Results from more than 30 gay / bisexual male youth suicidality Studies
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Counseling and Therapy: Part 3 of 5: Abstracts / Summaries
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Bibiography: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Ph.D and Master's Theses

See: "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!
At Another Website (Includes Transgender Study Results)

See: More Than 250 Full Text Papers and Documents Related to GLBT Suicidality.

ABSTRACTS/HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles, & Books

Augelso CJ, Fassinger RE, Gomez MJ, Latts MG, and Rogelso CJ (1995). Countertransference Reactions to Lesbian Clients - the role of homophobia, counselor gender, and countertransference management. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 (3), 356-364.

Abstract by authors: This study examined (a) male and female counselorsí countertransference (CT) reactions to lesbian and heterosexual client actresses and (b) the role of counselor homophobia and CT management ability in CT reactions. Sixty-seven counselors viewed a videotaped client actress in 1 of 2 conditions: lesbian or heterosexual. The client discussed sexual problems within a stable relationship. Counselors responded to the taped client at 8 points. CT, the dependent variable, was assessed at behavioral, affective, and cognitive levels. Contrary to prediction, counselors did not exhibit more CT with a lesbian client. As hypothesized, (a) counselor homophobia correlated with counselor avoidance behavior in the lesbian condition and (b) female counselors had greater recall problems than male counselors with the lesbian client, whereas male and female counselors had equivalent recall with the heterosexual client. CT management ability was uncorrelated with CT reactions in all but a few instances. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Auholtzen DW, Kenny ME, Mahalik-JR, and Rholtzen DW (1995). Contributions of Parental Attachment to Gay or Lesbian Disclosure to Parents and Dysfunctional Cognitive Processes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 (3), 350-355.

Abstract by authors: This study examined the relationship among parental attachment, sexual self-disclosure to parents, and dysfunctional cognitions in a sample of 113 gay and lesbian adults. The results of canonical analysis revealed that characteristics of secure attachment to mother and father were positively associated with disclosure to parents and length of time since disclosure, and they were negatively associated with self-reports of dysfunctional cognitions. These results suggest that attachment quality warrants further investigation as a factor that may facilitate disclosure to parents and reduce the risk for dysfunctional cognitions. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Blum, A, Danson, M, Schneider, S. (1997) Problems of sexual expression in adult gay men: A psychoanalytic reconsideration. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 14 (1), 1-11.

Abstract by authors: Though most psychoanalytic theorists have embraced homosexuality as pathological, Freudís views were less definite, more complex, and more conflicted in this regard. Rather than assuming that factors intrinsic to homosexuality underlie aberrant patterns of adult sexual expression, we explore extrinsic factors that impinge oil gay men at developmentally critical periods of life, which may underlie nonnormative sexual expression. Specifically, we suggest that early caretaking environments fail to receive, affirm, and encourage same-sex libidinal attachments and expressions; moreover, such expressions are often met with shame, threat, or direct attack. Frequently, the result is the massive shutting down, compartmentalization, or both, of adult homosexual expression. Case studies are presented to illuminate this formulation. The psychoanalytic therapist who ignores the impact of developmental failures and impingements on gay men often unwittingly reenacts these, with the effect of supporting dissociative and repressive mechanisms that impair healthy adult homosexual expression. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Bradford J, Ryan C, and Rothblum ED (1994). National Lesbian Health Care Survey: implications for mental health care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 228-242.

Abstract by authors: This article presents demographic, lifestyle, and mental health information about 1,925 lesbians from all 50 states who participated as respondents in the National Lesbian Health Care Survey (1984-1985), the most comprehensive study on U.S. lesbians to date. Over half the sample had had thoughts about suicide at some time, and 18% had attempted suicide. Thirty-seven percent had been physically abused as a child or adult, 32% had been raped or sexually attacked, and 19% had been involved in incestuous relationships while growing up. Almost one third used tobacco on a daily basis, and about 30% drank alcohol more than once a week, 6% daily. About three fourths had received counseling at some time, and half had done so for reasons of sadness and depression. Lesbians in the survey also were socially connected and had a variety of social supports, mostly within the lesbian community. However, few had come out to all family members and coworkers. Level of openness about lesbianism was associated with less fear of exposure and with more choices about mental health counseling. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Burch, B. (1996) Between women: The mother-daughter romance and homoerotic transference in psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 13(4), 475-94.

