The following text is from Irving Hexham's Concise Dictionary of Religion, first published by InterVarsity Press, Carol Stream, USA, 1994, second edition, Regent College Press, Vancouver, 1999.
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Copyright © Irving Hexham 1994, 1998
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For further information about the book and the sources used to compile this text see the PREFACE.
For a Religious Studies READING LIST
Cross-references are indicated by the use of CAPITAL LETTERS.
T'AI-CHI: a Chinese term for the FINAL CAUSE of all things.
T'AI-I: the supreme deity in TAOIST thought and a term synonymous with the TAO signifying the attempt to find the basic unity underlying the UNIVERSE.
T'AI SHAN: the most SACRED mountain in China.
TA HSÜEH: one of the Four CONFUCIAN classics which gives in succinct form the basic moral teachings of CONFUCIUS. Traditionally the author was said to be Tseng-tzu.
TABERNACLE: the SACRED tent of ANCIENT JUDAISM which came to be associated with the glory of GOD.
TABU: a Polynesian word referring to people or things which are forbidden because they are dangerous as a result of their SACRED NATURE or HOLY associations.
TABULA RASA: a Latin term meaning "blank tablet" used by the philosopher LOCKE to expresses his idea that at birth the mind is devoid of innate ideas.
TAGORE, Rabindranath (1861-1941): Bengali writer and poet whose book The Religions of Man (1931) expresses a broad HINDU HUMANISM.
TAMMUZ: the Mesopotamian GOD of vegetation who died and journeyed to the underworld. FRAZER argued that Tammuz was an example of a dying and rising God. Modern scholars, working with better textual materials, dispute this claim.
TANTRA: a HINDU term which originally referred to SACRED texts. In both HINDUISM and BUDDHISM it came to be understood as a means of attaining ENLIGHTENMENT through the use of MAGIC and RITUALS of a sexual nature.
TANTRIC BUDDHISM: that branch of BUDDHISM which developed TANTRA as an ESOTERIC system involving MAGIC and sexual practices believed to overcome desire by over indulgence.
TAO: a central CONCEPT for both CONFUCIAN and TAOIST thought meaning "the Way" and signifying the course of action, or road, men ought to follow in life.
TAOISM: the indigenous Chinese RELIGION which grew out of earlier SHAMANISM and magical CULTS combined with MYSTICAL elements in the PHILOSOPHY of LAO TZU and CHUANG TZU. It originally aimed at the realization of perfect happiness and the prolongation of life through unity with the TAO by practicing non-activity, non-interference, and humility while renouncing force, pride and self-assertion. The techniques used included ALCHEMY, ASCETICISM, health and dietary rules, a Chinese FORM of YOGA, MAGIC, petitionary PRAYER and the WORSHIP of powerful deities.
TAO TE CHING: the main philosophical text of TAOISM which combines philosophical speculation with MYSTICAL reflection. It was written about 250 B.C. as a polemic against CONFUCIANISM and realist PHILOSOPHIES.
TAO TSANG: the CANON of TAOISM which contains over 1,120 books: the date and authorship are generally unknown. They use ESOTERIC language and were first collected together around 745 B.C. for use by initiates.
TAT TVAN ASI: a MANTRA in HINDUISM and SANSKRIT phrase meaning "Thou Art That" which sums up the essential message of the Chndogya Upanishad that the true ESSENCE of the UNIVERSE and individual SOUL are identical. "Tat" refers to BRAHMAN or the ABSOLUTE while "Tvam" means the TMAN, or individual, thus indicating the essential unity of the part to the whole.
TATAGATA: a term used by the BUDDHA to refer to himself which literally means "He who has come" or "Who has gone." Although there is no agreement as to its exact MEANING, BUDDHIST commentators give literally hundreds of explanations.
TAWHID: a disputed MUSLIM doctrine which probably means that GOD is without equal. It was used by MYSTICS to refer to the unity of God and the experience of ECSTASY during MEDITATION.
TAYLOR, James Hudson (1832-1905): British PLYMOUTH BRETHREN missionary to China who adopted local dress and pioneered living with the people. Finding no MISSIONARY SOCIETY willing to back his unconventional methods, he founded the China Inland Mission in 1865 as a FAITH MISSION. His example inspired many similar missionary movements and the new ideals of PIETY based on the FAITH principle including such GROUPS as L'Abri.
