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Transsexual / Transvestite / Transgender / Intersexuality: Part 4 of 4: Dissertation Abstracts
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Bibiography: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Ph.D and Master's Theses

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ABSTRACTS: Ph.D & Master's Theses - Full Text Dissertations Available Online are listed Below. Full Text Papers Available Online are on Another Webpage.

Full Text Dissertations

Akin, Deniz (2009). Bargaining with heteronormativity: elaborations of transsexual experiences in Turkey. Master's Dissertation, Gender and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway. Abstract & Download Page.

Ashbee, Olivia (2009). Tracing Erasures and Imagining Other-wise: Theorizing Toward an Intersectional Trans/Feminist Politics of Coalition. Master's Dissertation, Department of Women’s Studies, University of Victoria. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bohane, Katie (2010). Self-made women: The (re) construction of self following male to female gender reassignment surgery. PhD Dissertation, School of Psychology, University of Leicester. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bolton, Jessica (2009). An Examination of Transgender Youth: Support Networks and Mental Health Concerns. PhD. Dissertation, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University. Download Page PDF Download.

Bonifacio, Herbert Joseph (2010). Invisible persons, invisible patients: Determining the ethics of hormone-blocker therapy through an understanding of the transgender-transsexual adolescent-physician relationship. Master's Disssertation, Bioethics Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University. PDF Download.

Broeck, Shannon R (2005). Categories of Gender & Sexuality: Exploring the Relationship between Language and the Formation of Non-Heteronormative Identities. Honors Thesis, University of California, San Diego. PDF Download.

Claman, Erica Elaine (2007). An Examination of the Predictors of Attitudes Toward Transgender Individuals. PhD. Dissertation, Psychology, The Ohio State University. Download Page PDF Download.

Coyle, Shannon (2010). A Mixed methods Investigation of the Needs, Experiences. and Fulfillments of Trans Persons Accessing Ontario Health Care services. Master's Dissertation, Queen's University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Crisovan, Piper Lauren (2006). "Risky" business: Cultural conceptions of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia. PhD. Dissertation, Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page.

Drummond, Alexander (2008). This literature review was part of an MSc dissertation exploring the level of training counsellors and therapists have in working with issues of sexuality and gender diversity. Full Text.

Eckert, Christina Annalena (2003). The Historicisation of the Hermaphroditic/Intersexed Body: From Medicalisation to De-Medicalisation. Master's Dissertation, Gender History, University of Essex. PDF Download.

Escobar, Laura Maria (2008). Progressive care : an examination of male to female transgender sex workers' experiences within the health care and social service systems in San Francisco, California. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Mass. PDF Download. Download Page

Evans, Richard Neil (2009). A Philosophical Exploration of Transsexuality. PhD Dissertation, The University of Birmingham. PDF Download.

Finger, Eleanor Ford (2010). Beyond the Binary: Serving the Transgender Student, Improving the College Experience. PhD Dissertation, Department of Higher Education, Washington State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gallacher L (2003). The psychology of intersex: Research into the experiences of individuals who have experienced abdrogen insensity syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia within the UK. M.A. Thesis. University of York.  PDF Download.

Germon, Jennifer E (2006). Generations of gender: past, present, potential. PhD. Dissertation, University of Sydney.   PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.

Greatheart, Marcus Skidley (2010). The Fred Study: stories of life satisfaction and wellness from post-transition transgender men. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Greenwood Swanson, Hunter (2009). Standards of Care: Transgender/Genderqueer Clients’ Experiences with Mental Health Workers. Master's Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.

Grey, Leslee (2009). Multiple Selves, Fractured (Un)learnings: The Pedagogical Significance of Drag Kings' Narratives. PhD. Dissertation, Educational Policy Studies, Department of Educational Policy Studies, College of Education, Georgia State University. PDF Download.

Hill, Robert S (2007). 'As a man I exist; as a woman I live': Heterosexual Transvestism and the Contours of Gender and Sexuality in Postwar America. PhD. Dissertation, University of Michigan. PDF Download.

Johnson, Christine (2004). Transsexualism: An Unacknowledged Endpoint Of Developmental Endocrine Disruption? Master's dissertation, Environmental Studies, Evergreen State College. PDF Download. Download Page.

Kalterborn B (2003). The Fa'afafine, gender benders in Samoa: On cultural construction of gender and role change. PhD Dissertation, University of Oslo. PDF Download. Abstract.

Kenagy GP (1998). Exploring an Oppressed Group: A Study of the Health and Social Service Needs of Transgendered People in Philadelphia. Ph.D Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania. Full Text: Dissertations available from ProQuest. Paper AAI9913481.

Lair, Liam Oliver (2009). Beyond whiteness and ideal masculinity; expanding transgendered identity. Master's Dissertation, Roosevelt University.  PDF Download.

