(This page last updated 29/10/07.)

Gen 9 swiðfeorm: MS reads "swið ferom".

Gen 17 Krapp punctuates with a comma after "demdon."

Gen 22 - 23 This clause as it stands in the MS is missing a verb. Grein (Sprachschatz) suggested that "dæl" represents part of an (otherwise unattested) Class 4 strong verb "delan," with the same meaning as weak "dælan." Krapp following Bouterwek emends to "dwæl" from "dwelan" ("to go astray") but this is also only attested as a weak verb. Wülker (Bibliothek note) suggests emendation of 23a to "dælde gedwilde" (meaning something along the lines of "participated in error") which is more plausible than the invented verbs of Grein and Bouterwek but still involves taking "engla weard" as a reference to Satan, which seems most unlikely indeed. Holthausen emends "weard" in line 22 to "wearð" to provide the verb and understands "dæl" as the noun, "portion." I agree with Doane that this is the simplest and most plausible way to deal with the sentence. Translate "before a portion of the angels because of pride came to be in error."

Gen 31 - 34 Þa he worde . . . wolde: Krapp adds this clause to the preceding sentence, punctuating with a comma after "weccean" at line 31 and a period after "wolde" at line 34.

Gen 45 - 46: Krapp does not punctuate before "wrohtgeteme" or after "grimme."

Gen 52 bryttigin: Krapp and other eds. emend to "bryttigan." An infinitive is obviously required by the syntax, but might well be spelled -in in a late manuscript.

Gen 63 yrre: MS reads "yr" (at end of a line).

Gen 65 Sceof Holthausen: MS reads "sceop".

Gen 82 buað: MS reads "buan".

Gen 100 gesette: MS reads "gesetet"; Krapp emends to "geseted."

Gen 116 gyt MS, but with erased 'a'; Krapp and Doane restore the 'a.'

Gen 119 wegas: MS spells this with a hooked e, and Krapp prints as "wægas."

Gen 131 gescaft: Krapp emends to gesceaft; Doane points out that the MS spelling may be an acceptable one.

Gen 135 timber: MS reads "tiber," which Doane defends unconvincingly as a form of "an otherwise unrecorded tífer 'magically erected structure'" "Timber" as either "structure, work" or "act of construction" (cf. "timbrian" etc.) is on the whole more plausible.

Gen 150 Flod: MS reads "fold".

Gen 168 gefeterode Bouterwek: MS has gefetero at the end of a leaf, after which several leaves are missing.

Gen 184 freolice Grein Sprachschatz: MS has freo licu

Gen 185: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "gelice."

Gen 186 Eue Holthausen: Krapp has "Eve." MS does not have the name here and editors have taken different approaches to supplying it.

Gen 212 - 217 Editors do not seem to have had a problem with the syntax here, but the reference of the pronoun "heora" (216a) is mysterious. If it refers to "wylleburne" in 212a taken as a plural ("the eastern rivers of them (heora; i.e. of the welling streams of 212a), the noble four, held their issuance from the new Paradise") then a very long parenthesis, probably too long, is assumed (as in the text of the current edition—Krapp punctuates with periods after "wylleburne" in line 212 and "gefrætwod" in line 215). It is more likely that an error of some kind, possibly a memorial one, has disrupted the text at this point, which really ought to be saying, "Four noble eastern rivers held their (heora) issuance from the new Paradise" ("heora forðryne/ eastreamas heoldon    æðele feower/ of þam niwan    neorxnawonge" or some such rearrangement.) No editor should be brave enough to impose the change on the text that would be necessary to achieve such a rationalization of its meaning.

Gen 221 Þære anne Dietrich: MS simply reads þære, which cannot make sense.

Gen 222 se Grein: MS reads "sæ".

Gen 252 gesett . . . gesæliglice: Krapp and Doane start a new sentence with this phrase, punctuating with a comma after "gesæliglice."

Gen 254: Krapp punctuates with a comma following "rice."

Gen 255 wæstm: MS reads "wæwtm"

Gen 258 þonne læte he his hine lange wealdan: "since He let him rule it for a long time." Krapp punctuates with a dash after "gescerede."

Gen 295: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "sinne."

Gen 306-07 þurh lengo: MS reads "þurh longe." Doane and Krapp, following Kock, understand "þurhlonge" as an otherwise unattested compound adverb of which the first part is an intensifier, so something like "for a very long way." Dietrich's emendation "þurh longe þrage" has otherwise often been followed. Translate, "They then fell down from heaven through the distance so (i.e. as a result of the casting down described in the previous sentence), three nights and days."

Gen 316 geswinc Grein: MS reads "gewrinc," which it would be possible to understand as a resultative of wringan ("to press, squeeze out"), i.e. "pressure, stress, crushing," but this does not alliterate.

Gen 332: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "ofermetto."

Gen 341: Krapp does not punctuate after "wearð."

Gen 344: The crossed-thorn abbreviation for "þæt" appears between cwæð and se in a late hand, not that of the main corrector.

Gen 346: winnan: MS reads "widnan" with possible expuncting of the "d".

Gen 357 þam oðrum: Editors up to Krapp emend to add "ham" or "hame" after "oðrum." Timmer p. 53 suggests an underlying (and metrical) Old Saxon thesumu oðrum; Doane takes the half line as the third in a metrical triplet.

Gen 382 ymbe: the original MS reading is ymbe, though the -e is erased and "utan" supplied above the line by the corrector.

Gen 405 - 407: Krapp punctuates with periods after "bebead" (405), "hyldo" (406), and "grundas" (407).

Gen 413 - 414 gif his gien wolde/ minra þegna hwilc geþafa wurðan: "if one of my thegns would be now be a supporter of it (his l. 413)," i.e. would agree to it.

Gen 432: Hycgað his: "think of this"; "consider this"

Gen 441: two leaves are missing from the manuscript after this partial line—see Timmer, p. 14.

Gen 443: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "frætwum" and a comma at line end.

Gen 447: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "helldora"

Gen 450 - 451: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "geongran" but no comma after "mandædum"

Gen 458 - 459 þa . . . selfa: MS þa him to gingran self/ metot mancynnes mearcode selfa. The first "self" is likely an error of anticipation by the scribe. Translate "the lord of mankind had created them ("þa") himself as his followers."

Gen 459 metod: MS reads "metot"; Krapp punctuates with a period after "selfa"

Gen 468: Krapp punctuates with a comma after "lofsum" and a semicolon after "beam"

Gen 475-476: "Honours [geþyngþo] were appointed [witode] to him when he [MS heo] should go hence." This passage caused difficulties for the MS corrector(s?) and has caused problems for editors. The corrector(s?) altered original MS witot to witode, erased a letter at the end of geþyngþo and replaced it with the current second thorn; the final -o of that word was then squeezed in above the line since no space was left for it. (It is worth noting that this line is the final one on the page, a likely place to find both squeezing and inattention in the work of a scribe.) "heo" of line 476a, probably representing a plural pronoun and responding incorrectly to "wæron" of line 475, was "expanded" to "tires" by Grein; the word is emended to "he" by subsequent editors. Grein and Bouterwek have "habban" as the final word in line 474; Krapp, Timmer and Doane begin line 475 with it, following MS pointing. Krapp, Timmer, and Doane, following Graz, understand "to wæron" as a prepositional phrase acting adverbially, responding to an underlying Old Saxon "te uuarun" and meaning "truly." There are at least four layers here at which an editor can aim textual speculation: the original Old Saxon; what the Anglo-Saxon author/translator wrote; what the scribe of MS Junius 11 intended; and what the corrector(s) understood. To reconstruct the second of these is the obvious goal of an editor, but impossible to achieve here with any degree of certainty at all. I am skeptical about the Old Saxon analogue proposed by Graz: elsewhere in Genesis B the Anglo-Saxon poet has deviated from normal Old English usage primarily by creating calques, and one would like more evidence of an OE "wæra" or "wære" (i.e. a weak noun signifying "truth") to support a calquing theory for the expression, which otherwise must be taken as a simple borrowing. (A contrary instance is "simon" at line 765, where the translator seems simply to have left an Old Saxon word he could not deal with in his translated text, but here an understanding of the resulting Old English is possible without recourse to that kind of explanation.) In any case, the present edition follows the earlier editors in taking "wæron" as a part of the verb beon

Gen 478: Krapp punctuates with a period after "þystre"

Gen 496 - 497 Langað . . up to gode?: "Do you long for anything, Adam, from God above?"

