Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth Suicide Problems in Australia and New Zealand?
To Index: Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two-Spirit GLBTQ Information Pages  - A Suicide Focus
Results from more than 30 gay / bisexual male youth suicidality Studies
T-S, T-s: Two Spirit / Two Spirited
GLBTQ: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer

Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.

Canadian Association of Suicide Prevention
2006 CASP Conference


"Complexity of Suicide: Prevention, Intervention and Aftermath"


Conference Workshop Title:

"Integrating Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender,
Two-Spirit, and Same Gender Loving*...
Evidence in Suicide Intervention and Therapeutic Practice"

By: Richard Ramsay, Pierre Tremblay, Martin Ploderl

* Information related to "Same Gender Loving": See "Terminologies" by Terry Howcott, Bottom of Web Page, at terryhowcott.com. More on Terminology: wikipedia.org. -
Pride Panel Terms and Definitions.
- LBGTQI Terminology: PDF Download. - LGBTTSQI Terminology: PDF Download. - Creating GLBTQIA-Inclusive Forms: Suggestions For Policy And Implementation (PDF Download). - Tips and Strategies for Meeting the Needs of GLBTQ Youth of Color.

Handout Information: Page 1, 2, 3, 4

Aboriginal Two Spirit Information Folder - That Became a Website - Developed in Association With this Presentation.

A collation of results from studies of street / homeless youth, with the emphasis on data related to homosexually oriented individuals and Aboriginal people.

To Note: A Canadian critique of "Street Youth" research published by the Department of Justice Canada emphasised that research results separated on the basis or gender (including transgender), sexual orientation (using various attraction & sexual orientation identity measures), and being Aboriginal (or in other 'race'/ethnic groups) is most often lacking. Example Below.
CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd (2001). Gap Analysis of Research Literature on Issues Related to Street-Involved Youth. Prepared by CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd. for Research and Statistics Division. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Internet: http://justice.gc.ca/en/ps/rs/rep/2002/rr2002-8.pdf.

Collations of Information:

Literature Reviews On The "At Risk" Status of Homosexually Oriented Individuals.

Bisexual / Gay Male Suicidality Resources 1, 2.

Highlight Summary of Suicidality as Related to Sexual Minorities.

Resource Pages on GLBT Issues in General: For Professionals... Counselors... More, See...  Content Page.


Resource Pages Containing Information That May Result in a Better Understanding of Sexual Minorities From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Visible Minorities in North America... Sexual Minorities in South America & Africa... Middle East & Central Asia... Northeast Asia... Southeast Asia... More, See...
Content Page.

Racism in Predominantly White GLBT Communities. Alternate Site.


Page 1 (As One Web Page)

Attempted Suicide (Lifetime)
Homo-/Bi- vs. Hetero-Sexual

Attempted Suicide (Lifetime)
Homo-/Bi- vs. Hetero-Sexual


 Attempted Suicide (Past 12 Months)
Homo-/Bi- vs. Hetero-Sexual
Attempted Suicide (Past 12 Months)
Massachusetts: 1999 - 2005

Attempted Suicide (Past 12 Months)
2003 Adolescent Health Survey
Attempted Suicide (Lifetime)
USA Aboriginal Two Spirit Males


Page 2 (As One Web Page)

Canada Native Youth: Suicide Risk = 5-7 Times
(American Native Youth: Risk = 2 Times)


Attempted Suicide (Past 12 Months)
Related Injury: 3 Youth Groups


Aboriginal Youth Over-Represented In
Canada & BC Street Youth Populations

More Aboriginal Adolescents & Street
Youth Are Bisexual to Homosexual

Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual (GLB) Street Youth Over-
Representation: GLB = 3-6% in School Samples
GLB in Street Youth Populations: Generally
Higher Proportions Females = Homosexual

Participants in the workshop were told of the van Leeuwen et al. (2006) study result (USA: 8 Cities):
Attempted Suicide Incidence (Lifetime): GLB = 62.4% vs. Heterosexual = 28.8%
Odd Ratio: 4.1 (95%CI: 2.8, 6.0)

Page 3 (As Two Web Pages: 1, 2)

Transgender (TG) & Gender Non-Conforming
(GNC) Gay Bisexual Males: Risks & Issues
Homosexually Oriented Individuals More At
Risk for Committing Suicide: Some Indicators

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1992 NHANES)

Note: The homosexual Black suicide attempter mentioned to be the only suicide attempter in the 30-39 year-old category becomes about one-third of in the age category when weighted. Therefore, one-third of a homosexual suicide attempter - who is Black in a population age range (30-39 years) that is about 70% White - in completly unacceptable for an estimate of the homosexual male suicide attempt incidence in the category.  Furthermore, including males in the 30-39 year-old category in the analysis could only greatly decrease what would be the much greater odds for homosexual males attempting suicide, compared to heterosexual males, as the above ORs for males aged 17-29 years suggest.