LeBlanc, Fred Joseph (2010). Unqueering Transgender? A Queer Geography of Transnormativity in Two Online Communities. Master's Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington. PDF Download. Download Page.

Lepak, Jamie Lynn (2011). Gender identity: an examination of fears concerning reporting. Master's Dissertation,  College of Social Sciences & Humanities, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Loehr K (2007). Transvestites in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, Poverty & Policy.  Master's Dissertation, Georgetown University & Universidad de San Martin. PDF Download.

MacDonald, Danielle (2009). Photography as Therapy in the Transgender Community. Senior Thesis, University of Maine, Farmington. (Related) PDF Download.

Matza, Alexis  (2009). The Boston "T" Party: Masculinity, Testosterone Therapy, And Embodiment Among Aging Men And Transgender Men. PhD. Dissertation, Anthropology, The University of Iowa. PDF Download. Download Page.

McLachlan, Christine (2010). Queering gender : an exploration of the subjective experience of the development of transgender identity. Master's Dissertation, Clinical Psychology, School of Psychology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg. PDF Download. Download Page.

Meredith, Leah (2000). The meaning of lived experience of transexual individuals. Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Morland ICF (2005). Narrating Intersex: On the ethical critique of the medical management of intersexuality, 1985-2005. PHD Thesis. Royal Holloway, University of London.  PDF Download N/A. Abstract.

Payne, Tina (2010). Transgender: a curriculum for inclusion. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State University, Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.

Pfeffer. Carla A (2009). Trans(Formative) Relationships: What We Learn About Identities, Bodies, Work and Families from Women Partners of Trans Men. PhD. Dissertation, Sociology, University of Michigan. PDF Download. Download Page. Note: The third chapter of this dissertation is published: Pfeffer, C. A. (2008). Bodies in relation—Bodies in transition: Lesbian partners of trans men and body image. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12(4), 325-345.

Phillips, Amber (2011). Transgender students: a seminar for academic and personal success. Master's Dissertation, Ball State University. Download PagePDF Download.

Riley, Elizabeth Anne (2012). The Needs of Gender Variant Children and Their Parents. PhD. Dissertation, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney. PDF Download.

Ritchie, Laura Renee (2008). Disclosure of Sexual Orientation by Adult Children to Their Family-of-Origin: Effects Upon quality of Family Relationship. PhD Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Charlotte. PDF Download. Download Page.

Ryan, Joelle Ruby (2009). Reel Gender: Examining the Politics of Trans Images in Film and Media. PhD. Dissertation, American Culture Studies/Popular Culture, Bowling Green State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Saltzburg, Nicole L (2010). Developing a Model of Transmasculine Identity. PhD. Dissertation, University of Miami. PDF Download. Download Page.

Saunders, Karen (2008). Queer intercorporeality: Body Disruption of Straight Space. Master's Dissertation, Gender Studies, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, Aotearoa/New Zealand. PDF Download. Download Page. Related Book.

Saunders, Sean (2007). Crossing out: transgender (in)visibility in twentieth-century culture. PhD. Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Schmidt, Johanna Mary (2005). Migrating Genders: Westernisation, migration, and Samoan fa’afafine. PhD, Dissertation, Sociology, The University of Auckland. PDF Download N/A. Download Page N/A. Google Cache. Related Book.

Smith, Tones (2011). Pathology, bias and queer diagnosis : a crip queer consciousness. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.

Tobin, Harper Jean (2003). Sexuality in Transsexual & Transgender Individuals. BA Honors Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Oberlin College. Full Text.

Waddle, Heather M (2010). Barriers to healthcare in the transgender population. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.

Waszkiewicz, Elroi (2006). Getting by Gatekeepers: Transmen's Dialectical Negotiations within Psychomedical Institutions. Master's Dissertation, Sociology, Georgia State University. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wharton, Virginia Wyatt (2007). Gender variance and mental health : a national survey of transgender trauma history, posttraumatic stress, and disclosure in therapy. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Mass. PDF Download. Download Page.

White, Caroline (2002). Re/Defining Gender and Sex: Educating for Trans, Transsexual, and Intersex Access and Inclusion to Sexual Assault Centres and Transition Houses. Master's Dissertation, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia. PDF DownloadPDF Download.

Windsor, Elroi J (2011). Regulating Healthy Gender: Surgical Body Modification among Transgender and Cisgender Consumers. Sociology Dissertations. Paper 55. PhD Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Georgia State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Wyatt Wharton, Virginia (2007). Gender Variance and Mental Health: A National Survey of Transgender Trauma History, Posttraumatic Stress, and Disclosure in Therapy. Master's Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.

Bell-Metereau RL (1981). Cross-dressing and sex role reversals in American film. PH.D. Thesis, Indiana University, DAI, Vol. 42-07A, p. 2907, 309 pages.