Gen 503 sceates MS: Editors generally emend to "sceattes" understanding "property, wealth," but the emendation does not appear to be required since simplification of geminates (especially in spelling) is to be expected in a late manuscript. The suggestion of Grein, upheld by Doane, that "sceates" means "garment," seems at least plausible, but the argument that it "provides superior sense in the context" (Doane) is hard to see—if Adam does not know that he is naked, how can the promise of a life with plentious clothing (or at least, no lack of clothing) entice him?

Gen 506 hearan: Krapp emends to "hearran," but "hearan" is a feasible spelling of this word in a late manuscript and not to be corrected as an error.

Gen 531 - 533 Nat . . . heofnum.: "I do not know but that you proceed with lies through concealed thought (when you assert) that you are the Lord's messenger from Heaven." Krapp omits the comma after geþanc.

Gen 542: Krapp punctuates with a semicolon after "geseah"

Gen 555: Grein and Bouterwek punctuate with a comma after "ærende" and end the first half line there; Krapp and Doane separate the half-lines after "swa", without punctuation there; the division is supported by manuscript pointing. Grein (Germania 10 (1865): 417) would retain his earlier comma and verse division but begin the half line with a supplied "swa" to make "swa hwilc ærende, swa": whatever message. Doane offers "whatever message" as a translation of "hwilc ærende swa" in his note; presumably further understanding that a relative is implied or suppressed in the second half line. (Timmer neither punctuates nor divides into half-lines with white space here.) The current edition follows Grein and takes "swa" as a relative: "each message, such as he sends here to the east on this journey."

Gen 582: Krapp punctuates with a period after "engel"

Gen 590: Krapp adds a comma after "geþeaht"

Gen 626 gieng: MS reads "gien."

Gen 644 laðtreow: The parts of this compound are spaced as separate words in the MS. Krapp emends to "laðe treow."

Gen 656 blið: Krapp emends to "bliðe"

Gen 661 gesprece: Krapp prints as "gespræce", noting that the second e is a hooked-e.

Gen 667: Krapp adds a comma after "siteð"

Gen 678: "Now I have (some) of it in (my) hand, good lord."

Gen 693 anforleten: Krapp prints as two words: "an forleten"

Gen 696 hellgeþwing: MS reads "hell geþwin," with an erased letter following "geþwin." Doane (commentary p. 294) refers the expression to the Germanic verb "þwengan," to compress or press together and to two expressions in Heliand, "hellea gethwing" and "helligithwing," each meaning either confinement in Hell or torture in Hell.

Gen 697: Krapp does not punctuate after "nið"

Gen 702 hire: so MS. Translate, "(He) helped her to destroy God's handiwork." Editors have resisted the MS reading and emended to "him" (Thorpe, Grein, Bouterwek, Krapp) or "hine" (Doane), understanding "heo" (701b) or "handweorc godes" (702b) meaning Eve (says Doane) as the subject, perhaps on the basis that the MS reading "seems startlingly to reverse the roles of devil and woman as they have been presented up to now" (Doane). (The fact that both Adam (494) and Eve (628) are earlier identified as "handgeweorc heofoncyninges" does not help Doane's reading, though it allows it; Adam is in addition called "godes handgesceaft" (455).) Grein (Germania 10 (1865): 417) later defended the MS reading as a pleonastic reflexive, i.e. also understanding "heo" as the subject. But the feminine pronoun makes sense both in itself and in reference to 686b - 688a, where the devilish messenger ("se wraða boda") does actively help Eve in her attempt at seduction of Adam into breaking the commandment, as the messenger suggests they cooperate in doing at 574 - 575.

Gen 733 his sorge: "sorrow about (lit. "of") it": the pronoun anticipates the þæt-clause beginning in 735a.

Gen 746 heard: MS "hearde" Editors up to Timmer adopt the MS reading without comment, though Timmer's glossary makes it clear that he considers the word to be a dative singular adjective modifying (presumably) "hyge"; Doane reads the word as the adverb and tentatively translates "became (grievously) angry in his spirit, in his heart" (p. 374 s.v.). The current edition emends to make "heard" parallel to "wrað": "became angry in his mind, hard in his heart," which makes better sense though it is not very satisfying metrically. "Heard on hyge" would be much more satisfactory from that point of view, but mere repetition (without variation) of the syntactic and metrical pattern of "wrað on mode" of 745b is rather unlikely.

Gen 751 butu: Krapp prints as "bu tu"

Gen 752 heofonrice: MS reads "heofon rices"

Gen 764: Krapp omits the commas after "secan" and "læg"

Gen 765 batwa: Krapp prints as "ba twa"

Gen 771: Krapp adds a comma after "hreowigmod"

Gen 788 foreweard: MS reads "forweard", which Grein retains, glossing "fürder, fort und fort" (Sprachschatz). Klaeber (Journal of English and Germanic Philology 12 (1913): 256 - 257) speculates that the word "may be a 'blend' of foreweard 'agreement, compact, covenant' and forword 'fore-word, stipulation, agreement'", a position with which Timmer appears to agree, also adducing a Middle Dutch cognate of foreweard, though he does not cite Klaeber's article or include it in his bibliography. Krapp retains the manuscript reading but comments "perhaps the word should be forðweard." Doane likewise takes Grein's side of the argument, bringing to bear a variety of Old Saxon words, but also admitting that his reading of the whole phrase, "but they might have lived easily . . . in that land if they had wished to carry out the command of God from then on" (italics added), is "not biblical or orthodox" (note to 784a - 788a). I agree and think that it is also therefore unlikely.

Gen 793: Krapp punctuates with a period after "gifre"

Gen 826 þinum: MS reads "þinu"

Gen 830: Krapp punctuates the first half line with commas rather than round brackets.

Gen 838: Krapp prints as "bu tu"

Gen 840: Krapp prints as "ba twa"

Gen 847: Krapp prints as "bu tu"

Gen 851: Genesis B is considered to end with this line.

Gen 857 þa: Krapp following Grein and Bouterwek emends to "þam". Doane defends the MS reading on the basis that "the clause may be taken absolutely: '(God) knew those he had given glory had sinned.'"

Gen 875 ne: not in MS.

