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Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.

American Indians: United States
First Nations: Canada
Youth Study Results: "Attempting Suicide"


Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

"American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention" Website

"Honouring Life Network," Canada: Aboriginal Youth Suicide


"Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention," USA

Page Index

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results by 'Race': 1991

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results by 'Race': 1993, 1995, 1997, 1997: Frank & Lester (2002); 1993-1997; 1991-1997: "Attempted Suicide" Molina & Duerte (2006); 1991-1997: "Attempted Suicide & Received Related Medical Care" Molina & Duerte (2006)

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Suicidality" Results - AI/AN vs. White - 1997 to 2003 - by Rutman et al. (2008)

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Suicidality" Results - AI/AN vs. White, African American, Latino/Hispanic - 2003-2007 - by Pavkow et al. (2010)

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results by 'Race': 1999, 2001, 2003, 1999-2003

CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results by 'Race': 1998: Alternate Schools.


Oregon Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results by 'Race': 1999

The Washington State 2004 Healthy Youth Survey: 2004 - Random Subsample, Total Sample

Minnesota Student Survey: 2004, Grade 9, Grade 12, Alternate Schools, Red Lake School District

Minnesota Student Survey: 2004, The Eisenberg & Resnick (2006) Suicidality Results for Males Given on the Basis of Males Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Intercourse in the Past 12 Months. Suicidality Results Are Not Given on the Basis of 'Race'/Ethnicity.

Montana Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results (American Indian / All 'Race' Groups Together): 2003, 2005

Montana 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Comparative Suicidality Results.

Montana 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Comparative Suicidality Results.

Montana 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students On or Near a Reservation: Trend Report: Suicidality - 1997 to 2009.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Funded Schools' Youth Risk Behavior Surveys "Attempted Suicide" Results (American Indians): 1997 & 2001

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health - Suicide Ideation / Attempt Results (American Indian / White): 1995

Summary of "Attempted Suicide" National Study Results:  American Indian versus White Counterparts


"Attempted Suicide" National Adolescent Study Results
Summary: American Indian Versus White Counterparts

Study
Males: Incidence
AI vs. White
RR
Females: Incidence
AI vs. White
RR
Males/Females:
Incidence
AI vs. White
RR
CDC 1991
11.1 v 3.3%
3.4
15.2 v 10.8%
1.4


CDC 1993
14.3 v 4.8%
3.0
23.4 v 11.0%
2.2


CDC 1995
31.0 v 5.5%
5.6
29.4 v 12.4%
2.3


CDC 1997
22.4 v 4.0% 5.5
32.2 v 10.5%
3.1


1993-1997 22.5 v 4.8%
4.7
28.6 v 11.3%
2.5


1991-1997
18.8 v 4.4%
4.3
26.0 v 11.1
2.3


CDC 1999
9.1 v 4.4%
2.1
23.3 v 9.1%
2.6


CDC 2001
16.5 v 4.9%
3.4
18.7 v 9.8%
1.9


CDC 2003
17.9 v 4.3%
4.2
15.4 v 10.3%
1.5


1999-2003
14.5 v 4.4%
3.2
19.1 v 9.7%
2.0


BIA 1997
11.2 v 4.4%*
2.5
17.8 v 9.7%*
1.8


BIA 2001
12.2 v 4.4%*
2.8
19.3 v 9.7%*
2.0


ADOL.
HEALTH





6.2 v 3.4%
1.8
*Survey of American Indians on Reservations. Risk Ratios calculated by comparing with the National CDC "Attempted Suicide" results with their white counterparts during the years 1999 to 2003.



National CDC 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
84/2,570: 3.3%

262/2,432: 10.8%

Native American
5/45: 11.1%
3.4
5/33: 15.2% 1.4
Other 29/241: 12.0%
3.6
24/163: 14.7%
1.4
Hispanic
66/1,303: 5.1%
1.5
188/1,481: 12.7%
1.2
Black / African American
33/1,047: 3.2%
0.97
110/1,374: 8.0%
0.74
Asian/Pacific Islander
14/181: 7.7%
2.3
30/193: 15.5%
1.4
Source: CDC (1991): 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



National CDC 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
149/3,103: 4.8%

354/3,224: 11.0%

Native American
12/84: 14.3%
3.0
18/74: 24.3% 2.2
Other 29/241: 12.0%
2.5
46/211: 21.8%
2.0
Hispanic
169/2,083: 8.1%
1.7
393/2,149: 18.3%
1.7
Black / African American
79/1,509: 5.2%
1.1
198/1,724: 11.5%
1.0
Asian/Pacific Islander
12/254: 4.7%
0.98
41/251: 16.3%
1.5
Source: CDC (1993): 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



National CDC 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
123/2,252: 5.5%

247/1,948: 12.5%

Native American
13/42: 31.0%
5.6
10/24: 29.4% 2.3
Other 9/147: 6.1%
1.1
32/158: 20.3%
1.6
Hispanic
69/977: 7.1%
1.3
182/1,041: 17.5%
1.4
Black / African American
55/1,270: 4.3%
0.78
183/1,722: 10.6%
0.85
Asian/Pacific Islander
9/140: 6.4%
1.2
11/99: 11.1%
0.89
Source: CDC (1995): 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Male and Females Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.


