Two Studies Are Re-Analysed by Plöderl et al., (2013) In The Published Study: "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review."
Conclusion: Sexual Minority Adolescents Are At Greater Risk for Dying by Suicide. The Expanded Analysis Related to This Study is Available!
"While interventions aimed at addressing
suicide risk factors for all youth are being
implemented and many have proven effective in the
general population, no evidence- based intervention
currently exists to reduce suicide risk within [the
LGBT] population." Marshall A (2016).
Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual &
Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need. Yale
Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89: 205-213.
A World First! - - Jacobs R, Morris S (2016). National LGBTI Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Strategy: A New Strategy for Inclusion and Change: An Australian Government initiative. Related Article. Document PDF Download.
...The report details the findings of a national study of the mental health and well-being of 2,264 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people in Ireland (1,064 of the participants were aged between 14-25). The findings are stark. 56% of LGBTI 14 to 18 year olds had self-harmed, 70% had suicidal thoughts and one in three had attempted suicide. Compared to the My World National Youth Mental Health Study, LGBTI young people in this study had twice the level of self harm; three times the level of attempted suicide; four times the level of severe or extremely severe stress, anxiety and depression. Report Download.
Those who were bullied, harassed, assaulted, or expelled because they were transgender or gender non-conforming in school also reported significantly elevated levels of suicide attempts (51% compared with 41% of our sample as a whole). Most notably, suicide attempt rates rise dramatically when teachers were the reported perpetrators: 59% for those harassed or bullied by teachers, 76% among those who were physically assaulted by teachers and 69% among those who were sexually assaulted by teachers. These numbers speak to the urgency of ending violence and harassment of transgender students by both their peers and their teachers. Education and income both correlate with suicide rates, with those earning $10,000 annually or less at extremely high risk (54%), while those making more than $100,000 are at comparatively lower risk (26%), while still astronomically higher than the general population. Those who have not completed college attempted suicide at higher rates (48% among those with no high school degree, 49% for those with a high school degree only, and 48% for those with some college education) while those have completed college (33%) or graduate school (31%) have significantly lower rates.
In August, 1999, a 31-year-old female informant who moved to Georgia in 1998 wrote the following to the author of this webpage: "In case you're wondering why I am intrigued by this subject matter - I, myself, have lost 3 male friends to suicide and personally contemplated the act seriously after the death of my best friend in 1994. Mike K. (CA, grew up upstate NY) was 22, a Navy Seal.. his folks refused to even consider the possibility of his homosexual tendencies. John V. (St. Louis, MO) was 26, "out," and an active member in a local gay group... John F. was 25, an accomplished artist/carpenter... (OH when he died, originally from upstate NY) It was suspected that John loved Sean and had been rejected by him... - An American Grade 9 boy commits suicide at school. Only two individuals knew he was gay and they did not reveal the boy's secret: Dead Gay Kids Don't Talk, but.... Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study (Full Text). - AMA Hopes to Reduce Suicide Among Gay Youth (2001). - Miguel's Story (2000, Must Scroll): "I met Miguel when he was seventeen years old and shortly after his third suicide attempt. His story is all too familiar amongst gay and lesbian youth that find themselves in a world of exclusion, heartless ridicule and vicious abuse..." - Victimization for sexual orientation increases suicidal behavior in college students (2007, PDF).
Rev. Peter Lau (Sacramento): "And simply because he discovered that he was a homosexual person, he committed suicide. I believe he's an Asian. Knowing that, coming from an Asian background, I understand the kind of pressure that this kind of -- I would say, something unbelievable, unbelievable that something like this can happen to him and he just cannot accept that. And then I believe later I read similar news like that as another young person committed suicide because of that. Then I began to say to God that there must be another way to deal with this. We cannot just let people commit suicide because they discover that they are homosexual people." - Some of the people FUAH has supported and worked with: a mother whose lesbian daughter committed suicide.
Suicide of a Washington bisexual youth,
May, 1995. - Gay suicide after becoming part of a gay
community (1995). - At the age of 17, Tom Beddingfield
attempted suicide soon after his boyfriend had committed
suicide (1998). - Young, gay and scared to death at school
(CNN, 1999). - 2007
National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT
Students Harassed. - Gay
teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009). - Homosexual
Teen Suicide (2007). - Searching
for a Way Out: Stopping Gay Teen Suicide (1995).
Out in Middle School (2009): A middle-school
counselor in Maine summed up the view of many educators I spoke
to when she conceded that her school was “totally unprepared”
for openly gay students. “We always knew middle school was a
time when kids struggle with their identity,” she told me, “but
it was easy to let anti-gay language slide because it’s so
imbedded in middle-school culture and because we didn’t have
students who were out to us or their classmates. Now we do, so
we’re playing catch up to try to keep them safe.” ... The
challenging school experience of so many gay and lesbian
students — and the suicides last spring of a sixth grader in
Massachusetts and a fifth grader in Georgia, both of whom were
relentlessly bullied at school for appearing gay — reinforces
the longtime narrative of gay youth in crisis. Studies in the
’80s and ’90s found gay teenagers to be at a significantly
higher risk for depression, substance abuse and suicide than
their heterosexual peers. [Comment: Same for studies from 2000
Release of 2003 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on the Experiences of LGBT Students in America’s Schools: "At the same time, more than 4 out of 5 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students report being verbally, sexually or physically harassed at school because of their sexual orientation. “This year’s findings clearly demonstrate that despite modest measurable gains, violence, bias and harassment of LGBT students continues to be the rule, not the exception, in America’s schools,” said GLSEN Executive Director Kevin Jennings. “This research reveals what must be inherent to so many educators and parents: harassment has a negative impact on LGBT students’ academic performance and college ambitions. To ignore these numbers is an irresponsible message to all students that any promise of equal access to education remains forged and fictitious.”- Grading Our Schools - homophobia (Last Article). (Related Information) - GLSEN's 2005 National School Climate Survey Sheds New Light on Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Students: "75.4% of students heard derogatory remarks such as "faggot" or "dyke" frequently or often at school, and nearly nine out of ten (89.2%) reported hearing "that's so gay" or "you're so gay" - meaning stupid or worthless- frequently or often." - The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief. - 2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed. - From: "Growing Up Gay: Are Schools Doing Enough to Support Gay Students?": "Eight U.S. school districts received the highest grade of "A"... More than twenty of the 42 large U.S. school districts received failing grades." What is an "A"? "Everything is relative," Cimino told the Herald. "If you're going to put it on a normal scale of what we should have, we're a D-. But when we're compared to what's going on in other school districts, we're an A." - 2009 National School Climate Survey. - GLSEN Article on Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Gay Youth Published. - Silence is the Voice of Complicity: Addressing Homophobia in Schools (Abstract). - GLSEN's Anti-Bullying Resources. - GLSEN" Safe Space Kit: What you can do to make your school safe for LGBT youth. - GLSEN" Tools to Develop and Implement a Safe Schools Campaign: Launch and sustain effective campaigns. - GLSEN's Jump-Start Guide for Gay-Straight Alliances: Download guides for students and gay-straight alliances/gsa. - The 2001 National School Climate Survey by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network Summary (PDF Download).
Teen turns to suicide to end nonstop torment
(Robbie Kirkland, 1998). - The Robbie Kirkland Suicide Story. - Robbie
Kirkland "Remember Me!" - Robbie
Kirkland Memorial. - Robbie's
Story: How A Fragile 14-Year-Old Boy Was Crushed In His
Struggle To Accept Being Gay. - A
Mother Speaks Out.
Just the facts: on gay, lesbian, and bisexual students and schools [a place of abuse] made available by GLSTN (1987-1995). - A 16-year-old Miami Gay school dropout: "I would go to gay bars because it was the only place I could find community. I was feeling stupid and with no future. I did a lot of drugs. I tried to commit suicide twice." (1997)
The first openly gay (newly graduated) police officer in Philadelphia - Thomas G. Kalt Jr. - commits suicide (January, 1998) at the age of 26 (1999, Must Scroll). - Death of Philadelphia Policeman Spurs Coverage of the Blue Closet (1999).- Philadelphia: First Gay Cop Recruit is Suicide (1999).
From the Past: Sandy Tipper, the author of Exodus: Coming out as a faith journey, reports on his two suicide attempts: religious beliefs are implicated. - The well known gay author and activist, Larry Kramer, attempted suicide in 1953 when he was at Yale University. - The founder of the Metropolitan Community Church, Troy Perry, attempted suicide after being deserted by his lover. (Alternate Link, Related Information: 1, 2, 3) - Brian McNaught, the godfather of gay sensitivity training, attempted suicide: "For over thirty years, McNaught has drawn on personal experiences — including a failed suicide attempt, coming out to his parents and co-workers, and being fired for being gay — in order to help audiences understand what it's like to grow up gay." (2007, 2010 Update). - Suicide Attempters & Completers were not uncommon for GB male students at Harvard University. Examples given. - American born film director reports having been thrown out of house at age 18, working as a prostitute throughout the U.S., "and ended up in a psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt N/A." - George Whitmore: Whitmore wrote of his own three attempts at suicide, the first when he was only seventeen. In one attempt, he overdosed on drugs prescribed to "calm" him. Suicide was something, he says, that he applied himself to "with dedication... Like so many others. I was doing everything I could not to come to terms with an identity. I'd been carefully taught to abhor." Drugs, suicide attempts, and risky sex (N/A).
Utah: - "I am glad to hear that Earl Cherry and Jeana Berube will be making a video to help prevent youth suicides in Utah." - (Salt Lake Tribune, June 7, 1998) - "But unlike KUED's local program on the problem a while back, this video will hopefully address the suicide risk for gay and bisexual youth - the highest for all risk groups." - Jacob Orosco commits suicide. - Matis wrote in his suicide note, which was read at the memorial, that he first realized he was gay at age 7 (2001). - "I could be your son": Letter by gay youth in Salt Lake Tribune - reporting more than 4 suicide attempts (1996). - Despite small introads of tolerance, harassment of young gays and lesbians continues in public high schools (1997). - Advocates see rise in gay suicide (2010): As the number of suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations continues to increase across the nation, concern among the Utah LGBT community has begun to push the issue into the spotlight.
USA Mormon Church / University History - An ongoing problem. From the 1997 lecture, "Private Pain, Public Purges: A History of Homosexuality at Brigham Young University," delivered by Connell O'Donovan in 1997 at the University of California, Santa Cruz. "In this 1975 article, McQueen reported that five Gay men he had known at BYU had gotten caught in the Purge of '75, were coerced into therapy, expelled from BYU, outed by church officials, and then excommunicated. Rather than face the bigotry of family, friends, church, and state, each one committed suicide. Another man who was caught in that purge remembers that a BYU professor shot and killed himself that year after being entrapped at a local off campus restroom. Local police and other agencies as well got involved in the purge as it spilled over into 1976. Another male student, after being arrested at a highway reststop (known affectionately as the Blow-n-Go), took a bottle of aspirin to kill himself. He was taken to Utah Valley Hospital where the medical personnel there recognized the suicide attempt and contacted BYU Security immediately. BYU Security, who had a file on him because of his arrest at the rest stop, then outed the man to his bishop and wife. - Legacies, a documentary by Sean Weakland (1997): "We had several people who committed suicide during the therapy. We had three different people who hung themselves in the Harris Fine Arts Center on BYU campus. In Mormon theology, you will be eternally punished for committing suicide. If you die as a homosexual, you will be punished all the worse."
Gay Mormon hoped suicide would help change church (February, 2000): "In the note Matis urges his parents to use his death to teach other church members and church leaders 'the true nature of homosexuality.' ...'I implore the students at BYU to re-assess their homophobic feelings. Seek to understand first before you make comments. We have the same needs as you. We desire to love and be loved. We desire to live our lives with happiness. We are not a threat to you or your families. We are your sons, daughters, brothers, sisters, neighbors, co-workers and friends, and most importantly, we are all children of God,' he wrote in the letter to the Daily Universe." - Affirmation - Virtual Memorial for Gay Mormon Suicides. - Queer Mormons - Between a Rock and a Hard Place (2007). - Todd Ransom: Mormon family breaks silence about gay man’s suicide (2010).
Aaron's Story (Alternate
Link): "Back at Church, the word got out that I was homosexual.
I was not longer allowed to be around children, prepare
sacraments, or pray though I had done nothing wrong. People
became scared of me, and longtime friends refused to associate
any longer. The psychiatrist at this point told me to try
electroshock therapy. He said in severe cases it was the only
way. I refused. The Church excommunicated me at this point. Even
though they knew I had done nothing sexual, they put me on trial
and questioned me. I was shocked—they probed me with sexual
questions of things I had never heard of. I was kicked out
forever with a letter and warning that said I was outside the
Church's reach. Because I once held the priesthood, I now was a
candidate for Outer Darkness. I then came out, 7 years ago. I am
so glad I have. My life is so much better than ever before. I no
longer struggle with my sexuality because I know who I am.
Sadly, a friend who was in the same exgay program committed
suicide after 2 years of electroshock. He had burns on his arms
where they would shock him for showing sexual response to
pictures. They even had him get married and have children to
prove his straightness. Instead, he was visiting parks and
alleys for sex. He injected himself with drugs and left behind
two beautiful young daughters. I could have been him."
Outside the Lines: A Story of Personal Discovery and
Self-Acceptance (2004, Alternate
Link): "John's suicide brought clarity to my life and
convinced me that it was time to stop waffling. How many more
Johns were out there? How many Janes? I knew there were others
in the world just like me who struggled to fit in but did not
know how to. They needed to know that they were not the only
ones. I had an ethical responsibility to come out and to live my
life openly. If John had known there were others like him,
perhaps he would have opted to talk instead of taking his life.
It was too late for John but I could do something for others,
starting with myself. I was afraid, but my fear was irrelevant.
I had to move forward, come out of the closet, and make a
difference in the world."
A Three-Part Examination of GLB Suicide
Problems by Outlines Magazine (1997): Suicide A Community Epidemic, A Community
Solution. Part One: Death and dropout of gay and
lesbian teens blights America's school system. - High School Confidential. Part Two:
Suicide and Depression Among High School Age Gay and Lesbian
Youth. - Part Three: The Grown Ups.
In the case of Jamie Nabozny, now 21, the epithets began in 7th grade and escalated into a daily routine of homophobic abuse that led him to attempt suicide twice and to drop out of high school in his junior year. (Gay Student Wins Sexual Harassment Case With NASP Support.) - Nabozny v. Podlesny - U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit (1996): "Toward the end of the school year, the harassment against Nabozny intensified to the point that a district attorney purportedly advised Nabozny to take time off from school. Nabozny took one and a half weeks off from school. When he returned, the harassment resumed, driving Nabozny to attempt suicide. After a stint in a hospital, Nabozny finished his eighth grade year in a Catholic school..." - Who's at Risk? Gay and Lesbian Youth. - Gay and lesbian youth at risk (1997).
Within the Baha'i faith in the United States: - A group of homosexually oriented members present some recommendations to the group: "Our devotions on Sunday morning included the naming of the many people we once knew who had passed on due to suicide or complications from AIDS..."
The American Midwest (1998): A live-in observer the the GLB youth situation reports on an "at least bisexual" male youth who committed suicide after being placed in jail. Another youth "asphyxiated himself with a car in the garage" after it was believed that he had become "comfortable with his sexuality," which included having visited a local gay group.
Texas: Gay Youth at Risk: "At five years old, I knew I
was sexually attracted to men. I internalized all of the
negative images surrounding homosexuality; at 18, I attempted
suicide in my parent's home. Right after that I left. I still
carry the wound; no one should have to believe like I did that
they are the only one in the world." - Texas
Suicide-Prevention Panel Makes Recommendations N/A:
"The commission urged... special programs to reach out to groups
often overlooked in suicide prevention programs, including the
elderly, ethnic minorities, youths, gays, lesbians and the
homeless." A suicide Prevention Tookit (PDF
Download): "Within the larger community many populations
exist that may be at special risk for suicide, such as women in
certain age groups, men, the elderly, people from different
ethnic groups, gay/bisexual/lesbian/transgendered people, and
youth." - Gay
Houston Teenager Driven to Suicide By Bullies
Stories - McAllen, Texas (2003): "In May of 2002, a
letter arrived at the ACLU from McAllen, Texas, a small town
near the Mexican border. Crystal Mendoza and Orlando Campa, two
high school students, needed help. Students in their school had
been harassed for years, and school leaders did nothing to stop
it. Then that spring a gay student committed suicide because he
couldn't take it anymore. For the first time ever, classmates at
the school got together to talk about the harassment and other
LGBT concerns..." - Point
Foundation grants scholarships to 30 lgbt students (2006):
Jacob Weldon: Jacob grew up in Port Neches, TX, a the
conservative Bible Belt town in the heart of southeast Texas.
After coming out, Jacob experienced a world of backlash from
family and friends that led him down a self-destructive road,
concluding with a suicide attempt. Finding strength in his
Christian faith, Jacob found the strength to accept himself.
Jacob will attend Columbia University to pursue an
individualized program in Human Rights Advocacy and Law.
Risks for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender teens
(Youth Risk Behavior Survey): LGBQ teenagers are at
significantly greater risk for suicide attempts than
heterosexual teens. In Boulder County, 44% of LGBQ youth said
they’d attempted suicide, compared to 13.5% of heterosexual
youth. - Suicide-prevention
effort focuses on gays. - Suicides
of bullied gay kids in other states jolt Colorado educators to
action (2010). - Suicides
and school safety for LGBT youth (2010). -
Colorado Anti-Violence Program Newsletter: Working to
eliminate violence within and against the lesbian, gay,
bisexual, transgender and queer communities of Colorado.
Suicide inColorado: Progress Achieved & Goals for the
Future (2009): There are some Colorado data
available regarding sexual-minority youth. In a 2003 youth risk
behavioral survey conducted among high school students in the
Boulder Valley and St. Vrain Valley school districts, 44% of
sexual-minority respondents reported having attempted suicide,
compared to 13.5% of their heterosexual counterparts. More
recently, an analysis of data on adolescents served by the Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Community of Colorado’s
Rainbow Alley program found that suicide risk factors included
hopelessness, victimizationby bullies, methamphetamine use and
New York: Much of my church work was near
New York City, and on Times Square I found my first friendships
with a variety of gay males - all of whom are gone now due to
suicide, hate crimes and AIDS. (From: Celebrating Howard's Lifetime of Ministry; My
Life Began with Stonewall and PLGC N/A (Alternate Link) by the Rev. Howard Warren
(1999). Must scroll to locate reference). - In the Closet or Out on the Edge: Teens at
Greater Suicide Risk (1999): "James, a bisexual teen, says
he’s tried to kill himself twice. Every day at school, he is
taunted with "fag," "gay," "queer" and other names too ugly to
mention." - Predicting the Suicide Attempts of Lesbian, Gay, and
Bisexual Youth (2005, PDF
Download). - Tyler
Clementi, Other Gay Suicide Victims Remembered At New York
Vigil (2010): NYU students and local politicians gathered
to send message that bullying can kill. - Mental
Health of New York City Youth (2008): Teens who identify
as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, or who are questioning their
sexual identity have much higher rates of suicidal thoughts and
2005 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual youth, the odds of having attempted suicide were greater for Gay, Bisexual and Unsure male students: 6.2, 12.8, 6.9, respectively, or 9.0 for the combined 3 groups (3.4, with control variables). For Lesbian, Bisexual and Unsure females, the odds were 0.9, 5.3, 2.4, respectively, or 3.7 for the combined 3 groups (2.5, with control variables).
Rhode Island: - Gay R.I. Student In Apparent Suicide (2010). - School Shouldn't Hurt: Lifting the Burden from Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth: A report of the Rhode Island Task Force on Gay, Lesbian,Bisexual and Transgendered Youth (1996).
Pennsylvania: "In a May 31 article distributed by Knight-Ridder, Wilkes-Barre (Penn.) Times Leader staff writer Bob Nocek profiled a self-identified "gay jock teen" in Pennsylvania. The piece begins: "His parents had finally gone to sleep, and now it was time for Greg Congdon to die... For the second time in barely more than a month, Greg Congdon, 17 years old, wanted to end his life... After that attempt, Greg admitted to the emergency room doctor that he was gay, and subsequently told his parents, who were supportive, but things at school were more difficult." (From: 2) Greg Congdon: a Leader for our Times. (Alternate Link) Select: "misc news, 06/22/99: (15K)". Must scroll to locate reference.) - Death without justice: after their teen son committed suicide in a panic, Pennsylvania parents sued the police who'd threatened to out him. The resulting court case is a landmark for gay and lesbian privacy rights (2001, Related).
Illinois - Chicago: Suicide A Community Epidemic, A Community
Solution - Part One: Death and dropout of gay and lesbian
teens blights America's school system . - Letter from Asian American 17-year-old coming
out (1998): "Denying who I am was the worst form of
torture. I thought if I came out I'd lose my parents, friends,
everything. I constantly thought of suicide. Hiding almost
destroyed me." - Stigma
and suicidality: Prevalence and patterns among Latino gay men
in Chicago and San Francisco (2005): The sample consisted
of 200 Latino gay men (n=100 in Chicago, n=100 in San
Francisco), recruited through respondent-driven sampling, who
completed a Computer Assisted Self Interviewing survey (CASI).
Results show a high percentage of both recent suicidal ideation
and lifetime suicide attempts. One out of three men reported at
least one previous lifetime suicide attempt...
Stands Up Against Anti-Gay Bullying & LGBT Suicide
(2010): The Trevor Project, which runs the nation's only 24-hour
suicide and crisis prevention helpline for LGBTQ youth
(1-866-4-U-TREVOR or 1-866-488-7386), has been reaching
out to the Chicago community to help in its mission. They are
doing this by establishing the Chicago Ambassadors of The Trevor
Project, ... volunteer organization that seeks to aid in crisis
and suicide prevention among LGBTQ youth by establishing a
vibrant presence in the Chicago Area, leveraging the community's
unique history of diversity and legislative development
concerning civil rights and education. I am honored to be part
of the group helping to organize the Chicago Ambassadors. The
group is hosting its first official Chicago event next week... Chicagoans
respond to gay teen suicide issue with videos (2010):
Lakeview GLBT Community Center hosts recording session as part
of "It Gets Better Project."
Ohio: "For defying gender norms so
blatantly she paid the price at school. Classmates taunted and
ridiculed her. The problems grew worse when she entered 8th
grade. Life became miserable for her. 'It wasn't just guys, it
was girls too that were harassing her,' said her mother. Nicole
kept her problems to herself. Even school officials were unaware
of the severity of the situation. On 13 Oct 98 Nicole could take
it no longer. She killed herself using her father's .22 rifle.
(From: Gender-Questioning Teen Suicide in Cleveland.
Link) Select: "gender questioning teen suicide, 03/28/99")
- A Commission on Youth and Suicide? Will GLB
issues be included? (1998)"According to an article
in the Akron Beacon Journal (February 15, 1998), Ford said that
the inclusion of gay and lesbian youth is in response to the
ABJ's recent Suffering in Silence series about glbt youth in the
Akron-Canton area, many of whom tried to commit suicide. To
date, the bill has bipartisan support with approximately 25
co-sponsors." - The Robbie Kirkland Pages - Ohio
Paper Tells Tragic Story of Gay Teen Suicide (1998, Must
Scroll). - A [gender nonconformable] teen-age girl's
battle for acceptance ends in suicide,
Deaths of 4 bullied teenagers at Ohio school produce lawsuits, soul-searching (2010): Eric Mohat was flamboyant and loud and preferred to wear pink most of the time. When he didn’t get the lead soprano part in the choir his freshman year, he was indignant, his mother says... Mohat’s family and friends say he wasn’t gay, but people thought he was... Bullies once knocked a pile of books out of his hands on the stairs, saying, “‘Pick up your books, faggot,’” says Dan Hughes, a friend of Eric’s. Kids would flick him in the head or call him names, says 20-year-old Drew Juratovac, a former student. One time, a boy called Mohat a “homo,” and Juratovac told him to leave Mohat alone... Eric Mohat shot himself on March 29, 2007, two weeks before a choir trip to Hawaii.His parents asked the coroner to call it “bullicide.” --- “Meredith ended up coming out that she was a lesbian,” he says. “I think much of that sparked a lot of the bullying from a lot of the other girls in school, ‘cause she didn’t fit in.” Her best friend, Kevin Simon, doesn’t believe that bullying played a role in Rezak’s death. She had serious issues at home that were unrelated to school, he says.
Oklahoma: - Another
Tragic LGBT-Bullying Related Suicide: Zach Harrington, 19, of
Norman (2010): There has been another tragic suicide of a
teenager, who was bullied for being gay. Zach Harrington
killed himself a week after witnessing a "toxic" city council
meeting in Norman, Oklahoma, where "concerned citizens" gathered
en masse to hurl their hatred and homophobia, decrying LGBT
persons as deviant, sinful, damned, etc. etc. etc.
Indiana: - Indiana
teen’s suicide thought to be result of anti-gay bullying
(2010): “Some people at school called him names,” Hughes said,
saying most of those names questioned Lucas’ sexual orientation,
and that Lucas, for the most part, did little to defend himself.
suspended for running pro-gay editorial in school paper
Education Environment for Gays and Lesbians: A Plan to
Implement GLBT Youth Education in Schools (2008,
Melanie Pasillas, Honors Thesis, Ball State University, Muncie,
Indiana): The purpose ofthis thesis project is to develop an
implementation plan in order to complete the final steps in the
process ofcreating the new program SEEGL, an educational program
aimed at combating GLBT youth suicide. The program
implementation framework, described in Netting, Kettner, and
McMurty's (2008) textbook Social Work Macro Practice, will be
applied. Before the discussion ofthe implementation plan, the
problem ofGLBT suicide will be identified, the need for the
program will be assessed, and the details ofthe program will be
Wisconsin: - Film
showing students effects of bullying gay peers follows student
who had tried suicide (2010): Jamie Nabozny's teenage
years were hell: He was called nasty names, was beaten so badly
he wound up in the hospital, ran away from home and even tried
to kill himself. All because he was gay. When officials at his
Ashland, Wis., middle school and high school refused to do
anything about the bullying, Nabozny sued the school district —
and won. His case is the subject of a new film from the
Montgomery, Ala.-based Southern Poverty Law Center and will be
viewed by school children across the country. - Gay
Wis. teen victim of suicide (2010): Cody J. Barker,
17, of Shiocton, Wis., took his life on Sept. 13... Maria
Peeples, Barker’s peer mentor through GSA for Safe Schools, said
he was a passionate activist for all students, especially those,
“targeted or ostracized for their sexual orientation or their
gender identity and expression. … He really cared about making
schools a safe place for students. That wasn’t always his own
experience with school.”
teen book burns at the stake: A Christian group
hopes to set fire to library copies of Francesca Lia Block's
novel about a gay boy coming of age (2009): Francesca Lia
Block, an award-winning author of young-adult books (the
"Weetzie Bat" series among them), has known for a while now that
one of her novels, "Baby Be-Bop" is at the center of a
controversy in West Bend, Wis. A few days ago, she found out
that it might be burned at the stake. "Baby Be-Bop" is on a list
of titles that a local group calling itself the West Bend
Citizens for Safe Libraries objects to seeing in the public
Professor in Trouble for Sending Anti-Gay E-Mail to Student
Teacher’s Anti-Homophobia Class Horrifies Christian Right
colleges join push to end bullying of gay students
(2010): Dozens of students and staff at the University of
Wisconsin-Whitewater held a rally Friday after an assault on
campus in which a student wearing a shirt with the slogan
"Legalize Gay" was punched in the face. Students at Carthage
College held a similar vigil last week, invoking the name of an
Appleton gay teen who committed suicide last month after he
experienced harassment at school. - Parade
Commodore to 14-year-old Girl: “Go To A Country Where They
Hang People Like You” (2010).
2007 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Word Download N/A): Sexual minority students were 3.7 times more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past 12 months, compared to heterosexual students. - Risk Behaviors and Factors of Youth Engaging in Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors (PDF Download): One in four same-sex youth (7.5% het-sex youth) had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months. More than one in seven (15%) same-sex had a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months serious enough that it required medical attention, compared to 2.5% of het-sex youth, a six-fold difference...
Benditt L, Engel E, Gavin M, Stransky E (2009). Addressing Health Disparities Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Adults in Wisconsin. Workshop in Public Affairs. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, HIV/AIDS Program, Division of Public Health. Reports suicidality results (controlling for many variables) for GLB students compared to heterosexual students in the Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The odds for GLB high school students having attempted suicide in the past year were 3.9-times greater than for heterosexual students. PDF Download.
California: "Spahr had hoped that Robin
Reed, a sophomore at Petaluma High School, would be the last gay
teen suicide in town. He believes, however, that two other gay
teens have since killed themselves." (From: Teen's fate ignited activist (1999,
Must Scroll). - Honoring Robin Reed, a 15-Year Old Suicide
(2002). - Gay Teens in School Focus of Weekly
Newsmagazine Segment (1998). Slurs like "faggot," "dyke"
or "That's so gay," are sometimes not readily addressed or put a
halt to, said Highlands Elementary teacher Eric Heins.