Gen 906 - 907 Þu scealt . . . eorðan: This notable crux is best resolved following the approach of Ettmüler, later argued by Kock ("Jubilee Jaunts and Jottings" 29) and also followed by Doane, to divide the lines after "breostum" rather than following the (later in this instance) manuscript pointing which would divide after "þinum," and to emend MS "bearm" to "bearme", understanding it as appositive to "breostum"; "brade eorðan" then becomes accusative object of "tredan": "to tread with your breast, with your belly, the broad earth." An alternative approach, followed by Grein, Bouterwek, Klaeber, Holthausen, and Krapp, and reargued by Holthausen (Anglia Beiblatt 30 [1919]: 3) against Kock's suggestion on the basis that Kock makes an unusually weak half-line with "bearme tredan", is to follow MS pointing and to emend "brade" to "bradre", making "bearm" the object of "tredan" and "bradre eorðan" a genitive modifier of "bearm": "tread with your breast the bosom of the broad earth." Wülker takes "bearm" as an unmarked instrumental and is therefore able to retain both "bearm" and "brade" (incompatible otherwise); he divides the lines, however, after "þinum". It is perfectly possible that the text is more faulty at this point than can be easily resolved with emendation, since a page ends after "bearm" and a word or more may therefore be missing.

Gen 917 hu: MS reads "nu"

Gen 930: Krapp punctuates with a semicolon after "bedæled".

Gen 954 he: MS; Krapp following Bouterwek emends to "hie" and understands "swice" as representing a plural subjunctive. Holthausen emended "swice" to "swicen" in addition. Doane retains the MS text and offers two interpretations: either God "had withdrawn his favor from them" (Bosworth-Toller s.v. swican) or Adam "defected from him (God)" (Doane note). Though both grammars are plausible, the change from a clause in which both Adam and Eve are in question to a following one in which only Adam is involved seems too abrupt. The Bosworth-Toller definition would seem to squeeze the word more than is needed, however. Translate: "though He may have separated from them."

Gen 959 gehwilcre: MS reads "gehilcre"

Gen 980 Hygewælm asteah Wülker: MS reads "hyge wælmos teah"

Gen 993: Krapp punctuates with commas both after "bearnum" and after the closing parenthesis.

Gen 1011 wærfæstne: MS reads "wær fæsne".

Gen 1022 ædre: not in MS. Supplied by Krapp, following Holthausen and Graz. Thorpe and Bouterwek extend this line to "are" and make a following line of "wenan . . . hæbbe", also apparently to correct the meter here. "Him þa ædre X    andswarode" is formulaic (where X represents a monosyllabic personal name that does not begin with a vowel).

Gen 1040: Krapp supplies "þe" after "Gif".

Gen 1056 fæder: not in MS. This line is missing an alliterand. Grein followed by Holthausen adds "furðum" after "siððan"; Krapp instead adds "fæsten" in the same place; Doane leaves the line unemended but points out that both Grein's solution and Krapp's leave "ongon" without a subject. (So does Bouterwek's solution, emendation of "frumbearn" to "sunu," not noted by Doane.) The absence of a subject is surely possible stylistically since Cain would be understood, but the original line must have alliterated

Gen 1088 æres: MS reads "ærest".

Gen 1093 sumne: MS reads "sune".

Gen 1098 ic: not in MS. The second half-line is defective; Sievers suggested "wat nu gearwe" or "wat þeah gearwe"; Graz, followed by Holthausen and Krapp, "wat ic gearwe". Doane notes that there are other three-syllable lines in the text of Genesis but says that this one is "[p]robably a defective verse," though he does not emend.

Gen 1111 - 1112 sealde/ sunu: Krapp, following Graz and Holthausen transposes these words for sense and notes an improvement in metre. Wells and Doane retain the manuscript order.

Gen 1118 eðulstæfe: MS "edulf stæfe". Grein, Wülker, and Doane emend to "eðulstæfe"; Holthausen and Krapp to "eðelstæfe". (Bouterwek retains the MS reading and does not print a textual or explanatory note but translates "zu Hauses Stütze" so understanding the same kind of emendation.) The only other instance of this word, apparently one unfamiliar to the scribe since both places need emendation, is also in Genesis A (line 2224), but based on those two instances the signification is clearly specifically "son, heir," rather than the compound-analytical definition given in DOE (following Bosworth-Toller's approach, itself based on Grein), "sustainer of the homeland."

Gen 1120 and: MS has the rune "wyn" instead of the 7-shaped Tironian note.

Gen 1128 leod: MS reads "leof".

Gen 1131 heo: Krapp, following Grein, emends to "he", but this does not appear necessary for sense.

Gen 1133 Sethes: MS reads "sedes", which Doane defends as a possible early spelling "preserved through several copies", referring to Campbell para 57 (Grein and other editors emend to "Sethes"). Both Doane's argument and Holthausen's emendation to "Seðes" imply the belief that an OE person (scribe or author) would have understood the name Seth as ending with an interdental fricative rather than a stop, but this is not certain.

Gen 1148 þurh: MS reads "þur".

Gen 1155 Cainan: MS reads "Cain", with two erased letters (Wülker "rasure von zwei oder drei buchstaben") following.

Gen 1160 Cainanes: MS reads "Caines".

Gen 1162 feowertig: MS reads "feowertigum", probably anticipating the dative of "feorum". Grein, Bouterwek and Wülker retain the MS reading. The emendation originates with Shipley and is made by Holthausen and Krapp. Doane defends the dative case by considering the word to be "a kind of parenthesis exempt from the temporal acc[usative] governing eahtahund."

Gen 1191 eaforan: MS reads "eafora". Doane, following Wells, accepts the MS form as a genitive plural, though noting that there is little support for this in normal morphology.

Gen 1211 feran Grein: MS reads "frean", which Doane defends as possibly parallel to "cyning engla" of 1210b.

Gen 1219 þissa Grein (suggestion in note): MS reads "þisse", which Grein and Wülker retain in their texts, presumably considering it an anomalous form of the masculine dative singular; Doane also retains it but considers a possible late form of the genitive plural; Holthausen, followed by Krapp, incorporates Grein's suggested emendation into his text. Although I also adopt the emendation in my text here, I find it very awkward to separate the demonstrative from its object as either treatment of the line does--and no other instance of the "þes" demonstrative in poetry seems to do--and I suspect something more radically wrong here that is beyond correction.

Gen 1232 and: not in MS.

Gen 1234 eaforan: MS reads "eafora", which Doane defends as a form of the genitive plural.

Gen 1280 aæðan: This verb has been taken by modern editors as a reference to devastation (cognate to German öde; see DOE s.v. a-yðan) but may in fact contain a reference, either punning or etymological, to waves (, cognate to Latin unda), cf. yðung, "inundation".

Gen 1307 þæt: MS reads "þær", which Doane alone defends, suggesting that it is coordinated with the "þær" of 1310b, but what I take to be his suggested sense ("Build a boat in the place where the seed of each living shall be placed") seems difficult.

Gen 1308: Krapp, following Holthausen, inserts "and" before "þreohund" for metrical reasons.

Gen 1314 fremede: MS reads "freme".

Gen 1338 oðerra: MS reads "oðe ra" with an erasure following the 'e'.

Gen 1393 hrincg MS: Eds. accept MS reading as a spelling of "hring" and interpret it as as the ring of the surrounding sea, that is, the horizon, or (Doane) the orbis terrarum, but there would seem instead to be a continuous image here of the ship riding (1392) on the back (1393) of the sea. Cf. Beowulf 471 "ofer wæteres hrycg" for a parallel half-line. The spelling "hringc" in Genesis 2855 is clearly meant for the word "hricg", not "hring".