National Comorbidity Survey (1992 NCS)

Unweighted Values (Left of Table), Weighted Values (Right of Table)
Note: Above, the statistical power of the association for all homosexual males essentially
comes from the Non-White Males (Males of Color) in the sample,
and all Males of Color who attempted suicide are located in Metropolitan areas.
Homosexual Males of Color are much more at risk of Attempting Suicide,
compared to their Heterosexual Males of Color counterparts...
Than are White Homosexual Males, compared to their Heterosexual Counterparts

Page 4 (As One Web Page)

Bibliography

Bagley C, Tremblay P (1997)
. Suicidal behaviors in homosexual and bisexual males. Crisis, 18(1): 24-34. 
Barney DD (2003)
. Health Risk-Factors for Gay American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Males. Journal of Homosexuality, 46(1/2): 137-157.
Cochran SD, Mays VM (2000). Lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting same-sex sexual partners: results from NHANES III. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4):v573-8. 
Data set is available online.
Faulkner AH, Cranston K (1998). Correlates of same-sex sexual behavior in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 88: 262-266.
Gilbert M (2004). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-spirited and Questioning Youth in British Columbia and the Influence of the School Environment: A resource document for Medical Health Officers. Internet: http://www.galebc.org/The%20health%20of%20GLBT.pdf.
Gilman SE, Cochran SD, Mays VM, Hughes M, Ostrow D, Kessler RC (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 933-9. Data set is available online.
Gorham B (2006). B.C. researcher says American group distorting her research on teen suicide. The Canadian Press. Internet: http://www.cbc.ca/cp/health/060619/x061932.html.
Mallon GP, DeCrescenzo T (2006). Transgender children and youth: a child welfare practice perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2): 215-41.
Massachusetts Department of Education (2006). Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results. Internet: http://www.doe.mass.edu/cnp/hprograms/yrbs/. Summary of Results: http://fsw.ucalgary.ca/ramsay/gay-lesbian-bisexual/2i-youth-risk-behavior-survey.htm.
McCreary Centre Society (2004). Healthy Youth Development: Highlights from the 2003 Adolescent Health Survey III. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society.  Internet: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/retrieve.cfm?Document=AHS-3_provincial.pdf. Download Page: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/r_ahs.htm.
McCreary Centre Society (2002). Between the Cracks: Homeless Youth in Vancouver. Vancouver, B C: McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2002.pdf.
McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Vancouver BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2001.pdf.
Noell JW, Ochs LM (2001). Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(1): 31-6.
Paul JP, Catania J, Pollack L, Moskowitz J, Canchola J, Mills T, Binson D, Stall R (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American  Journal of Public Health, 92(8): 1338-45.