"Sometimes I've heard students say that teachers just seem to
ignore them (slurs) or pretend not to hear." Lauren, a San
Leandro High School dropout... has also contemplated, and
attempted, suicide. - Bay Area gay man's suicide may be basis of TV
movie (1998). - Décès mystérieux de deux lesbiennes en
Californie. - Family
Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White
and Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults
(2009). - Mourning at
Howard (2010): Former [lesbian] student commits suicide,
seemingly related to sexuality, though father says she was not
Teen Line Reaches
Out To LGBT Youth (PDF):
children are inheriting a society more multicultural and
multiracial than ever before witnessed in modern history.
With these gifts of diversity, there sometimes comes ugly
intolerance of differences. Gay and lesbian youth are
often at higher risk for emotional problems, abuse, and neglect
– not because of their sexual orientation but because of such
intolerance, ignorance, and some people’s inability to accept
individual differences. LGBTQ youth face great difficulties
growing up in a society where homophobia and heterosexism run
rampant. Many may feel isolated at home and within their
communities." - Another dead
gay designer (2004). - Seth
Walsh, California Teen Who Endured Gay Taunts, Commits Suicide
(2010). - Prop.
8 Can Cause Gay Suicide, Columbia Prof Testifies (2010). -
church in California faces new criticism on gay stance after
suicide of Marie Osmond's son (2010).
Gay Anti-Discrimination Laws Are Needed in Louisiana:
"Sen. Lynn Dean, R-Braithwaite, had told a Senate committee of
personal knowledge of a number of gays who committed suicide."
Massachusetts: From The Unofficial Site of the... Massachusetts
Governor's Commission on Gay & Lesbian Youth -
Availability of all related Reports/Documents, many with
suicidality information. - Massachusetts Governor's Commission on Gay
& Lesbian Youth: Publications
& Reports of the Commission. - The "suicide" section
in Prevention of Health Problems Among Gay &
Lesbian Youth: Making Health & Human Services Accessible
and Effective for Gay & Lesbian Youth (August, 1994).
- Countering the Backlash Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and
Transgender Students, Families, and Staff in Minnesota Schools:
A Primer on the Minnesota Family Institute’s Anti-LGBT Agenda
for Public EducationPlus: Steps Toward Stopping the Backlash
Download). - Study
Says Perils of Adolescence Greater for Gay Teens (1998). -
Study Shows High Suicide Rate for Gay Students (2001). - The
Friends of GLBT Youth (2007): Youth in schools with a
Gay-Straight Alliance have decreased victimization at school and
fewer suicide attempts. These are allvictories that should make
anyone in Massachusetts proud.
"% Attempted Suicide in The Past Year" Results, Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: % GLB vs. % Others, 2005 (24.8% vs. 5.7%, 4.4-times greater), 2007 (29.1% vs. 6.4%, 4.5-times greater), 2009 (24.7% vs. 5.6%, 4.4-times greater). - Another 11-Year-Old Commits Suicide: Anti-Gay Taunts Cited (2009). - Transgender Identified In Mass: About A Third Thought About Suicide In Past 12 Months (2009): [The study] found that about 31 percent of transgender respondents said they have considered attempting suicide in the past year, compared to just 2 percent for heterosexual residents, 4 percent for gay and lesbian residents and 7 percent for bisexual residents.
Suicide Prevention in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Communities (2010). - State House Vigil Remembers LGBT Suicide Victims (2010). - In Response to the LGBT Youth Suicide Crisis… (2010). - Where’s the gay anti-bullying reform in our schools? (2010)
Minnesota: - Gay youth at higher risk of suicide
(1997). - Study Confirms High Suicide Risk in Gay Youth
(1998). - Youth
at risk - statistics of suicide risks among gay teenagers
(1997). - The relationship between suicide risk and sexual
orientation: results of a population-based study (1998, Full
Text). - Minnesota's
GLBT Students. - Suicidality
among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Protective
student suicides underscore problem of LGBT bullying
(2010): As one Minnesota school district continues to mourn the
suicides of three LGBT students within the last year, another
gay teenager some 600 miles away killed himself. Billy Lucas,
15, took his own life inside his family’s barn in Greenburg,
Ind., on Sept. 9. His and the other suicides point not only to
bullying as a lingering issue facing many LGBT youth, but also
to a culture that continues to condone anti-gay harassment and
discrimination in schools across the country... The controversy surrounding
the recent suicides in Minnesota and Indiana coincide with the
release of GLSEN’s biennial National
School Climate Survey, which paints a sobering picture of
LGBT students’ safety nationwide. The survey of more than 7,000
students reported nearly nine out of 10 respondents experienced
some form of harassment. Specifically, 61 percent of students
felt unsafe at school due to their sexual orientation-nearly 40
percent of respondents felt the same way due to their gender
expression. More than 84 percent of students were verbally
harassed andnearly 19 percent of respondents reported being
physically assaulted because of their sexual orientation.
surge: Schools confront anti-gay bullying (2010):
The district - Minnesota's largest - serves nearly 40,000
students in 13 towns. The school board adopted the neutrality
policy in 2009 as a balancing act, trying not to offend either
liberal or conservative families. Rebecca Dearing, 17, a junior
who belongs to the gay-straight alliance at the district's
Champlin Park High School, said the neutrality policy caused
teachers to shy away from halting anti-gay harassment -
sometimes leaving her gay friends feeling vulnerable to the
point where they don't come to school.
Another Gay Teen Lost to Bullying Suicide - in Minnesota
(2010). - Three
LGBT students in one district attempt suicide (2010). - Mother
of suicide victim speaks out on bullying at Anoka-Hennepin
(2010). - String
of Teen Suicides Linked to Gay Bullying at Minnesota School
(2010). - Recent
teen suicides make strong case for Minnesota Safe Schools Bill
(2010). - Anti-bullying
bill to be filed in special session (2010).
Nebraska: - Stopping Gay Suicide Hurts Traditional Values (2006): Bear in mind that gay teenagers have an enormously high rate of attempting and committing suicide, many times higher than the rest of the teenage population, for obvious reasons. Preventing this from happening, helping those kids handle their difficulties in a healthy way, is clearly a good thing to any sane human being. But according to these bigots, helping gay teenagers avoid suicide "undermines traditional values." Only if those values are vile and barbaric, of course.- Gay Teen Suicide is Not the Enemy (2006).
Washington: - Safe Schools Coalition of Washington: Suicide. - A summary of Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Results relating to GLB adolescent suicide problems (available
as PDF Download): Seattle, Massachusetts, Vermont,
Minnesota. - Gabi
Clayton's Resources - GLBT Suicide.
of College Students Up Suicide Risk (2007): New
research indicates that being victimized because of sexual
orientation is a chief risk factor for suicidal behavior among
gay, lesbian and bisexual college students... “A lot of people
stop thinking about sexual orientation related victimization and
suicide as a problem beyond the K-12 school years,” she said.
“But suicide doesn’t stop after high school. I thought I
wouldn’t find very much victimization in Seattle, and I
certainly wasn’t expecting these kinds of numbers.” The study
was provoked by a question from a 15-year-old gay male while
Murphy was working on an internship as a school psychologist at
a high school. The youth, who was suicidal and using drugs,
asked her, “Does it get better in college”” She didn’t know.
Oregon: - Suicide
Awareness Week, My Struggle, My Story (2009). I struggled
with this identity for a number of years and shortly after
coming out turned to self-harm to deal with the rough emotions
that I was going through. I have never really spoken openly
about my experimentation with self harm and have a difficult
time reflecting on these experiences because of the stigma that
is placed on youth who think about or attempt suicide. During
high school my Mom tried varies means to “turn” me straight.
After each of these episodes (once even consisted of an
exorcism) I would hide in my room or run to the field behind our
house and cut my thighs or wrists. I would use the pain to help
deal with the ostracism that I was facing within my own family.
Eventually I tried suicide by swallowing pills with my best
friend (we had made a pact to commit suicide together) and only
survived because I didn’t understand the strengths of medicines
and thought twenty pills would be enough for both of us. Luckily
I found the Trevor Project before ever wanting to commit suicide
again. Their volunteers gave me the help I needed at a time that
I needed it the most. I found local resources and now am a
volunteer for The Trevor Projects Youth Advisory
Washington, DC: - Gay
students more likely to consider suicide: study. Survey
shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008).
"30.6 percent of gay teens considered suicide in the previous
year, 28.9 percent made a plan to commit suicide and 32.6
percent attempted suicide. That compares to 13.8 percent, 12.1
percent and 8.6 percent respectively in those same categories
for their straight counterparts. DC 2007 High School YRBS:
Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF
Download N/A). - Gay
man’s death ruled suicide (2010): The D.C. Medical
Examiner’s office disclosed Monday that Mark Gower, the
26-year-old gay man found dead in his apartment in the city’s
Mount Pleasant neighborhood last month, took his own life...
Gower, a native of Oregon, worked as an employee of the Sephora
cosmetics store in Reston, Va. and was a part-time dancer at
Secrets, a D.C. gay nightclub.
Virginia / West Virginia: - Out Of The Closet And Out Of The Family:
- At the hospital a doctor observes the
following after a closeted lesbian youth had attempted
suicide: "He looked at his parents with hatred in his eyes 'my
sister who I love could have died today. You sound as If you
would rather her be dead than gay.'" The doctor then told his
"significant other" about the event who, in turn, recalled his
own problems as a youth: "Before long I was at the top of a
huge hill, and instantly I knew that I no longer wanted to
live. I pressed the gas as hard as I could. I saw where there
was a sloping hill on the side of the road and steered the car
off the road. When I saw a large tree in the cars pathway I
closed my eyes and felt at peace for the first time in years."
of two young girls highlights the hurdles faced by gay youth.
with Openly Gay Candidate for West Virginia Senate, Scott
Regan- Funds Needed Now (2010): West Virginia is a
breeding ground for gay hate, pursued with a vigor that is
reminiscent of a corporate mission statement; it is taught via
religious ideology with crime perpetuated as a result.
Virginia Governor Quietly Removes Gays From
Anti-Discrimination Policy (2010). - WVU
promotes fairness as host and co-sponsor of statewide
conference, film screenings (2010): The recent suicide
of a gay college student in New Jersey following his public
humiliation reinforces the immediate need to examine our
common sense of justice, decency and fairness, said Jennifer
McIntosh, executive officer for the President’s Office for
Social Justice at West Virginia University... Fairness West
Virginia, an advocacy organization that works for the fair
treatment and civil rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender West Virginians, is organizing and sponsoring the
conference. This will be the organization’s first statewide
leadership conference. - GLSEN
- gay activist group - targets 60 Virginia middle schools
(2010): Should we allow gay advocacy groups to access our
children through public schools to persuade them to make a
choice concerning their sexuality during the teen years? I say
no. But don't just take it from a mom like me. Read what the
foremost lesbian thinker of our time - Camille Paglia - has
Suicide Prevention (From Atlanta's YouthPride.org):
For many years, we have known that young people, particularly
GLBTQ youth, are at an increased risk of committing suicide... A
Gay Teen Suicide Note (Must Scroll). Introduction to
Suicide Note: "The following suicide note was written by Steven,
a gay 16-year-old high school student. After he wrote this note
he attempted suicide by taking an overdose of medication. He
survived. He was hospitalized, treated, and not long after his
suicide attempt, moved with his family to another state. Steven
was suffering from severe depression when he wrote this note.
Anyone who was mistreated, bullied, threatened, and emotionally
tortured like Steven could very easily become severely depressed
- and suicidal. The note has been left intact, complete with
misspellings, grammatical errors, and profanity, except for
inserting "[name removed]" in the place of some names. Steven's
suicide note is extremely disquieting to read. And it is one
more reminder of the outrageous bullying LGBTQ youth endure."
Church Summit Takes Stand Against Anti-Gay Discrimination:
"Another example of changing attitudes and principled stands
among the participating clergy was Rev. Ken Samuel, pastor at
the Victory for the World church in Stone Mountain, Georgia.
Samuel also used to condemn homosexuality from the pulpit, but
he says that he changed his views as he recalled a childhood
friend who committed suicide because he felt ostracized by his
church for his homosexuality. When Samuel began to preach
against anti-gay discrimination, he lost about half of the 5,000
members of his mega-church, but he stood his ground."
North Carolina: Bad
Days For Gay Teenagers: "Someone I know committed
suicide this past Father's Day. His dad had kicked him out of
the house because he was gay. He was just a kid, a teenage boy,
on the way to becoming a young man. He liked horror and action
movies. He moved around and lived with friends. He worked
various low-income jobs to get by. On Father's Day, he decided
there was no place for him in this world, so he killed himself."
Language and Verbal Harassment in North Carolina High Schools
South Carolina: Principal Censors Pro-Gay School Paper (2008).
Michigan: Pastor Youngchild (MCC Church, Battle Creek, Michigan)
reports on his experiences with being contacted by GLB youth in
a letter ot the Battle Creek Inquirer
(Aug. 22, 1999): "...within the first 6 months alone of SOCMCC's
existence, 5 different teenagers put out the effort, borne of
desperation, to contact me and discuss their feelings... their
experiences of discovering their gay or lesbian or bisexual
orientation... and most pointedly their experiences of hatred
and even violence being directed at and against them in our
Battle Creek Public School system, not only by a number of
students but even by some teachers, simply for being
"queer." Five kids in our first 6 months, after 15 years
of silence in my previous ministry, because we appeared safe
enough to them to seek out. Three of those teens had
attempted suicide. One of them had tried three times.
gave me a gay son . . . and I did not always think it a
blessing (2004): So on this Saturday morning Mark
realized nothing really mattered anymore. It could only get
worse. And while it frightened him -- having considered it for
quite a long time -- he also knew how he could fix it. The only
way to confront this demon was to end it all. Nobody would
understand it anyway. He didn't understand it. But he knew he
was gay, and he knew being gay was an abomination. So he would
put an end to his agony. Suicide, he had decided, would be less
painful to his family than revealing to them who he really
was... Mark defied all the popular stereotypes I believed about
what being gay means. I was sure I could recognize a gay person
a mile off. But my son was just too masculine. He never
displayed the effeminate traits that I was certain a homosexual
male would exhibit... Nothing during Mark's childhood indicated
any sign of homosexuality. There was none of the verbal violence
many young gay people endure from earliest childhood; no
derisive jeering, no "faggot" or "queer" talk. He was seemingly
happy, well-adjusted and "straight."... Not only was I unaware,
but my pontificating moral certitude had actually been adding to
his anguish. Iwas unwittingly encouraging my son toward suicide.
Florida: - School
Can't Tolerate Gay Tolerance Club (2007).
isolation, rejection lead many gay youths to attempt suicide
(2009): Switchboard of Miami, Miami-Dade's crisis center,
launched a gay suicide hotline in 2005. It became the Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Suicide Hotline in 2006.
Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008, Switchboard took about
400 calls from people identifying themselves as gay, including
56 that counselors declared ''crisis calls,'' or people at
immediate risk. It's not just young gay people contemplating
suicide, said Ed Straub Jr., a Switchboard board member who
founded the hotline. ''In the first year of our program, . . .
52 percent of the people calling the Switchboard were between
the ages 35 and 59,'' he said. Both gay men and lesbians are at
risk. ''Absolutely,'' Straub said. ``In fact, women are twice as
likely to consider suicide as men, even though the number of
male suicides is higher.'' The gay hotline has a $30,000 annual
budget, with funding from groups including Dade Community
Foundation and private donors. ''We try to spend half or a third
of that in advertising,'' Straub said. ``We advertise mostly in
the local gay press. That increases the call volume back to
Switchboard.'' Straub became involved with suicide
prevention after three friends killed themselves in 2004.
``I'm like a lightning rod. People come to me. I come to the
bars. We talk at cocktail parties. On Lincoln Road. People want
to open up about it. It's amazing how many people are touched by
suicide.'' Straub said he has observed three factors that often
contribute to gay suicide attempts: • Financial and
health-related issues. • Drug and alcohol use. • Loneliness or
feeling unable to achieve life goals.
Alaska: Alaska Suicide Follow-back Study
Final Report: Study period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2006
- 426 suicides (PDF
Download): "4% were involved in a homosexual
relationship." Note: Most homosexual people may not be in
Guam: Pinhey TK, Millman SR (2004). Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7): 1204-1206. (Abstract) Full Text: PDF Download. The Odds for GB Males Attempting Suicide in the Past year is About Five Times Greater than Odds For Other Males. Estimated by Web Page Author: Risk Ratio = 3.2 - 43.5% of GB males attempted suicide, versus 13.5% for other males. For all Males: 14.5%. 3.5% of 674 males studied = GB Males. A profile of Suicide on Guam (2009): GLB youth mentioned.
Hawaii: - Island Voices: Gay Youth Still at Risk -
by Kauanoe Bombard (1998).
Reaching Out: A Report on Lesbian, Gay, and
Bisexual Issues in Canada. Prepared for the United Church of
Canada, EGALE. "As a society, we have been slowly
killing these children over a period of years. With their
suicides, they are simply finishing the job we started." - In Canada, a bright and diligent 14-year-old
student leapt to his death from a bridge (2002). He left a
seven-page suicide note saying he was killing himself because
his classmates tormented him by calling him "gay" or "faggot". - Gay
teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009).
Egale Canada. (2009). Youth speak up about homophobia and transphobia. PDF Download. Summary: A recent national survey on homophobia in Canadian schools conducted by Egale Canada (2009) found that schools can be a hostile environment for sexual minority youth. The survey involved almost 1700 students from across Canada. Among the findings: • Almost three quarters (73%) of LGBTQ students felt unsafe in at least one place at school (i.e., change rooms, washrooms, hallways). • Over a quarter (28.5%) of LGBTQ students said that they had skipped school because they felt unsafe compared to 8.4% of non-LGBTQ students. • Over three quarters (76.7%) of students heard homophobic expressions like “that’s so gay” every day at school. • About half (50.6%) of LGBTQ students agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement “It is hard for me to feel accepted at my school” compared to 19.3% of non-LGBTQ students. • Six out of ten LGBTQ students said that they had been verbally harassed about their sexual orientation. • One in four LGB students reported that they had been physically harassed about their sexual orientation (EgaleCanada, 2009).
Western Canada:- "..the life I lived as a gay man was too disappointing and held too much tragedy. Of my six other friends, two died of AIDS related illnesses, one of suicide, and another attempted suicide." (1989) - Suicide of an Alberta gay teenager (1994). - Canada: Generally homonegative environments (including in schools) are described leading to many problems for GLBT adolescents, including suicidal problems. - Social Determinants of Suicide Attempts in a Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (PDF Download).(Related Published Paper: Correlates of suicide attempts in an open cohort of young men who have sex with men.)
Calgary, Canada (From the files of Pierre Tremblay): Five parents of male adolescents who had committed suicide (within about a one-year period) were part of a group - SPAN - concerned about the youth suicide problem. Two youngest boys (about age 13) had a history of gender nonconformity and related peer problems. One hung himself in jail after having been arrested, and after having become a clone who was not feminine-like; his mother reported that he had been in the "feminine" category since a very young age. A CTV's W-5 program reported that the other suicide victim was deemed "a sissy" by peers and was treated accordingly. A 17-year-old male suicide victim was discovered to be homosexually oriented from a female friend, and he was definitely a Save-The-World kid given the information supplied by his mother. The fourth was Bobby Steele, and Information was not solicited or received on the fifth suicide victim. Near the end of 1996, I learned about the suicide of a male youth soon after he had made contact with a GLB youth group (A related Article, but Bobby's name is not mentioned.). In 1997, I met a 20-year-old gay male who had just come out and was seeking a relationship with someone. He met a gay male, became lovers, and they moved to a location a few hundred miles from Calgary. When he returned, he reported that his boyfriend had attempted to kill him, after he had expressed a desire to end the relationship. He had done this by driving his vehicle into an 80-foot ravine, but both survived. If they had died, however, it may have resulted in the belief that they committed suicide. In August 1998, I learned about a 35-year-old Vancouver gay male (schizophrenic, but did not apparently have suicidal problems) who committed suicide by exiting from a 8th-floor window. A number of factors may have been implicated in this suicide, including the end of a relationship with another gay male (I have known for 12 years) about a month before the suicide, but he was not HIV-positive. I recently learned that he had gone to a hospital about two hours before his death but a lack of space precluded his admission.
From Lloydminster, Alberta, via Edmonton's GLB Times. Ten magazine:
Often enough someone knows about the homosexual orientation of
a suicide victim: "Dear Editor... That first night of my stay in
North Battleford, I was stunned to learn that I was only the
second of six SUICIDE/ATTEMPTS for Lloydminster. It was
disconcerting to find that two were successful, one of them
being a guy I had slept with on a regular basis." Information
supplied about another suicide known to him: "While I recovered,
another young man took his own life just ten days ago. It would
seem that his farewell note said it all too clearly for him
"that there was nothing gay about being GAY!" - Being Gay in Rural Alberta: "I would
still be drinking a lot. I would very much be avoiding (the
issue)," he says, stating in all seriousness that, "Suicide was
Ontario: - Keeping Our Children Safe:
Adolescent Suicide and Sexual Orientation (In: Homosexuality
and the Catholic High School: A compilation of newsletters
with new material, 2001, Aternate
Link): The high rate of suicide among homosexual
adolescents and youth is a phenomenon which has only recently
been studied... Unlike their heterosexual peers, most gay teens
have neither social approval, family support, positive role
models, nor safe social opportunities to assist them in their
maturational struggle... The response awaiting a gay teen in the
schools and community is no better than in the family... The
studies show (9), (10) that the gay teens that have the highest
risk for suicidal actions are those whom because of appearance
or mannerisms are early suspected of being homosexual or who at
an early age reveal their sexual orientation... Still for school
aged children emerging in awareness of their homosexual
orientation, homophobia is the context at home and in school
within which feelings of self worth, morality and affection are
formed. For a gay student homophobia in an educational setting
is proof that school is not a safe place to demonstrate a
positive sense of self and form affectionate relationships, as
do other students. The result is isolation, despair, arrested
emotional growth, loss of faith, and for somesuicide.
British Columbia: - BC Teen Suicide Aftermath: Conflict
Ensues Over Prevention N/A. - B.C. Study
Shows Gay Youth Face High Suicide Risk (June 14, 1999, Alternate
Link). - Study:
Lesbian Teens More Likely To Attempt Suicide (2006, Alternate
Link): (Vancouver, British Columbia) A study of teenagers
in British Columbia schools has found that lesbian teens are far
more likely to attempt suicide than gay teens or heterosexual
teens. The survey was conducted by the McCreary Center Society
an organization that advocates for young people in the province.
The researchers report that 38 per cent of teenage lesbians and
30.4 per cent of bisexual girls said they had attempted suicide
in the previous year, compared to 8.2 per cent of heterosexual
girls. They also found that 8.8 per cent of gay teens, 2.8
per cent of bisexual boys [Correction, 12.8%, See: B.C.
researcher says American group distorting her research on teen
(2006)] and 3.3 per cent of heterosexual boys said they had
attempted suicide. - Focus on the
Family distorts work of University of British Columbia
researcher. - Sexual Orientation, Risk
and Resilience Study (2005, Alternate
Link). - Proposed Framework for GLBT Youth Suicide and
Abuse Prevention (2005, PDF
Columbia's 2008 Adolescent Health Survey (PDF
Download, 6 megs): "86% of students identified as
heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and
less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay
or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” ... Those at
greater risk of having attempted suicide: ... Aboriginal
youth (11% vs. 4% non-Aboriginal), lesbian, gay and
bisexual youth (28% vs. 4% heterosexual: 7-times the risk),
obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a
health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a
disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually
abused (22% vs. 4%). - Students
Plan Cross-Dressing Protest of Homophobic School District
(2010): Students at a school in British Columbia feel that
homophobia from parents and the school district is behind the
decision to cancel or reschedule several events aimed at
promoting tolerance, so they've decided to cross-dress on Friday
Child Death Review
Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking
Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by
suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and
Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between
January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth
died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was
initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open
and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of
the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older
youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth,
and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as
those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased
risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and
youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other
children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation
in the months prior to death.
Maritime Provinces: - High school confidential: Gays and lesbians in Nova Scotia high schools (1991). - New Brunswick teachers have decided to fight homophobia in the province's schools (2001). - Nova Scotia Strategic Framework to Address Suicide (2006, GLBT Issues Noted).
Quebec: - Déficiente, la prévention du suicide chez les gais: "Si l'on souhaite un jour franchement s'attaquer à la question du suicide au Québec, il faudra commencer par cerner l'une de ses cibles les plus vulnérables, les homosexuels." Préfère-t-on encore les voir morts ? ou Le suicide chez les jeunes qui vivent l'homosexualité. - Le suicide chez les gais et lesbiennes Suicide-Action Montréal s'implique davantage. - Le phénomène du suicide au Québec et l'homosexualité: "On ne peut parler d’homosexualité sans mentionner l’homophobie. On sait maintenant avec certitude que le fait d’avoir à vivre le harcèlement répété des homophobes à leur endroit est une cause très importante de tentative de suicide, chez les jeunes garçons en particulier. L’homophobie est très répandue : un autre problème de société." - L’urgence d’agir: La prévention du suicide chez les personnes homosexuelles: Une question de santé mentale: Rapport d’un groupe de réflexion initié par Gai Écoute (PDF Download)
Quebec was the first major jurisdiction in North America (province, state, or country) to include "sexual orientation in their charter of rights (1977). Homophobia and related abuses remain rampant, however, as reported in Quand l'autre en soi grandit: les difficultés à vivre l'homosexualité à l'adolescence - Bill Ryan et Jean-Yves Frappier (L'adolescence: une réalité méconnue). French Canadian GLBT adolescents have all the problems of their English counterparts, including attending highly homo-negative schools where administrations have gone as far as stating: "We do not want any homosexuals here!" "Peu après, une travailleuse sociale contactée par Pierre et sa famille recevra le même type de réponse de la part de la direction de l'école: "On ne veut pas d'homosexuels ici!" Quebec and Alberta have a history of having the highest youth suicide rates in Canada. - Suicide an ongoing issue in the gay community. - L’homosexualité vue par les Québécoises et les Québécois: Les trois quarts de la population se disent ouverts et tolérants. - Suicide and GLB Youth - A document prepared by Project 10 of Montreal exploring the psycho-social and counselling issues related to suicide among gay, lesbian and bisexual youth N/A (PDF Download Available).
Avril 2002 (Must Scroll): "Un sondage en ligne réalisé par Citegay.com propose quelques données chiffrées sur la perception de l'homosexualité durant l'adolescence. Sur 6308 votes, 5,8% considèrent que la perception de leur homosexualité les ont amené à tenter de se suicider, 10,4% disent avoir envisagé le suicide. La perception de leur homosexualité fut une cause de souffrance pour 54,1% ( soit 3410 personnes). Pour seulement 12,6% de personnes participant au sondage, elle fut source d'épanouissement. Pour 10,7 %, la perception de leur homosexualité durant leur adolescence leur fut indifférente... Qui oserait dire que l'homosexualité ne pose pas problème chez les jeunes, et qu'une "homosexualité" traitée à l'école n'est pas une urgence sociale?" - Adolescence et homosexualité: souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative: "...ton homosexualité...a été une cause de souffrance: 53.4%"
Mort ou Fif: Contexte et mobiles de tentatives de suicide chez les adolescents et jeunes hommes homosexuels ou identifiés comme tels. Excerpts: Nicolas était depuis des années la cible de propos blessants et homophobes... - Les adolescents homosexuels: profils et scénarios: Deux profils. - Dans « Mort ou fif » (« fif » est l'équivalent de « pédé » en québécois), après avoir recueilli des témoignages de jeunes homosexuels qui parlent de leurs tentatives de suicide, le chercheur québécois Michel Dorais analyse le motif et le contexte de ces actes de désespoir. - Homsexualité et Suicide: Michel Dorais: Mort ou fif: La face cachée du suicide chez les garçons. - État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download) (Related Information): Les jeunes gays et le suicide, Michel Dorais. - Mort ou fif (Must Scroll): "Tous les jeunes qui découvrent leur homosexualité ne font pas une tentative de suicide. Mais cette circonstance multiplie par 16 le risque de passage à l’acte. Il n’y a rien d’étonnant à cela, tant la stigmatisation sociale est encore forte concernant cette orientation sexuelle. Chaque année, des dizaines de jeunes continuent de mourir parce qu’ils se croient seuls au monde ou monstrueux et sont victimes de l’intolérance, de l’incompréhension et, pour tout dire, de la bêtise de leurs contemporains..."
Le rejet social tue parfois (2001):
Conférence sur le suicide et les jeunes hommes, le mercredi 14
février, au Grand Salon du pavillon Maurice-Pollack. "La
conférence du Groupe de prévention du suicide, intitulée:
""Quand t'es seul au monde": rejet social et suicide chez les
jeunes hommes"..." - Masculinisme et suicide chez les hommes
(2003). - Suicide: "J'entends montrer dans ce bref
article que les jeunes qui vivent l'homosexualité présentent de
multiples facteurs de risque en ce qui concerne le suicide. Bien
sûr, cela ne signifie pas que tous les jeunes qui vivent
l'homosexualité ou qui s'identifient comme étant homosexuels
deviennent tous suicidaires, mais que cette population présente
des caractéristiques reconnues pour accroître la vulnérabilité
personnelle et sociale..."
facile d'afficher son homosexualité sans choquer:
Quelque temps plus tard, il tenta de s'enlever la vie en
bouchant le tuyau d'échappement de sa voiture. "L'intervenante a
rappelé trois fois pour me garder éveillé. Une fois à l'hôpital,
on m'a dit que si les secours étaient arrivés 15 minutes plus
tard, c'était fini", confie Marc. Marie-Line St-Arnaud,
directrice générale de Suicide Alerte, confirme que le rejet et
les pressions sociales rendent les homosexuels plus vulnérables
aux tentatives de suicide. "Il y a plus de détresse et les
homosexuels sont confrontés à de nombreux stéréotypes et
préjugés. Nous tenterons de l'aider dans l'immédiat, mais la
personne devra aller chercher de l'aide", dit-elle...
