Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Suicide Problems in Australia and New Zealand?
To Index: Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two-Spirit GLBTQ Information Pages  - A Suicide Focus
Results from more than 30 gay / bisexual male youth suicidality Studies
T-S, T-s: Two Spirit / Two Spirited
GLBTQ: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer
To Section Index

For Explorer Browser: Best Viewed With "Smaller" Font Setting! Go to "Page" & "Text Size"
Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.

Street Youth In Canada & The United States
Sexual Minorities & Aboriginal People Over-Represented
Street Youth Sexual Minorities: Greater Suicidality Risk


Note: Information presented on this web page indicates that GLBT youth are overrepresented in street youth populations. They may also be overrepresented in incarcerated youth populations. Maybe homeless adolescent aboriginal GLBT youth are at the highest risk of all for suicidal behaviors.  2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data: "16% of students who self identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual are homeless, compared to 4% of their straight peers. 15% of homeless students self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
Will these GB adolescent males also be ignored as it was done by HIV/AIDS Prevention Researchers?

To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010)

"American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention" Website

"Honouring Life Network," Canada: Aboriginal Youth Suicide


"Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention," USA

Lambda Legal: LGBTQ Youth Risk Data (2010): Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (“LGBTQ”) youth are coming out and publicly acknowledging that they are LGBTQ at younger ages than ever before. For many LGBTQ youth, their sexual orientation or gender identity is why they are in out-of-home care in the first place. Their families may have rejected them outright, or they were forced to escape physically or psychologically abusive families who wanted to “cure” or punish them. Further exacerbating their situation is the harassment and violence that LGBTQ youth often face in school settings. As a result, LGBTQ youth are over-represented in out-of-home systems of care. They are at increased risk of homelessness, dropping out of school, physical or emotional abuse, depression, substance abuse, rape and suicide.

Larkin Street Youth Services (2010). Best Practices for Meeting the Needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Homeless Youth. PDF Download.

Quintana NS, Rosenthal J, Krehely J (2010). On the Streets: The Federal Response to Gay and Transgender Homeless Youth. PDF Download.

Leitsinger, Miranda (2014). Left Behind: LGBT Homeless Youth Struggle to Survive on the Streets. Full Text. "Despite the gains made for gay rights in recent years, homeless LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) youth have benefited little. Instead, their numbers on the streets have swelled, representing up to an estimated 40 percent of the nation’s young adult homeless population, data shows. In many cases, LGBT youth choose or are forced to leave home because their families don’t accept them. Once homeless, they are exposed to the perils of street life: violence, survival sex, and, in some cases, HIV. "

Ecker J (2016). Queer, young, and homeless: A review of the literature. Child & Youth Services. Online First. Abstract: Queer (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, questioning, two-spirited) youth are greatly overrepresented in the homeless youth population. The present review critically analyzes the literature on queer youth homelessness, with a particular focus on (a) methodological issues; (b) entries into homelessness; (c) programming needs; (d) targeted programming; and (e) exits out of homelessness. Results from this review demonstrate that homeless queer youth are a unique population who require specialized services, implemented by sensitive and knowledgeable staff. Recommendations focus on practical implications, policy implications, and ideas for future research. Request Full Text.

StreetConnect WebSite (Sean Kidd).

Gattis MN (2013). An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths. Journal of Social Service Research, 39(1): 38-49. PubMed Abstract.

Gattis
(2013)
66
GLBT
81
Hetero-
sexual
27% (18 / 66)
vs. 8% (6 / 81)
p < .01
Street Youth, Toronto, Canada: Volunteers, Interviews, 2009.
69% male, 60% white, 7% Aboriginal
Age Range: 16-24 Years
Attempted Suicide, Past Year
OR: 4.7 (1.6, 14.3), 95% CI, p = .0021
15% (10 / 66)
vs. 2% (2 / 81)
p < .01
Attempted Suicide, Past Year;
Resulted in treatment
by doctor or nurse.
OR: 7.0 (1.4, 48.6), p = .006
1
* M = Males - F = Females - T = Transsexual -
** FTM: Female-to-Male, MTF: Male-to-Female
1. ORs generated by webpage authors using given counts.


Gattis, Maurice Nathaniel (2010). Psychosocial Problems of Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and their Heterosexual Counterparts. PhD. Dissertation, Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis. PDF Download.  "... The current study reports on the findings of the Los Angeles Foster Youth Survey (LAFYS) which was designed to assess the proportion of youth placed in the Los Angeles County public child welfare system who are LGBTQ and to examine their experiences in communities, schools, and foster care. Findings indicate that approximately 19% of Los Angeles foster youth are LGBTQ. This proportion of youth is significantly higher than estimates of adolescent and young adult sexual and gender minority identification rates in the general population. Further, analyses also indicate that sexual and gender minority youth in this study are less satisfied with their child welfare system experience, are more likely to experience homelessness, are moved around to more placements, and are experiencing higher levels of emotional distress compared to their non-LGBTQ counterparts.

Corliss HL, Goodenow CS, Nichols L, Austin SB (2011). High burden of homelessness among sexual-minority adolescents: findings from a representative Massachusetts high school sample. American Journal of Public Health, 101(9): 1683-9. Abstract. PDF DownloadPDF Download "Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths' greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians...

Wilson BDM, Kastanis AA (2015). Sexual and gender minority disproportionality and disparities in child welfare: A population-based study. Children and Youth Services Review, 58(1): 11-17. Abstract.

Walls NE, Bell S (2011). Correlates of Engaging in Survival Sex among Homeless Youth and Young Adults. Journal of Sex Research, 25:1-14. [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract. "1,625 homeless youth and young adults aged 10 to 25 from 28 different states in the United States": 20% Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual.

Frederick TL, Ross LE, Tara L. Bruno TL, Erickson PG (2011). Exploring gender and sexual minority status among street-involved youth. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6(2): 166-183. Abstract & Preview. Toronto Study. N = 150. LGBTQ: 47 / 150 = 31%. Ethnicity not given. Suicidality similar between LGBTQ and heterosexual youth age 16 to 21 years.