TAYLOR, Jeremy (1613-1667): English theologian and MYSTIC whose works The Rule and Exercise of Holy Living (1650) and Holy Dying (1651), did much to maintain the mystical TRADITION in ANGLICANISM.
TE: the Chinese character signifying VIRTUE.
TE DEUM: an ancient CHRISTIAN HYMN praising GOD.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, Pierre (1881-1955): French JESUIT whose writings on RELIGION and EVOLUTION made him a CULT figure in the 1960s. His dubious involvement with the PILKDOWN MAN and pro-FASCIST sympathies, however, cast a dark shadow over his academic achievements.
TELEOLOGY: derived from the Greek words telos and logos it means end or goal and is used generally to refer to the adaption of means to ends or specifically to that branch of PHILOSOPHY concerned with ends or final causes.
TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT: an inductive argument from observations about the presence of purpose and apparent design in the UNIVERSE to a designer or GOD who created order in the universe. The best known example of this argument is PALEY'S ANALOGY of the watch which begins by assuming that someone who has never seen a clockwork watch before accidentally discovers one. Paley goes on to say that after careful examination of the design and operation of the watch, any reasonable person would conclude that the watch was man made, therefore, he reasons, anyone who carefully observes the UNIVERSE must ultimately reach the conclusion that it displays characteristics indicating the presence of a mind behind its design. Although strongly attacked by David HUME, this FORM of argument has been revived recently by a number of statisticians and astrophysicists.
TELEOLOGICAL: related to a purpose or a designated end.
TEMPLARS: a MONASTIC Order of medieval knights founded in 1118 by Hugh de Payens to protect PILGRIMS visiting the HOLY LAND. They became very influential and wealthy and this led to rivalry with other Orders and eventually to charges of immorality and heresy and eventually suppression by King Phillip of France and the POPE in 1312.
TEMPLE: a HOLY building used for RITUAL SACRIFICE.
TEMPLE, William (1881-1944): English theologian and philosopher who became ARCHBISHOP of CANTERBURY and had a passionate interest in SOCIAL JUSTICE. His books include Nature, Man and God (1934) and Christianity and the Social Order (1942).
TENDAI BUDDHISM: the leading Japanese school of BUDDHISM founded by Dengyo Daishi in 805, on the basis of the LOTUS SUTRA and centered on the Monastery at Mount Hiei near Kyoto, teaching that the historical BUDDHA is a manifestation of the eternal BUDDHA-NATURE which is the fundamental ESSENCE of the UNIVERSE. As a result the Buddha becomes an object of FAITH enabling individuals to realize their own ultimate Buddha-nature thus attaining ENLIGHTENMENT.
TENGALAI: followers of RAMANUJA who emphasized his teachings about divine GRACE, known as the "Cat-principle" and adhered to non-VEDIC SCRIPTURES known as the Prambandham or collected poems of the lvrs. The greatest SAINT of the SECT is Varavara Muni who is regarded as an AVATAR of Ramunuja.
TENRI-KYO: a MODERN branch of SHINTO which emphasizes educational, MISSIONARY, and SOCIAL work. It was founded by two female SHAMAN, a peasant named Kino and a housewife Nakayama Miki. Both women appear to have had a vivid religious experiences which transformed their lives leading to the formation of this Shint REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT. The teachings of the GROUP show CHRISTIAN and BUDDHIST influences and in many ways resemble CHRISTIAN SCIENCE. Human SOULS are part of GOD with the implication that we create our own GOOD and EVIL. Evil is overcome by turning it into good through a process of SALVATION which establishes communication with GOD through PURIFICATION and religious RITUALS.
TERESA OF ÁVILA (1515-1582): Italian ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN, religious reformer and MYSTIC whose works The Way of Perfection, Book of Foundations, The Interior Castle and her autobiographical Life are considered among the great classics of MYSTICAL writings.
TERMINUS A QUO: Latin term for a starting point from which measurement begins.
TERMINUS AD QUEM: Latin term for an end point where measurement ends.
TERTIUM QUID: Latin term for a mediating alternative between the beginning and end points which is sometimes chosen when people are presented with a dilemma.