Le phénomène du suicide chez les jeunes hommes: "L'auteure traite ce délicat sujet en exploitant des entrevues de trois jeunes hommes dont deux sont homosexuels. On pourrait s'étonner de l'insistance mise sur l'homosexualité comme facteur déterminant. En fait, ces propos rejoignent des études qui montrent que les homosexuels, les victimes d'agressions sexuelles et les autochtones sont les principaux candidats au suicide..." - Suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels : Le cercle vicieux. - Comment les parents peuvent contribuer à la prévention du suicide et à la lutte contre l’homophobie auprès de leur enfant et dans leur milieu (PDF).
From "Index N/A" - L'hebdo gai du Québec - October, 98 - Two suicide related articles: La corde au cou and L’homosexualité: facteur de risque, oui ou non? Cases are noted to reveal that French Canadian gay boys are also attempting suicide for reasons related to their sexual orientation: lack of self-acceptance to abuse by others. One - Pierre - totaled a car in his attempt to kill himself by driving a car at 140 k/hr down a 150-feet embankment and a seat belt was not being used in the hope that death would result. Projet 10 - reports dealing with 10 to 15 suicide attempters per year, while a youth group - Jeunesse Lambda - somewhat minimized the problem. In an inadvertent way, however, the youth group had presented Pierre (suicide attempt described above) with a situation which precipitated his decision to kill himself. [In Calgary, in 1996 or 1997 - a male had attended a GLB youth group once and, soon after, committed suicide.] - Carrefour Intervention Suicide (Québec): - La problématique du suicide dans les populations gaie, lesbienne et bisexuelle.
Le suicide et l'homosexualité. - Le suicide chez les jeunes hommes homosexuels (2001, Alternate Link). - Le suicide chez les gais et lesbiennes. - Le suicide chez les jeunes gais: Gai Écoute à l’origine de la première recherche québécoise portant sur le suicide chez les jeunes gais et bisexuels. - Une réalité à reconnaître: le suicide chez les jeunes gais. - Vous (Claude Charron) avez fait un reportage percutant sur le suicide chez les jeunes gais.Et vous êtes associé à l’organisme Gai Ecoute. C’est important pour vous? - Histoire de vie: "Je voudrais tellement être comme tout le monde, avoir femme et enfants, mais les hommes m'attirent...Au début de la vingtaine, des pro-blèmes de santé mentale se révèlent de plus en plus chez Denis. Il devient étrange et imprévisible. Les membres de sa famille sont inquiets, on le sent souffrir beaucoup moralement. Durant deux ou trois ans, ses proches le voient dégringoler, jusqu'au jour où il devra être hospitalisé en psychiatrie. Là, on conclut à un diagnostic de schizophrénie. À partir du début de la vingtaine et jusqu'à sa mort, Denis sera épisodiquement suivi en psychiatrie. Régulièrement, il devra faire de nouveaux séjours à l'hôpital psychiatrique...La confusion sur son orientation sexuelle : un obstacle à la « normalité » de Denis... Pour Denis, vivre une vie « normale », c'est entretenir des rapports amoureux avec une personne de l'autre sexe. Au-dedans de lui-même, il n'en est pas moins confronté à la réalité complexe et ambivalente de sa libido. Son orientation sexuelle est confuse. Tout comme il a aimé avoir des relations hétérosexuelles, les hommes l'attirent et l'excitent... Deux ou trois ans avant de se suicider, il forme un couple avec un jeune homme et il fréquente des bars gais. À ses proches, il révèle alors clairement ses tendances. Cette expérience de vie commune se termine au bout de quelques mois. Selon sa famille, « ...c'était difficile à vivre pour Denis d'être ainsi tiraillé sexuellement et de ne pas répondre aux normes de la société ».
Le suicide chez les gais; la Cohorte Oméga signale de nouvelles statistiques qui soulèvent des inquiétudes: "La haute prévalence des idées suicidaires et des tentatives de suicide chez les hommes gais montréalais ainsi que les liens observés entre ces événements et l'acceptation personnelle et sociale de leur orientation sexuelle, soulignent l'urgence d'inclure ces préoccupations de façon formelle aux priorités de santé», termine le communiqué." - Forte tendance suicidaire chez les homosexuels: (Must Scroll) Pas moins de 36% des hommes homosexuels participant à un vaste ensemble de recherches sur le sida ont déjà tenté de s'enlever la vie, révèle la première étude québécoise qui établit des liens évidents entre l'homosexualité et l'incidence du suicide... Plus encore, près de 72% des participants ont pensé au moins une fois en finir avec la vie, révèle l'étude." - Suicide et coming-out chez les gais et bisexuels montréalais. Ya-t-il un lien? "Parmi nos participants [Cohorte Oméga], 71,3 % déclarent qu’il leur est arrivé au moins une fois d’avoir des idées suicidaires (23,5 %, une seule fois et 47,8 %, plus d’une fois). L’âge moyen à ce premier événement est de 19 ans (18,7 ans) alors que chez ceux qui rapportent avoir songé à se suicider plus d’une fois, l’âge moyen au dernier événement est de 30 ans (29,9 ans)." - Taux record de tentatives de suicide chez les homosexuels.
L'affaire Pinard: "Le 15 mars 2000, monsieur Daniel Pinard... faisait publiquement son ''coming-out'' à l'émission Les Francs Tireurs... révélant son homosexualité, et ceci, à titre de porte-parole pour le mouvement Gai-Écoute qui tente de sensibiliser la population au phénomène grandissant du suicide chez les jeunes gais. Il y dénonçait la méchanceté gratuite de certains humoristes québécois, ne se contentant pas de rire des minorités, mais pointant directement du doigt des personnalités connues. - Demystifying Homosexuality in Schools in the Chaudière-Appalachia Region: An Aid to Intervention, 1997 (PDF Download) (Download Page)
Special Issue on "Sexual Orientation" in "Vis-à-vie" by the Quebec Association of Suicidology is now available online. La revue le Vis-à-vie, vol. 10 nº 2, 2000: Le thème de ce numéro est « Suicide et orientations sexuelles »: Un double tabou. - Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. - La honte d'être. - Mort ou fif, différence assassinée. - Événements suicidaires chez les hommes gais. - Gai écoute, 20 ans d'espoir. - Suicide-Action Montréal et Gai écoute : un projet conjoint de formation et de sensibilisation. - L'intervention dans Chaudière-Appalaches. - Histoire de vie. Note: The English version of "Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions" by Pierre Tremblay and Richard Ramsay is available as "Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals.
Le suicide des jeunes à orientation sexuelle non conventionnelle... - L'amour entre femmes dans l'Église catholique par Débora et Judith, aux Éditions AdA Inc.: "On y retrouve également des témoignages et des statistiques qu'on ose à peine dévoiler concernant le suicide de trop nombreux gais et lesbiennes." - L’émergence des réalités homosexuelles. Séminaire sur les chartes et les différentes formes de discrimination Juges de la Cour du Québec. Présentation de Laurent McCutcheon 17 septembre 2007. PDF., New Link
Documents PDF: - Impact du «Projet 10» sur le mieux-être sexuel
de jeunes gais et bisexuels. - Faire les premiers pas - Un livret pour les
jeunes gais, lesbiennes et biseuxuels N/A. - Jeunes gais/ lesbiennes 14-17 ans - Modèle
d'intervention de groupe (ville de Québec). - Le suicide et l'orientation sexuelle. Document
de Projet 10 Montréal sur les aspects psychosociaux du suicide
chez les jeunes gais, lesbiennes et bisexuel(les). - Le livre Blanc: La prévention du
suicide. - Le Suicide: Ce que vous devez savoir (PDF
Australia / New Zealand:
Panel Presentation by Phong Nguyen (2004, PDF, Must Scroll: 'Living and Loving in Diversity' Conference Proceedings) First of all I would like to pay tribute the first people of the land and I also would like to pay tribute as a social worker in the Vietnamese community for many years and I think I’m also aware of other communities as well in multicultural communities. Today I would like to, before I say my words, I would like to pay tribute to all the young people who have died, committed suicide because of who they were. Unfortunately in some cases the only time they can say who they were was through a note after they have died and to say that they are who they were - Gay or Lesbian - and so I’d like to pay tribute to them and I think we should at conferences like this going forward to have a minute of silence to pay tribute to those young who have died becausethe only way they can show their truth, who they are, their identity is through death so I would like to pay tribute to that.
Bisexuals at high risk for mental health problems and suicide: Homosexuals have poorer mental health than heterosexuals. Study: "Sexual orientation and mental health: results from a community survey of young and middle-aged adults." Full Text. - PubMed Abstract. Study results used as part of a presentation of 'higher risk" status for individuals not belonging to socially constructed categories... People in 'No Man's Land': Link to PowerPoint Presentation. - Towards a sociocultural analysis of youth suicide: Researching the everyday narratives of urban and regional communities (PDF Download, Must Scroll, Archive Link): For example, the study will explore the nature of beliefs produced through living with youth unemployment, a difficult home life or being gay in an urban/rural community... Research suggests that young gay/lesbian/bisexual people experience homophobia and marginalisation, both of whichare associated with increased risk of suicide attempts(Nicholas and Howard 1998).
Don't Ask, Don't Tell: Hidden in the Crowd: The Need for Documenting Links between Sexuality and Suicidal Behaviours among Young People, 2003 (PDF Download, Alternate Link, Alternate Link) - Gay and Lesbian Suicide (including youth suicide). - Rural suicide and same-sex attracted youth: issues, interventions and implications for rural counsellors (2003, PDF Download, Alternate Link) (HTML Copy) Rural and Remote Health (online), 2003: no. 222. Abstract: "Recent research into same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) suicide and rural youth suicide suggests there may be an association between the two. A literature review explores this proposal. While contributing issues to rural SSAY suicide, such as homophobia, isolation, availability of information, and acknowledgement of issues are discussed, little hard evidence is found to support the the rural and SSAY suicide connection. Further and on-going research is recommended into this under-represented topic."
Australian Government rejects anti-suicide poster: it presents being young & gay/lesbian too positively N/A (Must scroll to locate information). - 'Out of line' Judy sets back suicide prevention 50 years [for GLB youth] (Not Available: A 1997 News item from Australian Democrats). Youth and Sexuality Final Report available as Word or Text Zip file at Freedom Centre site: 'Here for Life' Youth Sexuality Project Executive Summary (Zip Word File N/A) and Final Report (Zip Word File N/A) Download Page (Gone Forever? Why?). - Health and Support for Australian Gay Males. - Spirituality, Sexuality & Suicide - bringing God & Spirituality out of the closet: "Suicide? Well there's plenty of surveys and statistics about this and the work of dozens of organisations trying to research, understand and prevent it, like SPA and this conference. Remarkably though, few organisations have included the gay population in their research, even though this sector is one in which suicide ideation is often part of the gauntlet which the young gay person may often face in their rocky process of coming out as someone whose sexuality flies in the face of the heterosexist model of the rest of the world around them."
Youth suicide strategy evaluated (Sydney
Star Observer, Issue 533) by By Sarah Bacon
(2002):"... the only project funded by the Strategy which dealt
specifically with gay and lesbian youth suicide issues was the
Here For Life Youth Sexuality Project (WA AIDS Council in
conjunction with the Gay and Lesbian Counselling Service)
which received $250,000. Graham Brown, the health
promotion officer on the Here For Life Project, says the project
"went really well" considering the number of challenges - such
as political battles and homophobic backlash - they had to
overcome. - Australia's Valuing Young Lives: Evaluation of
the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (2000, As
One PDF File). - Issues Paper: Mental health issues for
GLBTI Victorians (PDF Download N/A: Brown, R., Perlesz, A.,
& Proctor, K., ‘Mental Health Issues for GLBTI Victorians,’
in What’s the Difference? Health Issues of Major Concern
to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (GLBTI)
Victorians. Melbourne, Victoria (PDF
Download, Download Page).
Research Report prepared by the Ministerial Advisory
Committee on Gay and Lesbian Health. Published by Rural and
Regional Health and Aged Care Services Division Victorian
Government Department of Human Services)... Reaction
to MACGLH discussion papers by Transgender Victoria
Suicide Prevention Australia 8th Annual Conference 2001 - A Human Odyssey (6 - 9 April 2001) - Session (1) "Suicide in the Gay & Lesbian Community" - Jonathan Nicholas: The Reach Out Program, Sydney - (90 minute workshop): The incidences of suicide in the gay and lesbian community are dramatically high. Many do not have expertise in counselling in this area. The first in-depth Australian research into completed suicide within this community sampling more than 400 people to the age of 30 has just been completed with some dramatic findings. This workshop is a must for anyone working with young people. - Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective (Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2002: PDF Download, Alternate Link).
Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective (Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), Vol. 1, Issue 1, 2002: PDF Download). - Suicide Prevention Australia 8th Annual Conference 2001 - A Human Odyssey (6 - 9 April 2001): Session (1) "Suicide in the Gay & Lesbian Community" - Jonathan Nicholas: The Reach Out Program, Sydney - (90 minute workshop): The incidences of suicide in the gay and lesbian community are dramatically high. Many do not have expertise in counselling in this area. The first in-depth Australian research into completed suicide within this community sampling more than 400 people to the age of 30 has just been completed with some dramatic findings. This workshop is a must for anyone working with young people. - Nicholas J, Howard J (2001). Same-Sex Attracted Youth Suicide: Why are we still talking about it? Presented at the Suicide Prevention Australia National Conference, Sydney, April. The PowerPoint presentation was made available to the authors by John Howard. Study results also presented a 2006 Suicide Prevention Day Forum. PDF.
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Ridder EM, Beautrais
AL (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a
birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 35:
Page): "Cohort members with a predominantly homosexual
orientation had rates of mental disorder and suicidal behaviours
that were between 1.5 to 12 times higher than for those with an
exclusively heterosexual orientation. These associations
persisted after adjustment for confounding. The associations
between sexual orientation and mental health were more marked
for males than females."
Suicide and Self-harm (2002):
"Suicide is a tragedy which occurs all too often and which can
prevented. This book examines Australia's suicide rate and
focuses on the groups most at risk - young people; middle-aged
men; Aboriginal people; gays and lesbians; people from rural and
remote communities; and the elderly. This book also explores the
risk factors and warning signs for people who self-harm, and for
those who attempt suicide; the myths of suicide; treatments for
depression; understanding suicide and developing prevention
strategies; and how to deal with the grief of losing someone who
has taken their own life." - Jorm AF, Korten AE, Rodgers B, Jacomb
PA, Christensen H (2002). Sexual orientation and
mental health: results from a community survey of young and
middle-aged adults. British Journal of Psychiatry. 180:
423-7. PubMed Abstract. Australian study: "A
community survey of 4824 adults was carried out in Canberra,
Australia... Results: The bisexual group was highest on measures
of anxiety, depression and negative affect, with the
homosexual group falling between the other two groups. Both the
bisexual and homosexual groups were high on suicidality.
Bisexuals also had more current adverse life events, greater
childhood adversity, less positive support from family, more
negative support from friends and a higher frequency of
financial problems. Homosexuals reported greater childhood
adversity and less positive support from family. Full
Tasmania: - Release on Tas gay suicide study - 2.5 times more likely to be suicide attempters (1998). - Gay Youth Study: Government response Essential (Tasmania) N/A. - Under 21: Youth Suicide. - I remember wanting to die and wanting others to feel the depth of my suffering and hopelessness: Sticks and Stones May Break Bones, But Names Hurt Even More (1999).
Outlinks - Rural GLB Youth Network:
- Summary: Sexuality & Suicide: An
Investigation of Health Compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual
Male Youth in Tasmania. - An Investigation of Health
compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual Male
Youth in Tasmania, Kent Fordham, 1998: "Following an earlier
study which found that 10% a sample of rural 14-18 year olds
report same sex attractions, a study in 1998 of a sample of
rural, regional and some urban 14-18 year old same sex attracted
youth by Lynne Hillier and Jenny Walsh from the Australian
Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society at La Trobe
University found that 46% reported verbal and physical abuse 70%
of which occurred at school. 11% reported IV drug use compared
to 1% of all young people. They also report higher rates of
drinking and marijuana and heroin use. Only 5% of same sex
attracted youth sought help from counsellors and 14% from
teachers." - Outlink National Gay and Lesbian Rural Youth
Project. - "Rural youth suicide: the issue of male
homosexuality" by Edward Green (Social Change in Rural
Sexuality & Suicide (K.Fordham, Sexuality and Suicide: An Investigation of Health Compromising and Suicidal Behaviours among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth in Tasmania, Division of Community and Rural Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tasmania, September 1998, pp. 1-78. ) Study Summary: The gay and bisexual men had seriously considered suicide at twice the rate of the heterosexual men, and were more likely to have run away from home, been arrested, been involved in prostitution, to have driven while under the influence of alcohol and to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the six months preceding the survey. The gay and bisexual men generally reported lower levels of substance use than the heterosexual sample, although the rates were higher than expected in both groups. Twice as many gay and bisexual men were in a relationship compared with the heterosexual men. They were twice as likely to live alone and half as likely to be living with their parents. Consistently higher rates of health risk behaviours and psychosocial stressors were measured among those gay and bisexual men who had seriously considered suicide (suicide ideators), compared to their gay and bisexual counterparts who had not considered attempting suicide (non- suicide ideators). They were more likely to have run away from home, engaged in high levels of teenage sexual activity, had unsafe sex and been involved in prostitution. They were also more likely to have regularly been in fights, been arrested, argued with parents and teachers, lost friends as a result of coming out, been sexually abused and been the victim of homophobic violence. The suicide ideators consumed cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drugs more than the non- suicide ideators. Compared to gay and bisexual non- suicide ideators, suicide ideators had a later age of first awareness of same-sex attractions, and a younger age of both self-labelling as gay or bisexual and first same-sex sexual experience. Overall, the gay and bisexual men demonstrated a higher prevalence of suicide risk factors than the heterosexual men. Furthermore, the gay and bisexual men who considered suicide showed higher rates of suicide risk factors than those who had not.
Rural gays in misery: Report. "Their misery often led them to alcohol and drugs and even suicide." (Information was once available at the Reach Out web site. Must register and use site's search engine). - Working it Out - "Working It Out" Committee: Adressing Sexuality Issues. - Rural youth suicide: convention, context and cure: Speech by Chris Sidoti, Human Rights Commissioner to the Australian College of Health Service Executives (SA) Seminar, Adelaide, 14 October 1999. - Rural suicide and same-sex attracted youth: issues, interventions and implications for rural counsellors (2003, PDF).
Tasmania: ...a 16 year old man, Captain of his Launceston
high school, killed himself last week after being constantly
harassed for being gay (Sept. 1999). He died because this
society did everything it could to encouraged his death and
nothing to stop it. It instilled in him a deep and abiding sense
of shame and worthlessness. It filled his peers with a profound
ill-will, armed them with the words to inflict their malice, and
permitted them to attack. Then, having systematically made his
young life hell, society just as systematically denied him all
hope. - Rodney Croome Says Society is Encouraging
Deaths: Youth Suicides Due to Narrow Social-Sexual Pressures
(1999): "Tasmanian gay activist, Rodney Croome condemned what he
described as the' tyranny of heterosexuality' at the launching
of the Victorian Law Foundation's new book, A Just Society?
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health
and Wellbeing Needs Assessment. Tasmanian Department of
Health and Human Services’ Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and
Transgender Reference Group (Blanch Consulting Pty Ltd., 2003, PDF): Contemporary research
indicates that health and wellbeing issues faced by GLBT people
include higher rates of suicide and drug and alcohol use and are
they are at increased risk of homelessness than the general
population. The research also finds that these health and
wellbeing issues are an outcome of homophobic/transphobic
harassment and discrimination... 4.7.1 Suicide: Studies
indicate that a range of factors is associated with increased
suicide risk, though there is much debate over the level of risk
of suicidal behaviour and resultant protective measures
necessary. Whilst mental illness is considered one of the
highest risk factors, it is erroneous to assume that all
suicidal behaviour is connected to mental illness or mental
health problems... • A study of 403 gay men in Australia in 2000
indicated that 27% experienced major depression; • A study of
200 lesbians in Sydney (1992) found that 60% reported feeling
depressed, 63% had contemplated suicide and 30% attempted
suicide30; • A study of the transgender/transsexual group that
found that 32% attempted suicide; and • Department of Human
Services Youth Suicide Task Force Report in 1998 found same-sex
attracted young people (SSAY) in Victoria to be six times more
likely to attempt suicide than the population as a whole... The
results of the first Australian population-based study that
involved a comparison of the health status of young lesbians and
bisexual women with heterosexual women were released at the
Health in Difference 4 Conference in Sydney, November 2002. More
than 9,000 young women participated in the Women's Health
Australia study and among its findings were that young
non-heterosexual women reported higher levels of depression and
anxiety than young heterosexual women and twice as many
non-heterosexual women reported that life was not worth living.
The Tasmanian Sexuality and Suicide paper32 found that more than
twice the proportion of the gay and bisexual male participants
considered suicide compared to heterosexual participants. This
was found to correlate with other studies about suicide ideation
among gay and bisexual male youths. The interviews conducted
with sexual minority young people in the North West (Working it
Out) also found that extremely low self-esteem and reactions or
fears about coming out directly contributed to suicidal thoughts
and self-harm... [Tasmiania citations: 32 Fordham, K, (1998)
Sexuality & Suicide, An Investigation of Health Compromising
And Suicidal Behaviours Among Gay and Bisexual Male Youth In
Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Thesis Study.33 Hogge, R.
(1998) Working it Out, A Needs Analysis of Sexual Minority Youth
in North West Tasmania]
Report: Queer Street Youth: In an OUTinPerth special
report, journalist Scott-Patrick Mitchell examines how the rise
in homelessness has affected queer street youth in Western
Australia: ‘When I first came out on the streets, I was meeting
say maybe one new kid a week, or even one a fortnight,’ says
Dwayne, a 24-year-old homeless gay man. ‘But now it seems to be
getting to the stage where it’s half a dozen to a dozen new
people every week.’ ... For those who are not only homeless but
also queer – be that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual or
transgender – the struggle to survive on the street is often
even harder... Esben Kass, from mobile youth service Step One,
agrees in part with Dwayne about the difficulties GLBT street
youth face. ‘We have quite an issue with a lot of same-sex
attracted young people entering into crisis accommodation
because of the harassment they get from the other kids. It
contributes to them returning to the streets. It [GLBT youth] is
a difficult group to place into accommodation services,
especially if you are dealing with transgender or any sort of
those issues. Accommodation services just seem to give up with
Corboz J, Dowsett G, Mitchell A, Couch M, Agius
P, Pitts M (2008, PDF).
Queer and Blue: A Review of the Literature on Depression and
Related Issues among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Other
Homosexually Active People. A Report from the Australian
Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University.
Prepared for beyondblue: The National Depression Initiative.
There is a pervasive tendency in the literature to exclude bisexual people or to obscure them by collapsing bisexual samples into gay, lesbian or same-sex-attracted categories. The studies that did explore bisexual people separately from homosexual people consistently showed that bisexuals have higher rates of depression or depressive symptoms than heterosexual people and, further, in some cases are at the same or even higher risk of depression than homosexuals. In an important study that analysed data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, McNair et al. (2005) found that in a cohort of women aged 22 to 27 years, bisexual women showed consistently poorer mental health outcomes than exclusively heterosexual, bisexual and exclusively/mainly homosexual women on almost all measures. Further, in a cohort of women aged 50 to 55, mainly heterosexual women had the poorest mental health outcomes on all measures when compared with women in any other group. In another Australian study conducted in Canberra, Jorm et al. (2002) sampled both men and women and found that the bisexual group had significantly higher depressive symptom scores than the homosexual group which, in turn, had significantly higher depressive symptoms scores than the heterosexual group (respectively: 3.93 vs. 2.93 vs. 2.62, p < .001). These results are strongly confirmed by the ARCSHS studies. For instance, in the Writing Themselves in Again study (Hillier et al. 2005), young bisexual people were significantly more likely than homosexual respondents to report dissatisfaction with both themselves (23.3 percent vs. 14.5 percent, z = 4.02, p < .001) and their lives (17.2 percent vs. 6.7 percent, z = 6.26, p < .001). Overall, the literature suggests that higher rates of depression in non-heterosexual people may be slightly inflated due to even higher rates of depressive symptoms in bisexuals.
Ignored to death: Representations of
young gay men, lesbians and bisexuals in Australian youth
suicide policy and programs - 1996 (Alternate
Link). - "A  mental health conference in Sydney
addressing gay and lesbian youth suicide has heard the problem
is still largely ignored by governments and rural
communities." - Suicide prevention projects Ignore Sexuality
(1998). - Call for action to combat youth-gay suicide
rate (1998). - Gay youth suicide prevention may be missing
the mark (1999). - Youth suicide in Australia: What are the
causes and risk factors for suicide among young people?
Multiplicity of factors linked to youth suicide
(Homosexuality is not mentioned in the document "Youth suicide
in Australia - A Background Monograph". Is this an example of
"being ignored to death"?). - The
Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society has
published a report "Don't ask, don't tell - Hidden in the
crowd: the need for documenting links between sexuality and
suicidal behavious among young people" in May 2003... Gay Issues
continue to be ignored?: "The series on male suicides and the
letters following their publication (The Age, August 2003) all
seem to have ignored one of the main at-risk groups - gay males,
particularly in the 15-24 year- old age group. Is this because
our society continues to be so homophobic or is it because the
mainstream media continue to ignore the issue? The recently
issued report: "Don't
Ask Don't Tell - Hidden in the Crowd: Documenting the links
between sexuality and suicidal behaviours among young people"
(Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe
University, 2003) states that suicide is one of the leading
causes of death among 15-24 year olds in Australia. The report
further states that research in Australia has identified that
same-sex attracted young people may be up to six times more
likely to attempt suicide than the population in general, with
those in rural areas being particularly at risk. Nowhere in your
reports or letters were these matters raised. Maybe you should
now spend some time on asking questions about these at-risk
young people in our communities - or are we now a society that
no longer worries about our younger people, particularly if they
are gay or lesbian?"
Ian's goal to educate kids (1998): -
Roberts, Australia's first leading sportsman to declare his
homosexuality, has received hundreds of letters from youths
frightened and bewildered about their sexuality. He proposed the
development of an education kit to be made available in all
schools. "If people read the letters I've had about kids being
suicidal, and knowing people who have committed suicide, you
know it wouldn't be a problem to be introduced," he said. - A challenge to the stereotypes (1997. Ian
Roberts: Finding Out, by Paul Freeman): "The social problem of
homophobia, as Freeman shows, still remains, of course. Gay
youth are made homeless by being thrown out by intolerant
parents; gays are victims of hate crimes, verbal harassment and
the assault of images of heterosexuality as “normal”. All this
drives some gay youth to suicide attempts." - Ian
Roberts slams Jason Akermanis over gay comments (2010):
And retired Olympic swimmer Daniel Kowalski has also attacked
comments from Akermanis, who controversially encouraged gay
players to stay in the closet... "One of the things that really
upsets me is the kids in the suburbs who aren't dealing with
their sexuality. The gay suicide rate is high. There are kids
out there wanting advice and a knucklehead says things like
the Message in the Story (2008): When I started
thinking of writing articles about being young and gay, I
immediately became acutely aware of not lapsing into the
instances of cliché that dominate young and gay writing. I
didn’t want to be mentioning the “what about kids” question, or
the “coming out” saga, or the loneliness. With my intelligence
and sophistication (yeah, right), I believed I could rise above
that shit. I was beyond that – those thoughts and issues would
offer me nothing. Many groups of people, but none more so than
arrogant teenagers, detest clichéd emotional expression. They
hate its contrived sentimentality, the meaninglessness of the
language teenagers use to describe their feelings. They perceive
the poems of the two girls who suicided in Melbourne two months
ago as pathetic, unintellectual, naïve and immature... It is
those who wage unconditional war on the cliché that we should be
worried about. Those who believe emotional expression can only
be validated by a standard of what they deem “artistry” are
denying themselves a body of artistic possibilities from which
they could really benefit. I think this is especially valid for
gay boys and girls in high schools, who are often lonely and
isolated from any prospect of a relationship but who might not
seek the stories of those who have experienced the same pains.
Opening our minds can yield valuable reassurance, and those kids
need all the reassurance they can get.