Gen 1400 - 1401: [Placekeeping note to be replaced when this crux has been studied in detail.] A very difficult sentence to interpret. Sievers, followed by Holthausen and Krapp, emended "heo" to "heof" ("lamentation"); Krapp instructs, "Translate literally, 'There was nothing to them for a portion, except lamentation was raised,' etc., freely, "Then naught was their portion except lamentation was raised,' etc." But "heo" (it, i.e. the Ark), as Doane argues, is comprehensible (though bizarre) in context. The current (possibly temporary) solution in this edition is to emend "gedale" to "gedaled" (past participle of "dælan") and to interpret, "To them ("þam . . . to"—i.e. to the "wægliðendum" of 1395) was none (i.e. no fate) allotted ("gedaled") except that it ("heo", the Ark) was lifted in the high air."

Gen 1405 edmodne flod Krapp: MS reads "ed monne" (and does not have the word "flod", supplied by Holthausen; "edmodne" was first proposed by Wülker in his note). See Doane (who retains the manuscript reading as hopelessly corrupt) for the history of attempts to solve this textual crux.

Gen 1416 torhte ryne: "in its (i.e. the egstream's) bright flow". MS reads "torht ryne", which Doane retains (taking it as an additional object for "gecyrred" appositive to "egstream") but admits is metrically defective. Grein, taking "torht" as nominative and referring to God, emended for metre to "rodortorht". See Gen 58 for a similar half line (alliterating, however, on 't'). Krapp emends to "torhtne ryne".

Gen 1428 þæra: MS reads "þære".

Gen 1447 feond: Krapp, following Cosijn, Holthausen, and a suggestion by Grein (Bibliothek

Gen 1469 gesittan Grein "Zur Textkritik" (Germania 10 [1865]: 417): MS "gesette".

Gen 1491 liðe: MS reads "hliðe". Doane defends the MS reading on the basis of the appropriateness of "on hliðe" to the context, but does not explain how to deal with the fact that it does not alliterate.

Gen 1492 þrymme geþeahtne þriddan eðyl Krapp: MS reads "þrymme geþeahte þridda eðyl". Almost all commentators on this passage take "þridda eðyl" as a reference to the earth and therefore emend to "þriddan" for the accusative (except Kock in "Plain Points and Puzzles", Wells, and possibly Doane--in his note, though he emends the text to "þriddan"--who take it to be a reference to the sea, appositive to "lago" and not in need of emendation). Although the reference is somewhat mysterious, the standard three-level northern and Christian cosmology also reflected in the word "middangeard" must surely be reflected here. The reading of Dietrich, also adopted by Doane, in which "hæfde" is interpreted as a lexical verb (Doane "possessed") and "geþeahte" taken as parallel to it, is possible but unnatural; Holthausen suggests either the addition of "mid" before "þrymme" and the reduction of MS "geþeahte" to "geþeaht" (past participle) or the emendation of "geþeahte" to "geþeahtne" (inflected past participle modifying "eðyl"). Doane notes that past participles are not inflected in "habban" constructions elsewhere in the poem. Nevertheless, this emendation provides satisfactory sense and good metre with minimal alteration of the text.

Gen 1508 þa: Krapp, following Grein, emends to "þæt" to provide "geearnod" with an object clause; Doane points out, and DOE confirms, that "geearnian" can be used absolutely (i.e. without expressed object). Although the sense is more than slightly awkward here, emendation is not necessary: "that he had given that offering to His liking and in youth by good deeds earlier been deserving, when Almighty God was favorable to him in all things, in honours."

Gen 1515a and Sievers: not in MS. Doane does not adopt this emendation (which is followed by Holthausen and Krapp), leaving the line trisyllabic.

Gen 1515 heofonfuglas Thorpe: MS reads "heofon fugla".

Gen 1522 þære Thorpe: MS reads "þære".

Gen 1525 sece Dietrich: MS reads "seþe", which Doane defends as a part of "seðan" (to affirm), translating "I will guarantee the life of a man against the slayer," but such a use of "seðan" does not seem to be attested elsewhere. A more likely reading of "seþe", if correct, is suggested by the instances where "seðung" appears to mean "testimony", but this requires understanding "monnes feorh" as the soul of the murderer: "I testify about the man's soul as a slayer and a brother-murderer." But if so, the sense is difficult and the sentence difficult to reconcile with the Biblical account. The Dietrich emendation has the advantage of correspondence to words in the Latin text ("requiram animam hominis"—Genesis 9:5).

Gen 1539 and: not in MS. Doane argues against the emendation, which originates with Holthausen, on the basis that "oft gelome" is neither metrically nor semantically deficient, but "oft and gelome" is a formula or set phrase, occurring in eight other places in poetry.

Gen 1546 - 1548: These lines have an extensive history of commentary and emendation, for which see Doane. They are now generally considered, following the argument of Gollancz in the introduction to the facsimile, to be an accidental interpolation into the text of a marginal note in the exemplar or a previous manuscript, and have been retained here largely to keep the lineation consistent with Krapp and Grein.

Gen 1549 wæs him: not in MS. Previous editors have assumed that line 1549 is part of the sentence begun in 1543a. In that case, "wærfæst metod" cannot be in apposition to the subject, Noah. Dietrich's emendation, "wærfæste metode", applying to the wives, only works if the lines about the wives actually belong in the poem; Krapp's emendation, "wærfæst metode", applying to Noah, leaves "wætra lafe" in uncertain relationship to the rest of the sentence. The present emendation assumes a common kind of scribal error (eye-skip) and a new sentence: "The Lord was faithful to them, to the remnant left by the waters."

Gen 1567 inne: MS reads "innne".

Gen 1587 gefremeden Bouterwek: Krapp and Doane, accepting the argument of Bloomfield that plural subjunctives without final -n are frequent enough to constitute an acceptable variant, do not emend.

Gen 1617 Chanan: MS reads "Cham".

Gen 1628 Nebroðes Sievers: MS reads "fæder ne breðer".

Gen 1630 swa: MS reads "wwa".

Gen 1637 swilce: MS reads "svilce".

Gen 1642 frod Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 417): MS reads "forð cure", which Boutewek makes into an unlikely compound, which Grein (Bibliothek) and Wülker retain uncompounded and Doane defends, translating "before he chose for years henceforth . . . ," but the sense "for years" for "wintrum" is surely strained if we take "chose a bed of death" as periphrasis for "died". Bouterwek's translation "nach Jahren" for "wintrum" also seems forced. The Grein emendation is not much better because the analogy with such expressions as "wintrum frod" (Gen 2355) and "misserum frod" (Gen 1743) meaning "old in years" is complicated by syntactic disruption (the interposition of "cure", with object "wælreste"), but it has the advantage of conferring a familiar kind of sense. What we really want here, I suspect, is something along the lines of "ærðon frod wintrum/ cure wælreste"--in other words, there may be a disruption greater than emendation of one word can fix.

Gen 1691 - 1692 Ne meahte . . . timbran: "To build the stone wall up any more could not happen to them"—"hie" should possibly be emended to "him".

Gen 1711 freond: MS reads "freod".

