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Crisp, Catherine Lau (2002). Beyond Homophobia: Development and Validation of the Gay Affirmative Practice Scale (GAP). PhD. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. PDF Download. PPT Presentation.
Young Queers Getting Together: Moving Beyond Isolation
and Loneliness. PhD. Thesis, Youth Research Centre, Department of
Education Policy and Management, The University of Melbourne. PDF Download
Dispenza, Franco (2011). Minority Stress and Life Role Saliency among Sexual Minorities. PhD Dissertation, College of Education, Georgia State University. PDF Download.
Drummond, Alexander (2008). This
literature review was part of an MSc dissertation exploring the level
of training counsellors and therapists have in working with issues of
sexuality and gender diversity. Full
Economou, Peter J (2011). Experiences of the White Gay Male: An Investigation of the Relationship between Factors of Being Gay, Heterosexism, and the Stress Response System. Dissertations. Paper 1762. PhD Dissertation, Seton Hall University. PDF Download.
Signe (2010). Nonsuicidal self-injury in queer youth. Master's
Dissertation, Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia. PDF
Download. Download Page.
Graham, Stephanie R (2009). Counseling Competency with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients: Perceptions of Counseling Graduate Students. PhD Dissertation, Auburn University. PDF
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Jung, Gretchen (2011). But we still end up dead: effects of mainstream Hollywood film on Queer identity development. Master's Dissertation, Education, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.
McGann, Kevin (2010). Trainees' Use of Supervision for Clinical Work with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients: A Qualitative Study. PhD Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. PDF
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Page, Matthew JL (2011). Religious and Sexual Identity in LGB Youth: Stressors, Identity Difficulty, and Mental Health Outcomes. Open Access Theses. Paper 282. Maaster's Dissertation, University of Miami. PDF
Semp, David (2006). A public silence : discursive practices surrounding homosexuality. PhD. Dissertation, Psychology, University of Auckland Abstract & Full Text Download.
Shelton, Kimber Leigh (2009). Sexual orientation microaggressions: the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer clients in psychotherapy. PhD Dissertation, The University of Georgia. PDF
Download. Download Page. Related Paper: Sexual orientation microaggressions: the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer clients in psychotherapy (2011).
Singh, Devita (2012). A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Full Text.
Smith, Tones (2011). Pathology, bias and queer diagnosis : a crip queer consciousness. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF
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Torres, Rodrigo (2011). In their own words: A qualitative analysis of relational resilience in the lives of gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth. PhD Dissertation, Department of Psychology, DePaul University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Tran, Janine (2010). Sexual Identity and Depression Among Vietnamese-American Gay and Bisexual Men. Master's Dissertation, Department of Social Work, California State University, Long Beach. PDF Download.
Wharton, Virginia Wyatt (2007). Gender variance and mental health : a national survey of transgender trauma history, posttraumatic stress, and disclosure in therapy. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Mass. PDF Download. Download Page.
Zeman, Don (2007). Facilitating Conversations about Sexuality between Minority Sexuality Athletes. PhD Dissertation, Division of Applied Psychology, University of Calgary. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to explore heterosexual bias in the diagnosis and treatment of gay males. Two hundred-fifty (134 males and 116 females) mental health professionals from the Division of Psychotherapy (29) of the American Psychological Association participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two case history conditions, which presented a 35-year-old male seeking therapy. Both conditions were equivalent with regards to the presenting problem (i.e., diagnostic symptoms) with the exception of his significant other (i.e., gay vs. non-gay condition). Potential bias was measured through a diagnostic rating Likert scale and a treatment plan questionnaire. Other independent variables that could potentially have an effect on diagnostic ratings were explored, such as gender, year of graduation, and theoretical orientation of the respondents. Results of the statistical analyses failed to confirm evidence of heterosexual bias. Implications for further research and training are discussed.
Allen LF (1992). Countertransference issues of psychotherapists who work with AIDS. PhD. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 53-12B, p. 6536, 152 pages.
Abstract by author: This exploratory study investigates countertransference reactions of psychotherapists who work with homosexual men with AIDS. Previous research has suggested the inevitability of countertransference issues among professionals who work with terminally ill clients; however, no published, empirical studies had yet addressed this topic with a population of psychotherapists. This study is based upon the underlying premise that awareness of countertransference issues is vital to effective psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 83 California-licensed psychotherapists. Participants were voluntary, and were contacted via their affiliated AIDS-related service agencies and gay/lesbian organizations.
All participants completed five paper and pencil measures related to demographics, attitudes toward homosexuality, personal death anxiety, and countertransference issues. Respondents were then divided into eight cells, based upon their gender, sexual orientations, and theoretical orientations. Additionally, all participants were divided into "low homophobic" and "high homophobic" categories, based upon their responses to the Homosexual Attitudes Scale.
A major finding was that "low homophobic" and "high homophobic" therapists differed significantly on items designed to detect fear of contagion. "High homophobic" therapists described themselves as significantly more likely to engage in both physical distancing maneuvers and in avoidance of objects handled by PWA's than did "low homophobic" therapists. This key finding suggests that physical distancing and avoidance maneuvers occur in a group of professionals who do not have direct contact with bodily fluids of PWA's, and that such maneuvers are directly linked with higher homophobia-levels.
Another finding was that gay men reported experiencing significantly greater frequencies of "intense emotional reactions" and of desires to maintain emotional distance from their clients with AIDS, than did the other therapist groups. Analyses of role and process issues revealed less flexibility among psychodynamic therapists in the areas of session-scheduling, socializing with PWA's outside of the therapy-hour, and initiating comments about clients' apparel or attractiveness.
Notably, personal death anxiety scores did not differ significantly between therapist groups, or between this sample and the scale norm group. Possible reasons for non-significant findings were explored. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research were also addressed.
Bookwalter RA (1995). A phenomenological needs assessment of sexual minority patients in an acute psychiatric setting. M.S. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 34-03, p. 1167, 134 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examines how sexual minority patients admitted to an acute psychiatric unit at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) experience their needs. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with five self-identified gay or bisexual men exposed to the Gay and Lesbian Focus Program at SFGH.
The data were analyzed from the attitude of occupational therapy, with an emphasis on the needs identified by patients and their relevance to psychiatric occupational therapy treatment and frames of reference. The study reveals that need, as experienced by the subjects, is a phenomenon arising from the individual's desires, fears, and expectations about himself, other people, and the world around him. The subjects identify specific needs in the following areas: daily living skill, objects in the environment, social support, intangible environmental qualities, specific types of interactions with others, time/schedule adjustments, group activities, assistance with interactions with the environment, and information.
Caisango, TM (1996). Perceptions of knowledge, attitude, and atmosphere of mental health professionals toward counseling gay, lesbian, and bisexuals. PhD. Thesis, Kent State University, DAI Vol. 57-10B, p. 6172, 158 pages.
