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Garland, Kimberly J (2007). An exploratory study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender veterans of recent U.S. conflicts. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massacusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.Noack, Kerry Wayne (2004). An assessment of the campus climate for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons as perceived by the faculty, staff and administration at Texas A&M University. PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Snelbecker KA (1994). Speaking Out: A Survey of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Teachers of ESOL in the U.S. Master's Thesis, School for International Training, 164 pages. PDF Download. Download Page
Taylor Jodie (2008). Playing it Queer: Understanding queer gender, sexuak and musical praxis in a 'new' musicological context. PhD Dissertation, Queensland Conservatorium of Music, Griffith Uiversity. PDF
Abstract by author: This study examined the expectancies that gay/lesbian/bisexual patients hold for typical physicians and their effects, in conjunction with physician verbal communication, upon patient satisfaction. Two primary communication expectancy theories (Burgoon, 1993; Burgoon & Miller, 1985) predict communication behavior that violates expectancies will result in more extreme outcomes (in the direction of the violation) relative to communication that confirms expectancies. This was tested on physician verbal communication with gay/lesbian/bisexual patients. Hypotheses regarding expectancy violations were not supported. Results show a strong significant main effect for physician verbal message, and smaller significant main effect for patient expectancy of the physician. These findings are discussed along with practical implications and future research directions.
Burke M (1993). Homosexuality in the British police service: a sociological perspective. PhD. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI, Vol. 55-01C, p. 53.
Abstract by author: The research employs original interview data from thirty-six gay, lesbian or bisexual police officers to investigate the effects of belonging simultaneously to two marginal and ostensibly antagonistic communities. It examines ‘police phobia’ in the non-heterosexual communities and contrasts this with the ways in which police homophobia and heterosexism affect gay officers and their ability to function within the police structure. In concentrating on the police experience, the research examines the ways in which officers both fear discrimination on the grounds of their sexual orientation and actively experience it. It also examines how police occupational culture impacts on an officer’s ability to form a positive gay or lesbian identity, and maintain or derive satisfaction from same-sex relationships.
The research explores how officers often live ‘double’ as opposed to ‘integrated’ lives as a result of their predicament, and it examines common strategies for managing and segregating the two life-spheres. The recent development of the Lesbian and Gay Police Association within the U.K. is outlined and appraised. The thesis utilises and develops theories of stigma, role strain, marginality and identity and attempts to bring together some of the theoretical perspectives from the police and the sexualities literature to locate and analyze the non-heterosexual police officer’s situation. The research data suggest that the gay police officer is rarely open about his/her sexual orientation at work and for this reason is unlikely to have experienced direct discrimination on that basis. It is also suggested, however, that suspicion of homosexuality is often sufficient to evoke a hostile response. The data show that officers are also likely to disguise their occupation on the ‘gay scene’ and that the stress caused by leading two discrete existences may be detrimental to mental health and significant in the ability of officers to perform effectively at work, or form stable or satisfying personal relationships. Overall, the responses of officers are suggestive of a four-stage ‘gay police career’ in which a rounded sense of self is seen to emerge only after the ‘police’ and ‘gay’ identities have been reconciled.
Bookwalter RA (1995). A phenomenological needs assessment of sexual minority patients in an acute psychiatric setting. M.S. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 34-03, p. 1167, 134 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examines how sexual minority patients admitted to an acute psychiatric unit at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) experience their needs. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with five self-identified gay or bisexual men exposed to the Gay and Lesbian Focus Program at SFGH.
The data were analyzed from the attitude of occupational therapy, with an emphasis on the needs identified by patients and their relevance to psychiatric occupational therapy treatment and frames of reference. The study reveals that need, as experienced by the subjects, is a phenomenon arising from the individual’s desires, fears, and expectations about himself, other people, and the world around him. The subjects identify specific needs in the following areas: daily living skill, objects in the environment, social support, intangible environmental qualities, specific types of interactions with others, time/schedule adjustments, group activities, assistance with interactions with the environment, and information.
Calliham KE (1997). A qualitative study of common themes experienced by gay male Social Work students and professionals when coming out in their field placements and work settings. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, Vol. 35-06, p. 1663, 59 pages.
Abstract by author: This study explored themes common to experiences of gay male social work students and professionals in social work settings. The participants (6 male social work professionals and 10 male students pursuing a master’s degree in social work) were interviewed to elicit demographic information and personal perceptions related to coming out either at their field placement or in the work setting.
Research on coming out in a work setting indicates that gay males are faced with issues of homophobia, heterosexism, sexism, and internalized homophobia that might inhibit the coming out process. The majority of the participants did not have a negative experience in coming out at their social work setting. These participants self-identified as being openly out in their daily lives, which might have altered the representativeness of the data. The results of the study uncover themes pertaining to coming out that might be used as a framework in developing gay-sensitive training materials and curricula.
Cason GL (1996). Effects of a psychosocial intervention on mental health service providers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. PhD. Thesis, University of Houston, DAI 57-10B, p. 6561, 165 pages.
Abstract by author: Negative attitudes by many psychotherapists toward lesbians and gay men has been demonstrated and may be a problem when a lesbian or gay male client presents for treatment. A one-hour intervention was developed to help mental health professionals become aware of their attitudes and misunderstandings regarding lesbians and gay men. The intervention was performed by one person with differing groups of mental health service providers. The intervention was not only designed to present educational information, but also to challenge the psychosocial functions of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men as identified by Gregory Herek and addressed homophobia on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional levels. The research was based on a separate sample pretest-posttest design. Similar groups were measured either pre-intervention or post-intervention to determine if scores on the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale, an instrument designed to measure homophobia, were affected by the intervention. Differences in scores were also determined by work setting where the intervention took place, as the settings were highly varied in membership criteria. Subjects included 595 mental health service providers from counselor training programs, inpatient settings, professional organization meetings, outpatient settings, peer counseling, HIV case management, and gay-identified counseling settings. The intervention did not consistently change scores overall. The intervention did reduce scores in the peer counseling setting, and with service providers who endorsed a conservative or moderate political ideology who also began with higher scores. But, the intervention tended to increase negative scores in service providers with a liberal or moderate political ideology who also began with lower scores. It also was determined that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, or homophobia, varied by workplace setting and by individual facilities. And, the setting moderated the effects of the treatment in some instances. Education level, ethnicity, religious denomination ideology, and personal knowledge of a lesbian or gay man were all related to attitude scores toward lesbians and gay men. Neither the gender nor the age of the service provider was related to attitude scores. Findings are discussed and the importance of service provider setting on overall attitudes and the intervention itself are emphasized.