From Sydney, Australia (2009): I’ve always known
that I was gay. Well before I had even heard the word, or knew
its full implications. I never believed it to be wrong, how
could love be so? But growing up in a small country town with a
combination of conservative Catholic parents and religious
schooling,... It was probably more a cry of help than any real
serious attempt, but at twenty one I attempted suicide. An
overdose of pills, washed down with scotch. I can remember being
completely surprised at how many family and friends visited me
in the hospital. I remember thinking they don’t understand me. I
didn’t even feel that I understood myself. Unfortunately, it was
beyond me at the time to give any real explanation for my
actions, and so any chance to do so was lost... So what’s a
closeted, gay, alcoholic madman to do? Marry her, of course. We
married the following year. It seemed to an outsider looking in
that I was getting my life back together. Could that be so
wrong? A few years later our only child, a daughter, was
born... I am writing this now sitting in my inner-city studio
apartment. Forty three years young. I love my gay friendly
neighbourhood, and I love this city. My Indonesian born
boyfriend and I live with a gay feline diva we call Oscar. My
uni-attending daughter, now jokingly referred to as the fag hag,
comes over every second weekend. Ten years of Buddhist practise
has grounded me, nearly seventeen years of being sober and clean
has healed me of many demons. I reflect on all those years
living the lie, and trying to drown the truth away in a sea of
booze and alcohol. Being gay is simply a part of me, as it has
From XY Magazine (1995): "Young male suicide - reversing the trend." (Alternate Link) Reporting on a suicide prevention conference: "One other excellent paper, by Kenton Penley of the Second Storey Youth Health Centre in Adelaide, reported the dearth of research into the effects of heterosexism and homophobia on youth suicide rates." "But two out of 50 [papers presented] is a damming illustration of how the community of "anti-suicide workers" regards the need to ask how gender construction effects suicide rates." - Homophobia and masculinities among young men (Lessons in becoming a straight man) (1997): Many lesbian and gay young people have negative experiences and memories of schools and education [Nickson, 1996: 163]. They experience verbal and physical harassment and violence, marginalisation, and other injustices in what is a systematic pattern of bigotry, exclusion and oppression. The consequences of this for gay and lesbian students are increasingly well documented, and include isolation, confusion, marginalisation, higher rates of personal stress and alienation, lowered self-esteem and self-hate, poor school performance, dropping out of school, homelessness, drug and alcohol abuse, and suicide.
is where the hate grows (1997, Alternate
Link): - in reference to mainstream suicidologists avoiding
"homosexuality" issues in adolescent suicide research and
prevention work: "Although Casey reckons he "always knew"
he was gay, he became one of the kids who was "forced into doing
it". After moving to Sydney, Casey was drawn into a string of
abusive "relationships"...Because of his low self-esteem borne
of the silence, Casey says he was easy pickings for
deeply-closeted homosexual "sick tickets" who found more
pleasure in hearing screams for mercy as they held knives to the
throats of other parents' sons than in real and open love...
Starved of real love and left with little hope, Casey, like many
young gays, turned to chemical "friends" to fill the void. His
only human friends became the other youngsters traded by the
"sick tickets"... "Of the thirteen of us, I'm one of only
three that's still alive today," Casey says. "Most of my
friends blew their heads off, some of them OD'd and some of them
have died from AIDS. They were all bright kids with talents and
Christmas can be Gay, but not Very Merry (1997): "Youth worker Ralph Graham says that while Christmas is a hard time for many people who cannot be with their loved ones, it is particularly hard for homosexuals. Coming to terms with their sexuality and fear of rejection can be too much. The pressure is reflected in homosexual suicide statistics around the festive season... Last year Ralph received three calls from people attempting suicide in the lead-up to Christmas. All three were young men trying to come to terms with their sexuality. One had the support of his parents, another had not yet told them and the third was not comfortable with being gay, fearing rejection from his parents, family and friends." - A gay man who survived a mutual suicide pact with his lover (1995, Alternate Link).
Shane Hughes is a 23 year old bisexual who
lives in Adelaide, South Australia. "Between the
ages of 14 and 21, Shane attempted suicide several times because
he could not deal with his sexuality and the feelings he was
having." More on Shane Hughes: How a Gay Son
Finally came out to his Parents (1998, Must Scroll): "Mrs
Hughes, who lives at Victor Harbour with husband Graham, said
that after the initial shock, there was a sense of relief. He’d
had suicide attempts and we didn’t understand why. We questioned
ourselves." Mrs Hughes said. "...Mrs Hughes, who lives at Victor
Harbour with husband Graham, said that after the initial shock,
there was a sense of relief. He’d had suicide attempts and we
didn’t understand why. We questioned ourselves." Mrs Hughes
said... Shane Hughes is 25 and happy – but it wasn’t always the
case. He recalls his primary school days, when he noticed he was
attracted to boys as well as girls. "I didn’t really do anything
about it until my early high school days, when I started feeling
my way around, if I can put it that way," he said. "I got mixed
up from there. I had a hard time of it. Maybe because it was all
happening for me and I didn’t have any positive gay role
The Wakeup Call (1998, Alternate Link): I just received the news that my friend Robert killed himself early this morning. I was not surprised. Indeed at the time I felt absolutely nothing; a kind of emotional numbness I guess. He was a difficult man to like, let alone love, but I could see the hurt child in him and I loved that child. Robert called me last night. I guess his call was a type of suicide letter. The pain he was in was obvious, the deep sense of isolation he felt was palpable. His 27 years of life had been a long series of rejections, one after another... Summary: Robert was sexually abused as a boy, expelled from his adopted Christian family when his homosexual orientation was discovered at age 14, survived via street prostitution in Brisbane, contracted HIV, developed AIDS, and killed himself in a way that may be deemed "an accident" by the investigating authorities. Sometimes a friend, such as Martin Worterding, may know that it was not an accident and he remains emotionally troubled because he is part of a society not deemed "innocent" with respect to such ultimately fatal outcomes.
Homosexuality and Suicide (1995,
Part 2, Part 1) by Ed Green with Margaret Appleby
(From: The Suicide-Prevention Information Centre):
Difficulties experienced in the 'coming out' stage...,
Difficulties in the school environment..., Lack of friends and
role models..., Discrimination in the workplace..., Violence
towards gays and lesbians..., Problems when sexuality is
hidden..., Attitudes of some religious denominations...,
Isolation in rural communities..., Higher risk for AIDS...,
Providing support for homosexuals..., Bibliography. (Extract
from the "Suicide Awareness for Aboriginal Communities" by
Margaret Appleby & Dr. Raymond King Colleen, Brown
Publishers - Rose Education). - Crucial
statistics about same sex attracted youth: The following
statistics are based on a range of social research conducted at
Australian universities [1995-1998]. It paints a picture of
difficulty and marginalisation for same sex attracted youth -
all the more reason to adopt and promote tolerant attitude in
schools, homes and workplaces.
Homo! Poofter! Faggot! Youth Focus Article (1998, Must Scroll) : A 17-year-old gay male describes his adolescent environment, a life a many suicide attempts, the uselessness of psychiatrists (at least for his problems), and a bleak outlook for the future "I've been rejected enough by family in my life, so losing friends would have just thrown me," he explained. But school was not easy for him. "Along with friendship break-ups at school, being gay just topped it off." He attempted suicide over a dozen times. "I lose count! I swallowed half a dozen different pills, drank nearly every household chemical we had, and slit my wrists."" - Youth at Risk: "Homelessness, Sexual Abuse, Family Rejection HIV: All are contributing to Gay Youth suicides." - An Australian expert reports that New Zealand has done very little to stop young gays and lesbians from committing suicide. - Gay Catholics Challenge Archbishop Pell on Youth Suicide.
Prejudice can Affect Health: Australian Medical Association: "he cited a 1996 Australian study that showed that over half of gay male youths had attempted suicide. "Because of homophobia, people are suffering. Young people are dying. There can be no excuses for delays in achieving justice and human rights for all people. Lives depend on it," said Phelps. "There was very wide consultation in reaching this position statement," Phelps told Reuters Health. "I believe that it's a very important document, and it's one which the AMA will be disseminating widely to community groups and medical colleges and universities." - AMA Federal President, Dr Kerryn Phelps, To The Amnesty International Global Human Rights Conference (2002): "Why Homophobia is a Health Issue." - Sexual Diversity and Gender Identity Position Statement of AMA (Alternate Link).
"Combating Lesbian and Gay Youth Suicide and
HIV/AIDS Transmission Rates: An Examination of Possible
Education Strategies in Western Australian High Schools in
Light of Prevailing State Statutes" by Christopher N
Kendal & Sonia Walker (E Law - Murdoch University Electronic
Journal of Law, Vol 5, No 4, 1998): All of the above create an
environment where suicide is considered a tangible option by far
too many young lesbians and gay men... - Aspects
of youth suicide: summary report of a seminar (1997): 21.
Sexuality is also a suicide risk factor for young people.
Although there is little statistical data on whether young
people who are confused or harassed over their sexuality are at
greater risk of suicide, anecdotal evidence suggests that
sexuality can be a strong influencing factor. Professor Kosky
told the seminar that although statistics do not show an
over-representation of homosexuals in completed suicides,
clinical psychiatrists feel that in truth, they are
over-represented. This is because many suicides linked to
feelings of, or abuse because of, homosexuality may not be
reported as such. 22. One invited representative pointed
out that for all teenagers, including young gays and lesbians,
there are four main support groups - their family, their peers,
the church and school. For young homosexuals, these support
groups may become alienating and/or hostile when homosexuality
is revealed. Many young homosexual people fear alienation and
rejection, placing them in a situation of depression, loneliness
and despair, factors recognised as triggers for
Talking Sexual Health: A teaching &
learning resource for secondary schools (2001,
Implementing the National framework for Education About STIs,
HIV/AIDS and Blood-Borne Viruses in Secondary Schools) PDF.
Note: the section on sexual minority (gay, lesbian, bisexual)
students and teachers leaves much to be desired. For example:
"Teachers who are not gay and lesbian can challenge stereotypes
and affirm diversity by not revealing their sexuality to
students. They can also use inclusive terms when referring to
relationships e.g. partner instead of husband and wife. It is
easy and safe for a teacher to place gay and lesbian people as
‘other’, by ensuring that students know they are heterosexual.
It is more powerful for this to be unknown to assist in breaking
down myths and discrimination." Comment: The first part is good
but the proposition that heterosexual teachers are NOT to
mention the existence of their wives and children - all meaning
that they are heterosexual - or will be presumed to be - is to
live in dreamland, as if heterosexual teachers would ever accept
to be closeted heterosexual, as it is inherently suggested that
GLB teachers should remain closeted.
Smith A, Agius P, Mitchell A, Barrett C, Pitts
M (2009). Secondary Students and Sexual Health 2008,
Monograph Series No. 70, Melbourne: Australian Research Centre
in Sex, Health & Society, La Trobe University (PDF
- Note: Report does not contain survey results related to
homosexuality, but related information was solicited). - Secondary
students and sexual health 2008 (2009): "Same sex
attraction: The proportion of students reporting a sexual
attraction exclusively to those of the opposite sex declined
between 2002 and 2008 surveys. This decline was most marked for
young men in Year 12, with the proportion of students reporting
heterosexual sexual attraction dropping from 96% to 90%. There
was also a marked increase in the number of students from this
group who were unsure of their sexual attraction. This may well
be indicative of schools dealing better with the issues and
students feeling more comfortable to sit with their uncertainty
rather than feeling rushed to a decision. Almost one in 10
students surveyed reported their most recent sexual encounter
was with someone of the same sex. For young men, the likelihood
of having a same sex encounter at the most recent sexual
experience had increased from 2% in 2002 to 8% in 2008."
The primary report of the Australian Study of Health and Relationships is published as the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Volume 27, Number 2, April 2003. Sex in Australia: Summary findings of the Australian study of health and relationships (PDF): Sexual identity, attraction and experience: In presenting the results of the survey the terms ‘lesbian’, ‘gay’ and ‘bisexual’ are used to describe only those people who identify by these terms and not those who are attracted to others of the same sex or who have had sexual experience with others of the same sex but do not themselves identify with these terms. In this study 97.4% of men identified as heterosexual, 1.6% as gay and 0.9% as bisexual. For women 97.7% identified as heterosexual, 0.8% as gay and 1.4% as bisexual. Nevertheless, 8.6% of men and 15.1% of women reported either feelings of attraction to the same sex or some sexual experience with the same sex. Half the men and two thirds of the women who had same sex sexual experience regarded themselves as heterosexual rather than homosexual. This illustrates that same sex attraction and experience are more common in Australia that is indicated by the relatively fewpeople reporting a homosexual or bisexual identity.
Our son committed suicide because his Church regarded him as a sinner and his state regarded him as a criminal (1999). - Cranebrook is the fourth school he has had to leave. He has attempted suicide three times and receives regular psychological counselling (1997). - Help for parents dealing with youth suicide and homosexuality. A program run by Jesuit Social Services N/A.- In Queensland, schools left to decide whether GBL-positive materials will be incorporated in their suicide prevention programs N/A.
Between 40,000 and 60,000 young Australians attempt suicide each year. Thirty per cent of those attempts are related to homophobia and sexuality. Despite this, only 300 out of 853 youth suicide prevention projects mention the “gay issue”, and only 12 address it in their programs. - Study examining lives of gay, lesbian teachers, students and ex-students in schools found (1994). - College hate campaign sparks reform call (2000, Note: White Print on White Background. Use: "ctrl + a"): ."The offending students in this case clearly intended to use homophobia as a weapon to inspire others to hatred and violence towards an innocent person. People who engage in hate speech must be held accountable for the results of that speech." Walker's comments were supported by Union Secretary Lisa Chesters, who urged LGBTs to join the Silver Wheat Society's campaign for anti-vilification coverage. Chesters told Queensland Pride the union had received information from individual students for several years that homophobic and sexist harassment were rife in a number of residential colleges on the campus. "The difficulty the union has faced has been that, until recently, none of these students had been willing to lodge a formal complaint or to come forward openly to make allegations. These students have been understandably fearful that retaliation would follow any such publicity." Chesters said.
Boys learn to be homophobic in the primary school playground, an academic says. (Melbourne Herald Sun, 27/12/'99) "...homophobia peaks in the mid to late teens, with boys in Years 8 and 9 reporting they use the word "poofter" 25 to 50 times a day... "At that age it is extremely powerful - in fact 'poofter' was ranked as the worst thing that a boy could be called." - Anti-homophobia plan may curb suicide rate: (Alternate Link, must scroll) "It started after surveys found bullying of same-sex attracted students was rife. A study of 1200 rural high school students found 11 per cent of teens aged 14-16 were attracted to the same sex. Another study of same-sex attracted teens found 13 per cent had suffered physical abuse and 46 per cent had suffered verbal abuse. Nearly 70 per cent of the abuse happened at school: 60 per cent by other students, 10 per cent by friends and 3 per cent by teachers. "It is total bullying," said Mr Rojas-Morales. "It begins at primary school."
Students admit same sex attraction. (Sydney Morning Herald - 29/12/'99 - Smith A, Lindsay J, Rosenthal D (1999). Same-sex attraction, drug injection and binge drinking among Australian adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23-6, 643-6 - Abstract): 6% of grade 10-12 students report having same-sex attractions and are at higher risk for a number of problems. - Silencing (Homo)Sexualities in School ... A Very Bad Idea (2005): A good deal of research has positioned SSA young people as ‘at-risk’, using data which places heterosexual-identifying adolescents as a ‘control group’ and citing elevated drug and alcohol use, suicide attempts/ideation, and risky sexual practices among the population of SSA young people. This type of research problematises the SSA young people themselves, rather than the environments which they are subject to and the harassment they may be experiencing therein. - 11 Year Old Youngest In Australia To Undergo TG Therapy (2003): "The suicide rate amongst transgenders is so high (43 per cent of transgenders in Australia have committed suicide or have made an attempt) and I don't want a dead child." (Alternate Link)
The abuse of a gay male adolescent in a Melbourne
school is implicated in suicide. A newspaper, The Age,
printed a related article (Nov, 1998 - not available online)
resulting in two letters to the editor that
outline the highly negative situation existing in schools for
gay and lesbian youth. - From a May, 1998 "The Age" article: "Parents need to
ask themselves if they would prefer our schools to deal
sensitively with homophobia, or read about a child's anguish in
a suicide note." From the Hunter Institute of Mental Health: An
innovative mental health education program, servicing the Hunter
Region and Northern New South Wales - Module 10: Gay and Lesbian Youth Suicide.
- Module 10 available as PDF Download:
Despite the current controversy surrounding the actual
prevalence of suicide among gay and lesbian young people, it is
likely that a young gay or lesbian person will experience some
form of prejudice due to their sexual orientation. It has been
argued that, as a consequence of such prejudice and
discrimination, gay and lesbian young people are more likely to
experience risk factors for suicide such as depression,
substance abuse and homelessness. The issues relevant to gay and
lesbian young people include both external and internal
ACON's Submission to The
Senate Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry into
Suicide in Australia (PDF):
and national research estimates that the rate of suicide
attempts for GLBT people is 3.5 to 14 times higher than for
their heterosexual peers. Further, it is well recognised that
suicide and self harm rates for same-sex attracted youth and
GLBT Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are even
higher. Given this unacceptable and alarming situation ACON
welcomes the opportunity to comment on this very important
issue... Part B. Accuracy of Suicide Reporting in Australia:
Suicide statistics reported by government authorities such as
the Australian Bureau of Statistics currently do not contain
figures on suicide of GLBT individuals. The data is not and
cannot be disaggregated by sexual orientation or gender identity
because the data collected do not contain sexual orientation or
gender identity indicators. Current demographic indicators
include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, age, sex
and location. By expanding the number of indicators to include
sexual orientation and gender identity, our understanding of
which priority groups commit suicide at disproportionate levels
would be improved, which would enhance the accuracy of suicide
reporting in Australia and a create stronger of evidence base
for policy and program development. Creating an opportunity to
report on the sexual orientation and gender identity of an
individual in coronial reports and collecting this data is
however not sufficient to ensure accuracy... - 2008
ACOSS Conference Speech: Mark Orr, ACON President: Gay,
lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) perspectives on social
inclusion/exclusion: A snapshot of the GLBT community
The Causes of the Causes: Oppression and
Suicide - Beyond an Individualistic Mental Illness Perspective
Keating, Hanna Rosenthal, Jacinta Wainwright & Kate Bennett,
Oppression, Power & Suicide: Women; & Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) People: • Research
evidence demonstrates that the discrimination, rejection and
abuse experienced by LGBT people has a negative impact on their
health and wellbeing and significantly increases the risk of
suicide. • Addressing the higher risk of suicide for LGBT
communities requires changing the social and institutional norms
that support discrimination and prejudice due to sexual
orientation. Interventions should also target family, school and
workplace settings given the high prevalence of rejection, abuse
and prejudice in these contexts... Social norms and institutions
that significantly advantage some people or groups and
disadvantage others are evident across society. Increasingly,
research has highlighted that the discrimination and prejudice
experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)
people in their everyday life is linked with depression; alcohol
and drug use; and suicide (Diaz et al., 2001; Harper &
Schneider, 2003; Hillier et al., 2005; Johnson et al., 2007;
McNair et al., 2001; Pitts et al., 2006; Rogers, 2007). Of
interest to this submission, one British study (Johnson et al.,
2007) identified that an incident of discrimination often
preceded suicide attempts, suggesting that suicidal distress is
not simply the result of individualised problems but the
response by some LGBT people to institutionalised discriminatory
practices perpetrated through education, health services,
religion, media and the family. As a result of heterosexism and
homophobia in the broader social and political context, LGBT
people experience feelings of guilt, shame, and fear of their
sexual orientation being identified, and often modify their
daily activities and behaviour due to fear of prejudice,
discrimination and abuse (Diaz et al., 2001; McNair et al.,
2001; Pitts et al., 2006). The capacity to develop a positive
self identity and self worth is hindered under such conditions,
(Johnson et al., 2007) and negative beliefs and feelings related
to gender stereotypes and homophobia experienced in the broader
social context is often internalised (Harper & Schneider,
2003; Oritz-Hernandez, 2005). Those who experience
discrimination and prejudice across a number of areas are even
further disadvantaged... Unlike the experience of other
marginalised groups, LGBT people often experience rejection and
abuse from family and friends due to their sexual orientation
(Brown, 2002; Harper & Schneider, 2003). The threat and
everyday experience of harassment, violence and abuse
particularly for young LGBT people in their home, school and
their workplaces is alarming Many same sex attracted young
people hide their sexual orientation or lead a double life to
protect themselves from abuse and rejection adding a significant
burden of personal stress (Harper & Schneider, 2003). It is
evident that if we are to address the increased psychological
distress experienced by LGBT people, we must remove
discrimination, positively recognise same sex relationships and
increase the legitimacy and acceptance ofdiverse sexual
orientation within the social and political context (Pitts et
Jake Lucas (PDF):
a young man named Mark had accepted his sexual orientation,
until he was repeatedly told by his church that God did not
support him being homosexual. He tried in vine to explain to
them he didn't choose this, it was who he was. Mark couldn't
take the pressure anymore, he ended his life leaving this note
to God "I just don't know how else to fix this." ... Mary
Wallner, a very devoted Christian was led by the Church to
condemn her Lesbian daughter, after Anna her daughter hanged
herself. Her grieving mother Mary now says "If I can sheer just
oneperson away from the pain and anguish I've been living, then
maybe Anna's death will have meaning."
The Gender Centre Inc., Sydney, Australia (A, PDF): LGBT Organisations: Issues of Sex and Gender Diversity are often seen as an “add-on” for organisations focused around sexuality and/or sexual health. This ‘inclusion’ is not a comfortable one – either for Sex and Gender Diverse people, or for many of the organisations affected. Issues of Sex and Gender Diversity are fundamentally different from issues of sexuality, and organizations whose primary goal is focused around sexuality generally have little motivation to direct resources to Sex and Gender Diverse issues. Roughly 40% of Sex and Gender Diverse people identify as heterosexual and are not comfortable accessing services that have been designed to meet the specific needs of gays and lesbians. Levels of discrimination against Sex and Gender Diverse people from within the gay and lesbian community are at least as high as they are within in the broader community... In Conclusion: As already said the issue of suicide is pertinent for all Australia and for the transgender population the issues of extremely significant because of the risks and experiences transgender people are exposed to that make them more vulnerable to succumbing suicidal behaviors and actions. The Gender Centre as the leading Centre for advocacy of this marginalized community urge the senate to take note of the issues and ideas discussed in this paper and recognize that there is a great need for action to resolve the threat to the health and well being of the transgender population inAustralia in an appropriate and open understanding framework.The Gender Centre Inc., Sydney, Australia (B, PDF): The Gender Centre as the peak organization for transgender people in NSW has a plethora of anecdotal evidence on the subject of suicide. It is by combining this anecdotal evidence with the statistical data available that a picture of transgender suicide in Australia can be formulated. The SPA position Statement (2009) does argue that the current research that is available indicates that the prevalence and rates of self harm and attempted suicide are significantly higher amongst transgender people than among non transgender populations.
I have a few concerns when it comes to youth and mental health: 1) Targeted programs/mental health services for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender,questioning (GLBT) young people. Rates of poor mental health, illness and suicide disproportionately affect young people who are gay. I can't think of anyone within my circle of glbt friends and acquaintances that HASN'T had depression, anxiety or another mental health issue. I know of too many young people who have taken their own lives due to issues around their sexuality and there are many for whom we will never know that it was a factor. A new friend told me during the week that his 16yo bf of two years recently committed suicide. Neither the person who died or my friend had/has support around them because it is not safe for them to be out. The issues/concerns that affect that are specifically glbt related. Female - age 23SPA - Suicide Prevention Austalia (2009, PDF): v. Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities: SPA recognises that strategies aimed at reducing suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBT) communities must: • Promote socially inclusive and supportive environments that affirm sexual and gender diversity. This, in itself, is a complex task that will require efforts to address the often hostile social environments in which many GLBT individuals live, work and study. Challenging homophobia and transphobia at the interpersonal, sociocultural, and institutional levels is critical. • Be collaborative, multidisciplinary and incorporate both mental health promotion and crisis intervention strategies that are accessible and, where appropriate, are culturally specific to GLBT individuals... It is important to acknowledge also the diversity within and between GLBT communities. Factors such as gender, age, cultural background, location and disability may significantly impact on life experience and the determination of appropriate responses to individual situations. Sexual orientation and gender identity should also be distinguished as independent from one another, while also recognising that individuals may or may not identify with the commonly used terms ‘gay’, ‘lesbian’, ‘bisexual’, and/or ‘transgender’. It should also be recognised that conflicts between spiritual or religious beliefs and sexuality can result in significant psychological dissonance as well as division and exclusion from family, friends and community, and that there remains conflicting evidence regarding whether any association exists between HIV/AIDS and depression, suicide and/or self-harm. Studies do support, however, the proposition that GLBT people utilise the internet as a primary means of learning more about sexuality and gender identity, as well as a way to connect with peers through participation in online communities and social networks (Hegland & Nelson, 2002; Hillier et al., 2001). Both Hillier et al (2001) and Hegland and Nelson (2002) report that the positive self-worth gained from online experiences further enables young people (in particular) to feel confident in coming out to their friends and families and seeking offline help to support them in coming to terms with gender identity and sexuality issues. More recently, research has also identified the significance of online communication to older people, indicating that older GLBT people could benefit from online intervention and support (Aguilar, Boerema, & Harrison, 2009).
New Zealand: - Youth’07: Youth'07 The
Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New
Zealand: Results for Young People Attracted to the Same Sex or
Both Sexes (2009, Download
Page): "These aside, it is of concern that
same/both-sex-attracted students did not experience the same
improvements as their opposite-sex-attracted peers between 2001
and 2007. For example, same/both-sex-attracted students did not
show the increase in those who felt happy or satisfied with life
seen among opposite-sex-attracted students, and of even greater
concern, nor did they share the same decreases in suicide
attempts observed among opposite-sex-attracted students between
2001 and 2007." Attempted Suicide results - same-sex attracted
vs. heterosexual: 2001
(22% vs. 7% = 3-times the risk), 2007 (20% vs. 4% = 5-times the
Other Results From This Study on This Webpage. Related
New Story: The
challenges New Zealand's gay/bi teenagers face (2009):
"Youth '07 launched tomorrow, it's not all gloom and doom ya
know. Queer young peeps rock," Rainbow Youth chairperson
Toni Reid 'Twittered' the night before New Zealand's
biggest-ever insight into the lives of gay/bi young people
was presented to the public. She's right of course. The
Rainbow Youth crew see hundreds of healthy and happy LGBT
young people visit their centre, join their groups, and even
tell their 'coming out' stories to other students in the
classrooms they're invited to. But this week's headlines
tell a different story: Half of gay/bi students have
self-harmed. Gay students are three times more likely to be
bullied at school. And, heartbreakingly, gay teens are five
times more likely to attempt suicide than their straight
peers. "There were some challenging findings," agrees
researcher Mathijs Lucassen. "But they can inspire us to
make changes in our schools and communities." Many same-sex
specific "at risk" results are given in the article.
Ministry of Health (2008). New Zealand
Suicide Prevention Action Plan 2008-2012: The Evidence for
Action. Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Health (PDF).
youth issues are noted but their suicidality is mentioned in
such a way that the problem is somewhat "minimized." The
following was written: "Recent research strongly suggests that
people of non-heterosexual orientation are at increased risk of
developing mental disorders and have higher rates of suicidal
behaviour (Fergusson, Horwood and Ridder et al 2005; Herrell et
al 1999; Russell and Joyner 2001; Skegg et al 2003). Among New
Zealand young adults, the rate of mental health problems was
higher for those with a predominantly same sex orientation than
for their exclusively heterosexual peers – five times higher for
males and twice as high for females (Fergusson, Horwood and
Ridder et al 2005). A United States study of high school
students found that those with a same-sex orientation were twice
as likely to attempt suicide as their heterosexual peers
(Russell and Joyner 2001). Initial indications are that
transgender and intersexpopulations are also at increased risk
(Fitzpatrick et al 2005; Johannsen, Ripa et al 2006)." The Risk
Ratios for the Russell and Joyner 2001 study was about 2.5 for both
same-sex attracted males and females, this being the near-lowest
RR produced in American studies. Not mentioned was the RR of 3
for males and females combined in the 2001 NZ school survey
given above, that would become and RR of 5 in the 2007 school
survey. Also not mentioned is why New Zealand is NOT producing
studies of child/youth suicide as it was done in British
Columbia, Canada... with likely results that would then permit
the mainstream New Zealand "suicide" authorities to state that
non-heterosexual children/youth are at risk for suicide.
Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.
From The National Centre of Mental
Health Research, Information and Workplace Development:
in Progress or Published (September, 2010):
In Progress: Review and update of suicide prevention guidelines for schools. Research team: Dr Sunny Collings (University of Otago), Barry Taylor.
These researchers will review and update the existing suicide prevention guidelines for schools. New evidence and services have emerged since the original guidelines were developed over 10 years ago. The guidelines update will be informed by stakeholder consultation, literature review and pre-testing of the updated guidelines. The researchers will produce a full guideline, literature review and summary guideline aimed at school stakeholder audiences. These documents will include evidence-based recommendations for safe and effective suicide prevention in schools. Note: May contain "at risk" GLBT adolescent related guidelines.
In Progress: Report to inform the provision of mental health promotion and prevention services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex populations in New Zealand. Research team: (SHORE and Whariki Research Centre) Jeffery Adams, Dr Pauline Dickinson, Dr Launuola Asiasiga, Dr Tim McCreanor, Associate Professor Helen Moewaka Barnes.