*Plöderl M, Sauer J, Fartacek R (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen. Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie und Psychosoziale Praxis, 2/2006.
Public Health Agency of Canada (2006). Street Youth in Canada: Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth, 1999-2003. Ottawa: Ministry of Health.  Internet: http://www.publichealth.gc.ca/sti.
Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB.  (2003). Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72.
Remafedi G, Farrow JA, Deisher RW (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87(6): 869-75.
Rew L, Whittaker TA, Taylor-Seehafer MA, Smith LR (2005). Sexual health risks and protective resources in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual homeless youth. Journal of  Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 10(1): 11-9
Robin L, Brener ND, Donahue SF, Hack T, Hale K, Goodenow C (2002). Associations between health risk behaviors and opposite-, same-, and both-sex sexual partners in representative samples of Vermont and Massachusetts high school students. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 156: 349-355.
Roy E, Haley N, Leclerc P, Cedras L, Weber AE, Claessens C, Boivin JF (2003). HIV incidence among street youth in Montreal, Canada. AIDS, 17(7): 1071-5
.
Russell ST, Joyner KJ (2001). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 91: 1276-1281.
SIEC: Suicide Information and Education Centre (2003)Suicide Among Canada's Aboriginal Peoples. Internet: http://www.suicideinfo.ca/csp/assets/Alert52.pdf.
Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2004)The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associatons With Worsening Youth Suicide Problems. Internet: http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/construction/.
van der Woerd KA, Dixon BL, McDiarmid T, Chittenden M, Murphy A, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Raven's Children II: Aboriginal Youth Health in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet:  http://www.mcs.bc.ca/retrieve.cfm?Document=Ravens_children_2-web.pdf.
van Leeuwen JM, Boyle S, Salomonsen-Sautel S, Baker DN, Garcia JT, Hoffman A, Hopfer CJ (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: an eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2): 151-70.
Wagner LS, Carlin PL, Cauce AM, Tenner A (2001). A snapshot of homeless youth in Seattle: their characteristics, behaviors and beliefs about HIV protective strategies. Journal of Community Health, 26(3): 219-32.
Best Practice: Wilber, Ryan C, Marsamer G (2006).
CWLA Best Practice Guidelines:
Serving LGBT Youth in Out-Of-Home Care.  Internet: http://www.lsc-sf.org/publications/bestpracticeslgbtyouth.pdf. - Morrow DF (2004). Social work practice with Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender adolescents. Families and Society, 85(1): 91-99. - Martell CR, Botzer M, Williams M (2003). Gay Lesbian, Transgender & Bisexual Individuals. A Chapter from: A summary of Best and Promising Mental Health Practices. Internet:  http://www.spokane.wsu.edu/research&service/WIMIRT/content/documents/Chapter%205Book.pdf. - Chandler MJ, Lalonde CE (2003). Transferring Whose Knowledge? Exchanging Whose Best Practices?: On Knowing About Indigenous Knowledge and Aboriginal Suicide. Internet: http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/lalonde/manuscripts/2003INAC.pdf. - SIEC. Best Practices in Youth Suicide Prevention (References). Internet:  http://www.suicideinfo.ca/youthatrisk/professionals/best.htm.


Literature Reviews Related to the Likely "At Risk" status of Homosexually Oriented Individuals

Bagley C, and Tremblay P (2000). Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. Crisis, 21(3): 111-17. PubMed Abstract. Online Draft.

Erwin K (1993). Interpreting the evidence: competing paradigms and the emergence of lesbian and gay suicide as a "social fact". International Journal of Health Services, 23(3): 437-53. PubMed Abstract.

Julien D, Chartrand (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon probabiliste sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 46(4): 235-250. APA Abstract.

Kulkin HS, Chauvin EA, Percle GA (2000). Suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and young adults: a review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(1): 1-29. (Review) PubMed Abstract.

Lebson M (2002). Suicide among homosexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(4): 107-17. PubMed Abstract.

McAndrew S, Warne T (2004). Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(4): 428-34. PubMed Abstract.

McDaniel JS, Purcell DW, D'Augelli AR (2001). The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: research findings and future directions for research and prevention. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.): 84-105. (Review)  PubMed Abstract.

Meyer, IH (2003). Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674–697. Summary.

Morrison LL, L'Heureux J (2001). Suicide and gay / lesbian / bisexual youth: implications for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 39-49. PubMed Abstract. Full Test: PDF Download.

Remafedi G (1999). Sexual orientation and youth suicide.
JAMA, 282(13): 1291-2. Full Text (Must Scroll): PDF Download.

Russell ST (2003). Sexual minority youth and suicide risk. American Behavioral Scientist,  46, 1241-1257. Full Text: PDF Download.

Tremblay P, and Ramsay R (2000). Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problème suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. Le Vis-À-Vie, 10(2): 5-8. Internet English version of the paper: Full Text.


Above, it was noted that:

A Canadian critique of "Street Youth" research published by the Department of Justice Canada emphasised that research results separated on the basis or gender (including transgender), sexual orientation (using various attraction & sexual orientation identity measures), and being Aboriginal (or in other 'race'/ethnic groups) is most often lacking.
CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd (2001). Gap Analysis of Research Literature on Issues Related to Street-Involved Youth. Prepared by CS/RESORS Consulting Ltd. for Research and Statistics Division. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada. Internet: http://justice.gc.ca/en/ps/rs/rep/2002/rr2002-8.pdf
To illustrate this fact, the following Canadian studies/reports (wholly or partly based on data from the "Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth" and/or other research projects) are used. Data reported in a study of Vancouver street youth (McCreary Centre, 2002) suggest that "at risk" attributes may/will vary on the basis of both being / not being Aboriginal, and being / not being 100% heterosexual. Results from a major American study of street youth (van Leeuwen et al., 2006) also indicates that significant differences in some "at risk" behaviors may be expected on the basis of reported GLB (gay, lesbian, bisexual) identity. As the data from the two previously studies indicates, and the same applies for the studies noted below, results for "at risk" behaviors are often not separated by gender for Aboriginal street youth, or for those reporting sexual minority status: same-sex experiences / GLB identity / being transgender. Commonly enough, results may also be grouped for males and females. For example, in the (van Leeuwen et al. (2006) study, GLB Street youth results are not given on the basis of gender. The same applies in the van der Woerd et al. (2005) study when comparing "At Risk" behaviors of Aboriginal students and Aboriginal Street Youth. In the study, results based on sexual orientation - including possible comparisons that could have been made between Aboriginal students and Aboriginal Street Youth -  were not reported. 
Public Health Agency of Canada (2006a). Street Youth in Canada: Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth, 1999-2003. Ottawa: Ministry of Health.  Internet: http://www.publichealth.gc.ca/sti. - http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/youth_e.html. - http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/pdf/street_youth_e.pdf.
Background Information (http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/sti-its-surv-epi/qf-fr/pdf/qa-qr_e.pdf): "A pilot project was launched in 1998 to investigate the feasibility of studying the street youth population. Data collection was conducted in large urban centres across Canada, starting in 1999 and continuing in 2001, 2003 and 2005–06. Three sites, Vancouver, Ottawa and Halifax, were involved in the initial phase of the project. The surveillance system has now been expanded to seven urban centres. Current and past participating cities are Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Halifax."

Comment: Nothing is essentially mentioned in the document about homosexuality, except for the following: "In 2001 males were significantly more likely to report not using condoms with their male partners (homosexual encounters) than with their female partners (heterosexual encounters)", thus suggesting that some information about the homosexuality of the participants was solicited. Information on the 'race'/ethnicity of participants is given (reproduced below) but study results are only reported on the basis of gender, suggesting that differences based on ethnicity, age or sexual orientation (bisexual/homosexual identity/behavior) were deemed irrelevant. Only two results based on age are reported: "Older youth (20–24 years) were significantly more likely to report being assigned a social worker for access to shelter and welfare than younger youth (15–19 years)... Older youth were found to be more likely than younger youth to report having had a probation/parole officer or having been in jail. This may be a consequence of exposure, as older youth would have been on the streets longer than younger youth."

Street Youth in Canada: Ethnicity
Results of Three Canada-Wide Surveys
Street-Youth-Canada-Ethnicity
Data Source: Public Health Agency of Canada (2006a): Table 4

Public Health Agency of Canada (2006b). Sexually Transmitted Infections in Canadian Street Youth: Findings from Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth, 1999-2003. Ottawa: Ministry of Health. Internet: http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/HP5-14-2006E.pdf. - http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/sti-youth_e.html. - http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/pdf/sti-street_youth_e.pdf.
Comment: Homosexuality is only mentioned in one section (reproduced below). It is also noted that about 33% of study participants were aboriginal but study results are generally only given on the basis of gender. Information on the 'race'/ethnicity of participants is given - as done in Public Health Agency of Canada (2006a) -but study results are only given on the basis of gender, suggesting that differences based on ethnicity, age or sexual orientation were generally deemed to be irrelevant. Below, the following is stated: "Overall, 19.9% of street youth reported having engaged in GLB* [gay, lesbian, and bisexual] activities in their lifetime." It should be noted, however, that the expression "GLB" is generally used to represent identities, not same-sex activities. Furthermore, to speak about "GLB activities" as meaning same-sex sexual activities is about as 'wise' (or unwise) as speaking of "Roman Catholic identity," with the assumption being that all who identify as Roman Catholic are attending church regularly (meaning practicing their religion), when the majority likely do not. One can also wonder about authors who restrict the concept of "GLB activities" to only meaning "sexual activities," when there is much more to identifying as GLB than only what one does sexually.