Marshall BD, Shannon K, Kerr T, Zhang R, Wood E (2010). Survival sex work and increased HIV risk among sexual minority street-involved youth. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53(5): 661-4.  Abstract. "Of 558 participants eligible for this analysis, 75 (13.4%) identified as a sexual minority and 63 (11.3%) reported survival sex work in the past 6 months. Sexual minority males (adjusted odds ratio = 16.1, P < 0.001) and sexual minority females (adjusted odds ratio = 6.87, P < 0.001) were at significantly greater risk for survival sex work. Sexual minority youth were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with clients (odds ratio = 4.30, P= 0.049) and reported a greater number of clients in the past 6 months (median = 14 vs. 3, P = 0.008)."

Gangamma R, Slesnick N, Toviessi P, Serovich J (2008). Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4): 456–464. PDF Download. Abstract. "Results suggest that GLB youth have greater HIV risks and that these risks are greater among bisexual females. In examining the predictors of sexual health risks, survival sex emerged as the most significant. Survival sex was high among females regardless of their sexual orientation and also among gay males. Implications of these findings suggest that a greater emphasis needs to be paid to preventive interventions among this population."

National Alliance to End Homelessness (2008). Incidence and Vulnerability of LGBTQ Homeless Youth: Youth Homelessness Series, Brief No. 2. PDF Download. Download Page.
"LGBTQ youth are estimated to be 10 percent of the general youth population.12 In contrast, research (Table 1) forms a cluster of findings that show 15 to 25 percent of homeless youth self-identify as LGBTQ. A conservative estimate would be that one out of every five (20 percent) of homeless youth are LGBTQ or twice the number of the general youth population. Thus, LGBTQ youth are disproportionately experiencing homelessness."

Webpage Author Note: The LGBTQ population percentage may be closer to 5%, meaning that they would be 4-times more overrepresented in the homeless youth population.
Toro PA, Dwosrky A, Fowler PJ (2007). Homeless youth in the United States: Research findings and intervention approaches. The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Full Text.
"Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth comprise 6 percent of the homeless youth population according to the National Network of Runaway and Youth Services. However, other prevalence estimates range from 11 to 35 percent (Kruks, 1991; Tenner et al., 1998; Whitbeck et al., 2004). Compared to heterosexual homeless youth, GLBT homeless youth leave home more frequently and are exposed to greater victimization while on the streets (Cochran et al., 2002). In addition, these youth may experience more physical and sexual abuse from caretakers (Whitbeck et al., 2004). GLBT youth may be at particular risk for homelessness due to conflict with their family regarding their sexual orientation (Milburn, Ayala, Rice, Batterham, & Rotheram-Borus, 2006; Remafedi, 1987)."

Marshall BD, Kerr T, Shoveller JA, Montaner JS, Wood E (2009). Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth. BMC Public Health, 9:7.
PDF Download.

Marshall, Brandon David Lewis (2010). The epidemiology of methamphetamine use among street youth and injection drug users. PhD. Dissertation, Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page. See: CHAPTER 4: Pathways to HIV risk and Vulnerability Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Methamphetamine Users: A Multi‐Cohort Gender‐Based Analysis. GLBTstreet Youth also more likely to be aboriginal than heterosexual street youth.

Gilchrist, Laurette (1995). Kapitipis e-pimohteyahk: aboriginal street youth in Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Montreal. PhD. Dissertation, Educational Studies, University of British Columbia. PDF DownloadDownload Page.

Smith A, Saewyc E, Albert M, MacKay L, Northcott M, & The McCreary Centre Society (2007). Against the Odds: A profile of marginalized and street-involved youth in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. PDF Download.
Key findings: Aboriginal youth were disproportionately represented among youth who were marginalized and street-involved, and the percentage had increased sharply since 2000 (from 36% to 57%). - Gay lesbian, bisexual and questioning teens were also over-represented among marginalized and street-involved youth: one in three females and one in ten males identified as gay, lesbian and bisexual. 100% heterosexual = 76% males & 42% females. - The percentage of gay, lesbian and bisexual youth who are marginalized or street-involved also appears to be increasing. When the communities who participated in both 2000 and 2006 were compared, the percentage of youth identifying as gay, lesbian or bisexual had risen from 18% to 25%.

Saewyc E, Bingham B, Brunanski D, Smith A, Hunt S, Northcott M, & the McCreary Centre Society (2008). Moving Upstream: Aboriginal Marginalized and Street-Involved Youth in B.C. Vancouver, BC: McCreary Centre Society. Download: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/Moving_Upstream_Websmall.pdf. Download Page.
In 2000 the McCreary Centre Society conducted a health survey of marginalized and street-involved youth in six communities across British Columbia. The study was repeated in nine communities in 2006 and was completed by 762 youth, 410 of whom identified as Aboriginal (54%). In the communities that participated in both surveys there was a rise in the numbers of Aboriginal youth from 36% to 57%... Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth (LGB) were highly over-represented, especially among female participants. Only 44% of females identified as 100% heterosexual, compared with 77% of males...

In Canada, given that homosexually oriented youth and aboriginal youth are greatly overrepresented in the street youth population, this document will prove to be a great disappointment for many. Canadian Institute for Health Information (2007). Improving the Health of Canadians: Mental Health and Homelessness. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information (PDF Download). "Because of the availability of data and research, information presented in this report was primarily specific to homeless youth and single adult males. The report did not look specifically at the following subgroups: one-parent families, children of homeless families, single adult females, women and children in shelters for domestic violence, Aboriginal Peoples, gay/lesbian/transgender youth, immigrants, war veterans and seniors. It is important to identify the prevalence of these groups within the homeless population, as well as their mental health issues and needs." To be more correct, maybe this document dhoulf have been titled: "Mental Health and Homeless: Only white (?) heterosexual  youth and single heterosexual males are of concern to us!" Note; Canada has a long history of harming aboriginal people, and especially aboriginal youth, and the same has applies for homosexually oriented people. One of the new more insidious ways that harm continues to be inflicted on such traditionally hated people is by ignoring (silencing) their "at risk" status in many areas so that maximum casualties will be maintained in such populations.

Spirito A, Esposito-Smythers C (2006). Attempted and completed suicide in adolescence. In Nolen-Hoeksema (ed.), Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol 2. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Review. From the Abstract: "Groups at high risk for suicidal behavior include gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, incarcerated adolescents, and homeless/runaway teens."