This project will produce a needs assessment report on mental health promotion and prevention service requirements for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) populations in New Zealand. The report will include a review of the evidence, a description of existing services and programmes and identification of gaps in service provision. It will also provide recommendations for service provision and funding which would improve mental health promotion and prevention service provision and inter-agency collaboration for resourcing services.
Published: Youth '07: Fact Sheet - The Health and Wellbeing of Secondary School Students in New Zealand (2010): Notes that... Another group that is particularly vulnerable are students who are attracted to the same sex or both sexes (4% of students). Of these students, 20% reported making a suicide attempt in the previous 12 months which is five times the rate reported by students attracted exclusively to the opposite sex. PDF. Download Page. Download Page.
Published: Fortune S, Watson P, Robinson E, Fleming T, Merry S, Denny S (2010). Youth’07: The health and wellbeing of secondary school students in New Zealand: Suicide behaviours and mental health in 2001 and 2007. Auckland: The University of Auckland. PDF. Download Page. Download Page. Notes that... "Another group that is particularly vulnerable are students who are attracted to the same sex or to both sexes. These students show much higher levels of significant depressive symptoms, self-harm and suicide behaviours than those who are attracted to the opposite sex (Rossen, Lucassen, Denny & Robinson, 2009 [See Study Results on This Webpage]). Analysis of the 2007 survey results showed that students who were attracted to the same sex or to both sexes were much more likely to report a suicide attempt (20.0%) in the past 12 months than students who were attracted to the opposite sex (4.0%). Comment: Results should at least be given separately for sexual minority males and females. Also separately for bisexual students." The report also supplies Useful Links for Youth Mental Health: Young People Attracted to the Same Sex or Both Sexes: - Rainbow Youth. - OUTlineNZ: OUTLine is a free, confidential telephone counselling service for the rainbow community New Zealand wide. - Out There! Project: OUT THERE! was a Joint National Youth Development Project between the New Zealand AIDS Foundation (NZAF) and Rainbow Youth. Out There aimed to enhance the wellbeing of queer youth within Aotearoa New Zealand by providing resources, running workshops, commissioning research and organising hui (conferences). Due to multiple reasons Out There was unable to continue. - The "Making Schools Safe for People of Every Sexuality – PPTA Guidelines" link is not available,
SAFETY IN OUR SCHOOLS - KO TE HAUMARU I O TATOU KURA: An action kit for Aotearoa New Zealand schools to address sexual orientation prejudice (2005): During the past year 30.4% of non-heterosexual students report that they have thought of killing themselves - During the past year15.3% of non-heterosexual have attempted suicide [ Le Brun C, Robinson E, Warren H, Watson PD (2004). Non-heterosexual Youth - A Profile of their Health and Wellbeing. Findings of Youth2000. A National Secondary School Youth Health Survey. Auckland: The University of Auckland. Download Page. Study Results.]. Note: Results are from the 2001 survey. "Youth2000 survey" Reports (2001 & 2007 Surveys): Download Page.
Fleming TM, Merry SN, Robinson EM, Denny SJ,
Watson PD (2007). Self-reported suicide attempts and
associated risk and protective factors among secondary school
students in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal
of Psychiatry, 41(3): 213-21. Abstract.
Significance of Diversity for Suicide Prevention
Initiatives (2007, Download
Page): ‘GLBTI’people: Rates of suicidal thoughts and
behaviours, and mental health problems associated with
suicide are between 1.5 and 12 times higher for GLB people
than for heterosexuals in NZ (eg Fergusson et al. 2005,
Skegget al. 2003, Fleming et al. 2007 ) - Transgender and
intersex people also have higher risk of psychological
distress, suicidal thoughts and behaviours (egFitzpatrick
et al. 2005, Johannsenet al. 2006) - Many people are aware
of same-sex attraction by age 13, but few disclose this to
anybody before leaving school (eg Le Brunet al. 2004) -
Most GLB youth who attempt suicide have not ‘come out’ -
Many GLBTI people are reluctant to access health services
or ‘come out’ to professionals for fear of a negative
response (eg Semp2006, Fish 2006, Myers et al 2005,
Meckler et al. 2006, Neville & Henrickson 2006)
Subjects of Suicide: Cultural Studies, Sexuality and Youth
Suicide Concepts in New Zealand (2001, by Rob Cover,
Must scroll): Abstract: This paper undertakes a brief
examination of current trends in New Zealand youth suicide
research and policy, arguing that the extent to which youth
sexuality is addressed is comparatively limited. Although
lesbian/gay/bisexual sexualities, concerns and identities are
relatively absent, it is important not merely to add minority
sexualities to suicide concepts in New Zealand research and
policy development; rather these are well-placed to take
on-board highly-nuanced understandings of sexuality that (a)
draw on culturalist, queer theory and
postmodern/poststructuralist approaches, and (b) are more in
line with a culture of sexual fluidity among contemporary youth.
Personal and identity-related anxieties around such a sexual
culture, it is argued, may be among risk factors for youth
suicide. By showing how youth sexuality is either marginalised
or mis-read by policy-makers and researchers, some early
indicators of directions suicide research might take with regard
to sexuality are asserted here.
New Zealand: First New Zealand study to explore GLB suicidality issues: Longitudinal Youth Study (By age 21: Suicide attempt incidence for GLB identified youth is 32.1%, and 7.0% for the others (Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Beautrais AL (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10): 876-80. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.). The risk also continues after the teenage years: Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Ridder EM, Beautrais AL (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 35(7): 971-981. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download. - A 2000/2003 study of suicidality and gay youth by John Fenaughty: "Life on the seesaw: an assessment of suicide risk and resiliency for bisexual and gay male youth in Aotearoa / New Zealand.
New Zealand: New study to eventually be ready for peer review and likely publication - "A New Zealand study being conducted by researchers at the Dunedin School of Medicine will determine the association between sexual orientation (based on a measure of sexual attraction) and a range of behaviours indicative of deliberate self-harm (suicidal, non-suicidal intent). The study is based on the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS). The findings are expected to complement those reported by Fergusson and colleagues (1999) in the Archives of General Psychiatry." (Cited from a March 21, 2000 email from Shyamala Nada-Raja written in response to a request made by Pierre Tremblay for related information.). - The study was then published in the American Journal of Psychiatry: Lifetime suicide attempt incidences for young adult males: Heterosexual (6%), Minor Homosexuality (16%), Significant Homosexuality (25%). For females: Heterosexual (9%), Minor Homosexuality (11%), Significant Homosexuality (33%). Skegg K, Nada-Raja S, Dickson N, Paul C, Williams S (2003). Sexual orientation and self-harm in men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(3): 541-6. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.
New Zealand: - In Ya Face - Like, for example, the mis-conception that sexuality has nothing to do with some people killing themselves. I disagree. Large numbers of gays and lesbians have grappled with the thought of putting a gun to their head, or jumping off the bridge. Why? Because being gay, lesbian or transgendered in Aotearoa, despite the changes in the past decade, is still a bloody hard thing to be. It's incredibly hard, and the pressures are such that it pushes too many youths, literally, off the edge... Let's get very real, very quickly, and start to recognize that a large proportion of youth suicides may be attributed to the pressures of being gay or lesbian. - Andrew, a married man with 3 children, attempted suicide 3 times before coming to terms with a secret few would have known - except for the males he had sex with - had he died from his suicide attempts (1998).
Factors influencing the risk of suicide for
gay and lesbian people include (NZ Site): (Home Page):
Awareness of being gay or lesbian and first sexual experience -
Total rejection by family over coming out - Rejection by society
- Promiscuity and unsafe sex - Homophobic assaults and cruel
taunts. - Risk Factors for Youth Suicide
(2002): "Sexual Orientation: There is growing international
evidence to confirm that young gay, lesbian and bisexual people
have higher rates of suicidal behaviour, arising from lack of
support for their sexual orientation and the discrimination they
in New Zealand II: a review of risk factors and prevention
(Annette Beautrais, New Zealnad Medical Journal, 2003):
"Psychosocial stresses... Sexual orientation Clear linkages have
been established between sexual orientation and suicide attempt
behaviour. These findings have been reported for New Zealand,
with results indicating that young people of gay, lesbian and
bisexual orientation had rates of suicidal ideation and attempt
that were over five times those of heterosexual youth."
England: - Rates and predictors of mental illness in gay men, lesbians and bisexual men and women: Results from a survey based in England and Wales (Pub Med 2004 Abstract) (Full Text): "Of the 1285 gay, lesbian and bisexual respondents who took part, 556 (43%) had mental disorder as defined by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS - R). Out of the whole sample, 361 (31%) had attempted suicide. This was associated with markers of discrimination such as recent physical attack (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3) and school bullying (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0)..." - Boy, 10, hangs himself after telling his mother: 'I want to be a girl' (2008). - Another Gay Male Suicide in Cornwall (with Police involvement?) (2008). - Lesbian couple found dead in suspected suicide pact (2009). - Gay torment drove me to suicide bid (2008-1996). - Frazer M (2005). Some Queers are Safer Than Others: Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in Britain. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Philadelphia, PA. Readable online a unformatted document text.
Study: Mental health and
quality of life of gay men and lesbians in England and Wales
(Abstract) (PubMed Abstract) (Full
Text): "Gay men and lesbians were more likely than
heterosexuals to have consulted a mental health professional
in the past, deliberately harmed themselves and used
recreational drugs. Lesbians were more likely to have
experienced verbal and physical intimidation and to consume
more alcohol than heterosexual women." - New Study Indicates Gays and Lesbians Prone
To Psychological Symptoms and Substance Abuse - But School
Harassment Rates Not Higher for Gay Males. - Boy,
15, lay down in front of train after gay taunts (2007). -
teen told to stop wasting taxpayer's money (2009).
Cull M, Platzer H, Balloch S (2006). Out On My Own: Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. Brighton & Hove, England: Health and Social Policy Research Centre, Faculty of Health, School of Applied Social Science, University of Brighton. Internet: PDF. Research Summary: PDF: Nearly all the young people in our study reported a history of mental health problems or substance misuse. Over two thirds had a history of attempting suicide and half reported alcohol or substance misuse.
Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse (Pub Med 2004 Abstract): "Until recently in England, Section 28 of the Local Government Act (1988), forbidding the promotion of homosexuality, further reinforced negativity towards this group of people. This compounded the negative mental health consequences for those developing a gay sexual orientation in a climate of heterosexism. Current health care policy in England concerns itself with the rising number of suicides among young people but fails to acknowledge the importance of the research findings relating to gay people by integrating them into the development of mental health policy. This paper reviews the literature relating to homosexual people and suicidality, and addresses the seriousness of a policy rhetoric which results from ignoring the evidence while dictating mental health nursing practice." - A greater awareness of the mental health needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people is required.
Suicide problems after becoming part of gay
community: No Way Out - "The shocking statistics for
suicide amongst gay teenagers have traditionally been attributed
to the pressures of coming out in a hetero-defined society.
Murray Healy discovers an alarming new trend amongst
twenty-somethings who find the promised land of the urban gay
community isn’t all they expected it to be... Last year, six
friends of mine tried to kill themselves. All men in their
twenties, all intelligent, attractive, popular, and seemingly
happy; and all, to a greater or lesser extent, identifying as
gay. I started the year never having known anyone who’d
attempted suicide. By christmas it felt like my world had been
struck by an epidemic:" Three cases are described. "The Project for Advice, Counselling and
Education N/A (PACE) recognize that gay suicide is not a
problem restricted to the pre-coming-out years of adolescence.
"It’s an ongoing problem", one counselor told me. Many gay men
don't find the support they need on the gay scene." It's a
telling indictment of gay society that, far from providing a
solution to the homophobia of conventional life, the gay scene,
and it's me-generation hedonism, makes gay people feel more
isolated and alienated. - Warning
over gay community's suicide rate (2007): Gay and
transgender people are up to three times more likely to attempt
suicide than heterosexuals, a charity has claimed. MindOUT, a
mental health group for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender community in Brighton, says it deals with at least
150 people a year who have either made suicide attempts or had
suicidal feelings... "If you come with high expectations of
lovely LGBT Brighton and then don't fit in or are confronted
with as much homophobia than ever it seems like there is no hope
at all"... MindOUT has been working on a suicide prevention
project which culminated with planting a weeping cherry tree in
St Ann's Well Gardens, Hove, last month." - LGBT Suicide
Prevention Strategy for Brighton & Hove (2008, PDF).
Psychology and LGBT Suicide Prevention in Brighton and Hove
(2008, PPT): A central concern for participants at MindOut was
‘double stigma’ being alienated from the LGBT community because
of mental health issues was as problematic as being isolated,
and sometimes pathologised, within mental health services
because of their LGBT identification. - MINDOUT &
The Stigma (2009): MindOut was created as a response to
the poor service LGBT people received from mental health service
providers and to change the way LGBT people were being treated
at the time. It now reaches 300 people a year in every part of
the community including trans people. It has recently launched
BlackOUT for BME people in the community.
Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association News Release - 1999 (Alternate Link): - "Take the case of Simon Harvey, son of George Harvey who runs a so-called counselling service for gays in East Anglia. Simon killed himself because he couldn't reconcile his homosexuality with the stance taken by his evangelical Christian father. More recently, a young man in Rotherham killed himself after listening to the American evangelist Pat Robertson condemning homosexual relationships - a tragedy brought to light by the coroner at the inquest. - Gay star reveals suicide attempt (2006): "Gay actor Stephen Fry will reveal his struggle with depression and suicide contemplation in a new BBC documentary highlighting the condition later this year."
cultural context of youth suicide: Identity, gender, and
sexuality (2005, PDF.
Research in Progress: (PDF
Link) - Downloads):
is growing international evidence that young people struggling
with issues of sexuality and gender identity face increased
likelihood of attempting suicide. This has been raised
repeatedly as an issue in the U.K. though not yet researched
in detail. The proposed study will explore the cultural
context of youth suicide in England and Wales, with a focus on
the significance of gender identity and sexuality." On The
Edge Project: Research on young people in distress: Project
One-Day Workshop. - LGBT young people's
experiences of distress: resilience, ambivalence and
self-destructive behaviour (2009): The empirical basis
for the paper is qualitative research that was carried out in
the North West of England and South Wales. Focus groups and
interviews were conducted with a total of 69 young people,
with a purposive sample to reflect diversity of sexual
identity, social class and regional and rural-urban location.
The paper presents a thematic analysis of the data
specifically relating to the experiences of LGBT young people.
A range of strategies that LGBT young people employ in the
face of distress are described. These are categorised as
resilience, ambivalence and self-destructive behaviour
(including self-harm and suicide). The potential implications
for health and social care of these strategies include the
need for ecological approaches and for sexual cultural
competence in practitioners, as well as prioritisation of LGBT
risk within suicide prevention policies. - Avoiding
shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive
behaviours (2008): Data from interviews and focus groups
with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between
homophobia and self-destructive behaviours... The paper argues
that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT
people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of
support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to
'Suicide wish' of gay bullying victims (07/18/00, BBC): "A large proportion of lesbian, gay and bisexual pupils who are bullied by their classmates try to commit suicide, according to research. A study suggests that half of them contemplate killing or harming themselves, and four in 10 actually harm themselves at least once... The research also indicates that 17% - nearly one in five - display symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder later in life... The findings by Dr Ian Rivers, of the College of Ripon and York St John, were being presented to The British Psychological Society's Lesbian and Gay Section Conference at the University of Surrey on Tuesday. " - Rivers I (2000). Social exclusion, absenteeism and sexual minority youth. Support For Learning, 17(1): 13-18. Abstract. Study Results. - Victims of gay bashing suicide link. - Rivers I (2004). Recollections of bullying at school and their long-term implications for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Crisis, 25(4):169-75. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Full Text.
On October 6, 1998, in a news item titled "UK 'Teachers
bully gay pupils'" BBC News reported that some teachers
abuse boys known (or believed) to be gay, thus creating and/or
exacerbating problems - including suicide problems - for these
adolescent. Anecdotal suicide-related information is given. (Alternate article link.) - A
1996 double lesbian youth suicide.
At the time of his suicide Fashanu was wanted by police after fleeing America, where he had a coaching job, in the wake of charges that he performed a sexual act on a 17-year-old boy N/A. - Peter Tatchell says it was homophobia that ultimately destroyed the career and life of football star Justin Fashanu (1998). - The last days of a footballer, by Brian Deer. - Darren Steele (N/A, 1998) had suffered a five-year ordeal of taunting and beating from fellow pupils at de Ferrers High in Burton because he was thought to be gay, purely because of his love of cookery and drama classes. Darren left a suicide note naming those he blamed for his death, and this resulted in the arrest of 11 pupils, although the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to prosecute them. Choirboy [Darren Steele] hanged himself after years of bullying. More related items: 1, 2, 3, 4. - Let's talk about sexuality (1998): The Samaritans and the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard have been building bridges to improve services available to the despairing and suicidal. - Student who died under train told family he was gay (2002): "A gifted Cambridge University student was killed under a Tube train hours after revealing his homosexuality to his parents, an inquest was told yesterday.... An argument erupted after Frederick Hodder, 21, made his announcement and he had left the family home in a "distressed state". His family did not learn until the next day that he had died after drinking the equivalent of a bottle of whisky."
Straight Talk (2000): One of the top four causes of young people committing suicide is conflict due to sexual orientation (according to the Department of Health booklet Sometimes I Think I Can't Go On Anymore published in 1995). If young gay men and lesbian women were to receive supportive education, and their peers were encouraged to become more understanding of homosexuality, many of the suicides committed by young people will be avoided.
The UK Childline states (1998): "Groups particularly at risk of suicide include unemployed or homeless young people, young gay men and lesbians and young people who have problems with drugs."
Suicide and deliberate self-harm N/A (2001): The Fundamental Facts from The UK Mental Health Foundation. Includes some information on gay and lesbian suicide problems.
Gay Health Issues: In 1992 The Department of Health set a target to reduce the suicide rate among the general pollution by 15 per cent by the year 2000.. A group called 'Esteem' is currently researching attempted suicide rates among the lesbian, gay and bisexual young people as it is believed that the rates are alarmingly high.
The Community News" May 1999: "Young gay men have the highest percentage of attempted suicide. A recent study (Toner et al 1999) found that 54.1 % of their sample of gay men had made at least one suicide attempt. Indeed their sample was 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than the generic population." (From the "AIDS Education Unit N/A (Archive Link): HIV health promotion in Barnet and surrounding areas..." web site, London).
Suicide Is Everyone's Concern: A Thematic Review by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons (1999). - Inquest opens into lesbian prison suicide (2009).
Gay prisoners: "5.19 Young people who are gay can be seen as particularly vulnerable to the risk of suicide or self-harm. This is not because of their sexual orientation as such, but due to their isolation, fear of being misunderstood or abused, and lack of people to trust and talk to. Again we stress the importance of increasing understanding and tolerance of diversity.
Discrimination Hurts: New Research Reveals the Damaging Impact fo Homopnobia on Mental Health (1998). "More than half of mental health workers have helped gay men and lesbians left emotionally scarred by discrimination because of their sexual identity, according to a national survey by the Health Education Authority for World Mental Health Day... Fifty three per cent of those surveyed said they had helped patients who had been discriminated against because of their sexuality, accounting for nine per cent of the patients of psychiatrists, 13 per cent of Community Psychiatric Nurse cases and a third of primary care specialist cases." ... A spokesperson for PACE said: 'We are pleased that this campaign recognises that the discrimination and homophobia faced by lesbians and gay men can have detrimental effects on their mental health.' ... According to those surveyed, the most common results of discrimination were: * lower self esteem (94 per cent) * social isolation/exclusion (89 per cent) * depression and anxiety (77 per cent) * drug and alcohol misuse (58 per cent)* suicidal feelings (51 per cent)
Lesbian Information Service reports
on "a qualitative study conducted 1990-1991." IT "found high
levels of attempted suicide and self-harm ( 14 out of 20
Download )." Study Results are reported in Bridget J
and Lucille S (1996). Lesbian Youth Support Information
Service (LYSIS) : Developing a distance support agency for
young lesbians. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6
(5), 355-364. (Note: The study also reports high levels of abuse
of the young lesbians studied by older lesbians). - Meads C, Buckley E, Sanderson P
(2007). Ten years of lesbian health survey research in the
UK West Midlands. BMC Public Health, 19(7): 251. Full
Results: The mean age of respondents varied between 29–33 years
and 5–7% were from a non-white ethnic background. The smoking
rates varied from 42% o 55%, being twice the West Midlands
regional average of 21% for women aged 16 or more. Similarly,
problems with alcohol were reported in 25–37% of respondents,
higher than the West Midlands regional average of 7% for women
aged 16+. The prevalence of any mental health problem varied
between 31–35% and any suicide attempt between 20–31%. Only
29–45% had revealed their sexual orientation to their GP and of
these, approximately 50% had experienced a positive reaction. Inaugural European Conference: Gay and
Lesbian Identities N/A: Working with Young People,
their Families and Schools -
University College London - 29-30 March 1999 -- ‘Improving and
Informing Theory and Practice’ - Changing Families:
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity work in mental health:
An evidence-based guide for people who work with families
(2006, PACE: PDF
National Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Conference:
Children who do not fully conform to traditional gender
stereotypes (whether or not they self-identify as lesbian,
bisexual or transgender are frequently emotionally, verbally
and physically bullied not only by their peers but even by the
adults in their lives. This can lead to children becoming
withdrawn, social outcasts and in some cases result in severe
depression and suicide. The effect on self-esteem, social
interaction, confidence and academic achievement can often
continue into adulthood and significantly reduce future
employment prospects and workplace confidence. Institutional
transphobia and lack of recognition of gender diversity within
families by educational and social service provider's often
results in lesbian, gay, bisexual transgender (LGBT) families
receiving discriminatory or inappropriate service provision.
Conference is extremely concerned that the United Kingdom (UK)
Government currently fails to recognise the need for
protection of children and families from transphobic
discrimination and harassment in education service provision.
Ireland & Northern Ireland
Ireland & Northern Ireland: -A fifth of gay people tried suicide - study (2009): Almost 20 per cent of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people have attempted suicide and almost all saw this as related to their sexual identity and the experiences of being abused and feeling isolated, a report to be published today has found. The study, Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People, also found almost one-third of respondents had self-harmed at least once. Report Download Page: Report PDF, PDF. Report's Key Findings (PDF): Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People (Mayock et al, 2009) is the most significant and comprehensive study of LGBT people and their lives in Ireland to date, and it has a special emphasis on young people. The online survey gathered data from 1,110 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, and face-to-face interviews were carried out with 40 people. The study was commissioned by BeLonG To Youth Services and GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network), funded by the HSE’s National Office for Suicide Prevention (NOSP), and conducted by the Childrens’ Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin, and the School of Education, University College Dublin.- Irish president warns of link between anti-gay bullying and suicide. - I'm gay myself -- but even I was shocked by this new Irish survey. - LGBT Health: Towards meeting the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (2009, PDF). - A framework to support social inclusion for lesbian, gay & bisexual people (2008, PDF).
Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Students in Post-Primary Schools: Guidance for Principals and School Leaders (2009, PDF, Download Page). School leaders often find themselves having to deal with these challenges without supports and resources being readily available. In response to this, the Department of Education & Science has worked collaboratively with GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network) to produce this resource. It is intended to support school leaders when addressing the challenge of homophobic bullying and when addressing other sexual orientation issues in their school. The resource is set out in stand-alone sections and provides information and practical suggestions on how school leaders can support young people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual. - Minister for Lifelong Learning Speech (2009, Word Download, Download Page). - Comments by Sandra Gowran, Director of Education Policy, GLEN at the launch (2009, Word Download, Download Page). Related Press Release (2009, Word Download, Download Page).
Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual People: The Irish Institute of Mental Health Nursing: A Good Practice Guide for Mental Health Nurses (2010, PDF, Download Page): "This good practice guide has been developed by the Irish Institute of Mental Health Nursing (IIMHN) in collaboration with GLEN (Gay and Lesbian Equality Network) to inform mental health nurses of what they need to know when providing a service to a lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) person. In recent years, a number of national policies have highlighted the need for lesbian, gay and bisexual people’s needs to be considered by health professionals and for health care providers to be more inclusive of lesbian, gay and bisexual people in their practice. There are specific issues that mental health nurses need to be aware of when providing a services to LGB people. By being aware of these issues nurses can help to reduce or eliminate the barriers to accessing support services that LGB people face. This guide is intended to support mental health nurses to provide services that are accessible for LGB people and one that is appropriate to theirneeds." Suicidality Study Results Given: "17.7% of respondents had attempted suicide, just under two thirds of whom had tried to end their lives on more than one occasion. 85% of those who had attempted suicide saw their first attempt as in some way related to their LGB identity and almost 50% saw it as very or very much related to their LGB identity. A quarter of all female survey participants and fifteen percent of male participants had attempted suicide at least once in their lifetime. A higher proportion of those identifying as bisexual (25%) had attempted suicide than those who identified as gay or lesbian (17%). 13% of participants had actually made a suicide plan during the previous twelve months and almost a fifth of these had gone on to attempt suicide. The average age of first attempted suicide was 17.46 years (with an age range of 8 to 42 years), which supports existing evidence that it is young LGB people who are most at risk of suicidal behaviour. Over half of those aged 25 or younger admitted to ever having given serious consideration to ending their own lives while just under a fifth admitted to ever having attempted suicide. Over a third of those aged 25 years and under had thought seriously about ending their lives within the past year. This indicates that a significant sub-group of young of LGB young people in particular are at risk for suicidal ideation and attempting suicide.
Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) Callers: An Introduction for Samaritans Volunteers (2010, PDF, Download Page): This guide is written for Samaritans volunteers to support them in providing a confidential, non-judgemental listening service to LGBT callers. It aims to advance their understanding of the circumstances and experiences of LGBT people in Ireland so that they may better understand the issues callers may be dealing with. In addition to the general reasons for someone calling Samaritans, there are specific issues that LGBT callers may be facing. They can also face challenges and barriers which Samaritans volunteers can help reduce or eliminate. The guide includes good practice guidelines for Samaritans volunteers and the appendix contains a list of LGBT organisations and services in Ireland as well as a reading reference list.
Report: Suicide prevention plan largely ignored (2009): Only a fifth of recommendations from a major suicide prevention plan have been properly acted on three years after it was first published, it emerged today. The report – The High Level of Suicide in Irish Society – was launched in July 2006 by the Oireachtas Health Committee with 33 actions aimed at tackling the country’s high suicide levels. But a review found work has been carried out on just seven, with limited or no progress made on the rest by the agencies responsible, including the Department of Health, HSE and gardaí. “We absolutely have to challenge it because it can result in young people, who are trying to come to terms with their sexual orientation, self harming or worse and that’s not acceptable,” he said. “There are a lot of people who would consider this to be inappropriate in certain schools. “I think some places don’t even have proper sexual education never mind discussions about the danger of homophobic bullying so we do have a bit work to do.” Mr Andrews said he was concerned over reports teachers have victimised youngsters over their sexual orientation. “If it exists at all it’s a real worry to me,” said Mr Andrews. “I was a school teacher myself and I find it hard to believe that teachers would be, in the first instance, that ignorant about homosexuality but also to bully children about it. - A fifth of gay people tried suicide – “Step up and Speak out”.
Invitation to Tender (2010, Word Download): The Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN) in collaboration with Age & Opportunity wish to commission a research project entitled, Identifying the experiences and needs of older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) people in Ireland and recommending positive ageing strategies and actions to promote their full participation and inclusion in Irish society. Full details, including tender guidelines, are attached... No large-scale research has been carried out in Ireland that specifically identifies the experiences and needs of older LGBT people in Ireland. As a result, the Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN) wish to commission a research study to identify the circumstances and needs of older LGBT people in the Republic of Ireland (55 and over). The research will also recommend mechanisms for addressing the identified needs of older LGBT people in an Irish context... In an Irish context, the most significant research to-date on LGBT people is the Supporting LGBT Lives study (Mayock et al 2009). This study was commissioned by BeLonG To Youth Service and GLEN and was funded by the National Office for Suicide Prevention. The aim was to examine LGBT mental health and well-being, including the identification of suicide risk and resilience factors among Irish LGBT people... While the findings of Supporting LGBT Lives give an in-depth picture of what it is like to grow up and live as an LGBT person in Ireland, LGBT people over 50 were under-represented in the sample. This further highlights the need to examine the particular circumstances, experiences and needs of older LGBT people and to carry out research on this sub-group of the LGBT population.
Responding to the needs
of vulnerable lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered youth
Download). By: Michael Barron, Belong To Youth Project and Eoin Collins, Gay and Lesbian
Equality Network. Paper Presented to: Irish Association of
Suicidology 5th National Conference ‘Partnerships for Reducing
Youth Suicide’: One of the most alarming findings from research
on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people has been
evidence of elevated rates of suicide and attempted suicide, and
mental health problems among young LGBT people. The 2004 ShOut
Report, commissioned by the Department of Education in Northern
Ireland for example, found that that among young people surveyed
across Northern Ireland, those who identified as LGBT were:
• At least three times more likely to attempt
suicide; • Two and half times more likely to self
harm; • Five times more likely to be medicated for
depression; and • Twenty times more likely to suffer from
an eating disorder than their heterosexual counterparts
(YouthNet, 2004). These problems are directly linked to the
additional challenges that LGBT youth face in their lives,
challenges that others of the same age may not experience, or
experience to the same degree. These include:...