Gen 1718 drihtfolca bearn Holthausen: MS reads "drihta bearnum", which is a well-used poetic set-phrase or formula ("for the children of men") but is in the wrong case here since a nominative is required to form the subject of "demaþ." Bouterwek retains the MS reading but translates as if the expression were in the nominative; Grein following Dietrich emends to "drihta bearn"; Wülker retains the MS reading in false analogy to Christ and Satan 299, Doane because the sentence can be parsed as written (taking "hie" as the subject), though this yields a sense that Doane has trouble explaining ("Therefore they now judge amidst [heavenly] hosts the sons of multitudes") and that to me seems frankly unlikely—what we have here is almost certainly a parallel statement to the one made about Abraham alone in Gen 1949a - 1951b. Holthausen's emendation, accepted by Krapp, improves the meter of the Dietrich proposal, ruined by the elimination of the dative ending from "bearnum"; Holthausen also suggests "drihta eaforan" in his note.

Gen 1747 Carran: MS reads "Carram".

Gen 1783 Sicem: MS reads "siem".

Gen 1795 landa: MS reads "lande", which Doane retains as a possible late spelling of the genitive plural.

Gen 1809 hneawlice: MS reads "hnea lice".

Gen 1829 onegan Thorpe: MS reads "on agen".

Gen 1852b - 1853 and fægerra lyt/ for æðelinge idesa sunnon: MS reads "[Tironian 7-shaped 'and' abbreviation] fæerro lyt for æðelinge idese sunnon". Krapp emends "and" to "þæt". The interpretations and emendations of this difficult sequence of words have been multiple. Doane helpfully reduces the problems to two, "the meaning of the rare str. vb. sinnan, and "ambiguity of construction", and further reminds us that lines 1851 - 1855 must be a rendition of Gen. 12:15, "et nuntiaverunt principes Pharaoni et laudaverunt eam apud illam." Doane's solution (following Bosworth-Toller) to the first part is excellent: sinnan, taking a genitive for its logical object, means "'to care for,' 'heed'", with the key passage being Andreas 1277a - 1278b, "Hra weorces ne sann, wundum werig"--(His) body did not heed the pain, weary with wounds." Doane's quite ingenious response to the second series of difficulties is to take "lyt" as the undeclinable noun, "fægerro" as a genitive plural comparative, and "idese" as dative singular, with the dative being one of comparison: "few fairer in comparison to the woman . . . did they heed . . . before the prince". This is satisfying as a solution that respects and accounts for the manuscript readings, but it gives somewhat tortuous sense since if "ac" of 1584 is to retain its adversative force the phrase requires a double dose of Germanic understatement to be deciphered: "few fairer than the woman did they heed" must be taken to mean both "they did not at all heed any fairer than the woman" and "there were none at all fairer than the woman to take heed of". The current edition (following Grein and others) takes "fægerro . . . idese" as representing a genitive plural noun phrase (with the doubled "r" of "fægerro", however, a late otiose doubling of the plain grade of adjective rather than representing a comparative as earlier scholars have taken it) and "lyt" as the adverb: "Little did they pay attention to fair women before the nobleman, but much more did they praise . . . ." This seems to suit the facts of the case and provide slightly more logic for the "ac" that begins line 1854.

Gen 1879 and: Krapp, following Thorpe and other editors, emends the manuscript's seven-shaped Tironian "and" abbreviation to "on", which Doane points out is unnecessary as the phrase is parallel to 1875a, "bryd and begas".

Gen 1912 teonwit: Krapp, understanding "teon wit" as the verb and viewing the repeated "wit" as a scribal misunderstanding of the grammar, suppresses the pronoun. Editors to Wülker understood "teonwit" as strife or contention, and Doane, following them and drawing attention to the similar compound "edwit", translates "we must remove contention from this place". Various attempts have been made to understand the sense of 1911b - 1913a, including most prominently Holthausen's "læfan" (intransitive) for "lædan" and "teon wit"; and the acceptance by others of the second of these without the first, entailing an intransitive use of "lædan" apparently nowhere else attested and producing the syntactic weakness that prompts Krapp's emendation. Doane's translation, while not providing the full intelligibility of some of the proposed emendations, has the advantage of giving acceptable sense to the unemended text.

Gen 1924 neorxnawange Junius oð þæt Thorpe: MS reads "neoxnawange on þæt". Doane rejects the second emendation (Thorpe's)as "perhaps an improvement, but not necessary."

Gen 1929 ealle lædde Krapp: these words are not in the manuscript, which must be missing a half line at this point. Variations on Krapp's solution, also used by Doane, were earlier proposed by Grein, Holthausen, and Kock ("Plain Points and Puzzles").

Gen 1938 Loth: MS reads "leoht".

Gen 1951 fullwona: if correct, the manuscript reading represents a word unknown elsewhere, in which the first syllable is perhaps the same as in "fullwiht, fulluht" (baptism) and "fullian, fullwian" (to baptize), as first proposed by Thorpe, who translates "children of the baptized"; Doane's "children of baptism", i.e. Christians, which follows Grein's opinion in the Sprachschatz, is preferable. Many editors have attempted to cope with the half line by emendation either to assimilate "fullwona" to a word applying to baptism known elsewhere (Bouterwek: "fullwodra", past part gen pl of "fullwian") or to remove the apparent reference to baptism (Krapp following Holthausen: "foldwonga"). Doane notes that lessons from the life of Abraham were read during the pre-Lenten period when catachumens were about to prepare for baptism, but this is a slightly tenuous connection and does virtually nothing to remove the oddity of the reference in context. The form "fullwen" for the nominative (in the glossary of the current edition) is that suggested by the DOE editors; Grein, Braasch and Doane have "fullwon".

Gen 1953 hleowlora Dietrich: MS reads "hleor lora".

Gen 1957 mode: MS reads "mod".

Gen 1963 side worude Dietrich: MS reads "side worulde", which both Krapp and Doane retain, the former without explanation, the latter translating, "(he went) broadly over the world", but not taking any steps to justify the relevance or Biblical derivation of such a statement. On the whole, though the whole passage seems corrupt, Dietrich's guess makes better sense as the kind of thing that could be asserted about almost any ruler: he went "with an extensive host"; cf. "þrymme micle" in line 1965.

Gen 1986 þryðge: MS reads "þrydge".

Gen 2007 ahudan: Krapp, following Holthausen, Dietrich, and Grimm (Anreas und Elene, 141), emends to "ahyðdon," the well-attested weak verb. A corresponding strong verb, as Bouterwek, Grein, and Doane assume, is not impossible, though nowhere else attested; it would (also) be related to the noun "huð" (booty). However, it is certainly also possible that the weak form was altered by the scribe under the influence of preceding "strudon".

Gen 2032 ahreded Bouterwek: MS reads "ahred", which is linguistically defensible (and well attested) as a form of the past participle of "ahreddan", and so retained by Grein, Wülker, and Doane; the emendation assumes a frequent type of scribal error, but is made on metrical grounds; cf. Gen 2085.

Gen 2038 feallan: Krapp, following Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 417) and Holthausen, emends to "feollan", understanding a preterite indicative matching "gewræcon", but Doane is right that indicatives are stylistically improbable here and it is better to understand these verbs as subjunctives. "Feallan" might either be a subjunctive present ("to indicate the contingency of the one pledge on the other" [Doane]) or an eccentric form of the preterite subjunctive (since the pledges are not really contingent but simple alternatives).

Gen 2042 þeodenholdra Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 417): MS reads "þeon den holdra".