Out of the closet and onto the street (2011): “There’s a lot more homophobia within some First Nations communities now” ... In 2010, 29 per cent of the male sex workers in Vancouver identified as First Nations or Métis, according to the yearly evaluation carried out by the sex worker outreach and support program Hustle: Men on the Move. A 2005 survey led by researcher Sue McIntyre found that 43 per cent of young men in British Columbia’s sex trade were Aboriginal. The statistics reflect the number of individuals who could be found accessing services and were willing to share their experiences. Many are hard to spot due the perception that men don’t sell sex and because they may also avoid using support providers. “When you are 15 or 14 or 13 and you are out on your own and you have no work experience you can’t get a job,” David says. “So what do you turn to? The sex trade.” David’s drop-in group would meet once a week, attracting between 4 and 20 Aboriginal youth a night. “There was nothing else out there,” he says. “And I was starting to realize that the street-entrenched youth who were Two-Spirited weren’t using mainstream drop-ins.”

McIntyre, S. (2009). Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men - Western Canadian Edition. PDF Download. PDF Download.

McIntyre, S. (2007). Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men - Manitoba Edition. PDF Download.

McIntyre S (2005). Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men. PDF Download. Executive Summary. Executive Summary.



O'Connor W, Molloy D (2001, UK). 'Hidden in Plain Sight' : Homelessness Amongst Lesbian and Gay Youth. PDF Download. Some suicide attempts reported.


McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. http://edocs.lib.sfu.ca/projects/chodarr/documents/chodarr0249.pdf.


Street Youth In British Columbia: 12-19 Years Old
Mean Age = 16 Years
Categories
Van-
couver
Vic-
toria
Abbots-
ford/
Mission
South
Frazer
Sun-
shine
Coast
Prince
Rupert
Males
Fe-
males
All
Sample Size: N's
145
94
113
61
50
60


100%
523
Aboriginal
54
37%
15
16%
20
18%
8
13%
10
19%
46
76%


29%
153
Females
61
42%
41
44%
54
48%
25
41%
26
52%
32
54%

239
239
45.7%
Males
83
57%
52
55%
57
50%
36
59%
24
48%
28
46%
280

280
53.5%
Transgender
2
1%
1
1%
2
2%
0%
0%
0%
5
5
0.96%
Males
57%
55%
51%



Sexual Orientation

Males: Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
27%
21%
15%
19%
N/A
**
27%
Females: Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
52%
41%
30%
N/A
37%
100% Heterosexual
50%
63%
50%
78%
76%
76%
196
70%
79
33%

Mostly Heterosexual
18%
15%
10%
2%
7%
4%



Bisexual
20%
11%
13%
7%
7%
0%


16.5%
100% Homosexual
3%
1%
16%
2%
0%
0%


Unsure
10%
10%
11%
11%
10%
20%



Not 100%
Heterosexual
50%
37%
50%
22%
24%
24%
84
30%
160
67%

Government Care,
Ever
44%
42%
31%
30%
31%
38%



Attempted Suicide
Past Year: Males
Counts Estimated
12
15%
11
21%
14
25%
9
25%
1
3%
5
19%
* 52
18%
18.6%
N/A

Attempted Suicide
Past Year: Females
Counts Estimated
23
38%
10
24%
22
40%
11
46%
12
45%
7
23%
N/A
* 85
36%
35.6

Attempted Suicide
In Past Year
Counts Estimated
36
25%
24
22%
82
29%


142
27%
Data Source: McCreary Centre Society (2001)
Note: Only the combined male & female counts in each specified BC location are given.
All other counts in the Table are estimated from given percentages.

* These counts were estimated and are likely inflated given that
52 + 85 = 147, and that the suicide attempter count for be closer to 142.
** An Estimate.


The British Columbia 2003 Adolescent Health Survey
Sexual Orientation & Attempting Suicide Results
Categories All Students - N = + 30,500
Grade 7 - 12
Aboriginal - N = 2,478
Grade 7 to 12

Males
Females
All
Males
Females
All
All Students
[4%]
[10%]
{?}
[6%]
[16%]

100% Heterosexual
[3.3%] *
[8.2%]
85.4%
[?]
[?] 80%
Not 100% Heterosexual


14.6%


20%
Mostly Heterosexual


6.2%


7%
Bisexual
[12.8%]
[30.4%]
2.0%
[?] [?] 5%
Mostly Homosexual


0.2%


Homosexual
[8.8%] **
[38.0%]
0.3%
[?] [?]
Unsure


5.9%


9%
Data Sources: van der Woerd (2005): Aboriginal Data
Gorham (2006): "Attempted Suicide" In The Past Year - 2003 AHS
** Note: Definition of "Homosexual" Not Given. Could be Homosexual + Mostly Homosexual.
* "Heterosexual" Could Include "Mostly Heterosexual".
Gilbert (2004): Sexual Orientation Percentages - 2003 AHS
"Attempted Suicide" Incidence (Past Year) Given in Square Brackets: [4%]


van der Woerd, KA, Dixon BL, McDiarmid T, Chittenden M, Murphy A, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Raven's Children II: Aboriginal Youth Health in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet:  http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/Ravens_children_2-web.pdf.


Source:
van der Woerd et al. (2005)
Aboriginal Students = 2,478

Murphy A, Chittenden M, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Time Out II: A Profile of BC  Youth in Custody. Vancouver, B. C.: McCreary Centre. Internet: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/retrieve.cfm?Document=time_out_2.pdf - or - http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/time_out_2.pdf.

Time Out II: A Profile of BC  Youth in Custody
Custody Centres: Burnaby, Victoria, Prince George
Demographic Study Results
Categories
All
Males
Females
N's  (%): 137 = 84% of BC
Youth In Custody at 3 Centres
137
(100%)
123
(89.8%)
14
(10.2%)
Age Range
14-19
Years


100% Heterosexual
91%


Not 100% Heterosexual
12 / 137
9%
* 4 / 123 ?
3.2%
* 8 / 14 ?
57.1%
Mostly or 100% Homosexual
0%
0%
0%
Mostly Heterosexual or Bisexual
8 / 137
6%
0%
8 / 14
57.1%
Not Sure
3%
?
?
Data Source: Murphy et al. (2005)
* Estimated From Other Data Given
Aboriginal Youth = 47% of Sample, Compared to 8.4% in BC.