Abstract by author: Mental health professionals do not work in a vacuum. They are part and parcel of the society within which they live. Mental health professionals cannot help being affected by the attitudes, beliefs, and values of the time period and the culture surrounding them. These attitudes, beliefs, and values are carried into the counseling session and affect the definition, assessment, and treatment of the problem presented. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients are also part and parcel of the society within which they live. They are recipients of the attitudes, beliefs, and values of their time period and culture, but they are also creators of culture. The old "sickness theory" has been discarded and the morality of same-sex orientation championed. But many mental health professionals-in-training have not been helped to demythologize homosexuality and bisexuality.
This exploratory, qualitative study sought to investigate three dependent variables: (1) knowledge, (2) attitude, and (3) atmosphere in relation to three independent variables: (1) gender, (2) experience, and (3) education. The research design and validated questionnaire/survey used to collect data for this study, were devised by the author. The questionnaire/survey contained two sections: a demographics section and a questionnaire section that asked respondents 15 questions (rated on a Likert Scale) in the areas of knowledge, attitude, and atmosphere in relation to gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in counseling, in regard to the mental health professionals' own beliefs, and the climate at their agency. The participants in this study consisted of mental health professionals, which included clinical psychologists, social workers, and counselors. The participants came from different types of mental health agencies (e.g., community health centers, private practice, rehabilitation centers).
The author of this study attempted to build a base of research literature in an area that clearly demonstrates a lack of education among mental health professionals, in regard to counseling gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. It appears that mental health professionals feel inadequately prepared to deal with issues of sexuality in general. Not surprisingly then, as a result of this study, they receive little if any education in their graduate education training programs or in their practice in the field, focusing on gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues. Despite the large number of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people, many mental health professionals remain biased and unqualified to serve them, as evidenced by the results of this study.
Cason GL (1996). Effects of a psychosocial intervention on mental health service providers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. PhD. Thesis, University of Houston, DAI, Vol. 57-10B, p. 6561, 165 pages.
Abstract by author: Negative attitudes by many psychotherapists toward lesbians and gay men has been demonstrated and may be a problem when a lesbian or gay male client presents for treatment. A one-hour intervention was developed to help mental health professionals become aware of their attitudes and misunderstandings regarding lesbians and gay men. The intervention was performed by one person with differing groups of mental health service providers. The intervention was not only designed to present educational information, but also to challenge the psychosocial functions of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men as identified by Gregory Herek and addressed homophobia on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional levels.
The research was based on a separate sample pretest-posttest design. Similar groups were measured either pre-intervention or post-intervention to determine if scores on the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale, an instrument designed to measure homophobia, were affected by the intervention. Differences in scores were also determined by work setting where the intervention took place, as the settings were highly varied in membership criteria. Subjects included 595 mental health service providers from counselor training programs, inpatient settings, professional organization meetings, outpatient settings, peer counseling, HIV case management, and gay-identified counseling settings.
The intervention did not consistently change scores overall. The intervention did reduce scores in the peer counseling setting, and with service providers who endorsed a conservative or moderate political ideology who also began with higher scores. But, the intervention tended to increase negative scores in service providers with a liberal or moderate political ideology who also began with lower scores. It also was determined that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, or homophobia, varied by workplace setting and by individual facilities. And, the setting moderated the effects of the treatment in some instances. Education level, ethnicity, religious denomination ideology, and personal knowledge of a lesbian or gay man were all related to attitude scores toward lesbians and gay men.
Neither the gender nor the age of the service provider was related to attitude scores. Findings are discussed and the importance of service provider setting on overall attitudes and the intervention itself are emphasized.
Chalfen ME (1991). Coming out as a lesbian client to a health care provider. M.S.N. Thesis, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MAI, Vol. 29-04, p. 639, 92 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this descriptive, exploratory study was to explore the experience of coming out as a lesbian client to a health care provider. Eight women were interviewed using an open ended interview format. Interviews were tape recorded. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze data from transcriptions of the interviews.
The study found that assumptions of heterosexuality and provider discomfort with disclosure of lesbian identity impair communication and significantly disrupt the relationship between client and provider. Women who came out within the context of a relationship which they perceived as egalitarian and mutually respectful, experienced the disclosure as beneficial and growth enhancing.
Results suggest that lesbians as women, experience disclosure of lesbian identity as a potential threat to their sense of connection and affiliation. When seen in a relational context, coming out to a care provider involves dynamics qualitatively different from those of gay men.
Christenson TJ (1995). An assessment of attitudes of mental health counselors toward persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PhD. Thesis Oregon State University, DAI, Vol. 56-12B, p. 7039, 124 pages.
Abstract by author: This study investigated the attitudes of mental health counselors toward persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Three hundred and fifty-eight members of the American Mental Health Counselors Association were mailed a survey packet including an Attitude Towards AIDS Victims scale and an additional two questions assessing comfort with clients with AIDS. Demographic information was also collected. There were 255 useable surveys, for a response rate of 72%.
The results of the survey indicated that gender was not a significant independent variable in the attitudes of the mental health counselors. Professional and/or personal contacts with a person with AIDS were highly predictive of positive attitudes. Sexual orientation of the respondent was also highly significant as was personal acquaintance with a gay male or lesbian. Formal AIDS training of one hour or more showed a significant relationship with attitudes of mental health counselors toward persons with AIDS, with the relationship becoming more significant at 11 or more hours.
The study indicated that mental health counselors are largely uninvolved in providing mental health treatment to persons with AIDS, with 5% of the subjects providing 70% of the services.
Recommendations follow regarding preservice and inservice AIDS training and the need for mental health counselors to be more proactive in the AIDS epidemic.
Cook MD (1997). An analysis of the relationships between homophobia, dogmatism, and counseling attitudes among New Orleans Baptists Theological Seminary pastoral psychotherapy. PhD. Thesis, New Orleans Baptists Theological Seminary, DAI, Vol. 58-08B, p. 4520, 142 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of the dissertation was to analyze the relationships between homophobia, dogmatism, and counseling attitudes among New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary pastoral psychotherapy students with implications for seminary pastoral psychotherapy programs. Based upon previous research, this study was initiated with an understanding of the role of dogmatism in attitudes toward homosexuals, and of the role of dogmatism in the development of counseling attitudes. The relationship between homophobia and counseling attitudes was an unknown. The study was designed to investigate three hypotheses.
In Hypothesis One, a statistically significant relationship was asserted between dogmatism and homophobia. A sample of forty-eight pastoral psychotherapy students was tested using Hudson and Rickett’s Index of Homophobia and Milton Rokeach’s Moral Dogmatism Scale. The mean score on the IHP indicated the presence of low-grade homophobia. Scoring well below the means reported on other research samples, the sample was moderately non-dogmatic according to the mean MDS score. To determine the nature of the relationship, a simple regression analysis was implemented. The results of the analysis indicated the existence of a significant (p = .006) relationship between dogmatism and homophobia.