Source:
Public Health Agency of Canada (2006b)
****MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men
*GLB: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual


Canadian Public Health Association Conference (2004): 13. "Substance Use in Canadian Street Youth". By: Jennifer Phelan, Rhonda Kropp, Cara Bowman, Susanne Shields, Tom Wong, CAID, CIDPC, Health Canada, Ottawa (Internet: http://www.cpha.ca/english/conf/cpha04/pdf/Posters_Tuesday.pdf). "It is hypothesized that a large percentage of Canadian street youth (SY) use substances as a coping strategy for life on the street. In 2001, Health Canada in partnership with provincial and local community health organisations, undertook the third cycle of the Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth. This national cross-sectional surveillance initiative examines risk behaviours and STD rates in street youth SY (N=1427). Overall, 82.5% of SY reported smoking everyday and 93.9% reported ever using non-injection drugs, with no significant difference by gender or age. Binge drinking, reported by 42.0% of SY, was more common among males (46.1% vs. 36.5%, p=0.0010). No difference was found by age. Injection drug use (IDU), ever in lifetime, was reported by 18.5% of SY. While IDU did not vary by gender, SY aged 20-24 were more likely to report IDU than those aged 15-19 (29.0% vs. 13.5%, p<0.0001). SY who reported parent IDU were more likely to report IDU themselves than SY who reported no parent IDU (26.3% vs. 16.5%, p<0.0001). This data indicates a high level of substance use in SY. Information gathered from surveillance is essential in the development of effective programs, policies and services to address substance use in SY.
Comment: Some "at risk" variables in the "Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth" do seem to vary on the basis of gender and age. They would likely also vary on the basis of ethnicity, and especially Aboriginal ethnicity. The same would likely also apply on the basis of sexual orientation as suggested from the American eight-city study of street youth by van Leeuwen et al. (2006): See Table of Results below.

Gratix J, LaBoucane-Benson P (2005). Tracking Our Youth: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on Research Conducted with Homeless Youth in Edmonton. Edmonton: Joint Planning Committee on Housing.Project carried out by BearPaw Research. A Department of: Native Counselling Services of Alberta. Internet: http://www.moresafehomes.net/images/research/Homeless%20Youth%20Lit%20Review%20(OLV).pdf.
'Street Youth In Canada, Phase 2, 2001 (Edmonton, n = 271): Heterosexual Identity (100%), Same-Sex Sex (9%).
Street Youth In Canada, Phase 3, 2003 (Edmonton, n = 352): Heterosexual Identity (99%), Same-Sex Sex (15%).'

Comment: The Edmonton estimate for Same-Sex Sex (Average = 12%: 9% + 15%) is well below the national average reported in
Public Health Agency of Canada (2006b): 19.9%, lifetime. However, the 9% and 15% could be associated with "more current" (as opposed to "lifetime") homo-sex activities, and even specific current sexual behaviors as suggested below when noting that males engaging in "oral sex between males" are more at risk HSV-2 (Canadian Public Health Association Conference (2004a). The fact that 100% (2001) and 99% (2002) of Edmonton participants reported heterosexual identity is also at odds with many American and Canadian studies that have generally reported that at least about 10% of street youth identify as gay/lesbian or bisexual, with an American 8-City study reporting that 22.4% of Street Youth (Ages = 14-24 Years) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB). One percent (1%) identified as transgender (van Leeuwen et al., 2006).
Canadian Public Health Association Conference (2004a): 19. "Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection Among Canadian Street Youth: Demographic and Behavioural Correlates." By: Rhonda Kropp, Cara Bowman, Jennifer Phelan, Suzanne Shields, Tom Wong, CAID, CIDPC, Health Canada, Ottawa. (Internet: http://www.cpha.ca/english/conf/cpha04/pdf/Posters_Tuesday.pdf). "Canadian street youth (SY) are at risk for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection due to involvement in high-risk behaviours. In 2001, the Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth recruited SY between the ages of 15-24 years (n=1481) from seven urban centres across Canada. Interviews covering demographics and risk behaviour were administered and blood was drawn from consenting participants (n=1037) for serological testing (EIA). Of those tested, 14.2% had antibodies to HSV-2; however, only 1.7% reported a history of herpes infection. Factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity included female gender (OR=3.6, 95% CI, 2.4-5.1), First Nations ethnicity (OR=3.0, 95% CI, 2.1-4.2), high school attendance (OR=.56, 95% CI, .39-.82), injection drug use (OR=3.0, 95% CI, 2.0-4.6), sex trade involvement (OR=3.5, 95% CI, 2.4-5.1), oral sex between males (OR=3.2, 95% CI, 1.2-8.3), history of STD (OR=4.3, 95% CI, 3.0-6.2), frequency of sex (p=.01), and lifetime number sex partners (p<.0001). Condom use overall, and anal, vaginal, and oral sex (except male to male) in prior 3 months were not associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Efforts to reduce HSV-2 infection and promote HSV-2 screening among SY are needed. Knowledge of risk factors for HSV-2 infection among this marginalized population will help target such efforts."
Comment: The "oral sex between males" reported indicates that homosexuality may be important in the at-risk lives of street youth, at least for males. This information also indicates that homosexuality related information solicited in the "Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth" was, at least in some case, very specific. Information has not yet been located that reports the sexual minority results for the participants in "Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth" study(ies).