Abstract by authors: Psychoanalytic theory and clinical reports have not adequately addressed homoerotic transference for women in treatment. This article considers some reasons for this neglect and posits the significance of homoerotic experience in early female development and in clinical treatment. Romantic and erotic elements in the early mother-daughter relationship profoundly influence gender and sexual development. Two cases are presented, one detailing treatment with a lesbian patient and one detailing treatment with a heterosexual patient. Feminist perspectives and some recent psychoanalytic work are used to critique and revise aspects of traditional views on female development. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Coyle, A. (1993)A study of psychological well-being among gay men using the GHQ-30. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(Pt. 2), 218-20.

Abstract by author: This study uses the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) to examine the psychological well-being of 140 gay men from the London area. These men exhibited a level of psychological well-being comparable to that shown by single men from the general population in a study by Cox et al. (1987) and higher than that of divorced/separated and widowed men. This finding suggests that homosexuality per se is not inimical with psychological well-being. (Abstract reprinted by permission of the British Journal of Clinical Psychology.)

Greene B (1994). Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: mental health and treatment issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 243-51.

Abstract by authors: Clinical psychological research has been a part of a significant growth of scholarly literature in mental health that appropriately explores relevant cultural variables and their effects on both the mental health and treatment of ethnic minority group members. A similar expansion of material seeking to develop affirmative perspectives in the treatment of gay men and lesbians has also found its way into the psychological literature. Scarcely any research seeks to explore the particular psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of men and women who are members of both groups. This article reviews literature pertinent to the cultural proscriptions of several ethnic minority groups and their relevance to mental health issues and treatment of gay and lesbian members, as well as a review of potential countertransference dilemmas for therapists. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Halderman DC (1994). The practice and ethics of sexual orientation conversion therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 221-7.

Abstract by authors: Sexual orientation conversion therapy was the treatment of choice when homosexuality was thought to be an illness. Despite the declassification of homosexuality as a mental illness, efforts to sexually reorient lesbians and gay men continue. The construct of sexual orientation is examined, as well as what constitutes its change. The literature in psychotherapeutic and religious conversion therapies is reviewed, showing no evidence indicating that such treatments are effective in their intended purpose. A need for empirical data on the potentially harmful effects of such treatments is established. Ethical considerations relative to the ongoing stigmatizing effects of conversion therapies are presented. The need to develop more complex models for conceptualizing sexual orientation is discussed, as well as the need to provide treatments to gay men and lesbians that are consonant with psychologyís stance on homosexuality. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Kurdek, LA. (1997) Relation between neuroticism and dimensions of relationship commitment: Evidence from gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(1), 109-24.

Abstract by authors: The link between oneís own and oneís partnerís neuroticism and components of oneís own relationship commitment (perceived rewards, costs, match to ideal standard, alternatives, investments, and barriers) was examined for both partners from 61 gay, 42 lesbian, and 155 heterosexual couples. With controls for the other Big Five traits, oneís own neuroticism and oneís partnerís neuroticism independently predicted costs, match to ideal standard, and alternatives. The link between oneís neuroticism and these dimensions of oneís commitment was mediated by oneís life satisfaction, whereas the link between oneís partnerís neuroticism and these same dimensions was mediated by the partnerís conflict resolution styles. It is concluded that neuroticism affects personal dedication to a relationship through both intrapersonal and interpersonal pathways.  (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Kurdek LA (1997). The link between facets of neuroticism and dimensions of relationship commitment: Evidence from gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(4), 503-14.