McCreary Centre Society (2004). Healthy Youth Development: Highlights from the 2003 Adolescent Health Survey III. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/AHS-3_provincial.pdf.

van der Woerd, KA, Dixon BL, McDiarmid T, Chittenden M, Murphy A, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Raven's Children II: Aboriginal Youth Health in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: 
http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/Ravens_children_2-web.pdf.

Gorham B (2006). B.C. researcher says American group distorting her research on teen suicide. The Canadian Press. Internet: http://www.cbc.ca/cp/health/060619/x061932.html N/A.
- http://www.medbroadcast.com/channel_health_news_details.asp?news_channel_id=1000&channel_id=2022&news_id=10169&relation_id=0&addfav=go

Gilbert M (2004). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-spirited and Questioning Youth in British Columbia and the Influence of the School Environment: A resource document for Medical Health Officers. Internet: http://www.galebc.org/The%20health%20of%20GLBT.pdf.

McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Vancouver BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2001.pdf N/A. - http://edocs.lib.sfu.ca/projects/chodarr/documents/chodarr0249.pdf.

Street Youth in BC (2001), BC Adolescent In Schools (1998), and Aboriginal Students In Schools (2003)
Suicidality Results

Categories
Males
Females
All

Street
Youth
2001
School
Students
1998
Native
Students
2003
Street
Youth
2001
School
Students
1998
Native
Students
2003
Native
Students
2003 1
Average Age
Age Range =
12 to 19 Years
17
Years
15?
Grade 7-12
14?
Grade
7-12
16
Years
15?
Grade 7-12
Grade
7-12
Grade
7-12
Considered Suicide
Past year
28%
10%
14%
50%
18%
29%
22% vs.
15%
Planned a
Suicide - Past Year

?
?
11%
?
?
22%
15% vs.
11%
Attempted Suicide
Past Year 2
18%
4%
6%
36%
9%
16%
12% vs.
6%
Attempted Suicide
Related Injury(ies)
10%
1%
2%
20%
2%
4%
3% vs.
1%
% Attempters = Related
Injuries 3

55.6%
25%
33%
55.6%
22.2%
25%
25% vs.
17%
Know Someone
Who Attempted /
Committed Suicide
70%
41%
?
84%
57%
?
?
Family Member
Attempted Suicide
?
?
19%
?
?
32%
26% vs.
13%
Data Source: McCreary Centre Society (2001), van der Woerd (2005): Aboriginal Data
1. Aboriginal Compared with Non-Aboriginal Student Results in 2003 BC AHS (Adolescent Health Survey). Aboriginal Students = 2,478. Non Aboriginal Students =  + 28,000
2. The "Attempted Suicide in Past Year" incidence for all male and female BC street youth would be about 27%. van der Woerd (2005) reports that, for Aboriginal Street Youth, the incidence was 33%. See "Estimate" below for the Non-Aboriginal street youth incidence for having attempted suicide.
3. Calculated From Above Two Categories. Note: It is likely that street youth are more determined to die when they attempt suicide and that they also have more knowledge about what may kill them. Hence, their higher risk for injury(ies) (55.6%) related to a suicide attempt(s).

An Estimate
153 / 523 = 29% of Street Youth in BC are Aboriginal
153 x 33% (Attempted Suicide Incidence, Aboriginal) = 51 Attempters = Aboriginal
523 x 27% (Attempted Suicide Incidence, all Street Youth) = 141 Attempters = All Street Youth
(141 - 51 = 90) / 370 = 24% = Attempted Suicide Incidence, Non-Aboriginal
OR: 1.6 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.3), p = 0.03



McCreary Centre (2002). Between the Cracks: Homeless Youth in Vancouver. Vancouver, B. C.: McCreary Centre. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2002.pdf N/A.

325 Vancouver Street Youth: To Age of 24 Years
Sexual Orientation & Risk Attributes
Categories
Males (n = 204)*
Attempted Suicide (In Past Year):
Under Age 19: 15%
19-24 Year Old: 20%
Females (n = 119) *
Attempted Suicide (In Past Year):
Under Age 19: 38%
19-24 Year Old: 26%
% Non-
Aboriginal

68%
Attempted Suicide:  ?
58%
Attempted Suicide: 25%
%
Aboriginal

32%
Attempted Suicide:  ?
42%
Attempted Suicide: 42%
Same-Sex
Sex, Ever

Age < 19 Years: 27%
Age = 19-24 years: 31%
Age < 19 Years: 52%
Age = 19-24 years: 57%
Sexual
Orientation
100%
Hetero
Mostly
Hetero
Bi-
sexual
Homo
Un-
sure
100%
Hetero
Mostly
Hetero
Bi-
sexual
Homo
Un-
sure
Percentages
69%
12%
8%
4%
8%
38%
20%
32%
1%
10%
Percentages 69%
31%
38%
62%
Attempted
Suicide
Past Year
13%
21%
?
?
Sexually
Abused
21%
52%
?
?
Physically
Abused
57%
89%
?
?
Traded
Sex
20%
69%
?
?
Traded
Sex
Age < 19 Years: 35%
Age = 19-24 years: 30%
Age < 19 Years: 24%
Age = 19-24 years: 53%
Traded Sex
Native
?
49%
Traded Sex
Non-Native
?
32%
Traded
Sex
Attempted Suicide: 28%
Did Not
Trade Sex
Attempted Suicide: 19%
Data Source: McCreary Centre (2002)
* Note: % Males and % Females is not given for whole sample. 145 Youth < 19 Years Old [57% male (n = 83), 42% Female (n = 61)], remainder (180) = 19-24 years old [67% Male (n = 121), 32% Female (n = 58)]. Counts are estimated from given percentages. About 1% are transgender.



Wagner LS, Carlin PL, Cauce AM, Tenner A (2001). A snapshot of homeless youth in Seattle: their characteristics, behaviors and beliefs about HIV protective strategies. Journal of Community Health, 26(3): 219-32.  PubMed Abstract.

