist/post-materialist values, and left/center/right vote--also are included.

SOURCE: personal interviews

UNIVERSE: Persons aged 15 and over residing in the 12 member nations of the European Community: Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany (1970-1989), United Kingdom (1970, 1973-1989), Denmark (1973-1989), Ireland (1973-1989), Luxembourg (1973-1989), Greece (1980-1989), Spain (1981-1989), and Portugal (1982-1989).

SAMPLE: Multistage probability samples and stratified quota samples.

NOTE: This data collection replaces EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES STUDIES, 1973-1984: CUMULATIVE FILE (ICPSR 8434).

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 1 data file + machine-readable documentation (text) + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements + OSIRIS dictionary.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: OSIRIS with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

TIME PERIOD: 1970-1989

DATE OF COLLECTION: 1970-1989

FUNDING AGENCY: National Science Foundation.

EXTENT OF PROCESSING BY ICPSR: CONCHK.ICPSR/MDATA/FREQ.ICPSR/UNDOCCHK.ICPSR/RECODE/ UNDOCCHK.PI/CONCHK.PI

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:

Inglehart, Ronald. THE SILENT REVOLUTION: CHANGING VALUES AND POLITICAL STYLES AMONG WESTERN PUBLICS. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Inglehart, Ronald. CULTURE SHIFT IN ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Reif, Karlheinz, and Ronald Inglehart (eds.). EURO-BAROMETER: THE DYNAMICS OF EUROPEAN OPINION. London: MacMillan, 1991.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


Political Change in Britain, 1963-1970 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 07250

INVESTIGATOR = Butler, David, and Donald E. Stokes.

SUMMARY = The study was designed to investigate political change in Great Britain using a panel technique. The main areas of investigation were the party system, campaign issues, and social class. Information on the political background of the respondent as well as extensive demographic data were also collected. Semantic differential questions were also included. Interviewing was conducted in four waves. The first wave was in 1963, the second wave followed the 1964 General Election, the third wave followed the 1966 General Election, and the fourth wave followed the 1970 General Election. This study contains fourteen overlapping samples. The 1963 wave constitutes a national cross-section sample. For 1964 and 1966 there are electorate samples. The other eleven samples are panels generated by the interviewing of respondents. The data for all fourteen samples are contained in one master file This master file consists of 2,922 respondents, 28 cards of data per respondent. Additionally, three subsets are available as separate files: l) ICPSR 7232: this subset is the 1963 national cross-section sample which contains 2,009 respondents, 8 cards of data per respondent. 2) ICPSR 7233: the second subset is the 1964 electorate sample which contains 1,769 respondents weighted to 1,817.5 with 7 cards of data per respondent. 3) ICPSR 7234: the third subset is the 1966 electorate sample containing 1,874 respondents weighted to 1,898.6 with 6 cards of data per respondent. Requests for these data should include the appropriate ICPSR study number(s). There is a maximum of 1,246 variables for each respondent.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS
Butler, David, and Donald E. Stokes. Political Change in Britain. New York: St. Martin's, 1969.
Stokes, Donald E. ''Ideological Competition of British Parties,'' in E. Dreyer and W. Rosenbaum (eds.), Political Opinion and Behavior, 2nd Ed. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1970.

CITATION = Butler, David, and Donald E. Stokes. POLITICAL CHANGE IN BRITAIN, 1963-1970 [MASTER FILE] [Computer file]. Conducted by David Butler, Nuffield College, Oxford, and Donald E. Stokes, University of Michigan. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1979.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


High School And Beyond, 1980: Sophomore And Senior Cohort Second Follow-Up (1984) [ DRAT ]

National Center for Education Statistics.