National CDC 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
113/2,823: 4.0%

253/2,401: 10.5%

Native American
14/63: 22.2%
5.5
19/59: 32.2% 3.1
Other 23/295: 7.8%
1.9
60/341: 17.6%
1.7
Hispanic
131/1,955: 6.7%
1.7
344/2,181: 15.8%
1.5
Black / African American
90/1,746: 5.2%
1.3
212/2,181: 9.7%
0.92
Asian/Pacific Islander
18/304: 5.9%
1.5
40/296: 13.5%
1.3
Source: CDC (1997): 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



The National CDC 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
White / Black-African American / 
Native American
Males / Females:
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
'Race' Group
Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
4.0%

9.7%

Black / African American
5.2%

10.5%
Native American 22.2%
5.6
32.2%
3.3
Source: Frank & Lester (2002)
Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males or females for having attempted suicide,
compared to their White counterparts.


Frank ML, Lester D (2002). Self-Destructive Behaviors in American Indian and Alaska Native High School Youth. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 10(3): 24-32. Internet: http://www.uchsc.edu/ai/ncaianmhr/pdf_files/10(3).pdf .


CDC 1993-1997 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Incidences: 1993-97
Average - Males
Risk
Ratios
Incidences: 1993-97
Average -
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
4.0, 5.5, 4.8%:
4.8%

10.5, 12.5, 11.0%:
11.3%

Native American
22.2, 31.0, 14.3%:
22.5%*
4.7*
32.2, 29.4, 24.3%:
28.6%
2.5
Other 7.8, 6.1, 12.0%:
8.6%
1.8
17.6, 20.3, 21.8%:
19.9%
1.8
Hispanic
6.7, 7.1, 8.1%:
7.3%
1.5
15.8, 17.5, 18.3%:
18.4%
1.6
Black / African American
5.2, 4.3, 5.2%:
4.9%
1.0
9.7, 10.6, 11.5%:
10.6%
0.94
Asian/Pacific Islander
5.9, 6.4, 4.7%:
5.7%
1.2
13.5, 11.1, 16.3%:
13.6%
1.2

Source
: CDC (1993, 95, 97): 1993, 1995, 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Data Sets.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,  Compared to White Counterparts.
Statistical Results Calculated by Author. *Calculations based on combining the 3 data sets into one data set produces a 20.6% "attempted suicide" incidence for Native American males versus4.7% (White males), Risk Ratio = 4.4, 95% CI: 3.3, 5.9, p = 0.0000



CDC 1991-1997 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
%F
Incidences: 1993-97
Average - Males
%F = 49.3%
Risk
Ratios
Incidences: 1993-97
Average -
Females
%F = 50.7%
Risk
Ratios
White
39.6%
4.36%

11.12%

Native American
0.90%
18.80%
4.3
26.00%
2.3
Other ?
?
?
?
Hispanic
26.5%
6.89%
1.6
16.16%
1.4
Black / African American
26.2%
4.61%
1.1
10.04%
0.90
Asian/Pacific Islander
?
?
?
?
Source: Molina & Duarte (2006) - CDC 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Data Sets Combined (N = 55,734, but a lesser number replied to suicidality questions.).
Risk Ratios
: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,  Compared to White Counterparts. Risk Ratios Calculated by Author of Web Page. 


Molina JA, Duarte R (2006) . Risk Determinants of Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 65(2): 407-434. Abstract. Full Text.



CDC 1991-1997 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide & Receiving related medical Care
 In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
%F
Incidences: 1993-97
Average - Males
%F = 49.3%
Risk
Ratios
Incidences: 1993-97
Average -
Females
%F = 50.7%
Risk
Ratios
White
39.6%
1.41%

3.12%

Native American
0.90%
6.41%
4.5
7.50%
2.4
Other ?
?
?
?
Hispanic
26.5%
2.00%
1.4
3.99%
1.3
Black / African American
26.2%
1.66%
1.2
3.35%
1.1
Asian/Pacific Islander
?
?
?
?
Source: Molina & Duarte (2006) - CDC 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Data Sets Combined (N = 55,734, but a lesser number replied to suicidality questions.).
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide & Having Received Related Medical Care in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,  Compared to White Counterparts. Risk Ratios Calculated by Author of Web Page. 