Suicide shocks Derry gay community (2007): "Eamon Johnston, the winner of Mr Gay Derry 2003, has committed suicide. He was 22... Mr Johnston was a hairdresser and support counsellor for gay group Rainbow Project... His mother told Derry Journal that her son was a "lovely wee boy" and appealed to other suicidal peopleto seek help instead of taking their lives...- Ireland’s First Gay & Lesbian Awareness Week for Young People (2010).GLBT suicide problems are expected to be similar in magnitude to the situation existing in countries where related research had been carried out (1998). - The Irish Times (1998): Mr Kieran Rose of the Gay and Lesbian Equality Network (GLEN), which made a submission in 1996, accused the task force of willfully ignoring the issue of gay and lesbian suicide (Must subscribe). - Ulster's Young Gay men 30 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide: An alarming report, conducted by the Northern Ireland Science Shop, has recorded that young gay men are 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts: some have made as many as nine unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves. - Study: 1 in 4 young Irish gays tried suicide. - Call for research into gay-suicide link (2001). - Suicide Creates Waves of Sorrow: With his pink hair and polished nails, teen's shortlife was gay but hardly happy (2006, PDF Download, Must Scroll: The Irish Associatoion of Suicidology Newsletter, 2006). - School bullies forcing gay students to drop out early (2006): He said 90pc of teachers reported that their school's anti-bullying policy did not include any reference to gay and lesbian issues.
Study: Suicide rate high for Irish gay teens (Alternate Link): "Inside Story January 20, 2004 - Belfast, Northern Ireland | Nearly a third of young lesbian and gay people in Northern Ireland have tried to kill themselves because of ongoing persecution and bullying, according to a new survey. Just over 29 percent of gay respondents to the Department of Education (news - web sites) poll said they had attempted suicide, with as many as 50 percent saying they suffered some sort of bullying regarding their sexuality. Additionally, 26 percent of young people self-harmed as a way of dealing with the pressures they faced regarding their sexuality." - Boys Don't Cry: How many gay Irish men have taken their lives in the last year? Nobody knows (2003, Alternate Link): "The report's findings on the experiences of gay men and women show an increased risk of suicide - though this varies considerably according to individual, social, economic and sociopolitical circumstances... Will Peters of Gay HIV Strategies says: "Personally I believe the rates have always been very high. It is a hard thing to say publicly because of the families who have been bereaved by suicide, but I think that a lot of these young men who are being mourned were gay. And they were gay 20 or 30 years ago." ..."People had plenty of anecdotal evidence. Schools, for example, told us that most bullying manifests itself in homophobia." - Mental health: lesbians and gay men: Developing Strategies to Counter the Impact of Social Exclusion and Stigmatisation (2003, PDF) by Brian Dillon & Eoin Collins. Report prepared for Gay HIV Strategies and The Northern Area Health Board.
problems (Ireland) N/A: "Ross White, the winner from The Queen's
University of Belfast, undertook his research with The Rainbow
they looked at the incidence of suicide among gay men in
Northern Ireland. Both students have now undertaken further
study at their respective Universities... Ross's project looked
at the relationship between factors associated with a gay
lifestyle and attempted suicide. "The number of suicide attempts
among the people we spoke to was very high, with some reporting
four, five and even nine attempts to take their own life.
Thirty-two percent of those who took part in the study had
attempted suicide. Although the project stands on its own as a
body of work, my involvement with the Rainbow Project and the
gay men who participated in the study educated me over and above
what can be written in a report. The experience had a profound
effect on me and the stories of those I met will stay with me
forever." - Ulster's
Young Gay men 30 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide
(1999): "The number of suicide attempts among the people we
spoke to was very high, with some reporting four, five and even
nine attempts to take their own life. Thirty-two percent of
those who took part in the study had attempted suicide.
According to Ross, most of those who tried to kill themselves
had taken a drug or alcohol overdose: Men who had been sexually
assaulted or bullied at school were more likely to attempt
suicide. Those who had lost a friend through suicide or who had
low-self esteem/high hopelessness were also more likely to try
and kill themselves. It is clear that problems exist and they
are not being adequately addressed."
Research into Male
Suicide (2008, Ulster): Researchers at the
University of Ulster are urging young men in north and west
Belfast who have considered suicide to speak to them in a bid to
help others in this situation. They hope to speak confidentially
to men aged between 16 and 34 who have thought seriously about
or acted with the intention of suicide, in order to develop care
and support programmes for those at risk. During the interview
the men will be asked to talk about issues in their lives that
have influenced their thoughts about suicide and the types of
help and support that they have used when feeling suicidal.
Around 50 of the 242 people registered in 2007 in Northern
Ireland as taking their own lives were men in this age group
according to statistics released this month by NISRA... Dr
Joanne Jordan, from the School of Nursing and Midwifery at QUB,
is leading the study, which is entitled Providing Meaningful
Care: Learning from the Experiences of Suicidal Men. - Related
Conference Presentation: Engaging Men in Research on Service
Improvement around Sensitive Issues: Some Insights from a Study
on Suicidal Behavior amongst Young People in Northern Ireland
seeking to engage potentially emotionally vulnerable young men,
efforts to date have concentrated on establishing the necessary
infrastructure to ensure a methodologically rigorous and
ethically sound approach to understanding suicide. Consequently,
this study has consulted with a diverse range of agencies,
organizations, and individuals within both the statutory and
non-statutory sectors in Northern Ireland. These consultations
have been invaluable in ensuring that researchers are cognizant
of, and respond appropriately to, the needs of all those
involved in the study. Discussion: The presentation discusses a
number of issues encountered in the course of preliminary
research activity and the steps taken by way of research design,
associated training activity, and support mechanisms put in
place for the young men, the clinicalinterviewers, and wider
survey shows extent of gay suicide issue (2006):
early two-thirds considered killing themselves and 30% self
harmed, according to the survey, which was carried out over
three years by the Rainbow Project in Belfast. The survey of 190
young gay or bisexual men revealed one third were diagnosed as
having a mental illness at some time in their lives with almost
as many having had a potential psychiatric disorder. A quarter
had attempted suicide and over two thirds thought about taking
their own lives. Four out of five who had thoughts of suicide
indicated those were related to same sex attraction. Among the
key factors which contributed to suicidal thoughts and self harm
were negative experiences in school such as bullying. The
findings of 'Out On Your Own' were released at a conference in
Belfast opened by the Chief of the Equality Commission, Bob
H (2006). Out on Your Own: An Examination of the
Mental Health of Young Same-Sex Attracted Men. Belfast:
The Rainbow Project. Internet: Download
Link: Over one
quarter (27.1per cent) of the respondents had attempted
suicide and over two thirds (71.3 per cent) of respondents
had thought about taking their own life. Four out of five
(80.5 per cent) of the respondents who had suicidal
thoughts indicated that the suicidal thoughts were related
to their same-sex attraction. Within the survey, 30.7 per
cent of the respondents had self harmed. One fifth (20.6
per cent) of the respondents had self harmed more than
once and 11.1 per cent had self harmed once. Two-thirds
(64.4 per cent) of those who had self harmed indicated
that the selfharmingwas related to their same-sex
attraction. - The
USL GLBT Mental Health Campaign: ""A recent survey
carried out in Northern Ireland showed over ‘one quarter (27.1
per cent) of respondents had attempted suicide and over two
thirds (71.3 per cent) of respondents had thought about taking
their own life’ (Out on You Own, McNamee). This is a huge
problem within the LGBT community and further research and
initiatives are needed to help solve the problem."
Carolan F, Redmond S (Youthnet, 2003). ShOut:
into the Needs of Young People in Northern Ireland Who
Identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and/or Transgender (LGBT).
Commissioned by the Department of Education. Belfast, Ireland:
Youthnet. Internet: Full
Text. Download Page. Full
Text: N = 362, 14 (4%) =
Trannssexual/Transgender, 52 (14%) = Bisexual - Lifetime
Suicide Attempt Incidence: Males (28%, N = 232) - Females
(30%, N = 130) - TS/TV (64%, N = 14).
Tuesday 19th March, OUThouse at 105 hosted a Panel
Discussion on the topic of LGBT youth suicide (Word
Download). To the best of my knowledge, this is
the first time a discussion has been held to discuss the issue
of suicide in the Gay community, and particularly among
younger members of that community... During his input on the
evening, Cathal Kelly spoke of his disappointment and that of
other Community groups who made a submission to the
Government’s Task Force in 1996. This Task Force
purported to look at the higher rates of suicide and identify
what might be done to reduce them. Submissions were
requested via the media, and the NLGF and Lesbian Line Dublin
responded. Submissions were based on research conducted
abroad, and by the Combat Poverty Agency. They included
a list of recommendations such as specifically mentioning
LGBT’s in targeted activities to reduce suicide rates.
In relation to LGBT youth, the submission identified key
people in the Community, Gardaí, doctors, youth workers etc.
who particularly needed to be made aware that clients they
encounter could potentially be LGBT, and this needs to be
factored into how these clients are dealt with. Despite
this submission, there was a resounding silence on the issue
of LGBT suicide when the Report was published... Fergal
Carroll based on his own research and clinical experience,
outlined some of the factors contributing to this increased
vulnerability. While it is obvious that LGBT adolescents
will face the same stressors as any adolescent, in the case of
LGBT youth, these stressors are enhanced by the lack of
positive role models and positive messages about their
sexuality. There are also issues around the education
system and the lack of gay positive messages, and
anti-homophobic policies in the school system. These
means that as well as internalised negative images, there are
external factors that may come into play such as bullying or
harassment. All of this at a time of life when pressure
to conform is at its highest can increase suicide risk for
Growing up as a gay young person in Ireland - so what's the story? (2000) "I feel so trapped and isolated that my life doesn't feel worth living... He attempted suicide by overdosing deliberately on paracetamol. He survived and is lucky to have suffered no long term effects on his health... To pretend the problem of homophobic bullying does not exist as an issue in every school is just naive... The levels of gay youth suicide are alarming and if one looks at these type of situations, is this surprising? A report in Northern Ireland, conducted by the Science Shop - a joint initiative by the University of Ulster and Queen's University - revealed that: "YOUNG gay men are 30 times more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts." "Some have made as many as nine unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves. About 54 per cent of those interviewed had seriously considered suicide and one in three had attempted suicide. More than half had been bullied at school as a result of being gay." Queen's student Ross White carried out the research for the Rainbow Project, a health organisation for gay and bisexual men. He looked at the relationship between factors associated with a gay lifestyle and attempted suicide. "The number of suicide attempts among the people we spoke to was very high, with some reporting four, five and even nine attempts to take their own life," Mr White said. "Thirty-two per cent of those who took part in the study had attempted suicide." Most of those who tried to kill themselves had taken a drug or alcohol overdose. "Men who had been sexually assaulted or bullied at school were more likely to attempt suicide," Mr White said. "Those who had lost a friend through suicide or who had low self-esteem/high hopelessness were also more likely to try and kill themselves." The Rainbow Project has launched an anti-bullying campaign in the north. Adrian McCracken of the Rainbow Project said: "We knew there was a problem but didn't realise how big it was. "It's particularly high here because a lot of young gay men are not able to come out at school, there are no support services."
on Suicide Prevention Strategy - 24th October 2007:
"[Homosexuality for young gay men] is a discovery, not a
decision and for many it is a discovery which is made against
a backdrop where ... they have long encountered anti-gay
attitudes which will do little to help them deal openly and
healthily with their own sexuality. The multiplier effect
relating to suicide is significant for young gay people and is
an established fact so I will put supporting research on the
record of the House of which I hope the Minister of State is
The gay youth suicide issue is noted in the article Young, Queer & Proud!, published in Worker's Solidarity, No. 53. Jan. 1998). A Workers Solidarity Movement position paper titled Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Oppression is also available at the same web site: The Gay Liberation movement has been active in Ireland since the early 1970s. A small number of activists have been successful in putting the issue of discrimination at work, in housing, and socially on the public agenda. Two public sector trade unions passed anti-discrimination policies. In the late 1980s this position was adopted officially by the Irish Congress of Trade Unions.
The 1995 report - Poverty - Lesbians and Gay Men: The Economic and Social Effects of Discrimination - published by the Combat Poverty Agency, Ireland (ISBN 1 871643 53 8 reports facts possibly implicated in suicide problems. "The study found that 21 per cent of respondents were living in poverty and over half (57 per cent) of respondents said they found it difficult to make ends meet. The findings also outlined clearly the range of effects of harassment and discrimination, and the extent of social exclusion experienced by lesbians and gay men."
gay, bisexual and transgender issues in Northern Ireland
(2004, PDF Download).
Live To Tell: Finding of a
study of suicidal thought, feelings and behavior amongst young
gay and bisexual men in Edinburg (2003, PDF
Download. Download Page.
95 Gay/Bi Males aged 15-26 (Average age = 20.8 years). 28% of
respondents had at some point deliberately injured themselves
with no suicidal intent. This compares to 2% of men in the
general population.. 54% of respondents had seriously considered
taking their own life, compared to 13% of men in the general
population who have ever considered suicide. 51% of respondents
who had previously considered suicide now no longer felt
suicidal. However, 15% of respondents still seriously considered
suicide at least once a month. 27% of young gay/bisexual men
have attempted suicide compared to 4% of the general population.
Suicide attempts were most common in those young gay/bisexual
men aged 14 to 20. 58% of those who had attempted suicide made
only one attempt. 35% had made three or more attempts. 23% made
five or more attempts. 54% of respondents who had attempted
suicide had at some point deliberately injured themselves
without wanting to take their own life.
Overview of mental
health services: Ausit Scotland (2009, PDF):
Crisis Centre: Edinburgh Crisis Centre was established in August
200 to provide support to people who are using, or have used,
mental health services in Edinburgh and their carers.The service
is community-based and can be accessed 24 hours a day, 3 5 days
a year. The Centre provides crisis support through a free
telephone helpline, face-to-face support and also has facilities
for people who need to stay overnight... Monitoring data based
on 78 callers show that 23 per cent of Centre users define
themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender and 4 per
cent identified themselves as disabled.
Truth Hurts: Report of
the National Inquiry into Self-harm among Young People (2008,
Mental Health Foundation). PDF.
Page. GLBT issues mentiones, nothing that there is a lack
of related research specific to Scotland.
Changing Attitudes Towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and
Transgender People In Scotland: Recommendations of the LGBT
Hearts and Minds Agenda Group (The Scottish Government,
Whittle S, Turner L,
Al-Alami M (2007). Engendered Penalties: Transgender
and Transsexual People’s Experiences of Inequality and
Discrimination. Manchester Metropolitan University. A
Research Project and Report Commissioned by the Equalities
Investigating the links between
mental health and behaviour in schools (2005, PDF):
A report to the Scottish Executive Education Department Pupil
Support and Inclusion Division. "Agencies such as the Mental
Health Foundation, Stonewall and LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual
and Transgender) Youth Scotland have found levels of suicide
among young gay men to be higher than among the male population
generally. Equally, homophobic bullying has been recognised as a
major issue within schools but little systematic work has taken
place on this. Levels of understanding about the experiences of
young lesbians in schools remains poorly understood. Particular
fears about disclosure are likely to influence the ways in which
research with these groups takes place.
‘Towards a Healthier LGBT Scotland’ - report [October, 2003] on LGBT health in Scotland: (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) "The INCLUSION Project, working for LGBT Health, was launched in October 2002, a partnership between Stonewall Scotland, representing Scotland’s LGBT communities and the Scottish Executive Health Department. The project has been gathering available evidence, undertaking new research, co-ordinating demonstration activity and supporting community capacity building, to identify the support needed by local NHS services to better meet the needs of individuals from LGBT communities... 25% of respondents in a Scottish survey of LGBT people had experienced inappropriate advice or treatment due to sexual orientation or gender identity and 24% had experienced homophobic staff... Research investigating the link between suicide and sexual orientation suggests unusually high rates of attempted suicide in the range of 20 – 42%... 75% gay men under 36 yrs have tried drugs compared to 47% general population - 80% lesbians / bi women stated they had been affected by their own drug / alcohol use or someone close to them...
Government Publication: The case for LGBT equality
(2008): Results of studies given.
On the basis of a report on the Equality for All Conference held on June 20th 1997 in Edinburgh City Chambers, the following problems negatively affecting GLB youth - listed in the "youth" section - are similar to the ones negatively affecting their North American counterparts who are at high risk for having suicide problems.
General social and legal discrimination.
Becoming "homeless after coming out to parents." "Parent support - often absent for young LGBT people." "Often when coming out they may face rejection from family and friends, they may need to become independent at an early age and this may lead to financial problems, leading to prostitution and abuse."
Ignorance of GLBT issues in education, and anti-gay abuse by peers ("bullying"). "Gay bashing."
"Lack - a general lack of services for young LGBT people... Support networks - support networks are mostly heterosexist for young people."
"Gay scene - baptism of fire, expensive and predatory... off-putting, exploitative... lack of diversity on the gay scene."
"Prostitution - need for money for living, confirmation of sexuality in absence of school or other support."
"Marginalisation - young people's needs marginalised, high priority on needs of older men especially i.e. fucking."Summary Excerpt: "The workshop raised a number of issues in terms of interconnections between various areas not noted above: ...Most young LGBT people are not out and so have no access to information, little positive imagery or support networks, this will normally lead to low self-worth, lack of confidence, under achievement, isolation, development of damaging emotional defences, participation in damaging relationships, self-harm, premature independence and associated effects."
Scottish Parliament Scraps Clause 28 (June 2000).
A Suicide Problem Indicator: Robertson AE (1998). The mental health experiences of gay men: a research study exploring gay men's health needs. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5(1), 33-40. (A PubMed abstract)
From the Abstract: A study of 37 gay men reports that they "faced profound social difficulties when coming to terms with their sexuality, a process that can occur throughout their life time." Married gay males were especially at risk and "cited alcohol misuse and depression amongst the effects of this stressful [double] lifestyle."
ScotsGay Magazine has an occasional mention of suicide issues related to a number of situations.
Morrison C, Mackay A (2000). The Experience of Violence and Harassment of Gay Men in the City of Edinburgh. The Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Internet: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2000/07/6540/File-1 .
France: - Détresse psychique et
homosexualité: état des connaissances et enjeux
méthodologiques de recherche (2008, PDF,
la lumière des résultats avancés par les études relatives à la
santé mentale des homosexuels, et quelle que soit l’approche
préconisée, il existe une détresse psychique importante dans
cette population. - Le
Mal-être Des Jeunes Homos [enquête] (2009): Un tiers des
jeunes homos de 14 à 21 ans disent avoir été victimes d'actes
homophobes, la moitié rencontrent des difficultés à assumer leur
homosexualité, 1 sur 5 a fait une tentative de suicide : ce sont
les principaux enseignements de l'enquête du MAG.- Le
suicide révèle la souffrance singulière des jeunes homosexuels
(2005). - HES et le
MAG livrent les premiers résultats de l'enquête qu'ils ont
menée sur le vécu des jeunes populations trans en France
(2009): Un tiers (34%) des jeunes trans déclarent avoir tenté de
se suicider. Par ailleurs, 98% des jeunes trans interrogés
expriment un mieux-être une fois le parcours de transition de
genre commencé. - Le
suicide, un mal homosexuel ? Nombre de jeunes gays
français se donnent la mort (2010).
Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes a
orientations sexuelles non conventionelles (lesbiennes,
bisexuelles, gais) (PDF Download, Homosexualites et Socialism,
Rapport, 2001). - Le rejet social comme origine du suicide
Link) - Avoir 16 ans et être homo (2004): "La vie
est très difficile lorsqu'on se découvre gay au collège et au
lycée. Un petit aperçu de mon histoire à moi et mes conseils...
C'était également un moyen d'annoncer mon homosexualité aux gens
qui m'entourent. Grave erreur. Dans le cercle de mes amis, je me
suis découvert des ennemis suite à cette annonce. ça a été un
calvaire cette dernière année. Insultes, sous-entendus mal
placés, et même des crachas..." - Suicide et dépression: "Suicide et
sexualité sont encore aujourd'hui en France des sujets
relativement tabous. De nombreux experts estiment que les
statistiques sur le suicide sont sous-évaluées. De plus, à la
différence des États-Unis, du Canada et de l'Italie, aucune
étude n'a été menée à ce jour sur les risques suicidaires dans
la population des jeunes gais et lesbiennes et celles réalisées
sur le suicide chez les jeunes n'interrogent, ni ne prennent en
compte les difficultés liées à l'acceptation de l'homosexualité
ou de pratiques homosexuelles...
Suicide et dépression chez les adolescents homosexuels, l'urgence d'une action!!! - Le suicide qui n’ose pas dire son nom: "Le livre Homosexualité & suicide, au travers d’études et de 13 témoignages, propose une explication du taux de suicide apparemment plus élevé chez les gays et lesbiennes et particulièrement les jeunes... Je cite un paragraphe du livre qui résume les principaux facteurs à risque pour le jeune gay : « on s’aperçoit que les risques suicidaires les plus élevés sont, soit associés à un vécu persécutif de la part de membres de la famille, de pairs, ou de professionnels référents ; soit à une difficulté extrême à traverser la prise de conscience et / ou la révélation de l’homosexualité ; soit enfin à une incapacité à vivre l’un de ses premiers amours, à un rejet de sa part ou à une rupture amoureuse.." - Tentatives de suicide à l’adolescence: souffrance singulière et mal-être social: "Les jeunes face à l’homophobie" par Eric Verdier, Coauteur de Homosexualité et suicide (p. 14-16. PDF Download) - Suicide Mortelle homophobie: Entretien réalisé par Dany Stive: Éric Verdier et Jean-Marie Firdion, Homosexualités et Suicide (Alternate Link). - Contribution d’Eric Verdier À L’amphi 2005. - Une recherche action d’Éric Verdier: Préférence sexuelle, niveau social, origine ethnique : la discrimination conduit à la prise de risque..
Modes de consommation d’alcool et tentatives de suicide chez l’homme jeune: "Population et méthodes: Il s’agit d’une population exclusivement masculine, représentative des 400 000 sujets sélectionnés tous les ans dans l’ensemble des 10 centres de sélection de métropole [Paris]. 9 758 sujets ont été tirés au sort. 9 270 réponses furent exploitables (taux de participation : 95 %). L’âge moyen est de 20 ans, les extrêmes se situant de 17 à 29 ans. Le taux de réponse aux 119 items de l’autoquestionnaire varie entre 88 % et 99 % selon les questions. L’enquête s’est déroulée entre novembre 1992 et février 1993... Conclusions: ...D’autres facteurs du risque suicidaire, non étudiés en détail, ont été relevés, tels l’usage de drogues illicites, de tabac et l’homosexualité. Parmi les sujets ayant fait un geste suicidaire, un sur deux présente deux facteurs de risque ou plus."
État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download): "Depression, tentatives de suicide et trise de risque parmis les lecteurs de la presse gay francaise" (Philippe ADAM, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France): "4753 questionnaires remplis par des hommes... Pour ce qui est des répondants masculins, l ’échantillon se caractérise par une forte représentation des personnes qui vivent en région parisienne (42%) et qui sont allés à l ’université (62%). L ’âge moyen est de 35 ans. La plupart (91%) des répondants se définissent comme gays. La moitié ont un partenaire stable. 12% des répondants sont séropositifs pour le VIH... Nous commencerons par dresser un état des lieux à partir des autodéclarations des répondants. Parmi eux, 17% déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie... Le graphique précédent montre que le taux de déclaration de tentatives de suicide est déjà à son maximum (27%) parmi les moins de 20 ans puis il décroît régulièrement avec l’âge pour se stabiliser autour de 15% après 35 ans."
Evaluation de l’effet éventuel de la sursuicidalité sur les comportements sexuels à risque chez les jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux. Conséquences sur la pratique du dépistage du VIH (PDF Download, PDF Download): "La sursuicidalité des jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux (HSH)... Cette étude exploratoire a été réalisée en 2001 en milieu ouvert (à l’occasion d’une manifestation festive) sur un échantillon (n=368; F=55%; âge médian: F=19 ans; [ET=6,7]; H=21 ans; [ET=8]), vivant principalement en région parisienne –sur-représenté en HSH (17%) – rapportant pour environ 12% au moins une tentative de suicide (TS) durant la vie. Les résultats obtenus confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30%; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels) strictement comparable aux données épidémiologiques disponibles..."
Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel (Alternate Link, 2003): - Prévalence des tentatives de suicide (France) selon le sexe et l’orientation sexuelle... Hommes: 17%. 17%; Femmes: 25%. - Vos avis au sujet de l'homosexualité: "Bonjour à tous.... je m'appelle Vanessa, je vais avoir 20 ans au mois de juin 2003. Je suis homosexuelle (lesbienne, gwenn, comme vous le désirez...). Je n'ai pas choisi d'être comme celà! Je me suis rendue compte malgré moi que j'aimais une femme! Autre chose, c'est grâce à des homophobes comme ceux-ci qu'à mes 17 ans, j'ai fait une tentative de suicide! ...Un jour il a tenté de se suicider mais sa mère est arrivé avant pour éviter la catastrophe. Ensuite il a dit à toutes les personnes qu'il connaissait qu'il était homo. Tout le monde l'a plus où moins accepté mais il est quand même retourné avec un fille à cause de la pression et des regards. Maintenant il vit avec une fille, mais il fait dépression sur dépression, tentative de suicide sur tentative de suicide, il est terriblement malheureux, il ne sort plus beaucoup à cause du regards des gens. En gros, il est en train de se détruire et de mourir tout ça à cause de ces crét... d'homophobes!"
En prison, être homosexuel, c’est la pire des choses: "Mais le pire s’est produit récemment et au moment où vous lisez ce témoignage, mon ami est dans un service psychiatrique, suite à une tentative de suicide. J’ai effectivement appris récemment qu’il a été violé par trois détenus sous les douches quelques jours avant son transfert. Comme d’habitude en prison, ses cris n’ont pas été entendus. Les trois détenus et les surveillants ont probablement tous supposé qu’un homosexuel apprécierait de se faire enculer violemment par des inconnus. En 11 ans, mon ami aura donc subi deux viols en milieu carcéral. Première incarcération : premier viol : transmission du VIH. Deuxième incarcération : second viol : tentative de suicide..."
Les chiffres noirs du suicide: "Selon les nouvelles données de l’Enquête presse gay 2000, que «Têtu» présente en exclusivité, un gay sur six a déjà fait une tentative de suicide. Et les liens entre dépression et prise de risques sexuels font froid dans le dos... Le premier mérite de cette enquête est qu’elle nous donne, enfin, des chiffres précis sur la dépression et les tentatives de suicide chez les gays. Malgré les informations alarmantes en provenance d’autres pays depuis quelques années, ces problématiques, bien documentées chez les hétérosexuels, étaient jusqu’à présent complètement ignorées en ce qui concerne les gays. Parmi les hommes ayant répondu à l’Enquête presse gay, 17 % déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie, soit environ un homo sur six. Ces données sont similaires à celles de plusieurs enquêtes menées à l’étranger, notamment aux États-Unis..."
Le Refuge: L'Association nationale: Agir contre l'isolement des adolescents attirés par une personne du même sexe. - L'association dresse un constat troublant sur la situation des adolescents homosexuels en France. Face à cet état des lieux, il était urgent de réagir. Jeanne (Alternate Link): "Mon fils s'est suicidé il y a de cela quatre ans, il avait 17 ans. Personne n'a compris ce geste à l'époque, même s'il présentait depuis quelques temps des signes de dépression. Pour moi ce fut un choc. En rangeant ses affaires, j'ai compris, il y a trois an de cela, son " secret ". Je pense que mon fils était homosexuel. J'ai retrouvé des revues érotiques masculines sous son lit et des lettres assez équivoques. Je comprends maintenant cette douleur qui le hantait." - Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s. - Et si votre enfant était homosexuel?
L'université euroméditerranéenne des homosexualités: ..."Le ministère s'intéresse également à la santé des lesbiennes, cible du cancer du sein et peu touchée par les campagnes de prévention. Mais surtout, dans le cadre de la prévention du suicide chez les jeunes - l'une des premières causes de mortalité dans cette population -, la DGS mène des actions spécifiques pour prévenir les dégâts générés par l'homophobie. Robert Simon rappelait « il y a un lien très fort entre violation des droits de l'Homme et santé »." - Suicide : un risque plus eleve chez les jeunes homosexuels. - La place de l'homosexualité dans l'éducation sexuelle en milieu scolaire: L'homosexualité à l'adolescence (2002, Alternate Link). - Adolescence, Homosexualité et Violence - Projet Daphné. - Adolescence et homosexualité: souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative. - Autour du coming-out: Quand la sortie est mal acceptée par la famille Réfléchir avant de sortir de son placard.
Le suicide du jeune gai, réalité ou mythe?
- Les adolescents homosexuels et le suicide:
"Notre propos ne portera pas sur l'interprétation à donner aux
articles de Gageure, mais il nous a semblé important de les
évoquer afin de montrer à quel point la question peut être tabou
tant chez les homos que chez les hétéros. Pour aborder le plus
objectivement possible la question du suicide chez les
adolescents homos ou bisexuels, il faut avant tout présenter ces
statistiques que certains mettent en doute..." - Controverse sur l'existence d'un risque accru
de suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels.