ICPSR NUMBER: 08443

SUMMARY: This data collection constitutes the third wave of data in the High School and Beyond series. The base-year data (ICPSR 7896) were collected in 1980, and the first follow-up (ICPSR 8297) was conducted in 1982. The series is a longitudinal study of students who were high school sophomores and seniors in 1980. As with the first follow-up, the structure and documentation of High School and Beyond Second Follow-Up data files represent a departure from base-year (1980) practices. While the base-year student file contains data from both the senior and sophomore cohorts, the two follow-up surveys provide separate student files for the two cohorts. Each of the cohort files for this collection merges the base year and first follow-up data with second follow-up data. Data collected for the sophomore cohort second follow-up differ substantially from data collected for the first follow-up since by 1984 the majority of respondents were out of high school and enrolled in postsecondary school, working, or looking for work. File 1, the Sophomore Cohort Second Follow-up Sample File, includes detailed questionnaire responses on background information, education, other training, military experience, work experience, periods unemployed, family information, income, experiences, and opinions. Information is also presented on the kind of school attended, hours per week spent in class, degree, certificate or diploma being sought, and requirements completed. Financial information in this file includes items on tuition and fees, scholarships, and financial aid from parents to the respondent and to any siblings. Work history data, including occupation, industry, gross starting salary, gross income, hours per week worked, and job satisfaction, are available along with data on the family, including the spouse's occupation and education, date of marriage(s), and number of children. File 5, the Senior Cohort Second Follow-up Sample File, repeats many of the same variables that are present in the first follow-up for this cohort. Respondents were asked to update background information, to provide information about postsecondary education, work experience, military service, family, income, and life goals. New items include a limited series on computer literacy (e.g., use of computers and software, knowledge of computer language), detailed information on financial assistance received from parents for pursuing postsecondary education, education and training outside of regular school, college or military programs (on-the-job and other employer-provided training), and periods of unemployment. Files 9,11,12, and 13 contain transcript data from each postsecondary institution reported by sample members of the High School and Beyond elder cohort (1980 senior cohort) in their responses to the High School and Beyond First Follow-up (1982) and Second Follow-up (1984) surveys. Data are available for several types of postsecondary institutions, ranging from short-term vocational or occupational programs through major universities with graduate programs and professional schools. Data in these four rectangular files--Student, Transcript, Term, and Course Files--are organized to be used in combination hierarchically. Information is available on terms of attendance, fields of study, specific courses taken, and grades and credits earned. A supplementary survey, the Administrator and Teacher Survey (ATS), was conducted in 1984 in approximately half of the schools sampled in the original High School and Beyond study. The ATS was designed to explore findings from research on effective schools, which were defined as those schools in which students perform at higher levels than would be expected from their backgrounds and other factors. The ATS provides measures of staff goals, school climates, and other processes identified in the effective schools literature as being important for achieving educational excellence. Separate questionnaires were administered to teachers, administrators, vocational education coordinators, and heads of guidance. Items in the questionnaires were selected to complement information already in the High School and Beyond database. Included were questions on staff goals, pedagogic practices, interpersonal relations of staff, work load of teachers, staff attitudes, availability and use of guidance services, planning processes, hiring practices, special programs, and linkages to local employers, parents, and the community.

SOURCE: self-administered mail-back questionnaire, personal and telephone interviews

SAMPLE: Multi-stage, stratified, clustered sampling design.

NOTE: Data were collected by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). Parts 1,5,9,11,12,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,and 27 are accompanied by SPSS Control Cards.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION: 12 data files + machine-readable documentation + SPSS Control Cards + SAS Control Cards.

DATA TYPE: survey data

DATA FORMAT: LRECL with SPSS and SAS Control Cards for Parts 1-14. Card Image with SPSS and SAS Control Cards for Parts 15-28.

TIME PERIOD: 1984

DATE OF COLLECTION: Spring and Summer 1984

SUBJECT TERMS: career goals. college activities. demographic characteristics. economic mobility. education. employment. family. high school students. high schools. income. job history. marital status. occupational mobility. quality of life. schools. social attitudes and behavior. social mobility. student achievement. students. work. youth. United States.

Source: ICPSR, Guide to Resources and Services Gopher.


World Values Survey, 1981-1983 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 09309

INVESTIGATOR = World Values Study Group.

SUMMARY = This data collection is designed to enable crossnational comparison of basic values and norms in a wide variety of areas. Broad topics covered are leisure, work, the meaning and purpose of life, family life, and contemporary social issues. In the section on leisure, respondents were asked whether they preferred to spend their leisure time relaxing or being active, about groups and associations to which they belonged, how often they read a daily newspaper, the number of hours spent watching television, whether they experienced feelings such as loneliness, boredom, restlessness, depression, and happiness, if they felt other people could be trusted, if they felt they had free choice and control over their lives, and if they were satisfied with life overall. Topics covered relating to work include aspects important in a job, pride in work, satisfaction with present job and financial situation, and owner/state/ employee management of business. A wide range of items was included on the meaning and purpose of life, such as respondents' views on the value of scientific advances, things in life that were worth sacrificing everything for, opinions on good and evil, and religious behavior and beliefs. Respondents were queried regarding closeness among family members, their level of satisfaction with their home life, if they shared the same attitudes toward such things as religion, morality, politics, and sexual mores with their partner and parents, their views on marriage and divorce, and qualities important for a child to learn. In the final section on social issues, areas covered include the respondent's interest in politics, opinion of various forms of political action, self-placement on a political left/right scale and party identification, the most important aims for their country, alcohol and alcoholism, confidence in various civil and governmental institutions, and whether they felt divorce, abortion, suicide, cheating on taxes, lying, and other such actions were ever justified. Background information on individuals includes age, sex, marital status, household composition, employment, trade union membership, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 1 data file + OSIRIS dictionary

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1981-1983

DATE OF COLLECTION = 1981-1983

FUNDING AGENCY = The European Values Systems Study Foundation. The European Parliament. Research outside Western Europe has been financed from sources within the respective countries.