Abstract by authors: The link between six facets of both oneís own and oneís partnerís neuroticism (anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability) and two dimensions of oneís own relationship commitment (attractions to the relationship and constraints against leaving the relationship) was examined for both partners from 33 gay, 40 lesbian, and 70 heterosexual couples. With controls for other facets of oneís own and oneís partnerís neuroticism, only oneís own depression was negatively related to oneís own attraction commitment. Findings from mediational analyses were consistent with the view that oneís own depression exerts its effect on oneís own attraction commitment through two dimensions of oneís own attachment style (positivity of the self and positivity of the other). (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Paradis, BA. (1997). Multiculutral identity and gay men in the era of AIDS. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 300-307.

Abstract by author: In establishing integrated identities, gay men face psychosocial challenges that differ from those of most heterosexuals, although heterosexual males of minority cultures may confront similar developmental tasks. In the 1990s, the need for gay men to integrate bicultural identity and the "coming-out" process is further complicated by the stigma of AIDS. This paper aims to enhance clinicians' understanding of the multiple influences of culture and subculture, the AIDS epidemic, and racial and ethnic factors on the healthy development of gay males. (Abstract reprinted by permission of the The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.)

Savin-Williams RC (1994) Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 261-9

Abstract by authors: A common theme identified in empirical studies and clinical reports of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths is the chronic stress that is created by the verbal and physical abuse they receive from peers and adults. This article reviews the verbal and physical abuse that threatens the well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. This response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away from home, conflict with the law, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Although the causal link between these stressors and outcomes has not been scientifically established, there is suggestive evidence that these outcomes are consequences of verbal and physical harassment. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Siever MD (1994). Sexual orientation and gender as factors in socioculturally acquired vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 252-60.

Abstract by authors: This study investigated the hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of a shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness that is based on a desire to attract and please men. Although men place priority on physical attractiveness in evaluating potential partners, women place greater emphasis on other factors, such as personality, status, power, and income. Therefore, lesbians and heterosexual men are less concerned with their own physical attractiveness and, consequently, less dissatisfied with their bodies and less vulnerable to eating disorders. Several instruments measuring body satisfaction, the importance of physical attractiveness, and symptoms of eating disorders were administered to 250 college students. The sample included 53 lesbians, 59 gay men, 62 heterosexual women, and 63 heterosexual men. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were used to examine the differences among the scores of lesbians, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men on these various constructs. The results generally confirmed the research hypothesis. The implications and ramifications these findings have for the understanding of both the psychology of lesbians and gay men and the prevention and treatment of eating disorders are discussed. (Abstract reprinted by permission of The American Psychological Association.)

Strickland, BR. (1995). Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 31(1), 137-40. (Article availability from ERIC given in "abstract" link.)

Abstract by author: Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult to change. (Abstract reprinted by permission of the The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.)
ABSTRACTS/HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles, & Books

Sager, Jennifer B; Schlimmer, Elizabeth; Hellmann, James A (2001). Latin American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients: Implications for Counseling. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 40(1): 21-33.

Abstract - Supplied by James A (Tony) Hellmann. See Note Below.

In the next five years Latino/a Americans will comprise the largest ethic minority in the U.S. Furthermore, the clinical demand for services of this population is increasing rapidly. Concomitantly, the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population is becoming more visible and also has an increased demand for services. These issues have given rise to a combination of both these needs within a single population: lesbian, gay, and bisexual Latino/a individuals. To assist counselors in ethically meeting the clinical needs of this population, this article provides an overview of the identity development, a review of characteristics and special issues, and proposed counseling competencies when working with Latino/a people and lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals, respectively. A synthesis of LGB Latino/a identity development and counseling implications is provided to assist counselors in treating this complex population. This article is not designed to train mental health workers, but rather to inform mental health professionals about a topic that has been largely ignored by the literature. Further readings, training, and supervision will be needed to adhere to ethical clinical standards.

Note sent by James A (Tony) Hellmann, September 2002: "Here is the abstract from our "unabridged" version of the article (we had to cut it from 33 pages to 22 when it was accepted for publication). I would appreciate it if you could add "Additional information added through correnspondence with James A. Hellmann" or some other kind of citation that shows the reader that this isn't part of the ERIC abstract. Also, feel free to add a link to my email address if you want. Then anyone with questions can contact me." Email for Tony Hellman:

  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She has communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.


The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

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