Prévention du suicide et pratiques de réseaux-congrès international-Liège du 18 au22/11/2002 (PDF): " Les résultats obtenus : • confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30% ; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels..." - Suicide des jeunes : premiers chiffres français. - Péril suicidaire chez les jeunes homos: Une enquête indépendante révèle qu’un homo ou bisexuel homme a treize fois plus de risques de faire une tentative de suicide qu’un hétérosexuel. Extrait de l’article paru dans liberation.fr. - Le suicide révèle la souffrance singulière des jeunes homosexuels (2005): "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l’hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d’études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) , les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize."
A French politicians outs himself and states the following (N/A): "Je suis et resterai persuadé que plus de visibilité (de tous en général, mais des hommes et femmes publics en particulier) éviterait sans doute un certain nombre de suicides de jeunes (ou moins jeunes homosexuels)." - Les suicides: " En réfléchissant à cette première tentative des années plus tard, il est possible que cela soit le refoulement de mon homosexualité qui était encore endormie, je me souviens étant à l'internat à cette époque dans une école d'horticulture, dans le dortoir le thème homo avait été employé et d'ailleurs certains mecs étaient passé à la pratique pendant la nuit et que moi je ne savais pas ou j'en étais, le sexe, la masturbation était inconnue jusqu'à 20ans environ... Pourtant de nouveau quelques années plus tard je fais ma deuxième tentative de suicide, juste environ 1an avant mon coming out, pourquoi cette nouvelle tentative de me supprimer, je ne le sais toujours pas, je sais que je suis quelqu'un de très différent des autres, plutôt fragile, c'est comme ça surtout que je suis en pleine période d'anorexie physique et mentale, je veux un suicide rapide et aussi un suicide morbide, j'ai décidé de ne plus manger et de me laisser mourir à petit feu..." - Le suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels.
Pas de mission sur le suicide pour Christine
Boutin (communiqué Inter-LGBT - 26 mai 2003): "A
l'unanimité, le Conseil de l'Interassociative lesbienne, gaie bi
et trans, réuni ce samedi 24 mai, a voté une décision demandant
à Jean-Pierre Raffarin de retirer la mission qu'il a confiée à
Christine Boutin sur les taux de suicide en France (cf. décision
ci-dessous). Constatant que "Christine Boutin s'est faite le
relais d'une homophobie des plus violentes, et sans doute des
plus destructrices auprès des jeunes en construction de leur
identité", le Conseil de l'Inter-LGBT estime que "la mission
confiée par le Premier Ministre à Christine Boutin est une
provocation à l'égard des associations LGBT". Les associations
font remarquer que la députée " a offert une tribune inédite à
une haine homophobe qu'elle n'inscrira probablement pas dans son
rapport comme une cause de suicide"." - Ex Aequo écrit à Christine Boutin sur le
suicide des jeunes gays. - Suicide, prévention : deviner le risque chez
l'adolescent. - Le suicide à l'adolescence.
Italy / Italie: - Enquête Italienne: (Must Scroll) "L'Associazione gay e lesbica de Florence a mis en place une enquête sur internet à laquelle 800 gais et lesbiennes du monde entier ont répondu (les deux tiers des réponses provenaient d'Europe). Cette enquête fait suite à une série de suicides de jeunes gais en Sardaigne, en Sicile (immolation par le feu) et en Lombardie ainsi qu'à la mise à mort publique d'un jeune homosexuel par son père à Foggia dans les Pouilles. Les résultats de l'enquête internet sont frappants. Si 65 % des gais et 61 % des lesbiennes avouent avoir pensé au suicide, 22 % des hommes et 21 % des femmes ont effectivement un jour tenté de mettre fin à leur jour. 28 % des répondants ont effectué un traitement psychologique ou psychiatrique (11 % contre leur volonté). Enfin la moitié environ des questionnaires fait état de violences subies en raison de l'orientation sexuelle, ces violences pouvant être physiques (le plus souvent les parents et les camarades d'école), psychologiques ou sexuelles."
Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s:
"En Italie, par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le
cadre du programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 %
des personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 %
avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des
14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les
tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18
ans." - Situation des lesbiennes et des gays dans les
États membres du Conseil de l'Europe: "En Italie,
par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le cadre du
programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 % des
personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 %
avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des
14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les
tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18
ans." - Situation
of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member states
(2000): In Italy, for example, in a study within the
framework of the EU funded Daphne programme 40 % of respondents
had contemplated suicide and 13% had attempted suicide. The age
in which thoughts about suicide were most prevalent was between
14 and 16, whereas the suicide attempts tended to take place in
the following two years.
Italy has been rocked by the suicide of a teenager who was subjected to anti-gay taunts at school N/A: According to Italy's Gay Help Line, more than one third of the calls it gets are from students distressed by taunting and bullying at school. On Friday homophobic graffiti was sprayed across the front of a well-known gay and lesbian bookshop in Milan. Also on Friday, the Rome chapter of Arcigay claimed that local priests were pressuring mothers to have their gay children exorcised. Arcigay also complained about RAI state TV broadcaster news reports implying that the dead boy was picked on not because he was gay but because he was seen as a 'swot'..."
suicidal behaviour among young Italian lesbians, gays and
bisexuals (2007, Conferene Paper, by A. Buffoli University
of Padua, Word
Download): 720 Italian partecipants (605 M and 115 F) ,
18-24 years old, who identified themselves as lesbian, gay or
bisexual answered to an on-line survey hosted on an internet
website. Data collected through the semi-structured
questionnaire are compared for gender, geographical provenience
and sexual orientation. More than 80% of the sample reported to
have thought about suicide and 20% reported one or more suicide
attempts. Participants living in rural areas in South Italy were
at greater risk of suicide.
Belgium / Belgique:- A study referenced on the Unit for Suicide Research's Current Research Page. (Unit for Suicide Research, University of Gent, Belgium) Study Title: Controlled cross-sectional study of suicidal thoughts, impulses, and behaviour among homosexual adolescents (1998). - Homosexualité et suicide: liaisons dangereuses? - Les jeunes gays et lesbiennes et le suicide: etat de la question et listes de prevention. - État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download).
Le taux des tentatives de suicide est plus élevé chez les jeunes homosexuels (6 octobre 1998, Must Scroll): "Une étude menée en Flandres par l'université de Gand montre que les jeunes homosexuels de 15 à 25 ans ont 2 à 5 fois plus de risque de tenter un suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. 25% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 13% des hommes homosexuels avaient tenté un suicide, contre 5.4% des femmes et 5.9% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. 45% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 33% des hommes homosexuels avaient envisagé un suicide, contre 24% des femmes et 16% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. L'étude a été conduite par le sociologue John Vincke et le psychologue Kees van Heeringen auprès de 404 jeunes, homosexuels pour la moitié et présentée au 7ème Symposium Européen « The Suicidal Process: Challenges for Treatment and Prevention » du 9 au 12 septembre.
de séminaires: Regards croisés sur la sexualité (Observatoire
du Sida et des sexualités, Belgique, 2005): ... Séance 3 :
Les orientations sexuelles, l’homophobie et l’hétérosexisme...
1. Le paradoxe du processus de normalisation de
l’homosexualité... Processus de médicalisation de
’homosexualité... L’évolution du statut de l’homosexualité et le
paradoxe de la reconnaissance : la visibilité
de l’homosexualité sous tension... Santé et vulnérabilité des personnes homosexuelles... Fonction sociale des stéréotypes de genre et vulnérabilité des personnes homosexuelles... L’origine de l’homophobie : la pyramide socio-historique des sexes, de genre et des orientations sexuelles et la construction du modèle de la virilité... Une hiérarchisation sociale et une pyramide socio-historique... La construction du modèle de la virilité et l’homophobie...
Switzerland / Suisse: - Un jeune gai sur quatre a tenté de se suicider! - Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s. (Must Scroll) - Parler d'homosexualité à l'école? La question gay déchire leRoyaume-Uni. (Et la situation en Suisse?) - Un jeune gay sur quatre a tenté de se suicider: "Selon une étude suisse, les garçons âgés entre 13 et 17 ans qui aiment les garçons traversent une crise profonde. Le psychiatre lausannois Pierre Cochand propose d'aborder le sujet dans les écoles. Il note que plus on parle des comportements homosexuels, plus leur fréquence diminue..." - Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel.
Etude et statistiques sur les jeunes gays en
Suisse Romande: - Le questionnaire ciblait
explicitement des jeunes hommes de 16 à 25 ans... Durant ces 6
derniers mois, avez-vous eu des idées de suicide? non, jamais:
68.3%; oui, rarement: 16.3%; oui, parfois: 9.8%; oui, souvent:
5.7%... Avez-vous par le passé tenté de vous suicider? Oui:
24.4%; Non: 74.4%; ne répond pas: 1.6%. Echantillion: n = 102
jeune hommes homosexuels et bisexuels. - Le
suicide et l'homosexualité.
Germany / Allemagne: - A study summary from
- Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de
suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s: 217
GLB individuals aged 15 - 27 years. 18% have attempted suicide
at least once, 50% responded to negatively in their families,
and 66% were abuse verbally and/or physically in their families.
Reference cited:"Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude
berlinoise sur la situation psychosociale des adolescents
homosexuels (217 personnes entre 15 et 27 ans), Administration
du Sénat, Berlin, 1999 (www.sensjs.berlin.de).
Study Summary (Etude et statistiques sur les jeunes gays en
Suisse Romande): 18% des adolescents homosexuel(le)s
affirment avoir tenté au moins une fois de mettre fin à leur
jours. A l'annonce de leur homosexualité, plus de 50% des
adolescents reçoivent une réaction négative de la part de leur
environnement familial. 66% affirment subir des violences
verbales, voire physiques au sein de leur famille. Plus de 50%
des adolescents interrogés affirment (ab)user de substances
nocives (tabac, alcool, drogues) pour amenuiser leur mal-être.
"Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude berlinoise sur la situation
psychosociale des adolescents homosexuels (217 personnes entre
15 et 27 ans), Administration du Sénat, Berlin, 1999
Austria: - The Contribution of Schools to
the Feeling of Acceptance and the Risk of Suicide Attempts among
Austrian Gay and Bisexual Males (2007, Word
Presentation PDF: 2007, Abstract:
Published Paper, 2010) by M. Plöderl, G. Faistauer, R. Fartacek:
18% of the participants reported having attempted suicide. - The
Relation Between Sexual Orientation and Suicide Attempts in
Austria (2010). - Suicidality
and associated risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual
compared to heterosexual Austrian adults (2005): This is
the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the
suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with
matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had
significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation
(28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three
ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%), including higher incidences for
most suicidality-related risk factors. - Childhood
Nonconformity and Harassment as Predictors of Suicidality
among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Austrians
Slovenia: - "Tednik" also conducted an interview with
gay leader Sandi Perdih at the largest cemetery in
Ljubljana, the capital, as Perdih paid his respects to gays
who were driven to suicide by homophobia N/A.
(Must scroll to locate article.) - Alternate Link. - Sexual Orientation
Discrimination in Slovenia: A Report by SKUC-LL (2001 Survey,
Text): One particular response brought home just how
profound the effects of this discrimination can be: one gay
man reported that his partner had committed suicide because he
could no longer deal with the problems brought about by his
sexual orientation. - The
social situation concerning homophobia and discrimination on
grounds of sexual orientation in Slovenia (2009).
Albania: - Country Summaries - Europe (2008): Many MSM reported extreme frustration at their social and economic circumstances, while nearly one third reported having suicidal thoughts.
Hungary: - A father wrote, that his son was gay. His wife, the sons mother, couldnt accept it and attacked her son. He committed suicide. She couldn't cope with that and she also committed suicide." - Social Exclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Hungary (2008): An acquaintance, who works at OMSZ (National Ambulance Service), encouraged a suicidal transgender girl to continue her attempt to end her life, and was not prepared to call her by another name than that on her identity card. He does not tire himself too much either when attending to Roma people in critical condition.
Romania: - The right that dares not speak its name: "Two young gay men from the Romanian town of Timisoara, Mirel Ciprian Cucu and Milorad Mutascu, who had been living together in a flat, were arrested in January 1993. Mirel Cucu was charged with having sexual relations with a person of the same sex. Milorad Mutascu was charged with relations with a minor (a heterosexual relationship between people of the same ages as Cucu and Mutascu would have been lawful). They received suspended sentences of one and two years respectively. The two men also faced vilification in the official police newspaper which published their names, photographs and addresses even before formal charges had been brought against them. The paper described their relationship as a 'social danger'. Milorad Mutascu was subsequently unable to find work because of his 'criminal' record. Two years after his trial, he committed suicide." - Looking For Acceptance: "The conference heard testimonies from older participants who had attempted suicide or been subjected to blackmail; almost without exception, most had chosen to live a clandestine life, either with a partner or more likely alone, to escape the attention of a state which in the Ceausescu era, gaoled homosexuals and subjected them to electric shock treatment." - Romanian MPs vote to decriminalise homosexuality (2000): Coman, while unable to give any data or numbers on gays and lesbians in Romania, said human rights watchdogs estimated that thousands of homosexuals had been put in jail, thrown out of their jobs and houses, committed suicide or fled the country since 1989.
Greece: - Konstantin Tsolakis on the persecution of gay people in Greece N/A: "I grew up in a society that still considers homosexuality a grave taboo, despite the fact that it ceased to be illegal a long time ago. I will never forget watching the Greek Orthodox archbishop, Christodoulos, preaching on television that “all homosexuals are sinners and will definitely end up in Hell,” imagine the impact that had on me, a gay boy of 17, struggling to come to terms with my sexuality in a country where gays are constantly humiliated, albeit mainly verbally, in the media, the tabloids and everyday conversations one happens to overhear. During the summer, a young gay man committed suicide in jail after being arrested in a police raid in an Athenian gay bar, giving thus “proof” to many conservative Greeks of homosexuality’s “ungodly” nature that “only leads men to destruction.”" - Gay activists stage public kiss protest in downtown Athens (2003). (Article on Doc Download): One homosexual committed suicide in jail after a police raid on a gay club earlier this year, Mr Yiannelos said. - Gay, transvestite activists stage public kiss demo in downtown Athens.
Sweden / Suède: - La Suède aux prises avec un grave taux de suicide N/A. - Justin Lundsten (1997): "I suppose I should devote my first column to myself. So read my life story, and I hope you enjoy it, that's why it's here... I have been clear with my sexuality as long as I can remember. I can't say a date or a year when it "came to me" that I was gay. But it is only in the last few years that I have realized what it means. I slipped in to a depression and cried a lot. I didn't meet any new people, or went with my friends out or to parties. I isolated myself, living of my own egoism. I even thought of committing suicide! ..." - Le suicide inquiète en Suède (2003). - Les communes doivent se mobiliser contre le suicide des jeunes homosexuels: Plus d'un tiers des jeunes suédoises homosexuelles ou bisexuelles, de 16 à 24 ans, ont commis une ou plusieurs tentatives de suicide en 2002. Un quart des garçons du même âge ont essayé de mettre fin à leur jour. - Stockholm veut aider les jeunes homos, bi et transsexuels (2003). A Webpage on GLB Suicide Issues in Sweden. - Belonging (2005): Despite this development, gloomy statistics show that the frequency of suicide is much higher among lgbt youth, who are left to the mercy of an adult world slow toabsorb rapidly changing perspective shifts.
Norway: - "The need for developing strategies for
suicide prevention among young lesbian women and gay men:
empirical and theoretical rationales written on the subject,"
was presented at the Conference on the Status of Nordic Health
Promotion Research: Progress during the Decade after the
Ottawa Charter. - The National Plan for Suicide Prevention
1994-1998: Chapter 3: Homosexuality mentioned without
explanations. - A web page on Norway's GLBT suicide problems.
- Friis, Eva: Suicide and suicide prevention among gays and
lesbians (First published in the Norwegian journal
Suicidologi 1998, no. 3.) - Is there an elevated risk of attempted suicide
among homosexual adolescents? - Suicide
Attempts among Norwegian Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youths
(2007): The national non-probability sample included 407 GLB
youths aged between 16 and 25 years of age, among whom 26 per
cent of both genders reported a previous suicide attempt. - Webpage
on Norway's GLB Suicide Issues (Alternate
The Netherlands: - Suicidality
and Sexual Orientation: Differences Between Men and Women in a
General Population-Based Sample From The Netherlands
(2006): Younger homosexuals were not at lower risk for
suicidality than older homosexuals in comparison with their
heterosexual counterparts. Among homosexual men, perceived
discrimination was associated with suicidality. This study
suggests that even in a country with a comparatively tolerant
climate regarding homosexuality, homosexual men were at much
higher risk for suicidality than heterosexual men. This
relationship could not only be attributed to their higher
psychiatric morbidity. In women, there was no such clear
P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003). Suicide risk in relation to
socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a
national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark,
1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full
Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners
included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds
ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63
(95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other
factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared
to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a
First-Time Research Result! See:
Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and
women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333
Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7.
After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in
first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does not
mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and
suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the
higher risk of death for same-sex couples.
Trinidad: - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society. An open letter to the people of Trinidad and Tobago. - Jessie: I had to visit delusive shrinks who got rich off of my misery. I still have this scar on my wrist, an ugly memento of the power he once had over my decision to live or die. I may never get to tell him, "Even after all the blows, ostracism and emotional turmoil, I'm still gay... - NM: "I hate the fact that I hurt inwardly and no one can tell. I hate the inalienable truth that being gay is like living a whole other existence... I had that happy place in my mind that I would retreat to whenever everything was bad. However everytime I retreated into it, it grew smaller until there was nothing left. Now when I really need it there is nothing that I could go to. I need that place and I have to find it back otherwise I will end up doing something really drastic. Right now, I need to retreat into that place otherwise I swear I am going to go mad." - Trinicontact: "But finally, deciding that telling everybody I was gay would be marginally more fun than committing suicide... One of the big things I get is that homosexuality wrong, but because this is a free country I can be gay if I want. This is an improvement over the kill-the-faggots attitude of #7, but still not good enough." - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society: "The recent suicide of Surajdeo Lall is a prime example. This young gay man committed suicide at his work place just after some co-workers outed and harassed him." - In Trinidad, Putting Gays and Lesbians Lower Than Adulterers and Rapists (2010).
Jamaica: - Bisexual woman struggles with identity (2001): "My situation is very common with other gays in this country," she added. "If only society was just a little kinder, life would be so much easier for all of us. There are homosexuals who have committed suicide because they couldn't deal with their sexuality. There are gays in the church who have to sit in congregation after congregation and listen to their pastor blasting homosexuals. The prospects of coming out of the closet are very frightening and which explains why so many gays are so reluctant to go public. To openly declare one's sexuality in today's Jamaica could be the difference between life and death. We have to maintain the faith and keep fighting though." - Homos at risk (2001): "Kids can be merciless," explained one principal who requested not to be identified in the story. "I have had to both suspend and expel students for brutally beating up on other schoolmates believed to be homosexuals. Sometimes even the taunting can be vicious. I have spoken to principals of other schools and they also have similar experiences with their students."
Puerto Rico: - Suicide,
adolescents and Puerto Rico: Risk factors that
correlate highly with the Puerto Rican experience include
homosexuality, due to the hostility that the person may
experience, depression, gender, prevalence of psychiatric
disorders, lack of social integration and social skills,
military experience, cultural and religious factors, alcoholism,
substance abuse and unemployment/poverty. The literature
reviewed indicates that the Puerto Rican adolescent male is in a
high risk group for suicide and that the risk increases with
age, sexual preference, dysfunction in the family and substance
abuse. - Strengths and Vulnerabilities of a Sample of Gay and
Bisexual Male Adolescents in Puerto Rico (PDF
Download): Participants were 61 highly educated GB youths
living in Puerto Rico. Levels of depression, perceived social
support, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behavior were
assessed. Results show that 45% of participants reported high
levels of depression. However participants reported low levels
of alcohol and drug consumption, no unprotected sexual behavior,
and high satisfaction with social support...
China: - Official gay bar to open in China's Dali (2009): Zhang Beichuan, a professor at the Qingdao University specializing in sexual health, said among Chinese homosexuals, 60 percent feel extremely distressed, between 30 and 40 percent show strong inclination to committing suicide, and between 3 and 13 percent have attempted suicide. - China: The death of a lesbian (2007): Li yinhe blogs about the death of Juan Zi, a lesbian who committed suicide because her mother locked her up for six months upon finding out her sexual orientation. - Coming out in China (2002): Zhang recalls his search for sexual identity nine years ago --- when he was 19. "I found a thick medical book and read this little section, which said homosexuality is abnormal and perverse and gays get AIDS. I got very scared," says Zhang. So scared that he tried to commit suicide. Later, he met other gays in Beijing. "That made me feel that homosexuality is something perfectly normal . . . There was nothing wrong with me," Zhang said. - Chinese lesbians commit suicide (N/A, 1994). (Must scroll to locate information.).
China's opening up
: nationalist and globalist conceptions of same-sex identity
marriage was a failure it was largely to please my parents.
Prior to my marriage, I was in love with a woman for more than
ten years. However, this woman had to leave China for Singapore.
as she was involved with Falungong [a religious group which is
still considered to be subversive by Chinese government
authorities]. I miss her immensely. I feel insanely lonely from
time to time. On a few occasions. I seriously wanted to commit
suicide. My parents do not know that I am a lesbian. My brother
and sister know something about it. But my family members do not
want to talk about it. They are not open enough (Jie Fan 2004,
pers. comm., 27 April)... According to Zhang Yun [himself], he
openly proclaimed his gayness at the first HIV/AIDS Conference
which was held in Beijing in 2001. He has been pursued by the
local and foreign press since this proclamation. Long before
this proclamation at the age of nineteen, he attempted to commit
suicide. He used to think that lie was perverse as lie was
attracted to men.
South Korea: Life and Death in Queer Korea: "I consider myself lucky, though. Between 1997 and 1999, three of my gay friends in South Korea committed suicide. In May 1998, Oh disclosed his homosexuality to his family. They immediately rejected him and expelled him from their home. After living and suffering on the streets for months, and at one point sleeping in an office, Oh killed himself. The other two went to Seoul National University, which is South Korea's Harvard or Yale. One was in Law School; the other was a graduate student in biology. Their success in society was "guaranteed." However, when they came to the age of marriage, they both faced a brutal dilemma. Neither wanted to marry. But they also didn't want to disown their families and disappoint their parents. So, they chose to kill themselves. One in 1997, the other in 1999. No funerals were held for these three young men: their families considered them "bad" sons..." - South Korea: Solidarity Messages Requested in wake of Suicide of Gay Youth Activist (2003). - Homosexualité en Corée du Sud (2008): Octobre 2008, le modèle de 23 ans, Kim Ji-hoo s'est suicidé à la suite de l'harcèlement d'internautes sur son homosexualité. Selon la police, son suicide reflète le préjudice du public envers les homosexuels et leur difficulté à réussir dans l'industrie du divertissement. Suite à l'annonce de son orientation sexuelle, l'Agence de gestion de Kim n'avait pas renouvelé son contrat et de programmes de télévision et de nombreux défilés de mode avaient annulé ses apparitions. Son blog a été bombardé de nombreux messages dénonçant son orientation sexuelle.
with, "Lesbian, Censorship, School", Director
(2007): Showing and talking about those soul-revealing wounds
was clearly the hardest part of her story for Cheon-jae to tell.
Nobody directed her to do it. We never expected for her tell the
story of her self-injury, and speaking so frankly about it on
screen is the most moving of her reports." "There are cases of
teens committing suicide after being outed by irresponsible news
reports." ... At the time, after a friend was outed by that TV
show, I realized he was being treated as subhuman. One kid was
forced from his home to be confined in a mental institution, and
another was forced to drop out of school. Parents felt revulsion
at their children being gay, mistreated them and finally drove
them into treatment for depression... In the course of those
events we learned of one child who chose suicide. Her story is
in the trailers for Lesbian Censorship in School 2. - 2
openly gay, trans South Korean actors commit suicide
(2008): In just one week, three Korean actors are dead from
apparent suicides. According to a police investigator, the
39-year-old Choi Jin-sil, who was one Korea's most popular
actors, hanged herself in her Seoul home on the morning of Oct
2. The next day, 26-year-old transgender entertainer Jang
Chae-won was found dead under similar circumstances. And on Oct
7, police say that Kim Ji-hoo hanged himself in his bedroom. An
apparent suicide note from the 23-year-old actor said, "I'm
lonely and in a difficult situation. Please cremate my body."
Transgender entertainer Jang Chae-won (top), 26, was found dead
on Oct 2. Days later, openly gay actor Kim Ji-hoo, 23, hanged
himself in his bedroom, according to the police. Jang and Kim
were among Korea's coterie of openly gay and transsexual
celebrities in a society that still attaches significant taboos
to homosexuality and transsexuality.
Taiwan: - Kuang M-F, Nojima K (2005). The
Mental Health and Sexual Orientation of Females: A
Comparative Study of Japan and Taiwan. Yushu
University Psychological Research, 6: 141-148. Full
Hong Kong: Leslie Cheung Kwok-Wing commits suicide
(2003). - Biography for
Leslie Cheung. - Wanbao's
coverage of Leslie Cheung's death (2003). - Shiu-Ki TK (2004). Queer
at Your Own Risk: Marginality, Community and Hong Kong
Gay Male Bodies. Sexualities, 7(1): 5-30. PDF
goes to beaches or cottages to find sexual partners; he seldom
goes to bars or clubs. He is very keen to find a boyfriend but
his physical vulnerability prevents him from finding one. He
constantly thinks about suicide.
of homosexuality in Hong Kong (2005): From a
historical perspective, the issue of homosexuality began to gain
attention in Hong Kong in 1980 when an inspector of the Royal
Hong Kong Police Force was found to be a homosexual and
committed suicide. After this incident, the Hong Kong government
appointed the Law Reform Commission to investigate the law
governing homosexuality to see if any necessary changes were
needed in the present laws of Hong Kong.
Japan: - Hidaka Y, Operario D (2006). Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the Internet. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(11): 962-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. - Hidaka Y, Operario D, Takenaka M, Omori S, Ichikawa S, Shirasaka T (2008). Attempted suicide and associated risk factors among youth in urban Japan. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(9): 752-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. - Kuang M-F, Nojima K (2005). The Mental Health and Sexual Orientation of Females: A Comparative Study of Japan and Taiwan. Yushu University Psychological Research, 6: 141-148. Full Text.
shift gives hope to gays (2009): According to
Kashiwazaki, many who call OCCUR for advice say they feel
isolated. "Matters of homosexuality are not really taught
in sexual education, and it is still taboo to have a
homosexual in the family or in the workplace. They need to
go underground for information or to meet other
homosexuals, resort to pornography or dating Web sites,"
he said. Gays and lesbians in Japan face serious problems,
including HIV, bullying and suicide, and the use of
derogatory words related to homosexuality in everyday
conversation can make them feel bullied, Kashiwazaki said.
"If they hear someone saying to someone else, 'You're a
creepy homosexual' or 'They're so friendly they're like
lesbians,' they feel as if it's being aimed at them," he
said, adding that until gays and lesbians feel OK to come
out, discrimination will remain. However, Kashiwazaki said
a change in government may be a defining first step on the
road to more recognition. "We do feel the door will open,
so when it does we have to make sure it doesn't close
Singapore: From Aunt Webby: Being gay, in the closet, and suicidal in
Singapore (1997): Many times I contemplated committing
suicide, but was constantly held back because I hold a
respectable job which would affect my working partners, and also
the shame my family members must come to term with. I find life
extremely meaningless and especially in a place like Singapore
where gays are clamped down and criminally ousted for their
carnal activities; which in many ways are outright
discrimination like the oppression of the blacks in America. I
may want to end my life soon if I have the chance to do it in
another country where my decomposed body would remain
undiscovered eternally. Please pray for me. - Oogachaga
presents SOS Suicide Awareness Talk: Better Dead than Queer?
(2007). - Gay
suicide in Singapore: Have you had suicidal thoughts or
attempted suicide before? (2007, Survey Results: Attempted
Suicide: 9.5% once, 7.1% more than once, Total = 16.6%). - Sir
Ian McKellen Mocks at Singapore's Gay Laws (2007). -
Television company fined for making gays look ‘normal’
Turning the Lion City Pink: Interrogating Singapore’s New Gay Civil Servant Statement (2005, by Chris Tan, PDF): The worst of these operations was carried out in March 1992 at the popular cruising grounds at the East Coast Parkway beach. The consequences of the raid went far beyond the monetary fine that was slapped on each of the eight arrested men. One of the four men whose incriminating picture was published felt so ashamed that he committed suicide (Leong, 1995: 15 – 6). - Peter Nazareth Talks to Suchen Christine Lim in Singapore (2009, PDF): Growing up in a multicultural, multi-religious, multieverything society i.e. Singapore, it’s the writer’s job to open doors, to include people who are marginalized in their fiction, and that’s part of why I wrote The Lies That Build a Marriage, the short stories about gay men and lesbians who are marginalized, about transsexuals who have to live marginalized lives, but seen through the eyes of family members, a mother, an uncle, a daughter, instead of politicians, preachers and pastors. It is so easy to be part of mainstream society but so difficult to be at the margin. And so many people are secretly at the margin.