Publication No. 9710130
Cribben J (1996). Measuring the cognitive and affective attitudes of occupational therapists toward gay and lesbian individuals. M.S. Thesis, Rush University, College of Nursing, MAI, Vol. 34-06, p. 2496, 82 pages.
Abstract by author: Research involving healthcare professionals reveals a prevalence of negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian people which may impact the quality of healthcare services such individuals receive. To render authentic occupational therapy services to gay and lesbian individuals, occupational therapists must first be aware of their own attitudes toward such individuals and then recognize the effect those attitudes may have in the client-practitioner relationship. This study surveyed 118 occupational therapists to determine their cognitive and affective attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals. Results indicate moderately positive cognitive attitudes on the Attitudes Towards Gays and Lesbians Scale (ATGLS) (G. Smith, 1993) and minimally positive affective attitudes on the modified Index of Homophobia (IHP) (Hudson & Ricketts, 1980). Having gay or lesbian friends positively influenced both cognitive and affective attitudes; affiliation with a religious institution and level of education influenced cognitive attitudes only. Discussion includes implications for education and practice.
Cullen J (1994). Correlates with homophobia among social work students. M.S.W. Thesis, York University, MAI, Vol. 33-02, p. 423, 119 pages, ISBN 0-315-90519-0.
Abstract by author: This research measured levels of homophobia among social work students in selected schools of social work in Ontario. It explored and correlated the relationships among levels of homophobia, demographics, course content on gays and lesbians, social contact with gays and lesbians and other data. This study used a survey research design. A five-page questionnaire was developed which included quantifiable measurements with related open ended questions. The open-ended questions provided the researcher with a qualitative component to the study. The instrument was distributed to five accredited schools of social work through individual faculty members during 1993. Of the 230 questionnaires which were distributed, 173 were returned.
The sample exhibited low levels of homophobia as measured by the scale operationalized. Perceived course content on lesbian and gay issues was extremely low and the majority of those surveyed believe that their social work education does not prepare them to work with lesbian and gay people. This sample reported high levels of social contact with gay and lesbian people. Significant relationships were found to exist between levels of homophobia and social contact, course content, and levels of education. No significant relationships were found to exist between levels of homophobia and age or gender.
The oppression that gay and lesbian people face is perpetuated through homophobic attitudes. These attitudes are supported through different factors contributing to individual experience. Although this sample exhibited low levels of homophobic attitudes, concerns were raised regarding social work curriculum, social contact, and gay and lesbian stigmatization. These concerns further reflect the intolerance and inequity which oppresses gay and lesbian people.
Driscoll JM (1996). Exploring white dental students’ willingness to provide dental care to people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. PhD. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, DAI, Vol. 57-09A, p. 3810, 180 pages.
Abstract by author: In this descriptive field study, the willingness of 90 White dental students to provide dental care to people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease (HIVD) was examined. This study suggested that, in addition to their perceived clinical ability and attitudes toward gay men, White dental students’ racial attitudes and their attitudes regarding racial diversity would uniquely and significantly account for a portion of the variance associated with willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIVD. Likewise, this study suggested that the variance associated with White dental students’ perception of risk of occupational infection with HIV would be uniquely predicted by the same variables.
Survey packets included the following: a measure of willingness to provide dental care to people with HIVD, a measure of perceived clinical ability, a measure of perceived risk of occupational infection with HIV, the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Preliminary Form, the Quick Discrimination Index, the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale, and a brief social desirability measure. A hierarchical regression procedure yielded significant results (p < .05) indicating that White dental students’ racial attitudes and their attitudes regarding racial diversity did uniquely account for a portion of the variance associated with willingness to provide care. However, the hierarchical regression procedure involving White dental students’ racial attitudes and their attitudes regarding racial diversity did not significantly or uniquely account for any of the variance associated with perceived risk of occupational infection with HIV. The implications of these findings for the training of health care professionals as well as for future research are discussed.
Evans LR (1994). Homophobia and social work education: social work students' knowledge of and attitudes toward working with lesbian and gay clients. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. 93, 113 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examined the relationship between level of social work education and students’ level of knowledge about homosexuality, their level of homophobia, and their attitudes toward working with lesbian and gay clients. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 204 undergraduate social work majors, new MSW students, and advanced MSW students. The instrument consisted of three scales: a Knowledge Scale, Hudson and Ricketts’ 1977 Index of Homophobia, and an Attitude Scale. Findings suggested that the more social work education students received, the more they knew about homosexuality, the less homophobic they were, and the more positive were the attitudes they had toward lesbians and gay men. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of social work education in preparing future social workers to work effectively with lesbian and gay clients. They also indicate the strong need for social work educators to be committed to integrating homosexuality into their curricula.
Publication No. 1357561
Fisher JB (1996). The effect of an educational program on teacher and school counsellor knowledge attitudes, and beliefs regarding homosexuality and gay youth. PhD. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1569, 213 pages.