Face-to-Face Interviews: 1994 to 1995

Homeless / Street Youth: Seattle - 1994 - 1995
Categories
All
Male
Female
N's
272
169
103
Age Range
13-22


Mean Age

18
16
Heterosexual
166 / 272
61%
103 / 169
60.9%
63 / 103
61.2%
Homosexual, Gay, Lesbian
53 / 272
19.5%
36 / 169
21.3%
17 / 103
16.5%
Bisexual
46 / 272
16.9%
26 / 169
15.4%
20 / 103
19.4%
Transgender, None of Above
7 / 272
2.6%
4 / 169
2.4%
3 / 103
2.9%
Non-Heterosexual
106 / 272
38.9%
66 / 169
39.1%
40 / 103
38.8%
Sexually Assaulted While On Street
53 / 272
19.5%
22 / 169
13.0%
31 / 103
30.1%
White/Anglo
133 / 272
48.9%
82 / 169
48.5%
51 / 103
49.5%
Black / African American
17 / 272
6.3%
6 / 169
3.6%
11 / 103
10.7%
Latino / Hispanic
15 / 272
5.5%
7 / 169
4.1%
8 / 103
7.8%
Asian / Pacific Islander
13 / 272
4.8%
9 / 169
5.3%
4 / 103
3.9%
American Indian
22 / 272
8.1%
17 / 169
10.1%
5 / 103
4.9%
Mixed Ethnicity/Race
64 / 272
23.5%
44 / 169
26.0%
20 / 103
29.4%
Other
8 / 272
2.9%
4 / 169
2.4%
4 / 103
3.9%
Data Source: Wagner et al. (2001)
18% of GLBT Report Sexual Orientation as Reason for Leaving Home.



Cochran BN, Stewart AJ, Ginzler JA, Cauce AM (2002). Challenges faced by homeless sexual minorities: comparison of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender homeless adolescents with their heterosexual counterparts. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5): 773-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.  Data collected 1995 - 1998.  84 / 375 = 22.4% sexual minority. Bisexual = 71. Gay = 8. Lesbian = 4. Trangender = 1. Mean Age = 17.14 Years. Age Range: 13-21. 84 matched with 84 heterosexual youth.
The majority of study participants identified themselves as White (52.5%). Other participants self-identified as American Indian or Alaska Native (18.9%), African American (17.6%), Hispanic/Latino (7.2%), or Asian/Pacific Islander (2.7%). About half of the samplewas female (45.1%). "GLBT adolescents left home more frequently, were victimized more often, used highly addictive substances more frequently, had higher rates of psychopathology, and had more sexual partners than heterosexual adolescents." Do search with author. Se also: Ginzler JA, Cochran BN, Domenech-Rodriguez M, Cauce AM, Whitbeck LB (2003). Sequential Progression of Substance Use among Homeless Youth: An Empirical Investigation of the Gateway Theory. SubstanceUse & Misuse, 38(3-6): 725-758, 2003. Summary: PDF Download.


Homeless / Street Youth: Seattle - 1995 - 1998
Categories
All
Male
Female
N's
375
206
169
Age Range
13-21


Mean Age
17.14


Heterosexual
291 / 375
77.6%


Gay (n = 8), Lesbian (n = 4), Transgender (n = 1)
13 / 375
3.5%


Bisexual
71 / 375
18.9%


Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender
84 / 375
22.4%


White/Anglo
52.5%


Black / African American
17.6%


Latino / Hispanic
7.2%


Asian / Pacific Islander
2.7%


American Indian
18.9%


Other
1.1%


Data Source: Cochran et al. (2002)
14.3% of GLBT Report Sexual Orientation as Reason for Leaving Home.



Johnson KD, Whitbeck LB, Hoyt DR (2005). Predictors of social network composition among homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28(2): 231-48. PubMed Asbtract. N = 428,  Males = 187, Females = 241, 15% GLB.

Johnson RJ, Rew L, Sternglanz RW (2006). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and sexual health practices of homeless adolescents. Adolescence, 41(162): 221-34. PubMed AsbtractFull Text.

Noell JW, Ochs LM (2001). Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(1): 31-6. PubMed Asbtract.


Homeless/Street Youth: Portland, Oregon
Thirteen to Twenty Years of Age
Categories
All
N = 532
100%
Male
n = 316
59.4%
Female
n = 216
40.6%
Mean Age (Years)
Age Range (Years)

18.8
14-20
17.7
13-20
100% Heterosexual
53.3%
67.4%
37.5%
Mostly Heterosexual
18.2%
18.7%
17.6%
Bisexual
15.4%
7.9%
26.4%
Mostly Homosexual
3.2%
1.3%
6.0%
100% Homosexual
4.5%
2.5%
7.4%
Not Sure / Unsure
3.4%
2.2%
5.1%
Not 100% Heterosexual 46.7%
32.6%
62.5%




Caucasian / White
77%


Black / African American
2.8%


Latino / Hispanic
3.0%


Asian / Pacific Islander
1.1%


American Indian
10.4%


Other
5.7%


-
Data Source: Noell & Ochs (2001)
Odds Ratios (95%CI): GLBU vs 100%/Mostly Heterosexual
Attempted Suicide (Lifetime): 1.8 (1.2, 2.7)
Recent Suicidal Ideation: 1.9 (1.2, 3.1)
Recent Depression: 2.2 (1.2, 3.7)
Recent Amphetamine Use: 2.1 (1.4, 3.2)
Recent IDU (Males): 3.0 (1.3, 6.9)
Recent IDU (Females): 2.7 (1.2, 6.2)
-



Whitbeck LB, Chen X, Hoyt DR, Tyler KA, Johnson KD (2004). Mental disorder, subsistence strategies, and victimization among gay, lesbian, and bisexual homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Sex Research, 41(4): 329-42. PubMed Astract. Full Text. Full Text.