Molina JA, Duarte R (2006). Risk Determinants of Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 65(2): 407-434. Abstract. Full Text.



CDC 1997-2003 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
American Indian / Alaska Native vs. White Adolescents
Suicidality Variables, Past Year
Categories
American Indian
Alaska Native
%, 95% CI
Whites
%, 95% CI
Odds Ratio
Seriously Considered
Suicide
27.9 (22.2, 34.3)
18.4 (17.4, 19.5)
1.7
Made A Plan To
Commit Suicide
25.2 (19.7, 31.7)
14.0 (13.0, 15.0) 2.1 *
Attempted
Suicide
20.7 (15.3, 27.3)
6.8 (6.1, 7.5)
3.6 *
Atttempted Suicide,
Resulting Injury
10.9 (6.9, 16.8)
1.9 (1.7, 2.2)
6.3 *
Source: Rutman et al. (2008) - * Statistically Significant.



Rutman S, Park A, Castor M, Taualii M, Forquera R (2008). Urban American Indian and Alaska Native youth: youth risk behavior survey 1997-2003. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12 Suppl 1: 76-81. Abstract. Related 2006 Conference Presentation: Recorded Presentation.


CDC 1997-2003 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
American Indian / Alaska Native vs. White,
African American & Hispanic/Latino Adolescents
Suicidality Variables, Past Year

Categories
American Indian
Alaska Native
White
African
American
Hispanic/
Latino
Seriously Considered
Suicide
23.08%
15.79%
p < 0.0001
* RR: 1.46
12.31%
p < 0.000
RR: 1.87
16.45%
p < 0.0013
RR: 1.40
Made A Plan To
Commit Suicide
19.06%
13.33%
P < 0.0032
RR: 1.43
9.64%
p < 0.0001
RR: 1.98
14.92%
p = ns
RR: 1.28
Attempted
Suicide
16.40%
6.55%
p < 0.000
RR: 2.50
7.81%
p < 0.000
RR: 2.10
10.13%
p < 0.000
RR: 1.62
Atttempted Suicide,
Resulting Injury:
% of Attempters
27.87%
27.10%
p = ns
34.70%
p = ns
35.61%
p = ns
** Atttempted Suicide,
Resulting Injury
Aboslute Percentage
4.57%
1.78%
RR: 2.57
p < 0.05?
2.71
RR: 1.69
p < 0.05?
3.61
RR: 1.27
p = ns?
Source: Pavkow et al. (2010)
* RR: Risk Ratio Calculated by Webpage Author From Given Percentages
. American Indian vs. Specified Group.
ns = Not Statically Significant.
** Percentages Calculated by Webpage Author: Attepted Suicide % Multiplies by  Injury %



Pavkov TW, Travis L, Fox KA, King CB, Cross TL (2010). Tribal youth victimization and delinquency: analysis of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey data. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2): 123-34. Abstract. Full Text. Related 2009 Conference Presentation.



National CDC 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
107/2,439: 4.4%

242/2,656: 9.1%

Native American
5/55: 9.1%
2.1
7/30: 23.3% 2.6
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
12/77: 15.6%
3.5
14/77: 18.2%
2.0
Mixed 'Race': Hispanic 16/216: 7.4%
1.7
41/247: 16.6%
1.8
Mixed 'Race': Non-Hispanic 14/215: 8.5%
1.9
47/273: 17.2%
1.9
Hispanic
109/1,551: 7.0%
1.6
250/1,586: 15.8%
1.7
Black / African American
74/1,619: 4.6%
1.0
162/1,871: 8.7%
0.96
Asian
13/259: 5.0%
1.1
32/283: 11.3%
1.2
Native American: Mixed 'Race'
?
?
?
?
Source: CDC (1999): 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



National CDC 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
143/2,889: 4.9%

295/3,011: 9.8%

Native American
16/97: 16.5%
3.4
17/91: 18.7% 1.9
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
5/60: 8.3%
1.7
13/52: 25.0%
2.5
Mixed 'Race': Hispanic 15/136: 11.0%
2.2
28/176: 15.9%
1.6
Mixed 'Race': Non-Hispanic 14/139: 10.1%
2.1
27/189: 14.3%
1.5
Hispanic
85/1,218: 7.0%
1.4
204/1,293: 15.8%
1.6
Black / African American
71/915: 7.8%
1.6
110/1,142: 9.6%
0.98
Asian
13/189: 6.9%
1.4
21/173: 12.1%
1.2
Native American: Mixed 'Race'
?
?
?
?
Source: CDC (2001): 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