Abstract by author: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth comprise a population of young people who have been found to be underrepresented in the literature, although their needs are many. Studies show that gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth are at increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, dropping out of school, and suicide. The school is in a unique position to help with these issue, but often support for these youth is not available. The purpose of this study was to determine if a course about gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth issues would increase secondary education teacher and school counselor knowledge level, and decrease homophobic attitudes and beliefs. In order to test the research question, a pretest posttest control group design was utilized with 14 subjects in the treatment group and 15 subjects in the control group. The subjects participated in a 27-hour course about homosexuality and gay youth issues. All participants received four questionnaires as the pretest and posttest: The Modified Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (MATHS), the Index of Homophobia (IHP), the Index of Attitudes Toward Gay Students, and the Information About Homosexuality Index. The control group received the course following the completion of the treatment group course and were again posttested.
Results by MANCOVA analysis at the p < .05 level indicated inconclusive results (F = 2.7909, p = .054). Post hoc analyses combined treatment and control groups (N = 29). Results indicated that change did occur in participants over time, although these results must be interpreted with caution due to a lack of control group for this procedure. Recommendations for future studies include increasing the sample size utilizing the same design, looking at those with extreme attitudes toward homosexuality, addressing more personal biases of participants, the inclusion of more bisexuality information, modifying the curriculum to address population needs, and studying the long-term effects of such a course. Other recommendations include ideas for working with school districts on sensitive issues, and how to deal with community and political pressure.
Fliszar GM (1994). Attitudes towards persons with AIDS among psychologists in training. PhD. Thesis, Texas Tech University. DAI, Vol. 55-02B, p. 588, 131 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examined attitudes of psychologists in training toward working with persons with AIDS. Clinical and counseling psychologists in training (N = 266) from eight different psychology graduate programs read one of four possible vignettes that described a hypothetical patient. The vignettes were identical except that the patient was described as having either AIDS or leukemia and his sexual orientation was described as being either heterosexual or homosexual. After reading the vignette, subjects completed a short scale that measured reactions to the hypothetical patient, and then completed a measure of AIDS knowledge, a measure of homophobia, and a demographic questionnaire. It was expected that subjects who rated a vignette describing an AIDS patient would have more negative attitudes toward that patient than subjects who rated a vignette describing a leukemia patient. It was also expected that higher levels of homophobia would be related to more negative attitudes toward both the hypothetical AIDS and homosexual patients, and that greater AIDS knowledge would be related to more positive attitudes toward the AIDS patients.
Results of an analysis of variance indicated that the subjects who rated a vignette describing an AIDS patient were less likely to attend a party where he had prepared food and considered him to be more more responsible for his illness, to be more deserving of what happened to him, and to be more dangerous to others than subjects who rated an identically described leukemia patient. However, subjects were more willing to talk to the hypothetical AIDS patient than the leukemia patient, and subjects were equally willing to accept the hypothetical patient as a psychotherapy client regardless of whether he was described as an AIDS patient or as a leukemia patient. Problems with the measures of homophobia and AIDS knowledge made it difficult to assess the relationship between those two variables and attitudes toward the hypothetical patients. The results of this study are discussed, and implications of these findings for future research are presented.
Fonken LE (1996). A phenomenological study of lesbian faculty experience in institutions of higher education. PhD. Thesis, Colorado State University, DAI, Vol. 58-01A, p. 0103, 128 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the meaning and essence of the experience of lesbian faculty members in institutions of higher education. The qualitative research method of phenomenology served as the foundation and structure for this study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with nine self identified lesbian faculty from institutions of higher education in the Rocky Mountain region. Participants were asked to describe their experiences as lesbian faculty in the academy. Each interview was tape recorded and transcribed word for word by this investigator in order to capture as closely as possible the essence and meaning of each individual participants story. The phenomenological research method was used to analyze data gathered in participant interviews and to assist in identification of elements of participant experiences.
Analysis of data resulted in identification of four major themes which were seen as processes these lesbian faculty moved through in their daily lives in academia. The first theme or process was assessment of the environment, looking for the positive elements it afforded as well as identifying any negative affordances or barriers. Second was the process of decision making. Each participant had to determine how she was going to present in the work environment, what to share with colleagues and students, and whether or not to disclose her sexual orientation. The third process was that of constructing a life, a daily way of living and interacting in the work environment. This process included realization of the costs experienced as a lesbian in higher education, becoming aware of constraints these faculty encountered in their daily work, and acknowledging positive occurrences in the work environment such as being a resource and support for others in the campus community. Finally the process of reassessment or constantly monitoring the environment was a common element of daily work life for participants. Any change in the environment, new information, or personal life change led to reassessment which might lead to redecision.
The elements which emerged from this phenomenological investigation present a clear picture of what the lesbian faculty in this study experienced in their daily work lives in the academy. It is hoped these findings will provide a basis for further dialogue and increased understanding and awareness of what lesbian faculty experience, which might lead to better understanding of how the academy is experienced by all lesbian, gay and bisexual members of the campus community.
Friedman LJ (1995). An examination of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among Louisiana licenced professional counselors. PhD. Thesis, University of New Orleans, DAI 56-10A, p. 3837, 306 pages.
Abstract by author: The present study examines Herek’s theory that homophobic attitudes are best understood in the context of the social and psychological needs of the individual. Louisiana Licensed Professional Counselors have been chosen as the target population. The self-report survey instrument, Index of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals (IAH) was used in conjunction with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Short Form, and a demographics instrument in order to examine Herek’s model with respect to the attitudes of Louisiana Licensed Professional Counselors toward gay men and lesbians.
The results indicate that approximately 42 per cent of the respondents reported homophobic attitudes (as defined by the IAH). The implications of this study strike the core of the profession of counseling which purports to support cultural diversity, including diversity of sexual orientation. Counselor educators can use the results of this study to begin to explore and clarify not only their own values, but those of the students they are training. From the same perspective, counselors can use these results to make more appropriate decisions about the clients they choose to counsel. Consumers can use these results to wisely choose an appropriate counselor.