Canadian Public Health Association Conference (2004b): 13. "Substance Use in Canadian Street Youth. By: Jennifer Phelan, Rhonda Kropp, Cara Bowman, Susanne Shields, Tom Wong, CAID, CIDPC, Health Canada, Ottawa (Internet: http://www.cpha.ca/english/conf/cpha04/pdf/Posters_Tuesday.pdf). "It is hypothesized that a large percentage of Canadian street youth (SY) use substances as a coping strategy for life on the street. In 2001, Health Canada in partnership with provincial and local community health organisations, undertook the third cycle of the Enhanced Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth. This national cross-sectional surveillance initiative examines risk behaviours and STD rates in street youth SY (N=1427). Overall, 82.5% of SY reported smoking everyday and 93.9% reported ever using non-injection drugs, with no significant difference by gender or age. Binge drinking, reported by 42.0% of SY, was more common among males (46.1% vs. 36.5%, p=0.0010). No difference was found by age. Injection drug use (IDU), ever in lifetime, was reported by 18.5% of SY. While IDU did not vary by gender, SY aged 20-24 were more likely to report IDU than those aged 15-19 (29.0% vs. 13.5%, p<0.0001). SY who reported parent IDU were more likely to report IDU themselves than SY who reported no parent IDU (26.3% vs. 16.5%, p<0.0001). This data indicates a high level of substance use in SY. Information gathered from surveillance is essential in the development of effective programs, policies and services to address substance use in SY."

Cooper M, Guyn Cooper Research Associates (2006). Vulnerable Youth in Calgary: Environmental Scan. Calgary, AB: United Way of Calgary and Area. Internet: http://www.calgaryunitedway.org/pdfs/Reports/CalgaryVulnerableYouthScanJuly2006.pdf. Homosexuality is only mentioned in the following context: "Older research shows that the majority of girls who resort to “survival sex” do not consider themselves to be engaging in prostitution. Most boys who engage in homosexual sex for money or a bed do define their activities as prostitution but do not consider themselves to be homosexual; it is simply a way to survive. 180" Basically, homosexuality issues are ignored in the report.

McCreary Centre (2002). Between the Cracks: Homeless Youth in Vancouver. Vancouver, B. C.: McCreary Centre. Internet: http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2002.pdf.


325 Vancouver Street Youth: To Age of 24 Years
Sexual Orientation & Risk Attributes
Categories
Males (n = 204)*
Attempted Suicide (In Past Year):
Under Age 19: 15%
19-24 Year Old: 20%
Females (n = 119) *
Attempted Suicide (In Past Year):
Under Age 19: 38%
19-24 Year Old: 26%
% Non-
Aboriginal

68%
Attempted Suicide:  ?
58%
Attempted Suicide: 25%
%
Aboriginal

32%
Attempted Suicide:  ?
42%
Attempted Suicide: 42%
Same-Sex
Sex, Ever

Age < 19 Years: 27%
Age = 19-24 years: 31%
Age < 19 Years: 52%
Age = 19-24 years: 57%
Sexual
Orientation
100%
Hetero
Mostly
Hetero
Bi-
sexual
Homo
Un-
sure
100%
Hetero
Mostly
Hetero
Bi-
sexual
Homo
Un-
sure
Percentages
69%
12%
8%
4%
8%
38%
20%
32%
1%
10%
Percentages 69%
31%
38%
62%
Attempted
Suicide
13%
21%
?
?
Sexually
Abused
21%
52%
?
?
Physically
Abused
57%
89%
?
?
Traded
Sex
20%
69%
?
?
Traded
Sex
Age < 19 Years: 35%
Age = 19-24 years: 30%
Age < 19 Years: 24%
Age = 19-24 years: 53%
Traded Sex
Native
?
49%
Traded Sex
Non-Native
?
32%
Traded
Sex
Attempted Suicide: 28%
Did Not
Trade Sex
Attempted Suicide: 19%
Data Source: McCreary Centre (2002)
* Note: % Males and % Females is not given for whole sample. 145 Youth < 19 Years Old [57% male (n = 83), 42% Female (n = 61)], remainder (180) = 19-24 years old [67% Male (n = 121), 32% Female (n = 58)]. Counts are estimated from given percentages. About 1% are transgender.



van Leeuwen JM, Boyle S, Salomonsen-Sautel S, Baker DN, Garcia JT, Hoffman A, Hopfer CJ (2006). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual homeless youth: an eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare, 85(2): 151-70. PubMed Abstract.