National CDC 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
133/3,091: 4.3%

312/3,035: 10.3%

Native American
12/67: 17.9%
4.2
10/65: 15.4% 1.5
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
7/43: 17.3%
4.0
6/33: 18.2%
1.8
Mixed 'Race': Hispanic 12/165: 7.3%
1.7
25/181: 13.8%
1.3
Mixed 'Race': Non-Hispanic 21/144: 14.6%
3.4
22/169: 13.0%
1.3
Hispanic
84/1,453: 5.8%
1.3
221/1,468: 15.1%
1.5
Black / African American
79/1,254: 6.3%
1.5
132/1,520: 8.7%
0.84
Asian
17/184: 9.2%
2.1
21/162: 13.0%
1.3
Native American: Mixed 'Race'
?
?
?
?
Source: CDC (2003): 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Male and Females Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.



CDC 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females: Grades 9 - 12
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Incidences: 1999-03
Average - Males

Risk
Ratios
Incidences: 1999-03
Average - Females
Risk
Ratios
White
4.3, 4.9, 4.4%:
4.5%

10.3, 9.8, 9.1%:
9.7%

Native American
17.9, 16.5, 9.1%:
14.5%*
3.2*
15.4, 18.7, 23.3%:
19.1%
2.0
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
17.3, 8.3, 15.6%:
13.7%**
3.0**
18.2, 25.0, 18.2%:
20.5%
2.1
Mixed 'Race': Hispanic 7.3, 11.0, 7.4%:
8.6%
1.9
13.8, 15.9, 16.6%:
15.4%
1.6
Mixed 'Race': Non-Hispanic 14.6, 10.1, 8.5%:
11.1%
2.5
13.0, 14.3, 17.2%:
14.8%
1.5
Hispanic
5.8, 7.0, 7.0%:
6.6%
1.5
15.1, 15.8, 15.8%:
15.6%
1.6
Black / African American
6.3, 7.8, 4.6%:
6.2%
1.4
8.7, 9.6, 8.7%:
9.0%
0.93
Asian
9.2, 6.9, 5.0%:
7.0
1.5
13.0, 12.1, 11.3%:
12.1%
1.2
Native American: Mixed 'Race'
?
?
?
?

Source
: CDC (1999, 01, 03): 1999, 2001, 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Data Sets. - Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups, Compared to White Counterparts.
Statistical Results Calculated by Author. *Calculations based on combining the 3 data sets into one data set produces a 15.1% "attempted suicide" incidence for Native American males versus 4.5% (White males), Risk Ratio = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.4, 4.6, p = 0.0000 - **Calculations based on combining the 3 data sets into one data set produces a 14.1% "attempted suicide" incidence for Hawaiian/Pacific Islander males versus 4.5% (White males), Risk Ratio = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.1, 4.6, p = 0.0000 -Note: Hawaiian / Pacific Islanders are often neglected in discussions related to American Aboriginal  issues.



National CDC 1998 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Alternative Schools:
By 'Race' Groups: Males / Females
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
'Race' Group
Counts/Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Counts/Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
149/3,103: 4.8%

354/3,224: 11.0%

Native American
12/84: 14.3%
3.0
18/74: 24.3% 2.2
Other 29/241: 12.0%
2.5
46/211: 21.8%
2.0
Hispanic
169/2,083: 8.1%
1.7
393/2,149: 18.3%
1.7
Black / African American
79/1,509: 5.2%
1.1
198/1,724: 11.5%
1.0
Asian/Pacific Islander
12/254: 4.7%
0.98
41/251: 16.3%
1.5
Native American: Mixed 'Race'
?
?
?
?
Source: CDC (1998): 1998 Youth Risk Behavior Data Set: Alternative Schools.
Risk Ratios: Risk for Attempting Suicide in the Past 12 Months by  'Race' Groups,
Compared to White Counterparts. Statistical Results Generated by Author.
Mean = 16.8 Years. 94.3% of Students Are Between Ages of 15-19 years.


CDC (2006). Healthy Youth! Data Files & Documentation. Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/data/index.htm .



The Oregon 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Native American / White Males: Attempted Suicide
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
'Race' Group
Counts
Attempted Suicide
Incidence
Attempted Suicide
Risk Ratio
(95% CI)
White
270/8,530
3.2%

Native American
18/251
7.2%
2.3
(1.4, 3.9)
Native: Mixed 'Race' 12/161
7.5%
2.3
(1.3, 4.1)

Grades 9-12 results: calculated by author from the data set. Results are based on all survey participants.

Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males for having attempted suicide in the past year, compared to White males. Native American "Mixed 'Race': All who reported being American Indian / Alaska Native, but also reported having one or more other 'race', including Latino/Hispanic.




The Washington State 2004 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS)
American Indian / Alaska Native & White Males
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
Random Sample Data Set
Grade
American Indian /
Alaska Native
White
Risk Ratio
(95% CI)
-
Counts
Incidence
Counts
Incidence
-
8
4/72
5.6%
46/1,167
3.9%
*
10
3/41
7.3%
51/1,235
4.1%
*
12
3/26
11.5%
53/1,000
5.3%
*
8-12
10/139
7.2%
150/3,402
4.4%
*1.6
(0.9, 3.0)

Grade 8, 10, and 12 weighted data results from the random sample were generated online by the author at: http://www3.doh.wa.gov/hys/ASPX/HYSQuery.aspx .  Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males for having attempted suicide, compared to White males. * Not Significant.




The Washington State 2004 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS)
Native American / White Males: Attempted Suicide
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
All Male Survey Participants
'Race' Group
Counts
Attempted Suicide
Incidence
Attempted Suicide
Risk Ratio
(95% CI)
White
563/12,042
4.7%

Native American
45/531
8.5%
1.8
(1.3, 2.4)
Native: Mixed 'Race' 23/308
7.5%
1.6
(1.1, 2.4)

Grades 8, 10, 12 results: calculated by author from the data set. Results are based on all survey participants. - Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males for having attempted suicide, compared to White males. - Native American Mixed 'Race': All who reported being American Indian / Alaska Native, but also reported having one or more other 'race', including being Latino/Hispanic.



Minnesota Student Survey: 2004
Grades 9 Males: N = 23,999
1.4% Native American
Attempted
Suicide
Grade
All
'Races'
N = 23,999
White
n =
19,050*

Native
American
n = 335*
Risk
Ratio

In Past year
9
4%
?
?
?
Before One Year Ago
9
3%
?
?
?
Lifetime
9
8%
?
?
**2.9?
Source: Minnesota Department of Education (2004)
* Estimated at 50%. Counts for Race/Ethnic are only given for both males and females.
** Estimate Based on Incidences for Grade 9 Native American Males (20%) Versus White Males (7%)
for the 2001 Minnesota Student Survey by Minnesota Department of Health (2005).
Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males for having attempted suicide, compared to White males.


 Minnesota Department of Health (2005). Suicide Prevention Plan Progress Report. http://www.health.state.mn.us/mentalhealth/suiciderpt05.pdf (Alternate Link) - http://www.health.state.mn.us/mentalhealth/suiciderpt05.doc . "One in five 9th grade American Indian boys (20%) report having attempted suicide, as compared to 7% of 9th grade boys statewide (Minnesota Student Survey, 2001). "


Minnesota Student Survey: 2004
Grades 12 Males: N = 17,045
0.63% Native American
Attempted
Suicide
Grade
All
'Races'
N = 17,045
White
n =
14,6418*
Native
American
n = 108*
Risk
Ratio

In Past year
12
4%
?
?
?
Before One Year Ago
12
4%
?
?
?
Lifetime
12
8%
?
?
?
Source: Minnesota Department of Education (2004)
* Estimated at 50%. Counts for Race/Ethnic are only given for both males and females.
Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males for having attempted suicide, compared to White males.

 
Minnesota Department of Education (2004). 2004 Minnesota Student Survey Statewide Tables: Fall 2004. Internet: http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/groups/healthcare/documents/pub/dhs_id_049112.pdf .


Minnesota Student Survey: 2004
Alternative Schools - Males: N = 1,763
95% Males = Age 15 to 20
4.2% Native American
Attempted
Suicide
Grade
All
'Races'
N = 1,763
White
n =
1,179
Native
American
n = 74

In Past year
12
7%
?
?

Before One Year Ago
12
9%
?
?

Lifetime
12
17%
?
?

Source: Minnesota Department of Education (2005a)


Minnesota Department of Education (2005a). 2004 Minnesota Student Survey - Alternative Schools and Area Learning Centers  -Tables:
Spring 2005. Internet: http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/groups/healthcare/documents/pub/dhs_id_048893.pdf .



Minnesota Student Survey: 2004
Red Lake School District
Grade 9:
96% Native American
Attempted
Suicide
Males
n = 33
Females
n = 23
In Past year 13%
37%
Before One Year Ago 7%
11%
Lifetime 20%
47%
Source: Minnesota Department of Education (2005b)


Minnesota Department of Education (2005b). 2004 Minnesota Student Survey School District [Red Lake] - Tables. Internet: http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2005/06/14_gundersond_suicidestats/redlakereport.pdf .