Publication No. 9603403
Gast AK (1995). Attitudes of social workers regarding same-gender and cross-gender interaction with gays and lesbians. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, Vol. 34-03, p. 1045, 51 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examined gender differences among social work graduate students in their relationships with homosexuals, and their comfort levels in working with clients who are gay men and lesbians. The self-administered questionnaire, completed by 71 graduate students, asked various questions about their personal relationships with homosexuals and measured their comfort levels in working with gay and lesbian clients. Findings suggest that no significant relationship existed between gender of client and comfort level for both male and female respondents. However, there was some indication from the results that the more homosexuals that male respondents knew personally, the higher their comfort level. For female respondents, personal relationships with gay men and lesbians had no clear effect on their comfort level.
Gersh TL (1993). Training directors' perceptions of factors affecting the incorporation of lesbian and gay issues in graduate psychology programs: an exploratory study. PhD. Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DAI, Vol,. 54-08, p. 4387, 136 pages.
Abstract by author: Although ethical standards and accreditation criteria set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA) address the need for sensitivity and knowledge about issues related to human diversity, research indicates that both practitioners and graduate trainees feel inadequately prepared to work with lesbian and gay clients. It appears that before improvements are made in training clinicians to provide competent services to this client population, possible reasons for the discrepancy between APA policy and actual training practice must first be examined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess, using both quantitative and descriptive methods, the contribution of specific factors that either impeded or facilitated training in this area.
Based on the 120 usable returns from training directors of counseling and clinical psychology programs who responded to the survey (59% return rate; 53% usable return rate), results indicated that four factors identified in the literature (Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills, and Perceived Importance) were significantly related with curricular offerings in lesbian/gay issues. Moreover, the factors of Perceived Importance, Skills, and Peer Discouragement were found to be significant predictors of training in this area.
Analyses of qualitative data revealed the following most commonly cited factors as having impeded prior training in lesbian/gay issues: Curricular Limitations, not perceiving this topic as an important component of training, lack of interest in lesbian/gay issues, negative attitudes about homosexuality, and negative and/or ignorant beliefs about lesbians and gay men. Data also indicated the following five factors as potentially facilitating training in this area in the future: improving the degree of acceptance and support for this topic within the academic environment, pressure from external sources, namely APA, increasing awareness through more literature and changing current attitudes/beliefs about this population, improved commitment to diversity, and more pressure from society in general. Based upon the results of this study, several recommendations were made for improving the future training of psychologists to work effectively with lesbian and gay clients.
Hoover CK (1994). An investigation of the preparedness of student affairs professionals to work effectively with diverse populations on campus. PhD. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3105, 296 pages.
Abstract by author: This study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to examine the status of student affairs professionals’ preparedness to work with diverse populations. Four groups were included within the definition of diverse populations used in this study: women, people of color, gay/lesbian/bisexual individuals, and non-traditional age students. The Survey of Student Affairs Professionals’ Experiences with Diversity (SSAPED) was completed by 394 practitioners (57% response rate). The SSAPED included scaled item sections on five component areas of preparedness: knowledge, skills, behavior, comfort, and experiences. The survey also contained questions regarding respondent characteristics and open ended questions regarding participants’ beliefs and experiences related to diversity. This research also included information from semi-structured interviews with 16 practitioners.
The responses indicate relatively low levels of knowledge, behavior, and experiences related to diversity; higher levels of comfort and skill were reported. There were differences in professionals’ levels of preparedness to work with each of the four diversity groups. The results demonstrate that practitioners were better prepared to work with issues related to women than any other group. Participant scores also indicate that they were generally more prepared to work with non-traditional age students than with students of color or gay, lesbian, or bisexual students.
The results also demonstrate significant differences in some of the preparedness scales as related to the academic discipline of the professionals’ degree and to the practitioners’ functional area. Also, a positive correlation was found between number of years a practitioner had been in the field and levels of knowledge and experience.
Respondents considered several types of experience to be influential in terms of increasing their effectiveness to work with diverse populations. Three items were indicated by 90% or more of the participants: direct experience with students, direct experience with colleagues, on-campus workshops/professional development. The analysis looking at which (if any) experience factors contributed to increased preparedness levels also yielded significant results. Conferences, courses, and self-reported extent of experience each contributed to levels of preparedness on three of the scales. Workshops and supervising diverse others each contributed to increased levels on two of the preparedness scales.
Jackson JM (1995). Lesbian identities, daily occupations, and health care experiences. PhD. Thesis, University of Southern California, DAI, Vol. 57-01B, p. 276, 319 pages.
Abstract by author: At the heart of occupational science and the occupational therapy profession lies the belief that people can create meaningful lives by engaging in occupations (i.e., activities, practices, rituals) that are symbolically significant on a personal and cultural level. Related to this notion is the assumption in occupational therapy practice that treatment must take into account the multidimensional aspects of a person. This study explored these two themes in the lives of lesbians. First, I described how lesbians created and nurtured their lives by weaving together their lesbian identities and occupations. Second, I gathered descriptions of the kinds of therapeutic environments that were constructive to versus those that hindered the provision of authentic occupational therapy to lesbians. Qualitative research methods embracing a feminist perspective were used to analyze multiple, in-depth, open-ended, interviews of twenty lesbians, ten were occupational therapists and ten had disabled. Several key findings emerged. First, being lesbian influenced the respondents’ lives in leisure, political, and spiritual spheres. Second, occupations that possessed particular qualities - homosexual social context, homosexual content, homosexual symbolism, or a tenor that encourages emotional peace about one’s homosexuality - constituted expressions of lesbian identities. Third, occupations often embodied and reified heterosexual ideologies and social convention, creating discomfort for lesbians. Fourth, lesbians longed to be authentic with respect to their lesbian identities. They described rituals that they created to honored their lesbian identities, promote feelings of integration, or bridge the heterosexual and homosexual world views of friends and family. Fifth, heterosexual climates pervaded occupational therapy clinics and were maintained through heterosexual discourse, homophobic comments, assumed heterosexuality, stereotyping, and harassment. Therapists dealt with heterosexual environments by separating, passing, surveying, censoring, and strategically using anger. Despite the prevalence of heterosexism, genuine humanistic approaches toward patients and co-workers contributed to positive occupational therapy work environments. Sixth, heterosexist attitudes and practices invaded most areas of rehabilitation and, at times, compromised treatment in ways that were not immediately evident to patients. Finally, occupation-centered occupational therapy is one way that occupational therapy clinics can become more lesbian-sensitive.