American Street Youth: 14-24 Years-Old
A Same-Day Eight-City Sample

Categories
All
N = 670
(100%)
GLB
n = 150
(22.4%)
Non-GLB
n = 520
77.6%
Odds
Ratio
(95%CI)
p
Social Services
In Custody, Ever
227 / 666
34.1%
64 / 147
43.5%
163 / 519
31.6%
1.7
(1.1, 2.4)
0.008
Asked to
Exchange Sex
199 / 656
30.3%
65 / 147
44.2%
134 / 509
26.3%
2,2
(1.5, 3.2)
0.0005
Trade Sex,
Ever
67 / 656
10.2%
27 / 147
18.8%
40 / 509
7.9%
2.7
(1.6, 4.6)
0.0005
5 Alcohol Drinks, At
Once, Past 2 Weeks
198 / 661
30.0%
62 / 147
42.2%
136 / 514
26.5%
2.0
(1.4, 3.0)
0.0005
Intravenous Drug Use
(IDU), Ever
98 / 659
14.9%
34 / 147
23.1%
64 / 512
12.5%
2.1
(1.3, 3.4)
0.002
Family Member, Severe
Drug / Alcohol Problem
432 / 661
65.4%
108 / 145
74.5%
324 / 516
62.9%
1.7
1.1, 2.6)
0.011
Ever In Drug / Alcohol
Treatment Program
193 / 651
29.6%
56 / 138
37.8%
137 / 513
26.7%
1.7
(1.1, 2.5)
0.010
Attempted Suicide,
Ever

241 / 662
36.2%
93 / 149
62.4%
148 / 513
28.8%
4.1
(2.8, 6.0)
0.0005
Data Source: van Leeuwen et al. (2006)
Odd Ratios Calculated by Author of Web Page
Note:
7 / 677 Transgender Individuals Were in the Sample (1%),
but They Were Removed From the Analysis.


In British Columbia, the following formal report on the 2003 Adolescent Health Survey (AHS) only reported on the "At Risk" status of BC adolescents on the basis of sex and information was not reported on their sexual orientation.
McCreary Centre Society (2004). Healthy Youth Development: Highlights from the 2003 Adolescent Health Survey III. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. Internet: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/retrieve.cfm?Document=AHS-3_provincial.pdf. Download Page: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/r_ahs.htm.

Sexual orientation results for BC students in the 2003 AHS were located in this document:
Gilbert M (2004). The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-spirited and Questioning Youth in British Columbia and the Influence of the School Environment: A resource document for Medical Health Officers. Internet: http://www.galebc.org/The%20health%20of%20GLBT.pdf.

In 2005, Aboriginal result from the 2003 AHS - including sexual orientation results - were published  in this report:
 van der Woerd, KA, Dixon BL, McDiarmid T, Chittenden M, Murphy A, The McCreary Centre Society (2005). Raven's Children II: Aboriginal Youth Health in BC. Vancouver, BC: The McCreary Centre Society. Internet:  http://www.mcs.bc.ca/retrieve.cfm?Document=Ravens_children_2-web.pdf.
In 2006, some "Attempted Suicide" results - related to the sexual orientation of students - were presented by Elizabeth Saewyc at a Conference. As the result of a related controversy, the results were reported in the media. For example, in this news item:
Gorham B (2006). B.C. researcher says American group distorting her research on teen suicide. The Canadian Press. Internet: http://www.cbc.ca/cp/health/060619/x061932.html.
Some information from the above documents are in the following table:


The British Columbia 2003 Adolescent Health Survey
Sexual Orientation & Attempting Suicide Results
Categories All Students - N = + 30,500
Grade 7 - 12
Aboriginal - N = 2,478
Grade 7 to 12

Males
Females
All
Males
Females
All
All Students
[4%]
[10%]
{?}
[6%]
[16%]