Minnesota Student Survey: 2004
Homo-Sex & Hetero-Sex Active Males By 'Race'/Ethnicity &
Grade Level - Attempted Suicide Incidence, Lifetime

Category
Homo-
Sex
%F 1

Total
Homo-Sex 2
(% in category)
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
2 Hetero-
Sex
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
All Sexually
Active Males
3.5%
10,672
1,452
(13.6%)
402 3
29.0%
9,220
1,135 3
12.6%
Grade 9
3.2%
4,069
777 (19.1%)
?
3,292
?
Grade 12
4.0%
6,603
675 (10.2%)
?
5,928
?
White
3.5%
8,252
970 (11.7%)
?
7,282 ?
Black
7.5%
543
90 (16.6%)
?
453 ?
Hispanic
10.5%
370
81 (21.9%)
?
289 ?
Asian
5.0%
374
71 (19.0%)
?
303 ?
Native American
7.0%
175
25 (14.3%)
?
150 ?
Mixed / Others
8.0%
913
211 (23.1%)
?
702 ?
Mixed: Native
American
?
?
?
?
?
?
Mixed: Non-Native
?
?
?
?
?
?
Others: Not Mixed
?
?
?
?
?
?
Original Family

5,815
776 (13.3%)
?
5,039
?
Not Original Family

4,857
676 (13.9%)
?
4,181
?
Data Source: Eisenberg et al. (2006)
1. This represent the percentage of Homo-Sex males in the total sampled male population. Estimates for 'race'/ethnicity group were obtained from graphed data by Minnesota Department of Health STD and HIV Section (2006).
2. Hetero-Sex & Homo-Sex: Adolescent males who reported sexual intercourse with at least one other male in the past 12 months.
3. An estimate of 8% for having attempted suicide in one's lifetime is given for males in both Grade 9 & 12 by Minnesota Department of Education (2004).
Total, All Males: 41,044 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 3.5%
Total, Grade 9: *23,999 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 3.2%
Total, Grade 12: *17,045 Males. Homo-Sex Males = 4.0%
*Only Totals for Males and Females by Grade Level are Given. Male Estimates are placed at 50%.

Eisenberg ME, Resnick MD (2006). Suicidality among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Protective Factors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(5): 662-8. PubMed Abstract.

Minnesota Department of Health STD and HIV Section (2006). 2005 Report on Minnesota Adolescents: STD, HIV, and Pregnancy.  Internet: http://www.education.state.mn.us/mde/static/7-2005reportonminnesot2387.pdf.

Minnesota Department of Education (2004). 2004 Minnesota Student Survey Statewide Tables: Fall 2004. Internet: http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/groups/healthcare/documents/pub/dhs_id_049112.pdf .



Montana 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Grades 9-12
Native American / White: Males / Females
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
'Race' Group
Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
?

?

All 'Race' Groups
7.0%

12.0%
Native American: Reservations 14.0%
>2.0
17.0%
>1.4
Native Americans: Urban Schools
17.0%
>2.4
20.0%
>1.7
Sources:   Montana Office of Public Instruction (2005a, 2005b, 2005c).
Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males or females for having attempted suicide,
compared to their White counterparts.


 
Montana 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Grades 9-12
Native American / White: Males / Females
Attempted Suicide In The Past Year
'Race' Group
Incidence
Males
Risk
Ratios
Incidence
Females
Risk
Ratios
White
?

?

All 'Race' Groups
7%

13.0%
Native American: Reservations 13.0%
>1.9 21.0%
>1.6
Native Americans: Urban Schools
16.0%
>2.3
17.0%
>1.4
Sources:   Montana Office of Public Instruction (2005a, 2005b, 2005c).
Risk Ratio: Greater risk of Native American males or females for having attempted suicide,
compared to their White counterparts.



Montana 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Comparative Suicidality Results

Categories
High
School
American
Indian
Reservations
American
Indian
Reservations
Alternative
Schools
Students
With
Disabilities
Felt so sad or hopeless for two weeks or more
in a row that they stopped doing some usual
activities during the past 12 months
25.8%
32.8% 35.6% 39.2% 36.8%
Seriously considered attempting suicide
during the past 12 months
15.1%
18.1% 24.3% 26.2% 23.6%
Made a plan about how they would attempt
suicide during the past 12 months
13.2%
17.6% 19.5% 20.2% 21.1%
Actually attempted suicide
during the past 12 months
7.9%
15.8%
RR: 2.0
18.4%
RR: 2.3
16.0%
RR: 2.0
17.7%
RR: 2.2
Had a suicide attempt resulting in injury,
poisoning, or overdose that required medical
treatment during the past 12 months
2.7%
4.9%
RR: 1.8
4.7%
RR: 1.7
5.8%
RR: 2.1
5.3%
RR: 2.0
Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction (2007).
RR: Risk Ratio - Greater Risk Compared to General Population High School Students