Homeless / Runaway Adolescents: 16 to 19 years-Old
Eight American Midwest Cities * Problems
Categories
Self Identification: N's
% Reporting
Statistic
Problems
GLBU 1
Heterosexual
GLBU
Hetero-
sexual
p
Survival Sex
63 (MF) 2
14.7%
365 (MF)
85.3%
16.1%
10.4%
ns
19 (M) 168 (M) 27.8%
9.0%
p < 0.01
44 (F)
241 (F) 11.4%
11.7%
ns
Sex Victimization:
After Leaving Home
63 (MF) 365 (MF) 58.7%
33.4%
p < 0.01
19 (M) 168 (M) 42.1%
19.6%
p < 0.05
44 (F) 241 (F) 65.9%
45.2%
p < 0.01
Alcohol Abuse 63 (MF) 365 (MF) 52.4%
42.2%
ns
19 (M) 168 (M) 31.6%
50.0%
p < 0.05
44 (F) 241 (F) 61.4%
35.5%
p < 0.01
Drug Abuse 63 (MF) 365 (MF) 47.6%
39.2%
ns
19 (M) 168 (M) 47.4%
47.0%
ns
44 (F) 241 (F) 47.7%
32.5%
p < 0.05
Data Source: Whitbeck et al. (2004)
* Eight Cities: St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Lincoln, Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Wichita.
Ethnicity: 59% European American, 22% non-Hispanic African American, 5% Hispanic, 14% American Indian, Asian or Pacific Islander, or biracial.
1. GLBU: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Identified, and those "Unsure" of their sexual orientation.
2. M = Male, F = Female


Homeless / Runaway Adolescents: 16 to 19 years-Old
* Eight USA Midwest Cities: Mental Health & Suicidality
Categories
Self Identification: N's
% With Problem
p
Problems
63 (MF) 2
14.7%
Hetero-
sexual
GLBU
Hetero-
sexual

Conduct Disorder
63 (MF) 2 365 (MF)
85.3%
69.8%
76.7%
ns
19 (M)
168 (M) 63.2%
85.1%
p < 0.01
44 (F) 241 (F) 72.7%
69.5%
ns
PTSD:
Postraumatic
Stress
Disorder
63 (MF) 365 (MF) 47.6%
33.4%
p < 0.05
19 (M) 168 (M) 21.1%
23.8%
ns
44 (F) 241 (F) 59.1%
41.6%
p < 0.05
Depression
63 (MF) 365 (MF) 41.3%
28.5%
p < 0.05
19 (M) 168 (M) 42.1%
24.4%
p < 0.05
44 (F) 241 (F) 40.9%
32.0%
ns
Suicide Ideation,
Lifetime
63 (MF) 365 (MF) 73.0%
53.2%
p < 0.01
19 (M) 168 (M) 64.8%
50.6%
ns
44 (F) 241 (F) 75.0%
55.3%
p < 0.05
Suicide Attempt,
Lifetime
63 (MF) 365 (MF) 57.1%
33.7%
p < 0.01
19 (M) 168 (M) 42.1%
29.8%
ns
44 (F) 241 (F) 63.6%
37.1%
p < 0.01
Data Source: Whitbeck et al. (2004)
* Eight Cities: St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Lincoln, Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Wichita.
Ethnicity: 59% European American, 22% non-Hispanic African American, 5% Hispanic, 14% American Indian, Asian or Pacific Islander, or biracial.
1. GLBU: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Identified, and those "Unsure" of their sexual orientation.
2. M = Male, F = Female



Manzon L, Rosario M, Rekart ML (1992). HIV seroprevalence among street involved Canadians in Vancouver. AIDS Education and Prevention, Fall Supplement: 86-9. PubMed Reference.

Roy E, Haley N, Leclerc P, Sochanski B, Boudreau JF, Boivin JF (2004). Mortality in a cohort of street youth in Montreal. JAMA, 292(5): 569-74. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

Roy E, Haley N, Leclerc P, Cedras L, Weber AE, Claessens C, Boivin JF (2003). HIV incidence among street youth in Montreal, Canada. AIDS, 17(7):v1071-5. PubMed Abstract.
Full Text.


Montreal Street Youth Cohort: 1995 - 2000
Age Range: 14-25 Years, Mean Age = 19.9 Years (Entry)
Categories /
Cause of Death

Males
n = 683
Females
n = 330
All
N = 1,013
Rate: / 100,000,
/ Year (95% CI)
Suicide
12
1
13
All: 460 **
Males: 626 **
Drug
Overdose
5
3
8

Untintentional
Injury
2
0
2

Fulminant
Hepatitis A
1
0
1

Heart
Related
1
0
1

Unidentified
1
0
1

Total
22
4
26
921 (602, 1,350)
Males: 1148 (720, 1,739)
Females: 442 (120, 1,131
Reported Homo-
Sex Experiences
* 18.8% * 28.9%
180
17.8%
* 22.1%

Death: Homo-Sex
?
?
8
30.8%

Data Source: Roy et al. (2004)
** Not Given by Authors: Roughly Estimated. The male street youth suicide rate (626) is many times higher than the Canadian suicide rates for similar age males: 14.5 to 19.9: 1996-1997.
See Table Below for Canadian Male Suicide Rates in 1991-1997.
** Given by Roy et al. (2003) for Subsample, N = 863


Suicides, and Suicide Rate
By Sex and by Age Group
  1996 1997 1981 1991 1996 1997
  Number of suicides Suicide rate per 100,000 population
All ages 3,941 3,681 14.0 13.3 13.2 12.3
Males 3,093 2,914 21.3 21.6 20.8 19.6
Females 848 767 6.8 5.3 5.6 5.1
             
1-14 years 41 51 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.9
Males 32 39 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.4
Females 9 12 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
15-19 years 231 261 12.7 13.8 11.5 12.9
Males 190 207 21.2 23.0 18.5 19.9
Females 41 54 3.8 4.0 4.2 5.5
20-24 years 350 293 19.6 18.2 17.2 14.5
Males 300 257 33.2 31.7 29.0 24.9
Females 50 36 5.9 4.1 5.0 3.6
25-44 years 1,770 1,549 17.4 18.1 17.9 15.8
Males 1,390 1,228 26.2 28.8 24.7 25.0
Females 380 321 8.6 7.6 8.6 6.6
Data Source: Statcan
Internet: http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/health01.htm

Public Health Agency of Canada (2006). Street Youth in Canada: Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth, 1999-2003. Ottawa: Ministry of Health.  Internet: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/pdf/street_youth_e.pdf.

Street Youth in Canada: Ethnicity
Results of Three Canada-Wide Surveys
Street-Youth-Canada-Ethnicity
Data Source: Public Health Agency of Canada (2006): Table 4



van Leeuwen JM, Boyle S, Salomonsen-Sautel S, Baker DN, Garcia JT, Hoffman A, Hopfer CJ (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: an eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2): 151-70. PubMed Abstract.