100% Heterosexual
[3.3%] *
[8.2%]
85.4%
[?]
[?] 80%
Not 100% Heterosexual


14.6%


20%
Mostly Heterosexual


6.2%


7%
Bisexual
[12.8%]
[30.4%]
2.0%
[?] [?] 5%
Mostly Homosexual


0.2%


Homosexual
[8.8%] **
[38.0%]
0.3%
[?] [?]
Unsure


5.9%


9%
Data Sources: van der Woerd (2005): Aboriginal Data
Gorham (2006): "Attempted Suicide" In The Past Year - 2003 AHS
** Note: Definition of "Homosexual" Not Given. Could be Homosexual + Mostly Homosexual.
* "Heterosexual" Could Include "Mostly Heterosexual".
Gilbert (2004): Sexual Orientation Percentages - 2003 AHS
"Attempted Suicide" Incidence (Past Year) Given in Square Brackets: [4%]


Study results were also given by van der Woerd et al. (2005) for Aboriginal Street Youth (n = 178) and Aboriginal students in schools...


Source:
van der Woerd et al. (2005)
Aboriginal Students = 2,478

It was noted by van der Woerd et al. (2005) that more "Aboriginal males (85%) were 100% heterosexual than females (76%)," meaning that about 15% of Aboriginal adolescent males in schools (15% x 2,478 = 372) and 24% of Aboriginal adolescent females (24% x 2,478 = 596) were not classifying themselves as 100% heterosexual. There were about 5% of males and females classifying themselves to be being bisexual to homosexual (5% x 2,478 = 124), meaning that some information could have been reported on related associations, such as "Attempting Suicide," for example. But results on the basis of "Sexual Orientation" were not reported, noting here that about twice as many Aboriginal Students (5%) identified as bisexual to homosexual, compared to all other students (2.5%) that also includes the Aboriginal counts. If the Aboriginal counts are removed, only about 2.2% of Non-Aboriginal students reported being bisexual to homosexual. An approximate 2x2 calculation of the Odds Ratio for Aboriginal Students more likely being bisexual to homosexual is: 2.2 (95%CI: 1.8, 2.7), the assumption being that all students replied to the sexual orientation question.

The "Aboriginal" and the "Sexual Orientation" representation in the 2001 BC Street Youth study (McCreary Centre Society, 2001) are given below but associations with "At Risk" attributes were not reported on the basis of either variable. It seems like it was assumed that "Being Aboriginal," having had a history of "Homosexual Sex ," or not identifying as "Heterosexual" was irrelevant with respect to issues such as "Attempting Suicide." However, other research results suggest otherwise. It is possible that there were no differences on the basis of the two above specified variables, but this is not mentioned in the McCreary Centre Society (2001) study.

McCreary Centre Society (2001). No Place to Call Home: A Profile of Street Youth in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC. The McCreary Centre Society. http://www.ihpr.ubc.ca/media/McCreary2001.pdf.

Street Youth In British Columbia: 12-19 Years Old
Mean Age = 16 Years
Categories
Van-
couver
Vic-
toria
Abbots-
ford/
Mission
South
Frazer
Sun-
shine
Coast
Prince
Rupert
Males
Fe-
males
All
Sample Size: N's
145
94
113
61
50
60


100%
523
Aboriginal
54
37%
15
16%
20
18%
8
13%
10
19%
46
76%


29%
153
Females
61
42%
41
44%
54
48%
25
41%
26
52%
32
54%

239
239
45.7%
Males
83
57%
52
55%
57
50%
36
59%
24
48%
28
46%
280

280
53.5%
Transgender
2
1%
1
1%
2
2%
0%
0%
0%
5
5
0.96%
Males
57%
55%
51%



Sexual Orientation

Males: Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
27%
21%
15%
19%
N/A
*
27%
Females: Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
52%
41%
30%
N/A
37%
100% Heterosexual
50%
63%
50%
78%
76%
76%
196
70%
79
33%

Mostly Heterosexual
18%
15%
10%
2%
7%
4%



Bisexual
20%
11%
13%
7%
7%
0%


16.5%
100% Homosexual
3%
1%
16%
2%
0%
0%


Unsure
10%
10%
11%
11%
10%
20%



Not 100%
Heterosexual
50%
37%
50%
22%
24%
24%
84
30%
160
67%

Data Source: McCreary Centre Society (2001)
Note: Only the combined male & female counts in each specified BC location are given.
All other counts in the Table are estimated from given percentages.

* An Estimate.


Site Index
Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.




More Information at: The Original Site on GB Male Suicide Problems