Montana 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys
Comparative Suicidality Results

Categories
High
School
American
Indian
Reservations
American
Indian
Reservations
Alternative
Schools
Students
With
Disabilities
Felt so sad or hopeless for two weeks or more
in a row that they stopped doing some usual
activities during the past 12 months
27.3%
32.1% 36.5% 40.5% 37.3%
Seriously considered attempting suicide
during the past 12 months
17.41%
19.6% 21.4% 29.5% 23.9%
Made a plan about how they would attempt
suicide during the past 12 months
13.4%
16.6% 19.3% 20.2% 20.1%
Actually attempted suicide
during the past 12 months
7.7%
18.0%
RR: 2.3
16.7%
RR: 2.2
23.0%
RR: 3.0
16.0%
RR: 2.1
Had a suicide attempt resulting in injury,
poisoning, or overdose that required medical
treatment during the past 12 months
2.8%
5.2%
RR: 1.9
6.3%
RR: 2.2
10.8%
RR: 3.8
6.8%
RR: 2.4
Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction (2009).
RR: Risk Ratio - Greater Risk Compared to General Population High School Students



Montana-youth-risk-behavior-surveys-reservations-1997-2009-suicidality
Source: Montana Office of Public Instruction (2009). Percentages Given.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2005a). Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: High School. Internet: http://www.opi.mt.gov/PDF/YRBS/HSReport.pdf.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2005b). Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on Reservations. Internet: http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/YRBS/NARReport.PDF.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2005c). Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools. Internet: http://www.opi.mt.gov/pdf/YRBS/nanrreport.pdf. - http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED486368. See Result for 2003, 2005, 2007 Surveys: Full Text. 2009 Survey.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2007). 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Montana Comparative Report. http://www.montanameth.org/documents/YRBS_Report.pdf.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2009). 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Montana Comparative Report. http://opi.mt.gov/pdf/YRBS/09/Reports/09ComparativeReport.pdf.

Montana Office of Public Instruction (2009). Montana 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students On or Near a Reservation: Trend Report. http://opi.mt.gov/pdf/YRBS/09/trend/NA_Res.pdf.


1997 / 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Grades 9 to 12
Bureau of Indian Affairs Funded Schools (Reservations)
Attempted Suicide In The Past 12 Months
Survey Year: 'Race' Group Attempted Suicide
Incidence: Males
Attempted Suicide
Incidence: Females
2001: Native American 12.2%
19.3%
1997: Native Americans
11.2%
17.8%
Sources: Shaughnessy et al. (1997, 2004; Bureau of Indian Affairs (2001)
2001 Study: 5, 654 Students Surveyed


Shaughnessy L, Everett S, Ranslow S (1997). Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997. Internet: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED419653.

Bureau of Indian Affairs (2001). 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools. Bureau of Indian Affairs: Office of Indian Education Programs. Internet: http://www.oiep.bia.edu/docs/hsyrbs_2001.pdf .

"The Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) is located within the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in the U. S. Department of the Interior. The BIA/OIEP provides funding for 185 schools located on 63 reservations in 23 states. These schools provide educational programs for over 50,000 students... This report summarizes the results of the 2001 BIA/OIEP YRBS which was completed in the spring of 2001 by 5,654 BIA high school students. Sixty-six out of a possible 75 Bureau schools with grades 9-12 participated. This represents a 66% student response rate and a 92% school response rate. A weighting factor was applied to each student record to adjust for students who did not complete the survey. Weighting is a statistical procedure used so that the results reflect the likelihood of sampling each student and to reduce bias by adjusting for students who did not complete a questionnaire. Because of this weighting procedure, the results presented in this 2001 report can be generalized to all Bureau high school students in schools with at least ten students in grades 9-12."

Shaughnessy L, Doshi SR, Jones SE (2004). Attempted suicide and associated health risk behaviors among Native American high school students. Journal of School Health, 74(5): 177-82. PubMed Abstract.


1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health
Percentage of U.S. Male/Female Youth Who Have Thought About and/or Attempted Suicide

Add Health 1994-95 Survey: Americna Indian Adolescents - Attempted Suicide
Source: API Youth Violence Prevention Center (2003): Figure 3.7


API Youth Violence Prevention Center (2003). Under the Microscope: Asian and Pacific Islander Youth in Oakland. API Youth Violence Prevention Center: National Council on Crime & Delinquency. Oakland, California. Internet: http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20050520220529/http://www.api-center.org/documents/microscope_full_report.pdf

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1990). Indian Adolescent Mental Health.  OTA-H-446 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1990). Internet: http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/9027.pdfGoogle Books. Full TextFull Text: ERIC.