The second hypothesis posited a statistically significant relationship between dogmatism and the counseling attitudes. The same sample was tested using E. H. Porter’s Test of Counselor Attitudes to determine the levels of the respective counseling attitudes. The order of dominance of the counseling attitudes was as follows: Understanding (empathy), Supportive, Probing, Interpretive, and Evaluative. A multiple regression analysis was used to weigh the hypothesis. According to the results of the analysis, the relationship between dogmatism and the counseling attitudes was significant even at p < .01.
In the third hypothesis a significant relationship was assumed between homophobia and the counseling attitudes for the same sample. Again a multiple regression analysis was used. The results of the analysis did not support the third hypothesis. The relationship between homophobia and the counseling attitudes was not significant.
This research was undertaken in an effort to improve the designated population’s response toward helping homosexual clients. Plans for continued research include the implementation of a more discriminating design, the development of a more counseling-specific instrument for homophobia, and the inclusion of a broader sample. With the inclusion of a more diversified sample, generalizations could be made regarding the larger population of Christian counselors.
Corbett KJ (1989). Interpreting male homosexual development: homosexuality and psychoanalysis. PhD. Thesis, Columbia University, DAI, Vol. 50-10B, p. 4767, 568 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this research was to generate new evidence about male homosexual development. This new evidence was compared with Freudian models of male homosexual development - as set forth by Freud and by contemporary Freudians from the Paris Psychoanalytic Society. The comparison was undertaken to determine what the Freudian models offer toward and how they detract from our understanding of male homosexuality.
The general design of the study involved construction of psychobiographies for two men with ego-syntonic gay identities. The methods used to gather the data included: a series of life-historical interviews, collection of the subjects' dreams across a three-month period, and examination within an interpretive-interview framework of the relationship between the subjects' dreams and their psychosexual histories.
For both subjects, the data indicated pre-oedipal and oedipal configurations that correspond to the Freudian developmental model. One subject presented with pre-oedipal and oedipal configurations that correspond to the typical Freudian model, which stresses cathexis of the maternal figure and later identification with her. The other subject presented with pre-oedipal and oedipal configurations that corresponded to one of Freud's alternative models, which is based on a negative oedipal object choice.
Regarding post-oedipal development, the data indicated correspondence to the Freudian model for one subject but not for the other. In accord with the Paris Psychoanalytic Society Freudian model, one subject presented with ego distortion and limited development toward genital object relations. Underscoring this developmental outcome were the vicissitudes and fragility of a negative oedipal object choice coupled with a serious disruption in early maternal care. In contrast, the other subject's post-oedipal development was characterized by an extension of ego boundaries and progression toward genital object relations. Key to this developmental outcome was the consolidation of a variant ego ideal that was based primarily on the subject's identification with his mother.
Important aspects of post-oedipal homosexual development that are not accounted for within the Freudian models are also discussed, including false self construction to preserve societal and familial accord, narcissistic injury following upon discrimination, and the reconstruction of self representation as subjects moved toward the consolidation of an ego-syntonic gay identity.
Daniel. DK (1994).Counseling gay white men with HIV/AIDS: an ethnographic field study in Phoenix, Arizona. ED.D. Thesis, Northern Arizona University, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3137, 265 pages.
Abstract by author: To date the number of HIV-related deaths in the United States exceeds 200,000. Since 1981 current total cases of HIV infection is estimated to be two million. The needs of individuals infected with and affected by HIV expand as the virus extends to new sectors of the population. Counseling professionals often lack the training and experience to understand the HIV/AIDS epidemic and further, they lack understanding of the gay white male subculture which has been most adversely affected by the disease. This study investigated the phenomena of HIV in the gay community of Phoenix from the prospective of a straight, female counselor in an AIDS service agency.
Fifteen gay, HIV+ males receiving counseling at the Phoenix Shanti Group and Living Center became key informants for the study which employed ethnographic methods. These men provided information to the researcher about their perceptions of the gay "culture", their lifestyle, and the effects of HIV/AIDS. Structured interviews with nine of the informants were conducted and researcher observations of the daily activities of the subculture were recorded by subject matter as field notes and journal entries.
Research questions one and two investigated the knowledge and skill competencies need to provide effective counseling services to members of the gay white HIV+ and AIDS-affected male community. The study found that counselors needed to be knowledgeable about gay lifestyles, sexuality, kinds of intimate relationships, social life, and community networks. Issues included nature versus nurture in gay development, realities and myths of "choice" of sexual preference, the coming-out process, spiritual beliefs, and sibling and parental relationships.
Openness of mind and an accepting heart were found to be necessary and helpful attributes for the professional counselor, particularly because of the constant presence of death and dying issues in the client population. Group leadership emerged as a valuable skill, as counselors are called upon to lead a variety of support and therapy groups.
Question three investigated knowledge and skill competencies important in counselor education programs. A model course description and curriculum for training students to work with sexually diverse clients is provided; a syllabus for health education as early intervention in the clients' HIV process was also developed.
Question four explored dynamics associated with being a straight, female in a gay white HIV+ male subculture.
Deppe, DE (1991). An examination of consensus of the bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and counselors employed by Lutheran social services agencies regarding the social statements on homosexuality of the Lutheran Church and the counseling of gay and lesbian clients. PhD. Thesis, Saint Louis University, DAI, Vol. 53-01A, p. 305, 219 pages.
Abstract by author: This descriptive study examined consensus of opinion within the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America about homosexuality and the counseling of gay and lesbian clients. Consensus data were obtained from two groups: Bishops of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA Bishops) and counselors employed by Lutheran social service agencies (LSS Counselors). A total of sixty-six bishops and two hundred and four counselors were surveyed.
The key findings are as follows: There was high consensus among ELCA Bishops agreeing with the Social Statements of the Lutheran church on homosexuality; that same high consensus was not found regarding opinions about interpretation of gay and lesbian issues or about counseling practice. LSS Counselors were more divided in their opinions about the Social Statements; however, there was greater consensus on gay and lesbian issues and counseling practice. For example, there was high consensus opposed to legislation of sexual behavior and homosexuality as an illness.
Regarding counseling practice, there was high consensus opposed to counseling homosexual persons to change to heterosexual behavior and to viewing homosexuality as sinful. LSS Counselors did not always agree with ELCA Bishops. The largest differences regarding the Social Statements were on orientation and behavior and on homosexuality as a valid alternative to heterosexual behavior. The largest differences regarding interpretation of issues were found on ordination and on celibacy. The largest differences regarding counseling practice were found on clients choosing their own lifestyle and counselors encouraging the practice of safe sex. Differences could be understood best when controlling for gender and contact with homosexual persons.
Women counselors and counselors with high caseloads of homosexual clients agreed less with the Social Statements; supported ordination of homosexual clergy; recognized homosexuality as a valid alternative to heterosexual behavior; and encouraged the practice of safe sex among homosexual persons.
Devine MD (1997). The unique therapeutic relationship between a gay therapists and a gay man with HIV disease. PSY.D. Thesis, Widener University, Institute for Graduate Clinical Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-03B, p. 1525, 77 pages.