Jacobs C (1996). Out of the closet, into the attic: the development of services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and questioning youth. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI, Vol. 57-03, p. 2176, 232 pages.
Abstract by author: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning youth have been ignored, invisibilized, and underserved by our institutions at a great social cost. Based on that understanding, this action research project encompassed a process which acknowledged the existence and service needs of sexual minority youth and then provided the needed services through a collaborative group process with the youth themselves. The project was conducted within a mainstream youth social service agency in the City of Philadelphia over a sixteen month period. During that time, services in the form of a weekly psychoeducational support group were initially piloted, and the existence and needs of sexual minority youth were determined. The group, which came to be known as the Attic because it met on the top floor of the Voyage House Building, grew rapidly and evolved into an ongoing Voyage House department, Sexual Minority Youth Programs, which provided services to a total of 234 youth during the project period.
The action research document, Out of the Closet - Into the Attic describes the process of establishing the Attic group services in participation with the youth service recipients and of ‘visibilizing’ the youth through social action. It also provides insight into the forces that created the Attic group as well as the groups impact on the youth, and their life experiences. Attic group participants reported that the group was very helpful in their adjustment to a stigmatized identity and in overcoming their sense of isolation. Outcome and process measures were used to describe the demographic features of the Attic youth, characteristics of their group participation, and the community based activities that evolved from the Attic process.
Jordan KC (1997). The effects of disclosure on the professional life of lesbian police officers. PhD. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. 58-05A, p. 1927, 241 pages.
Abstract by author: The professional life of police officers, and consequent subculture and personality traits which accompany that life, has long been studied. Examination of various aspects of policing reveals that specific components of police life - such as secrecy, solidarity, loyalty, danger, machismo, stress, conservatism, suspiciousness, fear, and trust - have not altered much over years. Specific traits of the officer, however - such as gender, racial and ethnic identity, age, rank, education, years of service, marital status, and sexual orientation - have been linked to the manner and extent to which officers acclimate to police life.
The basic research design of this study employs the use of grounded theory to examine the variables which effect the professional life of lesbian police officers, with a focus on how subjects’ sexual identity disclosure impacts professional life. Quantitative analyses of a demographic survey, featuring Likert-scale indices of level of disclosure and job satisfaction, establish a relationship between disclosure and rank. Quantitative analyses of subject interview narratives reveal the most substantive results of the study. Overall, subjects indicated a high level of fear, distrust, and dissatisfaction with police life which were linked to higher levels of nondisclosure in the workplace. A paradigm for this nondisclosure, The Limbus, is developed to explain the specific implications of passive neutrality. Subjects occupying The Limbus were shown to have more complex and negative problems than subjects who were "out" (actively disclosed) or "closeted" (actively concealed).
Facets of the police organization, more than relationships with specific co-workers, appear to have the most impact on decisions to disclose in the workplace. While formal policies protecting lesbian police officers from discrimination do exist, subjects indicated that the subterranean values of the police organization supporting the traditional, heterosexual, white male stereotype were more instrumental than legal protections in determining disclosure.
The final storyline of the study examines the professional life of subjects by considering the subject as police officer, woman, minority, and homosexual. Suggestions for future research include expanding the subject base to a larger sample, as well as examining the professional lives of gay male officers to determine gender implications of The Limbus.
Korzenowski G (1995). A qualitative examination of obstacles to therapy for gay men and lesbians. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI, Vol. 56-09B, p. 5174, 126 pages.
Abstract by author: Gays and lesbians living in American society encounter significant obstacles to their healthy development and actualization. Given that therapists are a part of the cultural and social milieu and that the psychotherapeutic process is presumed to parallel the dynamics of that same environment, it is not surprising that gays and lesbians encounter obstacles in therapy that are similar to those they encounter in society in general. What is surprising is that these obstacles continue to exist more than 20 years after the depathologizing of homosexuality by the American Psychiatric Association, and that therapist training programs, for the most part, have not included gays and lesbians in multicultural counseling courses and have not educated students regarding gay/lesbian development and lifestyles.
This study summarizes obstacles commonly encountered by gays and lesbians in their therapy attempts as identified by counselors in the professional literature. A major objective of the study is to humanize the statistics related to this problem through a qualitative exploration of these obstacles to counseling as experienced by 6 gay and lesbian individuals who volunteered to be subjects in the study. Although the limitations of the study in terms of its phenomenological nature and the purposeful, intensity sampling strategies used are acknowledged, findings are discussed and some recommendations for further research and change are made.
Further qualitative studies in both individual and group sessions with gay and lesbian persons who have resolved existential crises might contribute to a better understanding of the process by which such individuals reconcile their conflicts with socially approved and accepted identity norms, and may be generalizable to other individuals who struggle with victimization, bias, and oppression related to social attitudes.
Lilling AH (1992). The relationship between psychoanalists' conscious beliefs about and unsconscious attitudes towards homosexuality. PhD. Thesis, Adelphi University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, DAI, Vol. 53-01, p. 567, 201 pages.
Abstract by author: Given the controversy that exists in the psychoanalytic literature on homosexuality this study attempted to explore the relationship of theoretical beliefs of psychoanalysts about homosexuality and their subjective personal reaction towards homosexual versus heterosexual patients as presented in vignettes. The Theoretical Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ) was developed using paraphrased statements from psychoanalytic writings on homosexuality. Further, two matched sets of vignettes were created by the investigator. Each set presented the identical patient with lover’s name being either male or female. Each set differed from each other by level of pathology. Respondents were requested to rate their subjective reactions to the patients presented on the Semantic Differential. Subjects were also requested to indicate their Axis I and/or Axis II diagnoses as well as a rating on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (Axis V of the DSM-III-R).