Kann L, Warren CW, Harris WA, et al. (1995). Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 1993. MMWR CDC Surveillance Summary, 44: 1-56. Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/ss/ss4401.pdf .


The 2004 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey
General & Aboriginal Suicidality Results
Category M/F
All
M/F
Native
M
All
M
Native
F
All
F
Native
Seriously Thinking
About (Consider) Suicide
16%
[15%]
22%

14%

29%
Plan
Suicide
11%
[11%]
17%

11%

22%
Attempted
Suicide
7%
[6%]
12%
4%
6%
10%
16%
Attempted Suicide:
Resulting Injury
[1%]
3%

2%

4%
Family Member Who
Attempted Suicide, Ever
14%
[13%]
26%

19%

32%
Family Member: Attempted/
Committed Suicide, Last Year
4%





Data SourcesMcCreary Centre Society (2004) & van der Woerd et al (2005)
N  = + 30,500 Grade 7 to 12 Students: 2,478 Aboriginal/Native Students
17% of Aboriginal/Native Students Live On Reserve.


Attempted Suicide On-Reserve vs. Off-Reserve: 18% vs. 11%
Family Member Attempted Suicide On-Reserve vs. Off-Reserve: 37% vs. 25%
8.4% of British Columbia (B.C.) Youth = Aboriginal
Aboriginal children = 43% of children and youth in B. C. Government care in 2002.
McCreary Centre 2004 survey of youth in custody centres: 47% of youth identified themselves as Aboriginal.
McCreary Centre 2000 street youth survey: 34% identified as Aboriginal.


McCreary Centre Society (2004). Healthy Youth Development: Highlights from the 2003 Adolescent Health Survey III. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://mcs.bc.ca/pdf/AHS-3_provincial.pdf. Download Page: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/download_reports.

van der Woerd KA, Dixon BL, McDiarmid T, Chittenden M, Murphy, A, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Raven's Children II: Aboriginal Youth Health in BC. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://mcs.bc.ca/pdf/Ravens_children_2-web.pdf. Download Page: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/download_reports.

McCreary Centre Society (2002). Between the Cracks: homeless youth in Vancouver. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2002.pdf.

McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://edocs.lib.sfu.ca/projects/chodarr/documents/chodarr0249.pdf.

Tyler KA, Cauce AM (2002). Perpetrators of early physical and sexual abuse among homeless and runaway adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26(12): 1261-74. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.
A total of 372 homeless and runaway adolescents were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers in youth service agencies... 55% male (N = 203) and 45% female (N = 169). Ages ranged from 13 to 21 with a median of 17 years. A total of 81 adolescents (22%) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In terms of race, 48% were White, 6% were African-American, 5% were Native American, 3% were Hispanic, and 2% were Asian or Pacific Islander. Thirty-six percent of the sample considered themselves biracial or multiracial...

Sexual orientation. In order to test the importance of sexual identity as an abuse specific variable, heterosexual youth were compared to those who self-identified as gay, lesbian, and/or bisexual for the different types of physical abuse. Results indicated that sexual minority youth were significantly more likely to be neglected including being abandoned for at least 24 hours (c2 10.28; p = .00) and having to go a full day without food, water, clothing, or a toilet (c2 = 6.13; p = .01). Sexual minority youth were more likely to have experienced higher rates of almost every type of physical abuse including having had something thrown at them in anger ( c2 = 7.10; p = .01), pushed, shoved or grabbed in anger (c = 5.99; p = .01), slapped (c2 = 5.29; p = .02), hit with an object (c2 = 5.79; p = .02), beaten up with fists (c2 = 6.51; p = .01), and threatened with a weapon (c2 = 4.47; p = .03)...

Sexual orientation. In order to test the importance of sexual identity as an abuse specific variable, the different types of sexual abuse were compared for the sexual minority group and the heterosexual group. Results indicated that gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth were significantly more likely to have been asked to do something sexual (c2 = 7.02; p = .01), made to watch someone else do something sexual (c2 = 6.08; p = .01), forced to show their private parts (c2 = 5.88; p = .02), forced to touch someone sexually (c2 = 4.53; p = .03), to have been kissed or touched sexually (c2 = 5.50; p = .02), and more likely to have had someone put or try to put something into them sexually (c2 = 6.43; p = .01) compared to heterosexual young people...


Site Index
Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.




More Information at: The Original Site on GB Male Suicide Problems