Abstract by author: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the later stages of the disease Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be devastating on many levels. Currently, there is no cure for HIV disease. It has had a profound impact on many men, women, children, and their families, friends, and partners. HIV disease has also had a tremendous impact on the professionals who work with people with HIV disease from nurses and physicians to social workers and psychologists. This epidemic has created many challenges for the field of psychology. Since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, psychologists have contributed their expertise and skills. Specifically, HIV disease has created a uniquely challenging therapeutic relationship for gay psychologists working with gay men who have HIV disease. An examination of this challenging and unique therapeutic relationship through case study will be the focus of this dissertation. Specifically, issues of stigma, loss, and countertransference will be addressed.
Dionne, GR (1996).Helpful and hindering events in therapy with HIV-positive gay men. M.A. Thesis, McGill University, MAI, Vol. 35-01, p. 345, 00156 pages, ISBN: 0-612-12019-8.
Abstract by author: A group
of five HIV-positive gay men were compared with a group of five HIV-negative
gay men. All participants were currently engaged in therapy. Participants
completed the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ) and the Session Impacts
Scale (SIS) in order to determine what these different groups of individuals
felt was helpful or hindering in therapy. Results indicated that both groups
of participants found therapy to be powerful, valuable, and helpful in
that they: (a) learned something new about themselves or others, (b) changed
their ways of thinking, (c) acquired insight into issues, (d) were more
clear about their feelings, (e) were able to define their problems, and
(f) were feeling understood, supported, and close to their counsellor.
In comparison to the HIV-negative group, the HIV-positive group
experienced many hindering aspects to counselling. Seropositive participants felt: (a) less understood, supported, and close to their counsellor, (b) more confused, or distracted in counselling, (c) more bothered by unpleasant thoughts in counselling, (d) more impatient or doubting of the value of therapy, and (e) felt more angry, more afraid, and less confident during and as a result of therapy. Implications for counselling are discussed.
Dorman HD (1996). A comparison of gay and lesbian sensitivity training on student counselors' attitudes toward same gender sexual. ED.D. Thesis, DAI, Vol. 57-12A, p. 5061, 78 pages.
Abstract by author: This study explored the effect of both gender and three different panel discussion formats on the positive modification of attitudes toward same gender sexual behavior. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three treatment groups: (1) a live panel discussion, (2) a videotape of the live panel discussion with a facilitator, or (3) a videotape of the live panel discussion without a facilitator.
Attitudes toward same gender sexual behavior were measured by pre- and posttests of the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) developed by Gregory Herek. Subjects in this study were 86 graduate students enrolled in counseling and/or psychology related programs at Western Michigan University and the University of North Carolina-Charlotte. Subjects were placed in the appropriate cells of a 2 x 4 factorial design and the data were analyzed using a Welch approximate t procedure. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference (p < .05) between subjects viewing the live panel discussion and the subjects viewing either the videotape of the panel discussion with a facilitator, or the videotape of the panel discussion without a facilitator.
All null hypotheses were accepted except two. As hypothesized, there was no significant difference between subjects exposed to the live panel discussion and subjects viewing the videotape with a facilitator (p = .095) on attitudes toward same gender sexual behavior. There was a significant difference between subjects viewing the live panel discussion and subjects viewing the videotape without a facilitator (p = .008) on attitudes toward same gender sexual behavior. There was also a significant difference between the live panel discussion and the control group (p = .006).
It was concluded that there was no significant statistical difference between a videotape of a live panel discussion with a facilitator and a control group. However, contrary to previous research, this study found no significant difference between gender.
Edwards LT (1996). Internalized homophobia in gay men: an investigation of clinical sensitivity among psychotherapists. PSY.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4026, 62 pages.
Abstract by author: One of the most commonly reported failures in psychotherapy among gay men is the inability of the therapist to adequately grasp the degree of psychic trauma inflicted by society on the homosexual client. Given the institutionalized nature of heterosexism and homophobia, it is vital to consider the effect that internalization of these ubiquitous influences will have on the lives of gay men and how such influences might be expressed. Evidence would suggest that unresolved internalized homophobia may impinge on self esteem and identity development. Internalized homophobia has also been implicated in such diverse problems as intimacy issues, substance abuse, alcoholism, compulsive sexuality, depression, domestic violence, and eating disorders. The recognition and exploration of internalized homophobia is an ongoing process and must be recognized as both a primary concern and a contextual factor in psychotherapy with homosexual clients.
In order to explore sensitivity to internalized homophobia among clinicians working with gay male clients, 500 licensed psychotherapists currently practicing in the San Francisco Bay and East Bay areas of Northern California were randomly selected and asked to complete an instrument designed for the study consisting of a demographic survey and four clinical vignettes. Participants were requested to provide a list of five salient issues for each vignette which they felt should be addressed in the course of treatment. Narrative responses were scored utilizing a four-point Likert scale devised to assess levels of sensitivity to internalized homophobia.
While this study produced statistical evidence that homosexual or bisexual therapists are more sensitive to internalized homophobia than their heterosexual counterparts, all may be considered deficient at considering this important factor when treating gay male clients. Despite emphasis on cross-cultural training in the various mental health disciplines, it would appear that current efforts have not been successful in disseminating comprehensive information regarding the psychosocial intricacies of the gay male experience. While many respondents appeared well informed in their demonstrated concern for the potential difficulties in reconciling a positive gay identity, few were able to articulate a formulation or treatment plan addressing the deleterious effect of internalized homophobia.
Feathergill JT (1994). Responding to the self object deficits of gay men in psychotherapy: a self psychology approach. PSY.D. Thesis, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 55-12B, p. 5581, 64 pages.
Abstract by author: This case study examined the therapy of a gay man in his early twenties who presented in psychotherapy with depression, social discomfort, and loneliness. The author utilized Kohut's self-psychology approach in a 44 session course of treatment. Psychotherapy with this client revealed a relationship between his reported symptoms and the complications of growing up as a gay male in a homophobic and heterosexist culture. The client's symptoms improved as therapy dealt with unmet needs, traumatic experiences, interpersonal conflicts, and shame related to being gay.
Results of the study indicate that this client experienced mirroring, idealizing, and alterego/twinship selfobject deficits related to homophobia and heterosexism. The study also showed that the therapist's awareness and responsiveness to his selfobject needs helped the client to restore a more cohesive sense of self and enabled the client to develop a more positive gay identity.
The author concludes that the principles of self psychology contribute to an understanding of the negative effects of homophobia and heterosexism on gay men's psychological development and subsequent mental health needs. He maintains that empathic and gay affirming psychotherapy, utilizing the principles of self psychology can help gay men who have experienced selfobject deficits related to homophobia and heterosexism.
In the discussion, the author questions the importance of the sexual orientation of the therapist and considers the use of self psychology in time-limited psychotherapy. He also suggests that selfobject needs related to differences in age and variations in gender role behavior require further study. He emphasizes that in the face of ongoing homophobia and heterosexism gay men must meet their selfobject needs by maintaining supportive relationships with other gay and lesbian individuals and gay-affirming heterosexuals.