Gen 2046 folcgetrume Dietrich: MS reads "folce getrume", which some editors have retained, taking "getrume" as either adjectival (Grein) or the instrumental of a noun (Doane), producing somewhat awkward sense in either case and unusual syntax in the latter. But both this and the following line may be more corrupt than can be fixed by any editorial intervention, but Dietrich's emendation, also adopted by Krapp, makes better sense out of this line.

Gen 2047: this line is not complete, and the several emendations that have been proposed to remedy the situation, some of them involving also line 2046, are not especially convincing (see Krapp for a fairly complete list.

Gen 2049: Krapp and other editors emend to "wæron", but this is an acceptable late spelling of that word.

Gen 2055: This line is incomplete in the manuscript. Grein, followed by Wülker and Holthausen, adds "tirlice" after "hie" (MS "he"), making "on twa healfe" the second half line.

Gen 2058 eaðe Sievers: MS reads "eað", which Grein, Wülker, and Doane retain, the last translating the comparative "eað" as "more easily than they could achieve it for themselves unaided", which though it makes sense does not make very satisfactory sense (in consideration of medieval ideas regarding divine assistance in battle, for instance as elucidated by Melchisedek in 2109 - 2115) and is also metrically deficient.

Gen 2080 wæron: not in MS.

Gen 2096 - 97 þa wæs . . . wegan: Then the people of Sodom were (going) south from there, to bear the news of the battle." Krapp emends to "folce" and "wegen" (past participle), following Kock ("Jubilee Jaunts and Jottings") for the latter, but, as Doane suggests, the emendation seems unnecessary.

Gen 2141 and Grein: not in MS.

Gen 2149a rices Grein: MS "rice" was retained by Thorpe and Bouterwek, and is defended by Doane, who sees it as an instrumental parallel to "willgesteallum".

Gen 2149b selfa Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 417): not in MS. Bouterwek and Grein saw 2149 as a single half-line, with "ac . . . gesloh" constituting 2150. Doane does not accept the addition of "selfa" originated by Grein, but does take the lineation; his line 2149 reads "sodoma rice. ac þu most heonan".

Gen 2159 ac nefulglas Grein: MS reads "eacne fuglas", which Doane retains although it does not alliterate.

Gen 2160 blodige Holthausen (Englische Studien 51 [1917]: 184): MS reads "blodig".

Gen 2161 wæle Cosijn: MS reads "wæl". Grein (followed by Wülker) retains the manuscript reading, understanding it as an uninflected instrumental; Doane also, considering it an "unmarked locative."

Gen 2189 eaforan Holthausen: MS reads "eafora", which Krapp retains without explanation.

Gen 2195 mægburge Grein: MS reads "mægburg". Doane's attempt to take the MS reading as an uninflected genitive is skating on philological thin ice, and his alternative proposal to understand "menigo" as a genitive, while much sounder from an inflectional point of view, makes quite strange sense "the offspring of your multitude."

Gen 2210 on twa: MS reads "twa," which Doane sees as modifying "niðas" understanding Egyptians and Hebrews. Krapp and other editors, following Dietrich, emend to "swa", but as Doane points out this makes for awkward syntax.

Gen 2211 eft wendeð sæ: "the sea turns back" to complete the division of lands; Krapp followed a suggestion of Thorpe, taken up by Holthausen in the text of his edition, emends to "Wendelsæ," but as Doane points out this is not required to make good sense of the line.

Gen 2225 se: MS reads "seo".

Gen 2251 drehte dogora gehwam Thorpe: MS reads "drehta dogora geham".

Gen 2252-54 Þæt . . . leofa: "I ought to own that (one) if I am permitted to control my own things in your presence, dear Abraham." This reading follows Doane, who interrupts a series of editorial innovations beginning with Thorpe, all founded on emendation of "agan" (own) to "Agar", a move that Doane points out is unnecessary.

Gen 2255 duguða Doane; not in MS. Previous editors had "drihtna" (Thorpe).

Gen 2293 frumgaran (Grein, Germania 10 [1865]: 418): MS reads "frumgarum"; awæcniað: MS reads "apæcniað", but early editors read the MS as "awæcniað".

Gen 2357 wyrð: MS reads "wyrd". Translate 2356-2357 "The truth will proceed according to these declarations [i.e., what follows from 2358—2369]."

Gen 2360 tanum tudre: "with the offspring in branches" is probably the best that can be made of this, as Doane suggests. Early attempts to take "tanum" as an adjective ("branching") run up against a lack of other evidence and the unlikelihood of adjective formation without affixing in the case of a concrete noun; the attempt by Holthausen [Anglia 46 (1922): 61] to take "tudre" as an imperative verb results in only local sense.

Gen 2390 Sarra: MS reads "Sarran".

Gen 2396 worngehat: Krapp, following Bouterwek, emends to "wordgehat" (verbal promises).

Gen 2402 leohtes: Krapp, following Grein and Holthausen, emends to "Lothes," but Doane makes a sufficiently plausible case for "kinsman of the light" in contrast to the gleaming gold of Sodom.

Gen 2412 folce: Krapp following Grein emends to "folces," but Doane defends the MS reading, translating "[t]herefore crimes . . . of covenant-breakers are heavy on the people."

Gen 2416 fyr Cosijn: not in MS. Doane does not emend, leaving the half-line without alliteration.

Gen 2419 witeloccas: Krapp, following Dietrich and most editors, and with reference to Gen 2556, emends to "witelaces". Doane refers instead to Ex 120, where "fyrene loccas" (firey locks of hair) refers to the flames of the pillar of fire.

Gen 2421—2422 Duguðum . . . gyrne: "Those proud in riches ("duguðum wlance") repaid evil for good ("guldon god mid gnyrne") to the Lord ("dryhtne").

Gen 2436 ærendrecan Dietrich: MS reads "ærendran", which Doane accepts as an early form of ModE "errander" (OED s.v. 'errand', but citing only one 19th c. instance). Krapp emends to "ærendracan", following Grein (who attributes the emendation to Ettmüller).

Gen 2439 sunnan Holthausen: MS reads "sunne", which early editors and Doane retain as a possible strong accusative.

Gen 2482 wineþearfende Cosijn: MS reads "þine þearfende", which Doane, following Dietrich, defends, taking 'þine' as gen sing of 'þigen' ("food"), but the emendation produces much better alliteration.

Gen 2497 styrde Doane: MS reads "styrnde", a hapax which editors retain, taking as derived from or related to adj 'stirne' (harsh), but Doane argues persuasively that the verb should rightly be "styran" i.e. "steoran" (BT s.v.).

Gen 2528 sprycst Thorpe: MS reads "spryst". Krapp, following Holthausen and Sievers, emends to "sprycest". Doane suspects a form of "spyrian" underlies the MS reading, but follows Thorpe in his text.

Gen 2558—2559 swogende . . . geador: MS reads "swogende forswealh . eall eador." Wells, following Jovy for word- and half-line-division, originates the division and understanding represented in the current edition and glossary, also adopted by Doane. Most editors including Krapp follow Dietrich in emending 'eador' to 'geador'; Doane follows Grein and Wülker in retaining the MS text and understanding 'eador' as a spelling of 'geador', but the scribe likely understood and intended 'eodor' ("the building") here. Krapp, following Holthausen, emends by adding 'leg' after 'swogende' to complete the first half line.

Gen 2577 he eft: MS reads "heft".

Gen 2604 genearwod: MS reads "genearwot".