DATA SOURCE = personal interviews

DATA FORMAT = LRECL

COLLECTION NOTE = The data contain a weight variable that must be used in any analysis. The number of unweighted respondents is: France 1,200, Britain 1,231, Germany 1,305, Italy 1,348, Netherlands 1,221, Denmark 1,182, Belgium 1,145, Spain 2,303, Ireland 1,217, Northern Ireland 312, United States 2,325, Canada 1,254, Japan 1,204, Mexico 1,837, South Africa 1,596, Hungary 1,464, Australia 1,228, Norway 1,246, Sweden 954, Soviet Union 1,262, Iceland 927, Finland 1,003. The weight variable is designed to create a weighted number of respondents that approximates the relative populations of each country and compensates for an oversample of youth in western Europe, the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The total unweighted N for these data is 28,764.

SAMPLING = Representative national samples.

UNIVERSE = The populations of 22 societies: France, Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Spain, Ireland, the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, South Africa, Hungary, Australia, Norway, Sweden, Soviet Union, Iceland, and Finland.

CITATION = World Values Study Group. WORLD VALUES SURVEY, 1981- 1983 [Computer file]. 3rd ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research [producer], 1989. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1991.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


World Values Survey, 1981-1984 and 1990-1993 [ DRAT ]

STUDYNO = 06160

INVESTIGATOR = World Values Study Group.

SUMMARY = This data collection is designed to enable crossnational comparison of values and norms in a wide variety of areas and to monitor changes in values and attitudes of mass publics in 45 societies around the world. Broad topics covered are work, the meaning and purpose of life, family life, and contemporary social issues. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of work, family, friends, leisure time, politics, and religion in their lives. They were also asked how satisfied they were with their present lives, whether they tended to persuade others close to them, whether they discussed political matters, and how they viewed society. Questions relating to work included what aspects were important to them in a job, the pride they took in their work, their satisfaction with the present job, and their views on owner/state/employee management of business. Respondents were asked about the groups and associations they belonged to and which ones they worked for voluntarily, the level of trust they had in most people, the groups they would not want as neighbors, their general state of health, and whether they felt they had free choice and control over their lives. A wide range of items was included on the meaning and purpose of life, such as respondents' views on the value of scientific advances, the demarcation of good and evil, and religious behavior and beliefs. Respondents were queried about whether they shared the same attitudes toward religion, morality, politics, and sexual mores with their partner and parents, their views on marriage and divorce, qualities important for a child to learn, whether a child needs both parents to grow up happy, views on mothers working outside the home, views on abortion, and whether marriage is an outdated institution. Questions regarding political issues probed for respondents' opinions of various forms of political action and the likelihood of their taking an action, the most important aims for their countries, confidence in various civil and governmental institutions, and whether they felt divorce, abortion, suicide, cheating on taxes, lying, and other such actions were ever justified. Additional information was gathered on family income, number of people residing in the home, size of locality, home ownership, region of residence, occupation of the head of household, and the respondent's age, sex, occupation, education, religion, religiosity, political party and union membership, and left-right political self-placement.

EXTENT OF COLLECTION = 1 data file + machine-readable documentation (text) + SAS data definition statements + SPSS data definition statements

EXTENT OF PROCESSING = MDATA.PR/ DDEF.ICPSR/ REFORM.ICPSR/ REFORM.DATA

DATA TYPE = survey data

TIME PERIOD = 1981-1984 and 1990-1993

DATE OF COLLECTION = 1981-1984 and November 1988-Spring 1993

FUNDING AGENCY = National Science Foundation.

GRANT NUMBER = SES9122433

DATA SOURCE = personal interviews

DATA FORMAT = LRECL with SAS and SPSS data definition statements

COLLECTION NOTE = A Microsoft Word 5.0 version of the machine- readable documentation is available on diskette and for FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

SAMPLING = Both national random and quota sampling were used. The populations of India, China, and Nigeria, as well as rural areas and the illiterate population, were undersampled.

UNIVERSE = Adults 18 and over in the mass publics of 45 societies around the world.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS
Ester, Peter, Loek Halman, and Ruud deMoor (eds.). THE INDIVIDUALIZING SOCIETY. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press, 1993.
Inglehart, Ronald. CULTURAL SHIFT. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Inglehart, Ronald. MODERNIZATION AND POSTMODERNIZATION: THE TRAJECTORY OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY (forthcoming).

CITATION = World Values Study Group. WORLD VALUES SURVEY, 1981- 1984 AND 1990-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research [producer], 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994.

Source: ICPSR, Data Archive.


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