Fisher, JB (1996). The effect of an educational program on teacher and school counselor knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding homosexuality and gay youth. PhD. Thesis, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1569, 213 pages.
Abstract by author: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth comprise a population of young people who have been found to be underrepresented in the literature, although their needs are many. Studies show that gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth are at increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, dropping out of school, and suicide. The school is in a unique position to help with these issue, but often support for these youth is not available. The purpose of this study was to determine if a course about gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth issues would increase secondary education teacher and school counselor knowledge level, and decrease homophobic attitudes and beliefs. In order to test the research question, a pretest posttest control group design was utilized with 14 subjects in the treatment group and 15 subjects in the control group.
The subjects participated in a 27-hour course about homosexuality and gay youth issues. All participants received four questionnaires as the pretest and posttest: The Modified Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (MATHS), the Index of Homophobia (IHP), the Index of Attitudes Toward Gay Students, and the Information About Homosexuality Index. The control group received the course following the completion of the treatment group course and were again posttested. Results by MANCOVA analysis at the p < .05 level indicated inconclusive results (F = 2.7909, p = .054). Post hoc analyses combined treatment and control groups (N = 29).
Results indicated that change did occur in participants over time, although these results must be interpreted with caution due to a lack of control group for this procedure. Recommendations for future studies include increasing the sample size utilizing the same design, looking at those with extreme attitudes toward homosexuality, addressing more personal biases of participants, the inclusion of more bisexuality information, modifying the curriculum to address population needs, and studying the long-term effects of such a course. Other recommendations include ideas for working with school districts on sensitive issues, and how to deal with community and political pressure.
Friedman, LJ (1995). An examination of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among Louisiana licensed professional counselors. PhD. Thesis, University of New Orleans, DAI, Vol. 56-10A, p. 3837, 306 pages.
Abstract by author: The present study examines Herek's theory that homophobic attitudes are best understood in the context of the social and psychological needs of the individual. Louisiana Licensed Professional Counselors have been chosen as the target population. The self-report survey instrument, Index of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals (IAH) was used in conjunction with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Short Form, and a demographics instrument in order to examine Herek's model with respect to the attitudes of Louisiana Licensed Professional Counselors toward gay men and lesbians.
The results indicate that approximately 42 per cent of the respondents reported homophobic attitudes (as defined by the IAH). The implications of this study strike the core of the profession of counseling which purports to support cultural diversity, including diversity of sexual orientation. Counselor educators can use the results of this study to begin to explore and clarify not only their own values, but those of the students they are training. From the same perspective, counselors can use these results to make more appropriate decisions about the clients they choose to counsel. Consumers can use these results to wisely choose an appropriate counselor.
Gaskins, SW (1990). Psychosocial responses among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. D.S.N. Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham, DAI, Vol. 51-04B, p. 1743, 127 pages.
Abstract by author: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a major medical and social problem. While there has been much research on biological aspects of HIV, little systematic investigation has been conducted on the many and varied psychosocial responses to HIV. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe psychosocial responses to being infected with HIV as reported by HIV infected persons. Ten adults, infected with HIV for 4 month to 5 years, comprised the sample. During an interview, participants were audiotaped as they described personal feelings and experiences as an HIV infected individual. The interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodologies.
The core category which emerged from the data was Fighting to Survive with HIV Infection. Supporting concepts were Taking Care and Adjusting the Changes in One's Autobiography. Within the supporting concept of Taking Care were processes of Everyday Work and Illness Work which enabled the subjects to have some control over their lives and the disease and gave them hope. The processes inVolved in Adjusting to Changes in One's Autobiography were not knowing, accepting homosexuality, experiencing changing feelings, protecting confidentiality, dealing with the medical profession, dealing with multiple losses, and living with a terminal illness.
Two stages of responses were clear from the data. The first stage was in response to the diagnosis in which the subjects made decisions about whether to commit suicide, who to tell about their diagnosis, and changes that were needed in their lifestyles. The second stage was in response to continuing to live with HIV infection. In this stage, the subjects made decisions about how to fight to survive with the disease. Implications from the study include the importance of nurses and other health professionals being aware of and supporting HIV infected individuals in their fight to survive with the disease. Further research is recommended on how HIV infected individuals make decisions about fighting to survive.
Georgianna CA (1992). Gay community's perspective on HIV and therapist's duty to warn. M.A. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, Vol. 31-01, p. 438, 80 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the gay and lesbian community's opinion about breaching confidentiality to warn a third party of a partner's HIV of AIDS diagnosis. A total of 498 subjects were surveyed, with 80.5% identifying themselves as gay or lesbian. The instrument used a series of hypothetical scenarios depicting various situations in which a mental health therapist, minister, or physician were in a counseling situation. Descriptive statistics and subsequent analyses were used, along with parametric statistics where deemed appropriate.
The key findings include the gay and lesbian community's view that a therapist's breach of confidentiality is unacceptable. The older, the higher educated, and the more HIV seropositive individuals a respondent knew, the less likely he or she was to favor disclosure. Finally, 60% of the respondents indicated that they would take legal action against a therapist for disclosure to a third party.
Gibson, SG. (1996) The psychotherapy experiences, concerns and preferences of lesbians and gay men. PhD. Thesis, University of Windsor, DAI, Vol. 57-07B, p. 4706, 173 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the mental health profession and the lesbian and gay community. One-hundred and twenty-three gay men and 65 lesbians completed surveys concerning their attitudes toward the mental health profession and their experiences with it. An experiment was conducted in order to examine the influence of a therapist's gender and expressed attitude toward coming-out on the therapy experience of participants when the therapist's sexual orientation was unknown. Each participant read a description of a therapy situation in which the therapist's gender and attitudes toward coming-out (positive, neutral and negative) were manipulated. Evaluations of the therapist were measured on the Counselor Rating Form (Barak & LaCrosse, 1975), and the participants' comfort in discussing various personal issues were measured on the Counseling Concerns Scale (McDermott, Tyndall & Lichtenberg, 1989).
The majority of participants reported some form of therapy experience but only 37.4% of participants with therapy experience reported working with a lesbian, gay or bisexual therapist. On average, participants reported a "moderate" level of satisfaction with heterosexual therapists or therapists with unknown sexual orientation. However, anecdotal reports by participants suggested a range of experiences from the overtly homophobic to positive and rewarding ones. Only lesbian participants reported significantly more satisfaction with lesbian, gay or bisexual therapists compared to heterosexual therapists or therapists with unknown sexual orientation. A therapist's gender was significantly more important to lesbian participants than a therapist's sexual orientation whereas sexual orientation was relatively more important to gay male participants than gender.