Eighty-two analysts from four different professional groups responded. Twenty-five had M.D.’s and fifty-one had PhD.’s. The rest had other degrees. The subject pool was fairly experienced with an average of seventeen years since analytic training was completed. The TBQ was found to be a highly reliable instrument. The respondents, based on their responses on the questionnaire, were strongly and consistently moderate in their views on homosexuality. However, some contradictory responses may indicate that some analysts may have a lack of sophistication in the area of homosexuality.
Further item analyses indicate that there may be a covert tendency to endorse a conservative illness model of homosexuality among some respondents. In regard to the vignettes the most significant finding was that the high pathology homosexual vignette was rated significantly more negatively on almost every dimension compared with the matched high pathology heterosexual vignette. This was concluded to reflect a covert personal bias towards homosexual patients on the part of all the analysts who participated in the study. This bias emerged in a statistically significant manner only with the high pathology vignettes; the low pathology homosexual vignette was not rated more negatively than the low pathology heterosexual vignettes. The bias that emerged may have significant impact on treatment of homosexual patients and warrants further investigation.
Lipkin AS (1990). A staff development program for antihomophobia education in the secondary schools. ED.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, Vol. 51-08A, p. 2713, 266 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of the study was, having elaborated a theoretical rationale, to assess the impact of a twelve-hour anti-homophobia workshop on the attitudes and professional practice of 16 staff participants at the public high school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The theoretical aspect included an application of Kohlberg moral development theory and theories of sexism to an analysis of homophobia. The resulting Stage Model of bigotry was used in conducting the voluntary staff development workshop, ‘Gay and Straight at CRLS:
Creating a Caring Community.’ The methodology included analysis of the responses to a questionnaire and interview given two years after the workshop was conducted. The results show that participants were more likely to be female, politically and religiously liberal staff members with little or no academic experience with the topic of homosexuality. Response to the workshop was very positive with an emphasis on empathizing with families of gay/lesbian people, being moved by testimony of co-workers dealing with their own experiences as gay/lesbian teachers or as parents of gay/lesbian children, and recognizing the inhospitable environment at the high school for gay/lesbian students. Most of the participants felt the workshop sharpened their view of homosexuality as an issue at the school and made them more likely to confront homophobic attitudes/behaviors around them. Participants’ near unanimous support for a gay/lesbian student support group, which has been formed at the school as a consequence of the workshop, underscores the idea that a community of caring (Kohlberg Stage 3) was the moral atmosphere created by the workshop.
MacDonald RD (1997). Study of the perceived social welfare needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long beach, MAI, Vol. 35:06, p. 1670, 141 pages.
Abstract by author: This descriptive study examined the perceived social welfare needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. A data-collection instrument was developed by the researcher and administered at three sites: The Center/Long Beach, the Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center Youth Program, and the EAGLES Center (Emphasizing Gay/Lesbian Education Services) in West Hollywood, California. The nonprobability sample of 43 respondents was composed of female, male, and transgender adolescents between 15 and 23 years of age. The findings revealed the most frequently used existing community support services were general support/rap groups, HIV testing, and safer sex education. Also revealed was an underutilization of most existing community support services and a need for an increase in support groups. Results of the research indicate the importance of the social work profession to enroll as the catalyst in advocating for this relatively invisible, and much neglected, population.
Moorman AS (1996). Comfort towards clients who are HIV-positive of beginning and advanced psychology trainees and licenced psychologists. PhD. Thesis, University of Denver, DAI, Vol. 57-07B, p. 4718, 203 pages.
Abstract by author: The number of persons who are diagnosed as HIV positive is increasing. Current studies report that prejudicial attitudes, homophobia and fear exist in the medical arena. Fewer studies address these issues within the field of psychology. Currently there are no studies that address these issues across training levels within psychology.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether beginning and advanced psychology graduate students and licensed psychologists have different levels of prejudicial attitudes and levels of comfort towards clients who are HIV positive, depending on how they acquired the disease. Gender, years of training, exposure to persons who are HIV positive, moral judgment and homophobia between levels of training were examined in relationship to prejudicial attitudes and level of comfort towards clients who are HIV positive, but have acquired the disease through different sources. This experimental design used a 3 x 6 x 2 factorial design with 3 different levels of training, 6 vignettes, and gender serving as independent variables and with prejudicial attitudes and level of comfort serving as the dependent variables. Moral judgment, homophobia, amount of AIDS training, and amount of exposure to persons who are HIV positive served as control variables.
Results suggest that prejudicial attitudes and level of comfort combined were significantly affected by mode of acquisition. Participants expressed greater prejudicial attitudes toward persons acquiring HIV through blood transfusions than persons acquiring HIV through sexual contact with multiple male partners. Level of homophobia accounted for significant variance in prejudicial attitudes and level of comfort; moral judgment accounted for significant variance only for prejudicial attitudes. Negative relationships were found between prejudicial attitudes and: (1) amount of AIDS training, and (2) moral judgment, and between homophobia and: (1) level of comfort, and (2) moral judgment. Positive relationships were found between amount of AIDS training and level of comfort, and between prejudicial attitudes and homophobia. Results suggest that the amount of exposure to homosexual and bisexual persons and persons who are HIV positive, moral judgment, homophobia, and mode of acquisition significantly predict prejudicial attitudes and level of comfort. Results and implications of these findings are discussed. Directions for further research are provided.
Oliver EM (1995). Gays; masculine hegemony and the police subculture. An Ottawa case study. M.A. Thesis, Carleton University, MAI, Vol. 34-06, p. 2261, 164 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08914-2.