TERTULLIAN, Quintus Septimius Florens (160-225): one of the founders of African CHRISTIANITY, apologist, and theologian. It is often claimed that he became a MONTANIST but no contemporary evidence, from his own writings or other sources, exist to substantiate the charge beyond his attempts to defend the Montanists from persecution. His Greek works have not survived, but thirty-one Latin works remain, making his writings the first significant Corpus of CHRISTIAN Latin literature.
THALES OF MILETUS (640-546 B.C.): the "Father" of Greek PHILOSOPHY who achieved fame when he predicted the solar eclipse of 586 B.C. He argued that water is the origin of everything and the basic substance of the UNIVERSE.
THEISM: BELIEF in a personal GOD who is the sole CREATOR and ruler of the UNIVERSE and everything that exists. It is a system of thought that assumes the EXISTENCE of one unified and perfect BEING who although distinguished from the COSMOS, is its source and the power which continues to sustain and providentially guide the universe.
THEODICY: derived from two Greek words meaning "deity" and "justice" it refers to attempts to justify the goodness of GOD in the face of the manifold EVIL in the world.
THEOLOGY: from the Greek words theos, meaning deity, and logos or discourse means the study of GOD, the SACRED or divine and covers the entire range of issues concerning relationship of humans to God. Traditionally it refers to the CHRISTIAN enterprise of presenting a systematic, RATIONAL explanation and justification of FAITH through the use of CONCEPTS derived from PHILOSOPHY and LOGIC.
THEOPHANY: the temporal and spatial manifestation of GOD or the divine in some tangible form.
THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY: founded in New York City in 1875 by a Russian SPIRITUALIST, Helena Petrovna BLAVATSKY and Henry Olcott (1832-1907). The Theosophical Society promotes COMPARATIVE RELIGION, MAGIC and ESOTERIC MYSTICISM. In 1878 the founders moved to India where they established the international headquarters of the movement. After their death their British CONVERT, the former FREE THINKER, Annie BESANT, became the movement's leader which led to the promotion of KRISHNAMURTI as the new VATAR. When he rejected this role and repudiated THEOSOPHY the movement suffered a blow from which it has scarcely recovered. Nevertheless it remains important today because of its influence on the growth of Indian NATIONALISM, individuals like GANDHI, the COUNTER CULTURE of the 1960s and the NEW AGE MOVEMENT.
THEOSOPHY: a MYSTICAL TRADITION propagated by the THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. Theosophy is a FORM of MONISM which teaches spiritual EVOLUTION and seeks REALITY through mystical experience based on finding ESOTERIC MEANINGS in the SACRED writings of the world.
THERAVADA BUDDHISM: known as the "Lesser Vehicle" because of its strict interpretation of the BUDDHIST CANON and emphasis upon the MONASTIC Order the SANGHA. It is the main rival to MAHAYNA BUDDHISM and is dominant in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand and Cambodia. Arising as a result of controversy over the role of the Laity in the fourth century B.C. it claims to preserve the authentic teachings of the BUDDHA and to be the oldest and purest FORM of Buddhism. The Theravdn tradition began to take shape with the second BUDDHIST COUNCIL in 250 B.C. but took its classical form between the fifth and tenth centuries. When Buddhism was first encountered by the West in the nineteenth century it was this tradition which at first gained recognition because of its apparent RATIONALITY and essentially supposed modern rejection of the SUPERNATURAL.
THETAN: the SOUL or essential spiritual being of each individual in the teachings of SCIENTOLOGY
THOMAS á KEMPIS (1380-1471): medieval Dutch MYSTIC whose work The Imitation of Christ continues to inspire many CHRISTIANS to PIETY and devotion.
THOMAS, GOSPEL OF: an APOCRYPHAL Coptic text found at NAG HAMMADI which claims to contain 114 "sayings" of JESUS. The document dates from the fifth century and is generally regarded as a late gnostic manuscript although an earlier edition of the text may go back to the second century.
THOMAS, M. M. (?): Indian CHRISTIAN theologian, SOCIOLOGIST, philosopher whose provocative books The Acknowledged Christ of the Indian Renaissance and The Christian Response to the Asian Revolution (1966) saw GOD acting in SECULAR HISTORY and made a big impact on MISSIONARY thinking.