Gen 2615 folca Sievers: MS reads "folc", which does not make a metrical line. Sievers suggests "folca unrim" or "folc unrimu" (i.e. taking "unrim" as a noun or adjective); Wülker takes up the first and Holthausen the second. Doane understands "folca unrim" but prints "folc' unrim", i.e. considering the MS form as resulting from elision before a vowel. Krapp does not think that "folca unrim" should apply to only two peoples, so emends to "folces unrim."

Gen 2628—2632 Þa se þeoden . . . fæðm.: This passage has caused many problems for editors and provoked a number of suggestions for emendation, summarized by Doane. In brief, editors before Doane assumed a sentence ending at the end of 2629b, and therefore found the infinitive 'bringan' without object, variously supplied in the emendations. Doane understands "þa" at the beginning of 2630 as a demonstrative pronoun (acc sing fem) referring to Sarah, and supplies the relative "þe" following it. But a demonstrative is capable of assuming a quasi-relative function, so the latter move seems unnecessary. Krapp's addition of "hie" following "heht" in 2629a solves two problems, the object for 'bringan' (no longer necessary if Doane's solution is adopted, but not otiose) and the metrical deficiency of the half line (which Doane does not consider as a problem). Translate, "Then the lord sent his servants, commanded her to be brought to himself, who was out of her people for a second time, the wife of Abraham led from her husband into the embrace of the foreigner."

Gen 2631 Abrahames: MS reads "abrames".

Gen 2642 synna brytta: Doane rightly rejects the pedestrian emendation to heroic "sinces brytta" proposed by Thorpe in a note and incorporated in the text by Bouterwek followed by Holthausen, Krapp, and Wells; to the parallel expressions cited by Doane at Elene 957, Juliana 362, and Guthlac 550 can be added "morðres bryttan" at Judith 90.

Gen 2645 beheowan (Cosijn) þæne (Grein): MS reads "beheopan þære." Translate this sentence, "Oh, wilt thou ever, Lord of Angels, through thine anger cause to be cut off from life ("lætan . . . beheowan . . . aldre"), most High ("heah"), the one ("þæne") who lives here in righteous customs . . . ?"

Gen 2658 gode: not in MS. Alliteration is lacking in the MS line. Thorpe replaces "self" with "wið god"; Bouterwek had "self to gode"; Grein, followed by Holthausen and Krapp, "self wið god." Doane characteristically argues for retention of the manuscript reading, but admits that it is "feeble but intelligible" and lacks alliteration.

Gen 2662 ærenda MS: Wülker takes the MS form as a form of the accusative plural, and Doane points to examples of the form in BT Suppl (also recorded as a form by DOE). Thorpe (notes) emends to "ærende", followed by Bouterwek and Grein; Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 418) emends to "ærendu", followed by Holthausen and Krapp.

Gen 2668 sprecan: Krapp, following Sievers, emends to "gesprecan," which has the advantage of being elsewhere attested with the meaning "councillors".

Gen 2696-97 siððan . . . alædde: MS reads "alæded" but a finite verb is required. Early editors understood "hyrde" as a (unique) instance of an OE word parallel to German "Hürde" (shepherd's hurdle) in its original Germanic meaning of "door" (cf. Gothic "haurds"); more likely it is here a form of "hired" (family, retinue): "after the Holy One led me long ago from the retinue of the lord my father."

Gen 2715 Sarra: MS reads "sarran".

Gen 2721 weorcþeos Grein: MS reads "weorc feos" but with evidence of erasure which Doane supports Wells in seeing as the remains of an inadvertent repetition of "seolfor" from the previous line. The line must translate Vulgate Genesis 20: 14, "Tulit igitur Abimelech oves et boves, et servos et ancillas, et dedit Abraham . . . " (Then Abimelech took sheep and oxen and male and female servants and gave them to Abraham).
spræc: MS reads "spræc Spræc", with a page ending after the first instance.

Gen 2730 flettwaðas MS: Grimm suggests "flettpaðas" in Andreas und Elene, and this reading is widely adopted. Not even Doane attempts to defend the MS reading, though "wað" ("wandering, hunting") is widely attested and seems appropriate in sense here: "that you trod wandering ways to my hall." "Wað" is listed as feminine in Bosworth-Toller, but not on the evidence of any instance there cited (which are all dative singular or dative plural).

Gen 2747—48 ecan monrim mægðe: MS reads "agan monrim mægeð". Bouterwek followed by most editors emended agan to "ecan"; Doane proposes to retain the MS reading, translating "Neither free woman nor bond could have a mancount in sons for (in respect of) their king." However, "mannrim" is elsewhere attested as a word that refers to the total count of a large number of people (such as the population of a nation, which in Bouterwek's suggested reading no woman ('mægeð') bond or free is capable of increasing); Doane's reading, though somewhat awkward in sense, is not impossible if the word can also mean "(any) number of people (at all)", but the likelihood instead is that the scribe has bungled a phrase that like Gen 1763 refers to the increase in numbers of a people ('monrim mægðe') by the addition of sons, with the repetitions of vocabulary perhaps highlighting the contrast between God's promise to Abraham and his cursing of Abimelech.

Gen 2751 arra: Krapp emends to "arna", following Grein.

Gen 2758 weard Junius (possibly as a mistranscription): MS reads "wearð".

Gen 2768 his agene hand: "with his own hand". Krapp, following Cosijn, adds "mid" before "his", but Doane is likely right to dismiss this as unnecessary on the grounds that "agene hand" can be taken as instrumental.

Gen 2774 hunteontigMS: Krapp, following Thorpe, emends to "hundteontig", as do editors except Wülker, Wells, and Doane. The emendation seems completely unnecessary.

Gen 2784 siðian Thorpe: Doane points out that verbs of motion are often omitted and that the sentence therefore does not need the emendation; there is, however, a remaining metrical problem unless his theory of three-syllable half-lines is accepted.

Gen 2809 snytrum: a spelling of 'snotrum'? Doane follows Bosworth-Toller who posit an otherwise unrecorded adjective "snytre"; Krapp follows Cosijn, who emends to "snytru" (acc sing).

Gen 2814 on Grein (Sprachschatz): not in MS. An alternative approach is to take "forðwegas" as an adverbial genitive singular.

Gen 2838 þær MS: Grein, followed by editors to Krapp, arbitrarily emends to "þæt".

Gen 2839 lond Thorpe: MS reads "lono"; Doane thinks that the final letter may be a 'd' with the ascender "rubbed off".

Gen 2861—2862 frea . . . waldend: MS reads "frea . . . waldende." Thorpe, followed by editors up to Krapp, emends to "frean . . . waldend": "The word of the Lord of Angels was venerable to him, his Ruler dear." Doane would keep both MS readings and translate "To him the Lord of Angles, the Word, was venerable and (he) was dear to his Lord." Despite the conventional reference to the Old Testament God as "nergend" in 2864, the invocation of a Johannine Word seems somewhat out of place in a passage where Abraham's obedience to the actual spoken words of God is surely at issue, however, and the grammar Doane applies to 2862b is simply awkward. It would be reasonable to see a looser metonymy between God and his word here, however, and thus to accept only the second of Thorpe's emendations. Translate: "The Lord of Angels, the word (i.e. the command just uttered), was venerable to him, his Ruler dear to him."

Gen 2894 gedæde: MS apparently reads "gedæd," but Doane provides evidence from UV illumination that the scribe had first written "gedæde" and then accidentally erased the final 'e' when repairing another error and failed to restore it.