Thailand: A problem of image: Life in Thailand's twilight zone (1998, Alternate Link, Alternate Link): Mention the word katoey and Thais immediately think of the slightly soiled image of the feminine end of the gay spectrum - the man dolled up as woman, the limp wrist and exaggerated postures of the lady-boy. But as Thai gays seek a higher level of social acceptance, so the country's transvestites and transsexuals are trying to cast off their image as the unacceptable face of homosexuality... Still, all is not well in the sexual twilight zone. Trapped in the wrong gender, sometimes desperate to make the change from male to female, katoey are often prone to depression, anger and rash behavior. A minority turn to prostitution, others to crime. According to Peter Jackson, author of Dear Uncle Go: Male Homosexuality in Thailand, a large percentage of Thai transsexuals kill themselves." - Sporty Little Number: Thai audiences are lapping up a controversial movie that deals with gay and transsexual issues: "A box-office smash, Satree Lex, chronicles the country's gender-bending 1996 volleyball champion... the lead characters include a lesbian and five katoey - a Thai term that covers transsexuals, transvestites and effeminate gay men."
want gay rights in charter: CDA called on to add diverse
sexuality clause (2007, Must Scroll): Meanwhile,
Chantalak Raksayoo of the Sapan Group stressed how important
it was for the constitution to clearly state a specific
timeframe for legal amendments to recognise diverse sexuality
and gay rights. 'Otherwise such rights will exist only on
paper,'' she said. According to Ms Anjana, half of young
people who attempted suicide in Thailand were homosexuals and
transgendered people who could not put up with severe pressure
and condemnation from their own families and society. In
addition to legal changes, Prof Suporn Koetwang, a noted
public health expert, called for better public education to
rein in homophobia among the general public. - Gay
Rights in Thailand 2007. - Gay
Activist Triggers Sex Panic Against Buddhist Monks: Kiss
Thailand's Tolerance for Gays Goodbye (2009).
Malaysia: - Religion and Me: "In Islam, no one
really wants to talks about sex. I don't dare confront my
parents about what is sex. I've been to some religious talks and
stuff, especially if it deals with the topic of sexuality and
homosexuality. What I really hate about going to such a
gathering is that, usually it gets me mad...furious actually.
There's no actual revelation about what is gay, just basically
people condemning gays without any reason why, and joking about
it. When the speaker jokes about the number of gays that
committed suicide, that's something that really saddens me: how
Muslims value human life as some kind of a joke! That...and I am
also a suicide survivor, so I take it as a personal attack on
myself. Hey, I'm all into freedom of opinion and beliefs, but no
way I'm listening to some ignorant fool talking nonsense. - Malyasia: Homosexuality And The Church
Dialogue: "They are living a double life ? putting up a
happy mask upfront in the church and society, but privately
suffering from shame and guilt because of their homosexual
they resort to committing suicide to ease the pressure from
family and society..."
Sri Lanka: - The founder of a gay-rights group in Sri Lanka:
""Often Sri Lankan homosexuals have committed suicide because
they had no support from their families, from their community
and from the state," de Rose said. "We want to change that
attitude."" - In Sri
Lanka, sexual orientation puts gays at risk (2007): In her
native Sri Lanka, a land of sandy beaches licked by the
emerald-hued waters of the Indian Ocean, Rosanna Flamer-Caldera
almost lost her wrestling match with homosexuality when she
attempted suicide in her teens.
India: - Activists welcome India gay ruling (2009): This ruling will contribute in making society's attitude more positive. Cases of police harassment may reduce. I have seen people driven to suicide. I hope this decision gives more confidence to gay people to come out, be less afraid. - For gays in India, fear is way of life (2008): In reality, gay and lesbian Indians say, they have few places to meet openly. Studies show that they often lead dangerous, closeted lives, with high rates of suicide and mental illness. Lesbians have reported being fired from their jobs and raped for not being feminine enough.Most gay Indians are married, often with children, and have covert relationships with lovers, activists said. - Queer India: The Fire Inside (2008): In the light of such treatment, it comes as no surprise that the suicide rate for lesbians in India is high. Hardly a week passes without a story appearing in the papers about young couples who have chosen to die rather than live in a society that refuses to believe they exist - there were 24 documented cases of lesbian suicide pacts between 1996 and 2004 in the state of Kerala alone. In May 2008 there was the particularly shocking case of Christy and Rukmini from Chennai. Both had husbands and after years of torment from their families they set themselves on fire. Relatives found their charred bodies still hugging each other. It has been suggested that the high suicide rate is also related to the fact that support structures for lesbians in India are scarce. Chennai, for example, does not have a helpline for lesbians. Some say resources are dwindling even further.
Is there anything gay about them? (2006) " Recently, Baguiati residents Nisha Singh and Nisha Upadhyay committed suicide. The reason was the refusal of society to accept their same-sex love. In the past two years, this is the fourth such incident in the state where couples have ended their lives. So, how difficult is it for city lesbians to stay afloat in such an unsympathetic environment? Says Malobika, spokesperson of Sappho, Kolkata's first lesbian organisation, "It is very unfortunate that two young girls had to commit suicide only because of lack of social acceptance. Until and unless Section 377 of IPC is amended, we are simply helpless. Earlier lesbians usually came from the elite class. But now, there is no class barrier as such. Two girls, who worked as domestic helps in North 24 Parganas, had committed suicide in January this year. If homosexuality wasn't considered a crime, we could have lodged a complaint against the parents for abetting suicide." ... Not just in West Bengal, the rate of same sex couple suicide is on the rise throughout India, says the record books of Sappho. "Even in Kerala, more than 45 couples have committed suicide in the past five years,"Malobika adds."
Transcript of CNN coverage of homosexuality
in India (2000): "- SATPATHY: I thought better to
commit suicide and get lost, that would be the best thing I
thought. BINDRA: Satpathy says he attempted suicide twice again.
He says his family was sympathetic, but he moved thousands of
miles to Mumbai to save his family members further shame and
humiliation. Satpathy's agony is shared by thousands of other
gays, and they are slowly sharing their experiences in
cyberspace. Mumbai's first gay site, gaybombay.com, gets 800
hits a week. The site was put together by Bhavesh Kharia. Until
just a few months ago, Kharia says, people were even scared to
come out on the net. Now gays are using their real names on the
net, a cyberspace network of gays is slowly evolving. BHAVESH
KHARIA, WEB DESIGNER: Most of the concern is we don't want our
parents to find out. You feel that you are somehow letting them
down. And that's where the guilt and the shame comes in..." - Adams turning to Adams for the apple
(2002, Must Scroll): "he does not want to marry a girl, but a
boy, his partner for a year, now. Robin is a gay, a homosexual.
Recently, he attempted suicide after his parents resisted his
plans to marry his partner, but he has no regrets and wears the
gay badge with pride. Having a brilliant academic background and
being well-informed, he presents his case strongly..."
Pakistan: Gays and lesbians in the Muslim community are
quietly shattering one of the final taboos of Islam
(2003)."[He] attempted suicide twice before he turned 18.
"Growing up in Lahore, Pakistan, the eldest son of devout Muslim
parents, he could never come to terms with, let alone explore,
his attraction to other men. His best attempts to fake interest
in girls failed to impress his peers, who began to bully the
self-described "effeminate" man..."
Gadit AAM (2009).
Homosexuality: are we adequately equipped to address this
issue in clinical practice? Journal of the Pakistan
Medical Association, 59(3): 185-186. PDF.
Lately, patients visiting clinicians have talked about their
homosexual inclinations. Generally, they had problems of anxiety
and depression and occasionally for distress associated with the
sexual preferences. One young man, aged 21 mentioned that his
heart starts beating faster when he heard a masculine voice. The
same gentleman shared the information that many such individuals
get acquainted with each other through the internet or common
friends and meet in self designated parks located in various
regions of Karachi. The activity goes on secretly owing to the
stigma attached with this issue.
homosexuals come out of the closet (2006): Smith,
along with the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights
Commission (IGLHRC), launched a book at the conference titled
Tommy boys, Lesbian men and Ancestral wives: female same-sex
practices in Africa. It documents female homosexuality in east
and southern Africa through personal narratives from women in
Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania and Uganda
where lesbianism is little understood and not accepted. "We
are invisible in Africa, but a naturally occurring phenomenon
in the universe," Smith said. "People discriminate against us
and say things carelessly about us. This has led to suicide
and Homosexuality (2004): I have spoken to over 50
African gays and lesbians in the past two years. The
conversations revealed that their lives seem worthless in a
society that gives them little protection against the hatred
for their sexual orientation. Although I'm gay and living in a
foreign country, I still fear the hatred that comes from my
own country. Just a few weeks ago I went back to
Nigeria to visit family and friends, but also to take part in
one of the rare public events for lesbians and gay men in
Nigeria. It was the fifth anniversary symposium of Alliance
Rights of Nigeria, led by its president, Dare Odumuye, a very
brave gay man. It was a rare occasion for Nigerians to discuss
the issues affecting sexual minorities. Michael Akanji of
INCRESE another organisation championing gay issues in Minna,
Niger State, explained the struggles of sexual minorities and
facilities available in Nigeria. There are many cases where
violence is perpetrated against gays and lesbians and where
family relationships breakdown. Those known to be gay or
lesbian are seen as outcasts, bringing terrible shame to their
family name and harming the families' values and reputation.
Powerful organisations like the church, which could make an
enormous difference, add fuel to the stigma and undermine all
efforts to change attitudes. African gays and lesbians
therefore go underground; leading to a lack of self-esteem,
increased insecurity, loneliness and sometimes suicide. The
Christian churches are among the worst perpetrators of
homophobia, using the Bible to support their attitudes and
South Africa: - If they are discovered to be gay at school
they are often sent to psychologists as if they had a disease.
You find many of them on the streets, or they commit suicide
(N/A). (Must scroll to locate article.).
Theuninck AC (2000).
The traumatic impact of minority stressors on males
self-identified as homosexual or bisexual. Master's
Dissertation, the Faculty of Arts, University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Study Summaries
and Thesis Download available: http://www.q.co.za/news/2000/11/001123-gaystress.htm
Link) Highlights: "In the present
S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made
suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South
African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit
suicide because of their sexuality." "The sample consists of 329
males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample
were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were
white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either
Indian, Coloured, or unspecified." "When considering the
influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in
gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had
the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since
loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that
sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related
to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide. Having
witnessed people being victimised for being gay was the next
strongest factor related to suicidal tendencies. Witnessing
others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places the gay/bi
person in a catch 22 position..."
Of South African Gay Students Raped (2006, Alternate
Link): Focusing on young people in the municipalities of
Pietermaritzburg and Durban researchers found that 20 percent of
gay and bisexual teenage males and 19% of lesbian and bisexual
female teens had been raped or sexually assaulted. They also
found that one third of all LGBT students had been physically
assaulted at school because of their sexuality. The study was
conducted for Out LGBT Well-being and the Durban Lesbian and Gay
Health and Community and Health Center. The researchers found
that black and Indian students were more likely to be victimized
because of their sexuality than were white students... "More
alarming is the victimization by teachers and principals," said
Pietermaritzburg Gay & Lesbian Network convener Anthony
The situation in
the province is so severe the researchers said in their report
that almost one in five LGBT students said they had attempted
suicide. - Gay
teens' ordeal (2006): One in five gay and lesbian
schoolchildren in Pietermaritzburg and Durban are raped or
sexually abused at school.... One in three was physically
assaulted in school because of their sexual orientation. Gay men
reported a far higher rate (68%) of victimisation at school than
lesbian women (42%), with blacks and Indians experiencing more
victimisation than whites. Most of this victimisation in school
was perpetrated by other pupils (65%), followed by teachers
(22%), school principals (9%) and other staff. .. The fear
of victimisation led to a decrease in self esteem and an
increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost one in five surveyed had
attempted suicide, according to the report.
Graham T, Kiguwa S
(2005). Experiences of Black LGBTI Youth In Peri-Urban
Communities in South Africa. PDF.
For LGBTI Radio Drama Being Produced by Community Media for
Development/CMFD Productions and The Institute for Democracy in
South Africa (IDASA). This research study was commissioned to
uncover and explore the central issues facing the black lesbian,
gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) communities in
townships and semi-urban areas around Johannesburg. The results
of this research will be used to create relevant and appropriate
storylines for a 13 part, youth focused radio drama produced by
The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) and
Community Media for Development/ CMFD Productions and aired on
community, and possibly mainstream radio stations... 2.2.4
Suicide: There was some evidence from the respondents that
suicide is a problem in the LGBTI community, due to the amount
of stress they face. One respondent said: “you know, eish,
people they commit suicide, gay people they commit suicide,
especially blacks, they kill themselves because of these
things.” ‘These things’ being discrimination, violence, lack of
respect and understanding, etc., essentially all of the themes
previously discussed. This theme was explored in detail in the
OUT LGBT Well-being study, discussed in section 3.0... 3.3
Suicide: The study by OUT LGBT Well-being found that 31%
of South African LGBTI people had thought about committing
suicide and 21% had actually attempted it (OUT 2004). The study
found positive correlations between thoughts of suicide and the
following: fear and/or experience of victimization in any sector
of daily life and alcohol abuse. The study also mentioned that
youth may be more at risk for suicide attempts due to
their lack of resources, lack of support, as well as the stress
of being different from the norm at a time developmentally when
fitting in is seen as extremely important. Thoughts of suicide
were highest among white males (9.5%), followed by black
females, black males and with white females thinking about
suicide the least (5.6%).These figures are for people who think
about suicide often or always.
Zimbabwe: Carlos Mpofu, from Bulowayo, Zimbabwe, was
twenty years old when our researcher spoke to him in 2000...
I first realized about my sexuality when I was about twelve. I
realized I wasn't attracted to girls: my first wet dream wasn't
with a girl, but a man. It first made me think of the sexual
side, and what side I was on. And then I was always a feminine
child. But I didn't have a word for it. The only word I knew was
incubikile-an Ndebele word, but it wasn't specific for gays, it
meant anyone who was handicapped or deformed.... I was suicidal
for about a month. I attempted to commit suicide; but my friends
found me and revived me... I was very depressed again. I moved
out of the house permanently, and became a heavy drinker. My
home became the nightclubs; in the day I slept at my friend
"Teresa's" place. I went way down below zero. I became down and
out, in the dumps, as we say in gay circles. I was very
promiscuous, in and out of everybody's bed, leading a very
dangerous life. I began to realize the type of gay men we have
in the city. I had no contact with my family for a while; I
stopped thinking about HIV/AIDS; I knew all the blackmailers. I
attempted suicide again..."
unacceptable to cultural norms: Gays in Zimbabwe fight
institutionalized homophobia, see slow gains in social
acceptance - First of four parts (2000): For this
concession, Joanetti nearly paid with his life. In the months
after his visit to the traditional healer, Joanetti slowly began
to believe there was, in fact, evil in his behavior. He drank a
bottle of rat poison in an attempt to kill himself. It was the
first of three suicide attempts over the next two years, each of
which came following a period in which his family shunned him
for his attraction to men. His was not an extraordinary
reaction. In the past year, of the 20 or so regular faces at
Harare's Gay community center, 11 have tried to commit suicide.
It has become so commonplace that a conversation about someone
who "drank tablets" the night before could be easily mistaken
for one about someone who had too many beers. After Joanetti's
third suicide attempt, he moved to bustling Harare -- the New
York City of Zimbabwe -- to live with an aunt who had traveled
around the world. This aunt allowed him to explore his
sexuality, and even encouraged him to. In her care, he was able
to contact an organization he had heard about through the
grapevine -- the fledgling Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe.
Under African skies, part 3 (2000) In early October, GALZ was rocked by the suicide of one of its long-time leaders. The man, 32-year-old Siphangilizwe "Panghi" Nyathi had been a pillar of stability in a group that has seen 11 suicide attempts in the last year. But what was equally stunning to GALZ members was the reaction of the media, which got wind of the suicide a month later. First, a new independent daily paper ran a page one, largely sympathetic, story on Nyathi and his family's reaction. Then, as if as an answer, the state-run Sunday paper ran a story. In its version, Nyathi's partner - a conservative man who is the spokesperson for the University of Zimbabwe and feels GALZ should not challenge Mugabe or the state's anti-Gay laws - spoke about the relative ease with which GALZ is able to operate without interference from the government. The man, Herbert Mondhlani, has not participated in GALZ since it became an overtly political organization in 1995. And he has managed to maintain a government job with officials aware of his homosexuality. The article was a sort of backhanded slap at the group, but GALZ members took it as an important concession by the government - the story's implication was that, contrary to Mugabe's assertions, black Gay people do actually exist in Zimbabwe.
Pangi Nyathi, Zimbabwean Gay Leader, Commits Suicide (1999).
Nigeria: - Do you have a right to be gay? (BBC, 2006): My friend committed suicide last year simply because he was feed up of being attracted to men. He was born in Africa and had never been overseas. He was a good person, a Christian as well. He got married but the likeness towards men never left him. Can someone explain this? I hope Africans will grow up someday; we have to stop being the backward continent.
Uganda: - An
interview with a ugandan lesbian activist (2004): MN:
"How has it been for the organisation since it's inception in
the year 2002, is it easy for other lesbians in your country to
know about you or are you underground?" V: "It's easy,
we are not underground. This means that we are not really hiding
the activities of our association. In Uganda where lesbianism is
seen as a crime and the extent to which we have taken our
activities public, we believe we are not underground. We have,
for example, started speaking out about our nature, our
objectivesâ€¦ on radio stations. Others are not doing it yet. We
also spoke out openly on radio, on the issue of the student
Paula Rwomushana, who committed suicide because of the
harassment that she went through when her parents and teachers
found out that she was lesbian. We are planning to do more
things publicly." - Uganda
debates death penalty for gays (2009).
An Open Statement
from the Psychological Society of South Africa to the People
and Leaders of Uganda Concerning The Anti-Homosexuality Bill
international and South African research has found significant
negative effects of exclusion and other forms of discrimination
based on sexual orientation. Sexual orientation-based
discrimination presents the same risks of psychological and
other harms as discrimination on the basis of race, religion or
gender. Notably, among youth who identify as homosexual or
bisexual or who think they may be, research concludes that
family rejection and exclusion, as well as bullying by peers,
correlates highly with a range of high risk behaviours and
outcomes ranging from truancy to substance abuse to attempts at
suicide. In much of sub-Saharan Africa, homosexuality is firstly
interpreted as “foreign,” portrayed as “un-African” and a “white
import.” In some traditional African beliefs, those of a
same-sex sexual orientation are considered cursed or bewitched;
that is, damned by the forefathers and the gods. In primarily
Christian and Muslim African countries alike, gay men and
lesbian women are confronted with religious condemnation. Much
evidence points to this stigmatisation leading to deep-seated
and widespread prejudice, discrimination and violence toward
those who are not heterosexual. A session on homosexuality at
the 2nd Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights, hosted in
Kenya in 2006, noted that fear, hatred and abuse at the hands of
largely intolerant and unsympathetic peers and elders hampers
the personal growth and well-being of African homosexuals. Also
widely documented among the outcomes of prejudice and
discrimination are consistently high rates of antihomosexual
harassment and violence, both state sanctioned and
extrajudicial. Furthermore, criminalisation on the basis of
sexual orientation has been found to exacerbate social
discrimination and, in particular, leads service providers to
discount, ignore and neglect the needs of lesbian, gay and
bisexual people, thus compounding their vulnerability.
Ghana: - Gay in Ghana (2004): In Ghana, male homosexuality is lumped in with bestiality, and gay activity brings misdemeanor charges at minimum. The police have been known to arrest gay men, rape them, and let them go. Last year in August, four young men were convicted of "indecent exposure" and "unnatural carnal knowledge" and sentenced to two years each in prison. Gay people in Ghana live in such a state of fear it is a form of violence. We are isolated, harassed, and beaten. Friends commit suicide from despair. Poverty is a big problem because a lot of us have been thrown out of our houses by our families. Many don't have any education past elementary school. Those few gay men who do have good jobs are deep in the closet and won't have anything to do with gay associations, though they still want gay sex.
Eritrea: Legal but not accepted (2003): "BtM: What is the problem facing individual gays, governmental homophobic behaviour, as well as discrimination? M: Some of them who I meet are HIV positive, they don't have any awareness as gays that they should use a condom, they think condoms are only for heterosexuals. Most of them are in confusion, they don't have interest to accept who they are. One of my close friends goes to church to get cured. Another one killed himself a year ago. But, no one, not even his family knew on what grounds he committed suicide. Only me and other friends of mine knew..."
Cameroun: - Suicide et homosexualité en Afrique: le cas du
Cameroun: Si d’après cette thèse l’homosexualité n’existe
pas en Afrique, comment peut-on en plus parler de suicide chez
une catégorie de la population, qui est déniée ? Cependant
l’étude récente que nous avons menée au Cameroun, a mis en
exergue l’existence de l’homosexualité en Afrique en général, et
au Cameroun en particulier. L’homosexualité au Cameroun ne
relève pas du mythe, c’est une réalité observable... De tout ce
qui précède, il ressort que l’attitude sociale réprobatrice
vis-à-vis de l’homosexualité, peut être un facteur majeur, mais
pas principal, de suicide chez les homosexuels. Cependant, le
Cameroun a ceci de particulier que face à cette hostilité, les
homosexuels ne pensent pas au suicide. A la place ils préfèrent
jouer au jeu que la société aime observer, en se dotant d’un
partenaire de l’autre sexe pour se faire accepter, tout en
maintenant leur activité homosexuelle de manière cachée. C’est
que nous avons désigné comme une stratégie de camouflage et le
partenaire de l’autre sexe dont se sert est désigné par les gais
au Cameroun sous le terme de « nfinga ». - L’homosexualité
l’assaut de la Civilisation Africaine - Cameroun - Rejetés,
les homosexuels revendiquent leur intégration dans la
société (2004): Parfois, les homosexuels sont tentés par
le suicide, mais ils sont accrochés aux croyances locales
selon lesquelles se suicider serait jeter de l'opprobre sur
leur famille. Au Cameroun, le suicide est synonyme de
malédiction. Difficile pour eux de se suicider, ils préfèrent
soit souffrir leur rejet dans les coulisses, soit adopter la
stratégie de camouflage, soit alors se confier à un proche.
Somali: - Death
Hangs Over Somali Queers (2004): Faro, is one of the
leaders of Queer Somalia, a community based organisation based
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He makes frequent visits to Somalia to
make contact with small groups of queers there and on a recent
visit he sent back startling information that shows that for gay
and lesbian people in Somalia the issue of death looms large.
Whether through suicide following pressure from families or via
loosely applied Islamic law that is uncontrolled due to the lack
of a central government, their greatest fear is death - a
sentence that can be brought upon them just for being
homosexual, or for being perceived to be homosexual.
Le Maroc: - Homosexualité
au Maroc: Kal28, âgé de 29 ans en 2004, vit dans une
petite ville du maghreb. Son coming-out n'est que virtuel, via
le net, ne pouvant pas l'annoncer chez lui... Bonjour à tous. Eh
bien moi, je ne suis pas européen ! Je suis marocain ! Dans un
pays arabomusulman ! Le coming-out pour moi, c'est comme se
jeter dans les enfers ! Ni famille, ni amis, ni personne ici ne
pourra comprendre ce que c'est d'être homo... ! Alors... ne
trouvant aucune lueur d'espoir, en 1997, alors que j'avais 22
ans, et en plus du stress quotidien qui gonfle terriblement
quand on est déjà mal dans sa peau, j'ai tenté de me suicider...
et j'ai frôlé la mort... - Etre homosexuel
au Maroc (2010) - Interview de Samir Bergachi, fondateur
du premier magazine homosexuel marocain : "Mithly": Afrik.com :
Quels sujets le prochain numéro de Mithly va-t-il aborder ?
Samir Bergachi : Nous allons consacrer notre une au phénomène du
suicide chez les homosexuels. Nous avons réalisé une enquête sur
le sujet et avons découvert que le taux de suicides est de 20%
parmi les gays. Ce qui est vraiment inquiétant. Il faut que
l’Etat intervienne. Nous avons aussi prévu un reportage sur une
transexuelle algérienne, qui s’appelle Randa, et qui vient de
sortir un livre. Sans oublier le festival de Mawazine au Maroc
où sera présent le chanteur Elton John.
Middle East / Central Asia:
Israel: - For gay Israeli youth, suicide rate soars high (2001). - Political Council for Gay Rights in Israel (2002): A discussion about GLBT Healt issues in the Knesset. - Etre homosexuel en Palestine, enquête au coeur du bourbier Palestinien (2008): « J’ai tenté de me suicider six fois déjà » dit Salah. « Chaque fois l’ambulance est arrivée trop rapidement. Mais maintenant je sais comment faire. La prochaine fois, avec l’aide de Dieu, ça va marcher avant que l’ambulance n’arrive ».
LGBT Jews on Campus: "For openly gay students, or those just coming to terms with their sexuality, however, the extra pressure of fearing reactions from within the Jewish community too often prevents them from comfortably walking into a Jewish organization. Making strides in this area - the welcoming of gay and lesbian Jews into Jewish organizations and institutions - is at the heart of Jewish LGBT activism. Working towards inclusion is not limited to liberal Jewish communities. A Hasidic rabbi at the Jerusalem Open House (Israel's gay and lesbian community center) now offers support and a listening ear, after one of his students committed suicide when not one Jew from his traditional community offered support. Now the rabbi volunteers his time so that we never have to suffer another loss like this."
Lebanon / Le Liban: - "Homosexualités et suicide: témoignages cliniques et contribution au débat à partir du Liban" par Jean-Luc Vannier.
Iran: - Physician heal thyself: "Internalized
homophobia is the toxic shame, some of us feel for having come
out to our friends and families. We think we have brought shame
onto our Iranian families for coming out. We all have heard or
know of gay Iranians who committed suicide over extreme
rejections they experienced after coming out to their friends
and families. Many gay Iranians who are dominated by the demon
of internalized homophobia get married and pretend they are
something they are not and deny themselves the chance of living
an authentic life; A life that is based on silencing our true
voice and murdering our genuine homoerotic feelings. Many gay
physicians have been using their surgical knife to cut
themselves off from their gay feelings, and letting the cancer
of inner homophobia grow. Because many of us were made to
believe that we are less for being gay and have no right to
express who we are nor deserve to have love, we act out the rage
we have for being treated less than. This rage, due to years of
mistreatment and abuse, is expressed unconsciously and can take
the form of drug abuse, bareback sex, or suicide attempts." - Inquest
finds asylum refusal was motive for gay Iranian's suicide.-
Dangers of Being Young, Gay and Iranian: "One of my dear
friends, Nima, commited suicide a month ago in Shiraz. He just
couldn't take it anymore."
Gay Churches Expand to Latin American
Congregations: Homosexuals in Honduras respond to
new denomination's message that homosexuality and Christianity
are compatible: "Excluded from traditional churches, homosexual
Christians in Latin America are forming their own congregations
with help from the biggest homosexual denomination in the United
States... According to Nelson Arambu, of the Violet Collective,
it was the first formal worship held specifically for gays and
lesbians in Honduras. "Given the dominant culture of Honduras,
it's very difficult for homosexuals or lesbians to enter a
church without being rejected," Arambu told ENI. "A majority of
homosexuals here are people of faith, but the attitude of the
churches toward us has been very negative. They see us as sexual
aberrations, people who aren't capable of positive lives, much
less of having access to the glory of God. And since the
churches have a lot of influence with the government and
society, they contribute to an environment where we're rejected
by our families, forcing many homosexuals into the streets where
they have to sell their bodies to survive, or end up committing
Mexico: - Effects of violence and discrimination on the mental health of bisexuals, lesbians, and gays in Mexico City (2005): A questionnaire was administered to 506 bisexuals, lesbians, and gays attending support organizations and institutions. Eight forms of discrimination and fourteen forms of violence based on sexual orientation were researched. The study found the following prevalence rates: 39.0% suicidal ideation, 15.0% suicide attempts, 27.0% mental disorders, and 18.0% alcoholism.
Costa Rica: - Suicidio
en la población homosexual costarricense (Translation):
GBT Males. 40% had been suicidal. 22% had attempted suicide. 45
LB Females. 18% had been suicidal. 11% had attemptd suicide.
On August 11, The Trevor Project launched The Trevor Helpline, the first round-the-clock national toll-free suicide hotline for gay and questioning youth. It's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Teens with nowhere to turn can call 1-866-4-U-TREVOR. - Gay and Lesbian Helpline (1-888) 340-4528: The national toll-free Gay and Lesbian Helpline is operated by Fenway Community Health Center in Boston. It provides free confidential information, referrals, crisis intervention, and support to callers seven evenings a week. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Typical topics include safer sex and coming out. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Helpline - 617-267-9001 - Toll-free 888-340-4528. - Peer Listening Line 1-617-267-2535. Toll-free 1-800-399-PEER (1-800-399-7337). USA: Suicide & Crisis Lines.
Kids Help Phone, Canada:
1-800-668-6868 - The
Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada:
You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line
at 1-800-268-YOUTH (1-800-268-9688) across
Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688) in the
416/905 local calling area.
Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - The "Proteus" Super-Search System is recommended (See also Proteus Original). - Best Search Engine on Proteus is: Google! If you are searching for a string of word together, such as a title, forget not to place what is sought in quotation marks. Example: "Death by Denial". - Bing Search by MSN is also a good search engine. For all types of search engines, see Wikipedia listing. - Search the QRD.
The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - is located.
Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist & Glenn Lynas, and Glenn also supplied other forms of assistance.
Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary. She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.
The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.
This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.