THOMPSON, Francis (1859-1907): minor English poet remembered for his poem "The Hound of Heaven" (1893).
THOREAU, Henry David (1817-1862): American TRANSCENDENTALIST philosopher whose reflections on self-sufficiency in his book Walden (1854), and FAITH have greatly influenced POSITIVE THINKING and WORD OF FAITH type CHRISTIAN movements.
THUCYDIDES (450-400 B.C.?): Athenian general and the founder of written HISTORY and author of The Peloponesian War and A History of the War Between Athens and Sparta 431-404 B.C.
TIBETAN BUDDHISM: after the failure of BUDDHISM in India during the twelfth century, Tibetan Monks became the main inheritors of the Indian BUDDHIST TRADITION preserving many ancient documents and practices which were rejected by THERAVDN Buddhism in the South. From Tibet, Buddhism spread to China, Korea and Japan where the MAHYNA TRADITION flourished to produce PURE LAND, ZEN and a host of other Schools. In Tibet itself a THEOCRATIC government was established and TANTRA flourished. Tibetan Buddhism spread to the West in the 1950s following the Chinese Communist invasion of Tibet.
T'IEN-T'AI: an influential branch of Chinese BUDDHISM founded in the sixth century by CHIH-I which based its teachings on the LOTUS SUTRA and the teachings of NAGARJUNA who emphasized the totality of BEING thus identifying the parts with the whole. It declined as a result of persecution in the ninth century but not before it has spread its message to Korea and Japan.
TILLICH, Paul (1886-1965): German/American, philosopher-theologian who was involved in the German religious-SOCIALIST movement before opposition to Hitler and National SOCIALISM led to his dismissal from the University of Frankfurt in 1933. In the United States, where he taught at Union Theological Seminary, Tillich's work combined PLATONISM, medieval MYSTICISM, German IDEALISM and EXISTENTIALISM. His best known books are Systematic Theology (1963), The Courage to Be (1952) and Theology of Culture (1959).
TIPIAKA [TRIPIAKA - Sanskrit]: the PALI CANON of BUDDHIST SCRIPTURE. The name means "Three Baskets" and refers to the threefold division of texts into the VINAYA-PIAKA or narratives; SUTTA-PIAKA or dialogues and discourses; and the ADHIDHAMMA-PITAKA or popular APOLOGETIC and doctrinal works.
TIRTHANKARAS: literally "the ford makers" who show the way to LIBERATION. This is the title of the 24 great teachers of JAINISM.
TOCQUEVILLE, Alex de (1805-1859): French HISTORIAN and statesman whose book Democracy in America (1835) questions the relationship between RELIGION and politics in America and qualifies him as one of the founders of SOCIOLOGY.
TOLAND, John (1670-1722): Irish writer whose book Christianity Not Mysterious (1696) is generally regarded as the classic statement of DEISM. He coined the term PANTHEISM to describe SPINOZA'S view that GOD and can be identified with NATURE.
TOLEDOTH YESHU: a medieval JEWISH document whose Hebrew title means "The History of Jesus." It claims that JESUS was the illegitimate son of MARY by a Roman soldier and that his MIRACLES were the result of black MAGIC.
TOLSTOY, Leo, (1828-1910): Russian Count, SOCIAL REFORMER and author best known for his classic novels such as War and Peace (1864-1869) and Anna Karenina (1873-1877). A MYSTIC who sought GOD and rejected such TRADITIONAL CHRISTIAN doctrines as the INCARNATION and RESURRECTION, his religious works such as What I Believe (1882) and What Then Must We Do? (1886) have exercised a profound influence on many modern thinkers including GANDHI.
TORII: the distinguishing feature of SHINT TEMPLES consisting of a gate frame representing bird perches that are a SYMBOL of birds invoking the return of the Sun Goddess.
TORQUEMADA, Tomás de (1420-1498): the Spanish GRAND INQUISITOR responsible for the death of about 2,000 Spanish MUSLIMS and JEWS and causing untold suffering to many people whom he expelled from Spain.
TOTAL DEPRAVITY: a commonly misunderstood CHRISTIAN doctrine taught by LUTHER and CALVIN but first formulated at the SYNOD OF DORT which teaches that humans are unable by their own efforts to please GOD and therefore entirely rely on His GRACE for SALVATION. It is based upon the NEW TESTAMENT and is seen as essential to the doctrine of JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH.