Open-ended comments by participants suggested that a therapist's overall competence, experience and comfort with lesbians and gay men as well as similarity in cultural/racial background or sociopolitical views were at least as important as a therapist's gender or sexual orientation. Results from the experiment suggested that gay male participants' evaluations of a therapist's attractiveness, expertness and trustworthiness and lesbian participants' evaluations of a therapist's expertness and trustworthiness were significantly influenced by attitudinal similarity. Moreover, gay males reported significantly less comfort in discussing issues central to their sexuality if they disagreed with the hypothetical therapist's views on coming-out whereas lesbian participants were significantly less comfortable in discussing issues that were both central and peripheral to their sexuality.
The results are examined in reference to previous research findings. The contributions as well as limitations of the current study are discussed. Implications for the practice of psychotherapy with lesbians, gay men and bisexuals are provided as well as some considerations for future research.
Grundmeier LF (1996). Homophobia, homoprejudice, and heterosexism: lesbian therapists talk about their experiences. M.A. Thesis, Prescott College, MAI, Vol. 34-04, p. 1679, 155 pages.
Abstract by author: This thesis discusses the negative impact of homophobia, homoprejudice, and heterosexism on the lives of lesbians and gives suggestions to therapists of ways in which they can minimize their own internalized homophobia so that it does not interfere with the counseling relationship. Seven lesbian therapists, including myself, shared their own personal and professional experiences with homophobia and homoprejudice. For most, the experience of realizing they were different and therefore not acceptable, began when they were still children. Each therapist talks openly about how the homophobia affected her, how she dealt with it as a child, and how she learned to overcome the negative messages she received. Each one discusses her own experiences in counseling lesbians and offers suggestions to other therapists of ways they can be most helpful to their lesbian clients.
Hayes, JA. (1991)Male counselors' discomfort with gay and HIV-infected clients. PhD. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park, DAI, Vol. 53-04B, p. 2062, 119 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examined male counselors' discomfort with gay and HIV-infected clients. Specifically, male counselors' affective, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to gay and HIV-infected clients were investigated in light of counselors' homophobia and death anxiety. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Male counselors' discomfort with gay clients will be greater than male counselors' discomfort with nongay clients; (2) Male counselors' discomfort with HIV-infected clients will be greater than male counselors' discomfort with HIV-negative clients; (3) Male counselors' homophobia will predict (i.e., correlate with) their discomfort with gay clients better than with nongay clients; (4) Male counselors' death anxiety will predict their discomfort with HIV-infected clients better than with HIV-negative clients.
Thirty-four male counselors completed a measure of homophobia, a death anxiety scale, and a brief demographic questionnaire. Each counselor then watched and listened to a videotaped client-actor in one of four conditions: gay and HIV-infected, gay and HIV-negative, nongay and HIV-infected, or nongay and HIV-negative. At five points during the client's speech, the videotape was paused and counselors responded into a tape recorder as if they were that client's therapist. After this procedure, counselors filled out a state anxiety inventory followed by an inventory asking counselors to estimate how many times the client uttered certain words or phrases.
Results supported the second and third of the four hypotheses above. That is, a main effect was found for client HIV status on counselor discomfort, but client sexual orientation did not affect counselor discomfort. Furthermore, counselor homophobia predicted counselor discomfort better for gay clients than nongay clients, but counselor death anxiety did not predict counselor discomfort better for HIV-infected clients than for HIV-negative clients. Implications regarding countertransference and counseling were discussed.
Hennessy K (1993). Psychotherapeutic issues of lesbians. PhD. Thesis, Georgia State University, DAI, Vol. 54-05B, p. 2754, 99 pages.
Abstract by author: This study reports findings regarding the issues that lesbians bring to therapy. Lesbian clients in psychotherapy (N = 104) completed an eight page questionnaire that explored personal, relational, and lesbian identity related issues. Degree of concern, reason for seeking therapy, and personal and therapist characteristics were also explored.
Results indicate that most frequently reported problems (reported by 75% or more) are primarily personal ones (e.g. low self-esteem, career/life planning). "Coming out" issues (e.g. personal coming out, coming out to mother, at work) were reported by 50% to 75% of subjects and these were more frequently reported than relationship related issues (reported by 25% to 48% of subjects).
Of the problems indicated, the ones of greatest overall concern were depression, childhood sexual abuse, coming out to mother, and low self-esteem. The most frequently reported problems bringing the participants to therapy were depression, childhood sexual abuse, and low self-esteem. The most common problems of great concern which were not discussed in therapy were related to coming out.
No significance was found between level of satisfaction with therapist and therapist sexual orientation (heterosexual woman versus lesbian).
An unexpected finding of the study was the fact that 19% of participants had children and an additional 15% apparently wanted to become pregnant.
Recommendations to therapists include an awareness of the issues involved in lesbian identity development and a willingness to address these concerns. Factors to be considered in assessing lesbians' personal and relational difficulties are also discussed.
Heyns MM (1989). The role of the super-ego in ego-syntonic and ego-dystonic homosexuality. M.A. Thesis, University of Pretoria, MAI, Vol. 27-04, p. 534.
Abstract by author: This study investigates the differentiation between egosyntonic and egodystonic homosexuality, with special emphasis on the role of superego functioning. The Psychoanalytic view point is used as a frame of reference. Literature dealing with guilt feelings and the etiology of homosexuality are discussed from this perspective only.
It is discovered that both groups have to deal with superego conflict on a subconscious level and are affected by it on a conscious level. It is particularly aggressive wishes as part of the oedipal conflict, that give rise to feelings of guilt. Guilt feelings as such can therefore not be regarded as a differential factor.
The reasons why some homosexual persons come to accept their homosexuality and others don't, are probably not the result of a "typical" egosyntonic or egodystonic homosexual personality profile, but rather highly personal and unique in each individual case. A Phenomenological approach which includes long term intensive psychotherapy, is suggested.
Hope TJ (1995). Articulating the social body: psychoanalysis, sexual difference, and queer sexualities. PhD. Thesis, Cornell University, DAI, Vol. 56-08A, p. 3114, 486 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation draws heavily on the work of Sigmund Freud and of contemporary feminist and lesbian, bisexual and gay theorists in order to rethink the interdependence of gender and sexuality in psychoanalytic theory and Western literary and cultural productions since the late nineteenth century.
The first four chapters deal with gay male desire and the constitution of the modern socius. Both Freud and Luce Irigaray narrate a mythology of a male homosexuality at the "origin" of sociality. For Irigaray it permeates the symbolic as the specularizing logic of a male phallocentric imaginary.
For both theorists, heterosexuality functions as a belated cultural achievement, overlaying and (barely) concealing the economy of male homoeroticism that subtends it. These theoretical considerations introduce detailed readings of works by Oscar Wilde, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Rider Haggard, E. M. Forster and Andre Gide, in which the reading of the epistemological "trauma" of male homosexuality is aligned with an analysis of the operations of commodity fetishism and colonial fantasy.