Abstract by author: This thesis examines police-gay interaction effects from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, serves as the research site. It is argued a gay identity, or "gayness", is "contained" in both the police occupational subculture and the gay community/subculture. The argument is that this is the result of masculine hegemony, and the "shaming" it directs at anyone believed to be gay. Support for the argument is generated from interview data (police, n = 10; gays, n = 16). Responses from subjects in both groups reveal the reciprocal effects of their interactions which keep "gayness" inhibited.
O'Neill BJ (1994). Canadian social work education from the standpoint of gay men. D.S.W. Thesis, Wilfred Laurier University, DAI, Vol. 55-09A, p. 2992, 234 pages, ISBN 0-315-90792-4.
Abstract by author: This study explores issues related to same-gender sexual orientation in social work education from the standpoint of gay men. The literature suggests that the effectiveness of social services is limited by social workers’ lack of knowledge and sensitivity regarding same-gender sexual orientation. This problem is significant because at least 10% of the population are sexually attracted to members of their own gender and because clients from this segment of the population may have service needs different than those of heterosexuals, particularly related to societal discrimination based on sexual orientation. The purpose of this inquiry is to identify changes needed in social work education with respect to same-gender sexual orientation and to understand how these modifications could be implemented. The investigation is based on feminist standpoint theory, a critical approach to epistemology which holds that knowledge reflects the social values of those who develop and ascribe to it. The design of this inquiry includes strategies drawn from institutional ethnography, an application of standpoint theory to the study of social institutions from the standpoint of marginalized groups, for the purpose of uncovering the determinants of oppression. The study also employs strategies of action research, an approach to stimulating change as well as developing knowledge, which involves collaboration with those who will be affected by the outcomes of inquiry.
The findings are that issues related to same-gender sexual orientation are excluded and marginalized in social work education discourse. Respondents perceived the climate in schools of social work to be unsafe for open discussion of same-gender sexual orientation and the curricula to lack accurate content on the topic. This silencing appears to be linked to accreditation standards which do not require schools of social work to actively address issues of same-gender sexual orientation in their policies, programs, and curricula. The implications of the study are that there is a need for the adoption of social work education policies and programs which would create a safe climate within schools of social work for public discussion of same-gender sexual orientation. Policies should affirm acceptance of same-gender sexual orientation as a valid expression of human sexuality and effectively counter discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Sexual orientation should be addressed in faculty recruitment and development, and student selection and support. As well, accreditation standards should mandate the integration of content related to same-gender sexual orientation into the core curriculum.
In this report, I use the term same-gender sexual orientation, which refers to both lesbian and gay male sexual orientation, because some respondents discussed issues which related to lesbian sexual orientation as well as gay male sexual orientation, or did not differentiate between lesbian and gay male sexual orientation. A consequence of this study being conducted from the standpoint of gay men is that its findings clearly apply to issues of gay male sexual orientation in social work education. In addition, the findings may also have some implications for the handling of issues related to lesbian sexual orientation in schools of social work. However, because perceptions from the standpoint of lesbian women may differ from those from the standpoint of gay men, who are socially located differently than lesbian women, there is a need for a separate study of social work education from the standpoint of lesbian women. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Robinson LD (1992). An analysis of pastoral counseling roles and expectations of pastors in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church for the Central Alabama Conference. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI, Vol. 54-01A, p. 213, 143 pages.
Abstract by author: The problem. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the extent to which pastoral counseling has been defined in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church (hereinafter referred to as AMEZ church) in the Central Alabama Conference, (2) to analyze the perceived role of the AMEZ’s pastoral counselor, and (3) to investigate the expectations of the AMEZ pastoral counselor’s (pastors) relative to their role definition.
Conclusions and recommendations. Analysis of findings showed: (1) Pastoral counseling in the AMEZ church was not well defined as a responsibility of the AMEZ pastor. (2) Pastors perceived their roles as appropriate in the counseling capacity in the AMEZ church. However, areas such as abortions counseling were not perceived as appropriate. Two additional areas perceived as inappropriate were homosexual counseling and helping to implement career choices by aiding in the placement of graduates. (3) More than 52 percent of all youth expected their pastors to provide extensive counseling. More than 50 percent of all parents expected their pastors to provide counseling and more than 50 percent of all administrators and members expected their pastors to provide counseling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Scala AH (1996). Heterosexism in the classroom: a teaching case study. ED.D. Thesis Columbia University Teachers' College, DAI, Vol. 57-02A, p. 569, 383 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation presents a teacher-researcher curriculum study on heterosexism in the classroom. The curriculum was developed with the goal of uncovering heterosexism. The study was conducted in an introductory women’s studies classroom at a four-year college in the context of a sexuality unit. The teacher-researcher sought to know if the curriculum made it possible to identify and address heterosexism in the classroom. In order to assess the curriculum and determine how heterosexism is manifested in the classroom, the teacher-researcher collected and analyzed surveys, questionnaires, journals, anonymous responses, reader-response logs, and sex-role socialization autobiographies, and the teacher-researcher’s teaching journal. The curriculum was taught in a feminist classroom and included reading and writing activities on compulsory heterosexuality, "coming out," and lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual lives.
The study shows that the curriculum provided adequate material to encourage students to write about and discuss diverse sexual orientations, homophobia, and heterosexism. The study also shows that the concept of heterosexism is difficult to understand because heterosexist thinking is perceived by most people to be the "norm," and sexual orientations other than heterosexual are generally perceived to be "abnormal": deviant, sick, immoral. Furthermore, the study reveals that heterosexism is a complex system of oppression which is enabled by homophobia; the blurring of sex, gender, and sexuality; and by sexism. Of particular interest to this teacher-researcher is the discovery that lesbian baiting and gay baiting are powerful sex- and sexuality-role socializers leading to what Adrienne Rich has termed "compulsory heterosexuality."
Schmellier-Berger LJ (1992). A survey of psychologists' knowledge and experience regarding HIV/AIDS. PhD. Thesis, Saint Louis University, DAI, Vol. 53-07B, p. 3792, 128 pages.