TOTEMISM: a name given by Native American Ojibwa people to their ideas and RITUAL practices linking men and animals in a COSMOLOGICAL drama. It was applied by nineteenth century scholars to religious systems which teach that men and the natural world are linked by psychic forces.
TOYNBEE, Arnold Joseph (1889-1975): English philosopher of HISTORY and author of the multi-volume A Study of History (1934-1961) which sets out to find a pattern in historical events. In real life his loyalties swung from Marxism to Fascism to ROMAN CATHOLICISM throwing doubt on his ability to stand apart from historical events to see a greater whole.
TRACTARIANISM: the name given to the OXFORD MOVEMENT as a result of the publication of TRACTS FOR THE TIMES.
TRACTS FOR THE TIMES: a series of pamphlets published in the 1830s intended to restore medieval PIETY and a FORM of ROMAN CATHOLICISM, without the POPE, to the CHURCH OF ENGLAND: associated with NEWMAN and PUSEY. They came to a sudden end in 1841 with the storm produced by Newman's Tract 90 which was too overtly ROMAN CATHOLIC.
TRADITION: that which is handed over or passed on from the past as distinct from modern ideas and theories. It denotes a class of actions motivated by specific perceptions, thoughts and BELIEFS held together by some principle of development. Nevertheless, the reasons for such behavior are to be found in the perceptions of the importance of the act and not in a THEORY justifying it. Traditions are shared by SOCIAL GROUPS which, in turn, are shaped by them as they create a climate of shared expectations.
TRADITION DIRECTION: David Riesman's term identifying people socialized in TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES outside of Western Europe and North America prior to the PROTESTANT REFORMATION. For this type of person, Riesman argues, tradition motivates and guides action with the result that shame rather than guilt controls their ethical behavior and outlook.
TRADITIONAL: following in a TRADITION.
TRADITIONAL RELIGION: those religions, usually of relatively small and isolated SOCIAL GROUPS, which rely upon ORAL TRADITIONS and follow a pattern established over generations without major or conscious input from the great world religions of the ABRAMIC and YOGIC TRADITIONS. The term applies to most African religions as well as North American Native religions and the religions of Polynesia.
TRADITIONALIST: someone who rigidly follows a TRADITION.
TRANSCENDENCE: from the Latin meaning "to surpass" or "go beyond." In general the term is used in three ways: to designate any ideal, thing or BEING that "stands over against" the knowing subject; to signify that which stands "over against" all FINITE being such as GOD; and to designate certain CATEGORIES that necessarily characterize any conceivable or possible being.
TRANSCENDENT: existing prior to, independent of, and exalted over the UNIVERSE of space and time.
TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION: was the first really successful NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT of the 1960s which emerged from HINDUISM as a therapy type GROUP offering psychological well-being. It is also known as TM. The founder, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, denied that TM was a RELIGION thus enabling his movement to appeal to a wide spectrum of people, who might otherwise have ignored his teachings, and to apply for American Government funding, and other forms of assistance. Taken to Court in 1978, TM was found to be a religion under the terms of American law. It teaches a simplified FORM of YOGA, practices INITIATION with OCCULT overtones using MANTRAS in SANSKRIT which appear to invoke various HINDU deities. At the request of the organization's lawyer it needs to be stated that the terms "Transendental Meditation" and "TM" are the protected service marks of Maharishi Foundation, Ltd.
TRANSCENDENTALISM: growing out of UNITARIANISM in the 1830s it became one of the nineteenth centuries most influential religious movements in America. Associated with EMERSON and THOREAU with intellectual roots in German ROMANTICISM and writers like GOETHE, COLERIDGE and CARLYLE it preached extreme INDIVIDUALISM, LIBERALISM and a PANTHEISTIC view of GOD. Promoting MYSTICISM and an interest in YOGIC religionsm, transcendentalism contributed to the rise of many modern NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS.
TRANSMIGRATION: a FORM of METEMPSYCHOSIS or REBIRTH which teaches that at death the SOUL leaves the body to be reborn in another body as a baby. It is closely associated and often confused with REINCARNATION.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION: the ROMAN CATHOLIC dogma teaching that during the MASS the substance of the elements of bread and wine are transformed by GOD'S power into the substance of the body and blood of JESUS CHRIST by the words of the priestly consecration.