American Street Youth: A Same-Day Eight-City Sample
'Race' / 'Ethnicity' - Ages = 14 to 24 Years
Categories
All
N = 670
(100%)
GLB
n = 150
(22.4%)
Non-GLB
n = 520
(77.6%)
Odds
Ratio
p
White / Caucasian
242 / 670
36.1%
58 / 150
38.8%
184 / 520
35.4%
1.2
(0.79, 1.7)
0.461
African / American
237 / 670
35.4%
37 / 150
24.5%
200 / 520
38.5%
0.52
(0.35, 0.79)
0.002
Latino / Hispanic
69 / 670
10.3%
15 / 150
10.2%
54 / 520
10.3%
0.95
(0.52, 1.7)
0.891
Native American
32 / 670
4.8%
8 /150
5.4%
24 / 520
4.6%
1.2
(0.51, 2.6)
0.716
Asian / Pacific Islander
9 / 670
1.3%
1 / 150
0.7%
8 / 520
1.5%
0.43
(0.05, 3.5%)
0.414
Others 81 / 670
12.1%
31 /. 150
20.4%
50 / 520
9.7%
2.5
(1.5, 4.0)
0.0002
Data Source: van Leeuwen et al. (2006)
All Counts Calculated From Given Percentages: An Approximation
Some Study Participants Likely Did Not Report their 'Race'/'Ethnicity'


American Street Youth: 14-24 Years-Old
A Same-Day Eight-City Sample
Categories
All
N = 670
(100%)
GLB
n = 150
(22.4%)
Non-GLB
n = 520
77.6%
Odds
Ratio
(95%CI)
p
Social Services
In Custody, Ever
227 / 666
34.1%
64 / 147
43.5%
163 / 519
31.6%
1.7
(1.1, 2.4)
0.008
Asked to
Exchange Sex
199 / 656
30.3%
65 / 147
44.2%
134 / 509
26.3%
2,2
(1.5, 3.2)
0.0005
Trade Sex,
Ever
67 / 656
10.2%
27 / 147
18.8%
40 / 509
7.9%
2.7
(1.6, 4.6)
0.0005
5 Alcohol Drinks, At
Once, Past 2 Weeks
198 / 661
30.0%
62 / 147
42.2%
136 / 514
26.5%
2.0
(1.4, 3.0)
0.0005
Intravenous Drug Use
(IDU), Ever
98 / 659
14.9%
34 / 147
23.1%
64 / 512
12.5%
2.1
(1.3, 3.4)
0.002
Family Member, Severe
Drug / Alcohol Problem
432 / 661
65.4%
108 / 145
74.5%
324 / 516
62.9%
1.7
1.1, 2.6)
0.011
Ever In Drug / Alcohol
Treatment Program
193 / 651
29.6%
56 / 138
37.8%
137 / 513
26.7%
1.7
(1.1, 2.5)
0.010
Attempted Suicide,
Ever

241 / 662
36.2%
93 / 149
62.4%
148 / 513
28.8%
4.1
(2.8, 6.0)
0.0005
Data Source: van Leeuwen et al. (2006)
Odd Ratios Calculated by Author of Web Page



Freeman L, Hamilton D (2008). A count of Homeless Youth in New York City. New York, New York: Empire State Coalition of Youth and Family Services. Download Page. PDF Download.


Homeless Youth in New York City
Freeman & Hamilton (2008)
Sexual / Transgender
Identity
Hetero-
sexual
Homo +
Bisexual
Un-
sure
NR**
Not
Trans.
*Trans-
gender
NR
All: n / (%)
N = 944 / 945
556
(58.9%)
{100%}
168 + 100
=268
(28.4%)
{100%}
15
(1.6%)
{100%}
105
(11.1%)
{100%}
727
(76.9%)
{100%}
50
(5.3%)
{100%}
168
(17.7%)
{100%}
SEX

Male: n / (%)
N = 412 [43.6%]
236
(57.3%)
{52.9%}
149
(36.2%)
{69.0%}
9
(2.2%)
{60.0%}
18
(4.4%)
{17.1%}
319
(77.4%)
{43.9%}
38
(9.2%)
{76.0%}
55
(13.4%)
{32.7%}
Female: n / (%)
N =472 [50.0%]
319
(67.6%)
{71.5%}
116
(24.6%)
{43.3%}
5
(1.1%)
{33.3%}
32
(6.8%)
{30.5%}
407
(86.2%)
{56.0%}
9
(1.9%)
{18.0%}
56
(11.9%)
{33.3%}

NR: n / (%)
N = 61 [6.5%]
1
3
1
55
1
3
57
'RACE'

Black: n / (%)
N = 421 [46.6%]
274
(65.1%)
{49.3%}
117
(27.8%)
{43.7%}
5
(1.2%)
{33.3%}
25
(5.9%)
{23.8%}
345
{81.9%}
{47.5%}
31
(7.4%)
{62.0%}
45
(10.7%)
{26.8%}
Hispanic: n / (%)
N = 225 [23.8%]
139
(61.8%)
{25.0%}
71
(31.6%)
{26.5%}
3
(1.3%)
{20.0%}
12
(5.3%)
{11.4%}
180
(80.0%)
10
(4.4%)
{20.0%}
35
(15.5%)
{20.8%}
*** White
N = 7 [1.0%]
7 [0.7%]
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
*** Native Amerian
N = 51 [7.2%]
58 [6.1%]
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Other
N = 7 [1.0%]
10 [0.7%]
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
NR
N = 137 [19.4%]
224 [23.7%]
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
* Transgender: Yes/Sometimes/Probably.  ** NR: Refused/Don’t Know/Missing/Unclear
Mean Ages All Groupings / Categories: 19.7 to 20.7 Years. Age Range: 13 to 24 Years. 76.4% Born in USA.
Borough of Residence: Bronx (18%),  Queens (4.2%), Brooklyn (18.2%), Staten Island (1%), Manhattan 948.6%), NR (10.1%).
** 2007 Census, New York City: 0.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 45.3% White (35.1% non-Hispanic White alone)



Rew L, Whittaker TA, Taylor-Seehafer MA, Smith LR (2005). Sexual health risks and protective resources in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual homeless youth. Journal of  Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 10(1): 11-9. PubMed Abstract.