Abstract by author: Research suggests that the number of individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS is rising at an alarming rate and that these victims need medical and psychological intervention. However, additional data indicates that, not only society at large, but medical and mental health professionals discriminate against and/or stigmatize AIDS clients (patients). The purpose of this study was twofold. First, it examined psychologists’ knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Second, it explored psychologists’ experience treating clients (patients) suffering from the virus.
Fifteen hundred surveys were forwarded to selected members of APA. Of these, 585 were returned and represented usable data. Results indicated that participants were knowledgeable regarding epidemiology, prevention and transmission of the virus although over 50% had received little formal education. Further, over 43% of the sample reported that they had worked with clients (patients) with HIV/AIDS. Participants who had seen HIV positive and/or AIDS patients were significantly less fearful of contracting the virus and more comfortable than those who reportedly had not treated this population. Homosexual/bisexual psychologists were also found to be significantly less fearful and more comfortable treating HIV/AIDS clients (patients) than their heterosexual colleagues. Finally, therapists’ level of knowledge did impact his/her ethical decision-making regarding duty to warn. Although a number of problems were presented concerning the study’s methodology, results suggested that, unlike previous research utilizing medical professionals, psychologists surveyed were willing to work with the population and possessed basic knowledge necessary to address its problems. Psychologists were encouraged to continue to access additional information about the virus as it becomes available.
Stevenson RH (1995). Social work education from a lesbian standpoint. M.S.W. Thesis, Wilfred Laurier University, MAI, Vol. 34-02, p. 491, 170 pages, ISBN 0-612-01825-3.
Abstract by author: This study looks at social work education from the standpoint of lesbian students and faculty. The literature indicates that many social workers manifest signs of homophobia, and that this affects the provision of services to gay and lesbian clients. The purpose of this study is to explore how issues of same-gender sexual orientation are addressed in schools of social work and to make recommendations for change.
I interviewed fourteen lesbians, including undergraduate and graduate students, recent graduates and faculty members from five Ontario schools of social work. These open-ended interviews focused on the participants’ experiences and perspectives on social work education. I also facilitated two reflecting group discussions, each with five of the research participants, which supported and clarified the findings that emerged from the interviews.
The findings of this study suggest that social work education is structured by a hidden curriculum which promotes heterosexuality as the only normal and legitimate form of sexual and relational expression. Content on same-gender sexual orientation is excluded from the curriculum and discourse on lesbian and gay issues is suppressed. The lack of a supportive and safe climate in schools of social work limits disclosures of same gender sexual orientation, reinforcing the institutional silence by keeping lesbian and gay experience closeted and invisible.
Schools of social work should adopt policies which prohibit discrimination and harassment based on sexual orientation and statements of philosophy which clearly express opposition to heterosexism and other forms of oppression. Lesbian and gay faculty and students should be actively recruited as part of an effort to increase diversity in schools of social work. Issues of same-gender sexual orientation should be addressed in continuing education for faculty and in faculty evaluation. Feminist theory and critical pedagogy are identified as valuable resources in addressing heterosexism and lesbian and gay issues in social work education......
Publication No. MM01825
Sulfridge RM (1996). Decreasing homophobic attitudes through communication and interaction of homosexuality in the classroom. M.A. Thesis, Eastern Michigan University, MAI, Vol. 34-04, p. 1327, 33 pages.
Abstract by author: Homophobia is unfortunately a powerful prejudice that exists on college and university campuses. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between reduced homophobic attitudes and class type and if communication and interaction of homosexuality through panel discussions reduced homophobia in the classroom. One hundred and forty-five university students were tested using a 25-item IHP-M (Index of Homophobia) scale designed by Hudson and Ricketts (1980) to measure attitudes towards homosexuals. This study analyzed the data using a 2 x 4 x 2 x 2 ANOVA of Variance. Based on the results of this study, a significant relationship between reduced homophobic attitudes and class type was found (p < .012). Homosexual Panel Discussions were also found to be a sufficient method in reducing homophobia in the classroom (p < .0001).
Tolan IM (1997). Objective assessment of student services for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students at Northern Arizona University. ED.D. Thesis, Northern Arizona University, DAI, Vol. 58-10A, p. 3859, 313 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to analyze the objective climate of student support services for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (GLB) at a public institution of higher education. The climate assessment examined observable patterns of behavior, formal activity, practices, procedures and discourse utilized in the Division of Student Affairs. Ten departments were assessed in this descriptive case study, utilizing two instruments - mail survey and content analysis of sources of information.
The questions employed in each of the surveys were constructed uniquely to represent the services provided by each of the ten departments; their general foci, however, included the following research topics: access; programs/services; representation/identity development (staff structures, lexicon, departmental publications); departmental outreach programs and activities; sensitivity training; non-discrimination practices by external resources; formalized assessment; and financial support. The survey examined these constructs for each of the seven minority sectors included in the university’s printed non-discrimination clause: age, race/color/national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disability and veteran status. Publications examined included flyers, handbooks, brochures, applications and departmental newsletters.
Findings of this study demonstrated that the university’s policies and practices were not congruent with their printed non-discrimination clause. A convergence of findings from the research demonstrated that GLB students and their partners were denied access to family housing, recreation facilities, student health insurance, and financial aid. There were no permanently funded programs for GLB students, nor had any department provided an outreach program specifically to the GLB sector. In addition, no staff members were identified as GLB resources, GLB sensitivity training was inconsistent, no funding had been solicited to increase services to GLB students, and heterosexist language was utilized in various publications. Finally, only one department conducted a formalized needs assessment of GLB students, and but one department screened external referral agencies. It was concluded that of the seven minority sectors examined, the GLB student sector was third to last in services received.
Implications of the study were examined, focusing mainly on GLB students, Northern Arizona University, the State of Arizona, the higher education system of the United States, and society-at-large. Potential areas of future study were equally highlighted.
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The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links.htm) is located.
Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary. She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.
The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.
This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
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