TRENT, COUNCIL OF: the great ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Council held intermittently between 1545 and 1563 which provided the definitive definition of CATHOLICISM in reaction to the PROTESTANT REFORMATION. The Council affirmed the equal validity of TRADITION and SCRIPTURE as sources of religious TRUTH, the sole AUTHORITY of the CHURCH to interpret the BIBLE, the institution of seven SACRAMENTS which are necessary for SALVATION, denied the Protestant understanding of JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH. Efforts were initiated to REFORM the CHURCH and Protestant DOCTRINES were condemned for HERESY.
TRI-RATNA: the "Three Jewels" of BUDDHISM which are the BUDDHA, the DHARMA and the SAGHA. In popular PIETY they form a chant "To the Buddha for refuge I go; To the Dharma for refuge I go; To the Sagha for refuge I go..." giving them the alternate name of the Three Refuges.
TRINITY: a CHRISTIAN doctrine formulated in the fourth century with roots in the NEW TESTAMENT and EARLY CHURCH. Defining ORTHODOXY and HERESY it is based upon what the BIBLE teaches about the relationship between the creator GOD, referred to as GOD the Father, the person of JESUS OF NAZARETH, or the CHRIST, and the HOLY SPIRIT. Teaching that there is but One GOD who exists from ETERNITY, it seeks to explain BIBLE references to the Father, Son and HOLY SPIRIT as divine BEINGS. The classical Western formula is: "three PERSONS in one SUBSTANCE" while Eastern Christians say "three HYPOSTASIS in one BEING." A mystery that is accepted by Christians as the only way to harmonize various Biblical teachings. Many attempts have been made to explain the Trinity in terms of analogies involving clover leaves, the appearance of water as ice, liquid and steam, and the mind body relationship.
TROELTSCH, Ernst (1865-1923): LIBERAL German theologian who devoted him energies to the problems raised for RELIGION by the scientific method applied to HISTORY and the question of CHRISTIANITY an CULTURE. He denied that dogmatic THEOLOGY has access to ABSOLUTE TRUTH and was intensely concerned with SOCIAL and political questions. His most famous work is The Social Teaching of the Christian Church (1912).
TROTSKYITE: followers of Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) and radical Marxism.
TRUTH: that which is true. The quality of being correct or in some way confirmed by REALITY. The EXISTENCE of truth and/or the possibility of our knowing it has been denied by a variety of thinkers from ancient SOPHISTS to modern RELATIVISTS. Two major theories of truth have dominated Western philosophy: the COHERENCE THEORY which states that truth is known by its coherence within a system of ideas, while the CORRESPONDENCE THEORY sees truth as corresponding to an external REALITY. Other theories of truth include PRAGMATISM, that which works is true; and various SCIENTIFIC theories of involving experimentation and VERIFICATION or the ideas of POPPER based on falsification rather than verification.
TURNER, Witter Victor (1920-1986): leading British social ANTHROPOLOGIST and CONVERT to ROMAN CATHOLICISM who wrote extensively on religious themes. His The Forest of Symbols (1967) and The Ritual Process (1969) are important contributions to the interpretation of symbolism and RITUAL.
TWICE BORN: the Three Upper CASTES in HINDUISM who undergo full initiation into the community and receive the SACRED "thread."
TYCHE: the Greek CONCEPT of chance personified as a Goddess.
TYLOR, Edward Burnett, Sir (1832-1917): English "armchair ANTHROPOLOGIST" who coined the term ANIMISM in his book Primitive Culture (1871) to describe the RELIGION of many non-literate peoples. He became the first professor of ANTHROPOLOGY at the University of Oxford in 1884 making him one of the founders of the academic discipline.
TYNDALE, William (1494-1536): English BIBLE translator who was burnt at the stake after torture for his attempts to give the BIBLE to ordinary people.
TYRRELL, George (1861-1909): Irish ROMAN CATHOLIC theologian and MODERNIST whose book Christianity at the Cross Roads (1909) suggested that CHRISTIANITY might be a stepping stone towards the establishment of a new global RELIGION.