The second four chapters center the issues of lesbian desire and female and feminist sociality. Lesbian desire has been pathologized as psychotic - that is, inarticulate, pre-symbolic, pre- and violently anti-social - in psychoanalytic theory and practice. This tendency persists in some feminist theory: most notably that of Julia Kristeva. At other times, lesbian desire is evacuated of its symbolic import in order to enable it to function as a utopian figure in feminist theorization. This theoretical introduction is followed by detailed readings of works by Jean Genet, Radclyffe Hall, and Mary Wings.
The question of the articulation of lesbianism within the social symbolic and its "visibilization" within the scopic regime of modernity is traced through considerations of domesticity, corporality in its relationship to community and communitarian doctrine, and the paranoid operation of the "voyure" as it informs questions of identity and identification in a lesbian detective novel.
Hunter K (1994). Therapists self-disclosure with a minority population: an heuristic investigation. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI, Vol. 55-11B, p. 5072, 160 pages.
Abstract by author: The title of my dissertation is: Therapist Self-Disclosure with a Minority Population: An Heuristic Investigation. The study explored the experience of self-disclosure of lesbian identity by therapists within the therapeutic encounter. A group of five lesbian therapists provided extensive depictions of their experiences of self-disclosure of lesbian identity to clients in order to explore the research question: What processes precede and what outcomes follow self-disclosure of lesbian identity by therapists to clients?
The collection, handling and analysis of the data was subjected to a variety of heuristic procedures, including, immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis. The research involved comparison of the participants' experience with each others' and with my own experience which I captured in a self-interview. Through utilization of these procedures, some common components of this experience were derived. These central themes were then categorized under general headings.
These categories are: motivations, results, and methods and policies of disclosure experiences; motivations, results, and methods and policies of non-disclosure experiences. These experiences were framed within co-researchers' understanding of the meaning of being a lesbian and being a therapist.
The four categories that provided a window into the experience of the co-researchers were: Being a Lesbian; Being a Therapist; Disclosure, and Non-Disclosure. The most essential theme to emerge within all the above categories was: The problem of confronting sameness and difference.
Since the primary researcher's experience takes a central position in the heuristic method, throughout the research I consulted my own understanding so as to assess how I was being shaped and transformed by the research process. One outcome of this research was the emergence of a sharper focus on the meaning of lesbian identity.
Johnston, MC (1994). The impact of counselees' sexual orientation and gender on clergy assessment for counseling. PhD. Thesis, Boston University, DAI, Vol. 54-05A, p. 1840, 303 pages.
Abstract by author: This research investigated ministers' pastoral assessments of persons who come for counseling and compared these assessments in terms of the counselees' sexual orientation and gender. The sample included 140 ministers from the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Southern Baptist Convention, the United Church of Christ, and the United Methodist Church. The typical respondent was a married, white, heterosexual male with an M.Div. serving a congregation. A clinical analog method was used, providing subjects with one of four case studies, a case study and demographic questionnaire, and the Index of Homophobia.
Three research questions resulted in the following findings: ANOVA analyses of pastoral assessments by counselee's sexuality and gender indicated pastoral assessments differed significantly by counselee's sexuality and gender. Ministers working with gay people, compared to ministers working with straight people, focused less on anger and relationship history and more on sexuality and morality. Ministers were less confident of their ability to work with a lesbian or gay counselee than with a straight counselee. Ministers working with a female counselee focused on self-esteem, relationships, and salvation more frequently than ministers working with a male counselee.
ANOVA analyses of homophobia by demographic variables indicated that homophobia scores varied in terms of denomination (Baptist higher, United Church lower), minister's sexuality (straight higher), and residence (northeast and midwest lower, southeast and southwest higher). Pearson's r indicated that homophobia varied inversely with courses on homosexuality, inversely with contact with gay persons, and directly with conservatism. ANOVA analyses of homophobia by assessment, regardless of the counselee's sexuality, indicated that high- homophobic ministers focused less on the counselee's affective issues, significant other relationship, and relationship skills, and focused instead on morality issues.
Pearson's r indicated that homophobia varied directly with the ministers' assessments of the severity of the counselee's problems. When rating the severity of the client's problems, high-homophobic ministers rated because the counselee is sinful and a moral risk to others, while low-homophobic ministers rated because of the counselee's depression, poor functioning, and suicide risk.
The data imply that ministers' education on working with gay persons is inadequate and that high-homophobic ministers are not providing adequate care to persons gay or straight.
Jones, LS (1985). The psychological experience of bereavement: lesbian women's perceptions of the response of the social network to the death of a partner. ED.D. Thesis, Boston University, DAI, Vol. 46-09A, p. 2566, 306 pages.
Abstract by author: This phenomenological study describes the experience of bereavement for a group of lesbian women who had lost their partners through death. The sample consisted of 15 lesbian women who were recruited through advertising and friendship networking. The length of time since the death ranged from 1 year to 15 years. All of the deaths were from natural causes; deaths from suicide or homicide were not included in this study. Participants were interviewed individually using an unstructured interview format which focused on their perceptions of how their social networks responded to them during bereavement, and what the grief process was like for them. The interviews were analyzed for major themes.
For the women in this sample, friends tended to make up the bulk of the social network. These friends helped out in the same ways that families generally assist heterosexual widows, as described in the literature on widowhood. Interactions with the women's families, and with their partners' families, varied from quite supportive to extremely negative. Many of the subjects had been fearful that their partners' families would attempt to interfere with medical decisions, funeral arrangements, or settlement of the estate. Legal precautions were often taken to prevent this. The degree of actual interference from the partner's family varied widely. Interactions with doctors, nurses, funeral directors, and clergy also varied.
In general, none of these groups were seen to be as consistently helpful as they have been reported to be by heterosexual widows. The course of grief was similar to that described by widows, lasting up to 2 years for most of the participants. For those participants whose grief was more prolonged, a possible interaction was noted between the presence of strong ambivalence in the relationship, and a lack of adequate social support.
The study's significance lies in its contribution toward looking at an area previously unexplored by research. It describes the ways in which lesbian bereavement experiences tend to be similar or dissimilar to heterosexual widowhood.
Josephson D(J)R (1997). Creating accessible counselling services for lesbians. M.S.W. Thesis, The University of Manitoba, MAI, Vol. 36-02, p. 410, 180 pages, ISBN: 0-612-23358-8.
Abstract by author: The author explores the barriers faced by gays and lesbians in accessing relevant and non-biased counselling services. The investigation utilizes a qualitative research design that borrows procedures from a grounded theory model for research. The first goal of this study is to review the ways in which helping professionals have historically responded to homosexuality. Current obstacles to participation in counselling are then investigated through interviews with ten lesbians and gays. Respondents identify barriers to service as including concern about interventions aimed at reorientation, the client’s comfort level with their own sexual identity and heterosexist bias within the therapeutic approach.
Given the sense of alienation individuals describe in relation to conventional helping systems, the author reflects on the variety of alternatives to counselling that lesbians and gays may employ in addressing problems. As most participants report having had some form of contact with counselling practitioners, the researcher examines how clients determine comfort within a therapeutic setting. Assessments about suitability of service inform decisions related to ‘coming out’ to the helper and proceeding or terminating with participation in counselling.