Street Youth -16 to 20 Years-Old: Texas
Categories
Gay /
Lesbian
n = 63
(15.6%)
Bi-
sexual
n = 82
(20.3%)
G
LB
n = 145
(36.0%)
Hetero-
Sexual
n = 258
(64.0%)
All
N = 403
(100%)
Race/Ethnicity





White
48
64
112
192
304
[75.4%]
African-American
2
3
5
10
15
[3.7%]
Latino/Hispanic
6
4
10
14
24
[6.0%]
Native-American
3
6
9
15
24
[6.0%]
Asian-American
1
1
2
2
4
[1.0%]
Other
3
4
7
23
30
[7.4%]






Males
44
32
76
(31.9%)
162
(68.1%)
238
[59.1%]
Females
19
50
69
(41.8%)
96
(38.2%)
165
[40.9%]












Data Source: Rew et al. (2005)


Clatts MC, Goldsamt L, Yi H, Gwadz MV (2005). Homelessness and drug abuse among young men who have sex with men in New York city: a preliminary epidemiological trajectory. Journal of Adolescence, 28(2): 201-14. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Age: 17 to 28 Years - Mean: 21.7 Years:
'Race'/Ethnicity
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Precent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
White, % Category,
% White,
n's*
26.7%
100%
152
16.5%
27.0%
41 : 111
34.7%
73.0%
111 : 41
20.5%
22.4%
34 : 118
8.4%
4.6%
7 : 145
Black, % of Category,
% Black,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
22.7%
100%
129


24.1%
46.5%
60 : 69
2.4 (1.4, 3.9)
0.0006
21.6%
53.5%
69 : 60


22.9%
29.4%
38 : 91
1.4 (0.85, 2.5)
0.175
26.5%
17.1%
22 : 107
4.3 (1.7, 10.3)
0.0006
Hispanic, % of Category,
% Hispanic,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
40.4%
100%
230


50.2%
54.3%
125 : 105
3.2 (2.1, 5.0)
0.0000
32.8%
45.7%
105 : 125


48.8%
35.2%
81 : 149
1.9 (1.2, 3.0)
0.007
53.0%
19.1%
44 : 186
4.9 (2.1, 11.2)
0.0000
Others, % of Category,
% Others,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
10.2%
100%
58


9.2%
39.6%
23 : 35
1.8 (0.94, 3.4)
0.074
10.9%
60.4%
35 : 23


7.8%
22.4%
13 : 45
1.0 (0.48, 2.1)
0.994
12.0%
17.2%
10 : 48
4.3 (1.6, 12.0)
0.003
*** Statistics
4 'Races': Chi Square

28.7
0.001
28.7
0.000
8.8
0.05
16.9
0.001
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within each 'Race'/Ethnic category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.



Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Sexual Orientation Categories
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Percent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
Gay, % of Category
% of Gay Males
n's*
63.4%
100%
361
49.4%
34.1%
123 : 238
74.4%
65.9%
238 : 123
56.0%
25.8%
93 : 268
36.1%
8.3%
 30 : 331
Bisexual, % of Category
% of Bisexual Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
23.9%
100%
136


31.3%
57.4%
78 : 58
2.6 (1.7, 3.9)
0.0000
17.8%
42.6%
58 : 78


29.5%
36.0%
49 : 87
1.6 (1.1, 2.5)
0.024
34.9%
21.3%
 29 : 107
3.0 (1.7, 5.2)
0.0000
Hetero..., % of Category
% of Heterosexual Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
7.2%
100%
41


12.0%
73.2%
  30 : 11
5.3 (2.6, 10.9)
0.000
3.4%
28.8%
 11 : 30


7.2%
29.3%
 12 : 29
1.2 (0.58, 2.4)
0.628
21.7%
43.9%
 18 : 23
8.6 (4,2, 17.8)
0.0000
Other, % of Category,
% of "Other" Males,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
5.6%
100%
32


7.2%
56.3%
18 : 14
2.5 (1.2, 5.2)
0.012
4.4%
43.8%
14 : 18


7.2%
37.5%
12 : 20
1.7 (0.81, 3.7)
0.150
7.2%
18.8%
 6 : 26
2.5 (0.97, 6.7)
0.0497
Total
100%
570
100%
249
100%
321
99.9%
166
99.9%
83
*** Statistics
4 Sex Orientations
 Chi Square

40.4
0.001
40.4
0.001
6.2
0.20
45.2
0.001
Trans..., % of Category
% of Transgender Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
8.8%
100%
50


11.6%
58.0%
29 : 21
2.7 (1.5, 4.9)
0.001
6.6%
42.0%
21 : 29


7.8%
26.0%
13 : 37
1.0 (0.52, 2.0)
0.971
19.3%
32.0%
16 : 36
4.9 (2.4, 9.8)
0.0000
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within each Sexual Orientation category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.
Trangender compared to Gay,
but some trangender identified MSMs may also have identified as gay.



Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Age: 17 to 28 Years - Mean: 21.7 Years:
'Race'/Ethnicity
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Percent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
Attempted Suicide: %
% of Suicide Attempters
* n's: Attempters : Non-Att
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***
33.4%
100%
190 : 379


42.2%
55.3%
105 : 144
2.0 (1.4, 2.9)
0.0000
26.6%
44.7%
85 : 235


41.8%
36.3%
69 : 97
2.0 (1.3, 2.9)
0.0007
43.4%
19.9%
36 : 47
2.1 (1.3, 3.5)
0.0029
% Attempters =
Multiple Attempters

46.8% **
54.3% **
37.6%
53.6%
55.6%
Multiple S. Attempters: %
% of Multiple Attempters
* n's
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***

15.6%
100%
89 : 480


22.9%
64.0%
57 : 192
2.7 (1.7, 4.3)
0.0000
10.0%
36.0%
32 : 288


22.4%
41.6%
37 : 129
2.6 (1.5, 4.3)
0.0002
24.1%
22.5%
20 : 63
2.9 (1.5, 5.3)
0.0006
% Attempters = Attempted,
Sex Orientation (S.O.) Reason

34.7% **
33.3% **
36.2%
32.4%
36.4%
S.O. Suicide Attempters: %
% of S.O. Attempters
* n's
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***
11.6%
100%
66 : 503


14.1%
53.0%
35 : 214
1.5 (0.91, 2.6)
0.106
9.6%
47.0%
31 : 289


13.5%
33.3%
22 : 144
1.4 (0.80, 2.5)
0.232
15.8%
19..7%
13 : 70
1.7 (0.86, 3.5)
0.120
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within Attempted Suicide category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.





Cochran (2002): http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1447160





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