Gen 2900 stowe Bouterwek: not in MS.

Gen 2907—2908 fyre sencan/ mæges dreore (MS): "thrust down (to death) with fire, with the blood of (his) son". The many editorial emendations and suggestions are listed in Doane's edition, the most prominent being Bouterwek's "fyr gesencan/ mæges dreore" ("quench the fire with the blood of the son"); Grein's "fyre gesengan/ mæges dreor" ("burn with fire the blood of the son"); Holthausen "fyre swencan/ mæg his deorne" ("to afflict with fire his dear son"); and Krapp's (following Bright) "fyre scencan/ mæges dreor" ("pour out for the fire the blood of the son"). Doane is right in this case to press harder for a sense made from the manuscript readings. He translates "to immerse (him) in the fire, in the blood of a kinsman", which is plausible; but the sense proposed above and in the glossary for "sencan" here ("thrust down to destruction, death, Hell, etc.") is well attested in Middle English (see MED s.v. 'sinken') and in several instances of 'besencan' in Old English (see DOE); it better explains the (instrumental) dative of "fyre" in the line.

Gen 2921 leofra: Krapp, following Grein, Wülker, and Holthause, emends to "leofre".

Gen 2932—2933 brynegield onhread,/ reccendne weg, rommes blode MS: "he adorned the burnt offering, the smoking altar, with the blood of the ram." Doane raises the objection that "weoh, wig" refers to an idol rather than an altar, but not every employment of this word is clearly a reference to one rather than the other, and such compounds as "wigbed" (altar) and "wigsteall" (altar precinct) show that the simplex could have the meaning "altar".

Gen 2935 ær and sið Holthausen: MS reads "sið and ær", which does not alliterate regularly. Grein, followed by most subsequent editors including Krapp, adds "sælða" at the end of the first half line to fix the alliteration. Doane leaves the line without proper alliteration.

Ex 145 ymbe antwig (Krapp): MS reads "ymb an twig." This is a notorious textual crux. Bouterwek interpreted "twig" as a reference to Aaron's rod; Dietrich suggested "ymb an wig"; Grein noted "andwig" (resistance) at Guth 147 (Bibliothek) and later suggested "anwig" (Germania 10 [1865]: 418). Kock ("Plain Points and Puzzles" 7) proposed to take the word "ða," pointed as the first word in the following half line, and emend to "antþigða" ("success"); Bammesberger (Anglia 93 [1975]: 140—144) suggested "andþingða," which Lucas rightly critiques as a paleographic stretch; Lucas less radically but also taking "ða" from the (pointed) next line proposes "antwigða" ("hesitation") which he derived from "ontweogan," but I am suspicious of the grammar, since this involves taking "ymb antwigða" together with "forgeton" rather than "grame" and DOE s.v. forgytan does not have any examples of "forgietan ymb" ("forget about"), which seems rather a calque on the modern expression. Krapp's emendation is not very satisfying, but it works and is minimally invasive.

Ex 146 heo: MS reads "heo heo".

Ex 151 hie (suggested by Grein): MS reads "he". Understanding a plural here means taking "gebohte" in the same line as a subjunctive plural without "-n" ending.

Ex 157 eoferholt Sedgefield: MS reads "oferholt," which Krapp retains, understanding "the covering or protecting wood" of shields, but the particle "holt" if it does not mean grove, forest, or wood-the-material (as probably in "holtwudu" at Beow 2340 despite Klaeber's gloss) is a reference to spears not shields, as Lucas points out, adducing also "eoforspreot" (Beow 1437) and the military protective uses of boar images.

Ex 161 on wæl hreopon (Clark Hall): MS reads "on hwæl hwreopan" with 'a' corrected to 'o' above the line. The scribal production here indicates both metrical and alliterational confusion: points surround 'hreowpan' as if it constituted a half-line, and the 'hw' spellings of 'hwæl' and 'hwreopan' seem intended to produce alliteration where there is none. The history of proposals for emendation here is lengthy but not very illuminating (see Krapp and Lucas for summaries). Most editors assume that something is missing, Lucas, for example, inserting "þa on heofonum hyrnednebba" to make an entire line after "onhwæl," which he takes to be a part of a verb "onhwelan", "cried out (with pleasurable anticipation)."

Ex 167 fyl (Kluge): MS reads "ful."

Ex 169 gehnæged (Bouterwek): MS reads "gehæged", which Blackburn takes to be a part of a verb "hægan", 'to hedge about', a suggestion Lucas rejects on philological grounds, preferring Grein's "genæged" ("attacked") as paleographically less of a stretch than Bouterwek's suggestion, which however has a slight advantage in sense.

Ex 176 wælhlencan (Bouterwek): MS reads "hwæl hlencan".

Ex 178 fyrdgetrum (Junius, likely as a misreading of the MS): MS reads "syrd getrum". onsegon (Dietrich): MS reads "onsigon".

Ex 186 ealde (Kluge): MS reads "eade", which many editors have taken as an adjective based on the noun ead meaning "rich, happy" (Irving); Lucas rightly doubts the existence of this adjective, which the editors of DOE do not list.

Ex 216 bemum (Thorpe): MS reads "benum".

Ex 253 beadohata (Sarrazin, Englische Studien 42 [1910], 19): MS "beohata" has been interpreted and emended in a variety of ways, for which see Krapp and Lucas. Sarrazin's argument that we need a parallel expression to "hildecalla" (252), especially if we follow Lucas and consider the person referred to by both epithets to be a separate person from Moses, is telling. Lucas's defence of his spelling "beodohata" on the ground that it is a Mercian form and makes haplography particularly likely is not particularly convincing in the light of "beadosearo" (540) and "beadumægnes" (329).

Ex 277 þeoden Blackburn: MS reads "þeod".

Ex 288 tid Holthausen: not in MS.

Ex 290 brim Thorpe: MS reads "bring".

Ex 291 span: Krapp, followed by Lucas, emits to "spaw" (threw up)."

Ex 307 hige: following Irving, I take this to be a spelling of "hie".

Ex 313 on orette on uncuð gelad Krapp: [Note and textual decision needed here.]

Sea 25 ne ænig Grein: MS reads "nænig", leaving the line without alliteration.

Sea 26 frefran Grein (Germania 10 [1865]: 422): MS reads "feran".

Sea 49 wlitigað MS: Krapp corrects to "wlitigiað", but this reflects a more scrupulous view of orthography than the standard that governs scribal activity in the Exeter Book.

Sea 52 gewitan suggested by Thorpe: MS reads "gewitað".

Sea 56 sefteadig Grein: MS reads "efteadig", which does not seem sensible in context. Thorpe suggested "esteadig" ("happy in luxuries") and was followed by many editors, including Krapp.

Sea 63 hwælweg suggested by Thorpe: MS reads "wæl weg".

Sea 67 stondað Ettmüller: MS reads "stondeð".

Sea 72 is Grein: not in MS.

Sea 75 fremum Sisam (Englische Studien 46 [1912—13]: 336): MS reads "fremman".

Sea 79 blæd Thorpe: MS reads "blæð".

Sea 82 nearon Grein: MS reads "næron", which Krapp retains, understanding it either as a form of the present or as perfect in sense: "there have not been (since that change)".

Sea 115 swiþre Grein: MS reads "swire".

Sea 117 second we Thorpe: MS reads "se".