The study concludes with a series of recommendations about the development of a more accessible approach to clinical service.
The respondents advise that practitioners commit themselves to a process of reeducation that entails challenging internalized bias and expanding their knowledge base with regard to gay and lesbian issues. It is suggested that accessibility is enhanced through the counsellor’s efforts to outline agency confidentiality policies; adopt inclusive language; ensure the presence of physical indicators of a lesbian and gay clientele; and, the promotion of a visible profile within the sexual minority communities. The author argues that counselling professionals have a responsibility to advocate for the rights of those citizens who belong to the gay and lesbian minorities.
King NF (1995). Individuation as the counseling focus: a Jungian-developmental model. PhD. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, DAI, Vol. 46-09A, p. 2567, 266 pages.
Abstract by author: This study proposes a model for counseling, which is based theoretically on adaptations of both Jungian theory and developmental theory. The Jungian concept of "Individuation" is central to the model. For this reason, the model is presented as a set of values and assumptions about: the nature of the self, the developmental process, and the counseling process.
Two extensive clinical case histories are presented as means of demonstrating the model in the practice of counseling. Two alternative models of approaches to counseling and psychotherapy, which herein are called the "medical model" and the "psychoanalytic model," are reviewed and discussed for comparative purposes, to further illustrate the properties of the model being presented. The model is seen as having particular merit in addressing the counseling needs of populations, such as third world people and gay and lesbian people, whose realities are not adequately addressed by traditional models of counseling and therapy. The model presented is also seen to have merit for application to the counseling process regardless of the nature of the client.
The implications of the study include encouragement to: recast the training and theoretical preparation of counselors and researchers according to the study's findings; undertake further study, by a similarly interpretive kind of research which is aimed toward an increase of understanding, of the questions raised by the study; and for clinical practitioners to incorporate these findings into the practice of their profession, particularly with ethnic minority and gay and lesbian clients.
Korzenowski G (1995). A qualitative examination of obstacles to therapy for gay men and lesbians. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, D Vol. 56-09B, p. 5174, 126 pages.
Abstract by author: Gays and lesbians living in American society encounter significant obstacles to their healthy development and actualization. Given that therapists are a part of the cultural and social milieu and that the psychotherapeutic process is presumed to parallel the dynamics of that same environment, it is not surprising that gays and lesbians encounter obstacles in therapy that are similar to those they encounter in society in general.
What is surprising is that these obstacles continue to exist more than 20 years after the depathologizing of homosexuality by the American Psychiatric Association, and that therapist training programs, for the most part, have not included gays and lesbians in multicultural counseling courses and have not educated students regarding gay/lesbian development and lifestyles.
This study summarizes obstacles commonly encountered by gays and lesbians in their therapy attempts as identified by counselors in the professional literature. A major objective of the study is to humanize the statistics related to this problem through a qualitative exploration of these obstacles to counseling as experienced by 6 gay and lesbian individuals who volunteered to be subjects in the study. Although the limitations of the study in terms of its phenomenological nature and the purposeful, intensity sampling strategies used are acknowledged, findings are discussed and some recommendations for further research and change are made.
Further qualitative studies in both individual and group sessions with gay and lesbian persons who have resolved existential crises might contribute to a better understanding of the process by which such individuals reconcile their conflicts with socially approved and accepted identity norms, and may be generalizable to other individuals who struggle with victimization, bias, and oppression related to social attitudes.
Kraft C (1997). Therapist comfort levels when working with gay and lesbian clients. PhD. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-09B, p. 5125, 170 pages.
Abstract by author: The present study was designed to investigate how gender, sexual orientation, homophobia and heterosexism, attitudes toward women, attitudes toward sex, and disclosure of therapist sexual orientation can predict comfort levels of therapists when working with gay and lesbian clients. Additionally, a new 34-item scale was created to measure therapist comfort levels when working with gay and lesbian clients. A random sample of 2,000 currently practicing, licensed psychologists who have worked with gay and lesbian clients was provided by the Research Office of the American Psychological Association. A total of 617 questionnaires were returned, with a response rate of 31%.
This study implemented a correlational design. To understand comfort levels of therapists who work with gay or lesbian clients, the independent variables of attitudes toward gays and lesbians, attitudes toward women, sexual attitudes, and disclosure of sexual orientation were examined for their relationship to the dependent variable of therapist comfort levels with gay and lesbian clients. For the dependent variable, an original scale designed expressly for this study was utilized to measure therapist comfort levels when working with gay and lesbian clients.
The results of the study found the new TCGL scale to be a reliable instrument, with a Cronbach alpha of.95. A principal-axis factor analysis on two factors showed all communalities were greater than.10 and factor loadings were between.37 and.78. Results of the analysis showed that the therapists in this sample held relatively positive attitudes toward gays and lesbians, women, and sex and were generally comfortable working with gay and lesbian clients.
However, there were significant correlations between sexual orientation, attitudes toward gays and lesbians, women, and sex with therapists’ comfort levels when working with gay and lesbian clients. Specifically, therapists who hold less positive attitudes toward women and sex show the least comfort when working with gay and lesbian clients.
Finally, the thesis concludes with a discussion of the findings as they are related to therapist training and implications for future research.
Lane PH (1993). Counselors' avoidance reactions to client sexual orientation. PhD. Thesis, Indiana State University, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3140, 106 pages.
Abstract by author: This study investigated counselors-in-training's attitudes toward and approach and avoidance reactions to clients' sexual orientation. Attitudes were assessed via the use of the Kite Homosexuality Attitude Scale. Avoidance reactions were assessed via written responses to videotaped male clients. The sample consisted of 98 counselors-in-training enrolled in master level programs in counseling or a related field from two state universities, one in Indiana and one in Wisconsin.
The participants viewed videotapes presenting three different gay male clients, white, black, or obese, relating a relationship disagreement with a partner. Subjects wrote responses to the question, "What would you say next to this client?" Responses to the client were rated by three independent raters as either approaching or avoiding the relationship issue.
Results indicated that counselors-in-training are relatively more tolerant toward homosexuals than past attitude research would suggest. Homosexuality, as an entity, was not focused on by the subjects. Race appears to influence counselor-in-training response behavior with homosexual men. Practical applications of the results were discussed. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research were noted.
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Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses, Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. - Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. - Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers, 2005, 3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review: Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.
The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links1.htm) is located.
Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary. She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.
The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.
This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
The cited "Publication
No." corresponds to the one given in UMI: Dissertation Abstract
Online database accessible via universities and other institutions.
If acquiring / accessing the document is desired and you do not have access
to UMI, supply the basic information found herein, including the "Publication
No." to your local librarian. She/he will then advise you with respect
to the availability of the document(s) and the cost. Recently, UMI:
Dissertation Abstract Online became ProQuest Digital Dissertation
at - http:wwwlib.umi.com/
had both digital and hard copy versions of dissertations for sale. This Service ended.
Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses, Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.