Abstract by author: Over the past decade film critics have devoted increasing attention to the portrayal of male and female sex roles in American film, and much of this criticism has centered on the ways in which the film industry promotes traditional relationships and sex roles.
Defiance of society's gender definitions is rare, and yet the film that presents cross-dressing (men dressing as women or vice versa) violently contradicts our preconceptions about male and female behavior. Our identification of certain kinds of dress and manners with sexual and social status is pervasive. Although the cross-dressing film might appear to be an oddity, well over two-hundred films use some form of transvestism and the concomitant sex role reversal as a motif or as a key device of the narrative.

The silent period is marked by a great deal of freedom and variety in the types of male and female cross-dressing, but from about 1935 to 1960, Hollywood self-censorship restricted female impersonation to farcical matrons of relatively low prestige. Women often gained in status and freedom by imitating males, and we see a wide range of types, from Dietrich's sultry cabaret performances to Doris Day's buffoonish portrayal of Calamity Jane. With the last twenty years, the incidence of female impersonation has increased dramatically, and it is marked by a flourishing variety of types, many of which are powerful figures. Male impersonation, on the other hand, has diminished, and the vestigial imitation of masculine clothing represents not so much a role reversal as it indicates a natural extension of the growing variety of roles availability to women in our society.

The method for examining the films is to analyze in some depth films that are representative of each decade, determining the extent to which the filmmakers and stars celebrate androgyny or, in contrast, the extent to which the film represents an attempt to reconcile the male and female characters to standard sex roles. The occurrence of the transvestite or androgynous figure sounds a discordant note, regardless of the decade or the type of film in which it occurs. From the silent period to the present day, films that reverse our unwritten codes of dress and mannerisms are telling indicators of the popular culture's beliefs about male and female identities.

Publication No. 8128000

Bolin AE (1983).  In search of eve:  transsexual rites of passage. PH.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, DAI, Vol. 44-04A, p. 1139, 404 pages.

Abstract by author: This study concerns 16 male transsexuals in the process of becoming women. The research spanned two years using participant-observation as the primary method, supplemented by life histories, questionnaires, and masculinity-femininity indices. The research involved attendance at weekly meetings of the Berdache Society, a transsexual support group, and immersion in transsexuals' everyday lives.

The transsexuals' metamorphosis was a patterned development that had the characteristics of a rite of passage. Their rite of passage was dramatized by important stages and events that punctuated their progress towards the sex change surgery. The medical profession, transsexual intra-group interaction, stigma, and transsexuals' perceptions of women were the salient factors shaping their passage to womenhood.

Transsexuals were followed as they separated themselves from their former male lives after finding the label transsexual, as they began a therapeutic relationship with their medical overseers, including female hormone therapy, as they prepared for and actually adopted the female role, and as they were finally incorporated into society as women after the surgical conversion. The approach taken here did not assume that transsexuals began their rite of passage with fully crystallized feminine identities, but rather regarded these identities as gradually emerging in conjunction with changes in social identity and physical appearance.

Several findings of this study refute commonly held notions about transsexuals. Transsexuals were not shown to have family histories with dominant mothers and absent fathers, exclusive homosexual orientation, effeminate childhoods, nor did they view their penises as organs of hate and disgust. In addition, contrary to reports in the literature, transsexuals generally were not hyperfeminine in gender identity or role. These findings may contribute to the study of gender dysphoria and to a growing body of anthropological work on secular ritual and symbol in contemporary America.

Publication No. 8317643

Bonfilio VP III (1980). Gender dysphoria: examining a typology. PH.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda, DAI, Vol. 41-12B, p. 4652, 103 pages.

Abstract by author: An ever-increasing number of men are presenting themselves at mental health clinics and hospitals complaining of feelings of discomfort with their gender and requesting assistance in preparing for and obtaining hormonal, surgical and legal sex reassignment to the female gender. However, there has only been one replicatable study to determine, first, if these men form an homogeneous group and, second, what is the relationship of this group to other groups of men who have cross-gender feelings and behaviors. Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1977b, 1978, 1979) proposed a model for the study of differences between the within transsexual and transvestite groups. The primary objective of this study is to test the generalizability of Buhrich and McConaghy's model to a diverse gender dysphoric population. The second objective of this study is to expand the utility of Buhrich and McConaghy's model by the measurement of personality characteristics of men who present with gender dysphoria complaints.

Sixty-three participants were recruited from three sources in the San Francisco Bay Area, two community mental health centers which serve persons with gender conflicts and a private organization of transsexuals and transvestites. Data were collected on these men by two interviewers using three types of instruments, questionnaire, structured interview and the California Psychological Inventory. The areas of inquiry included demographic information, family history and present living situation, experiences when growing up, feelings about body, history of living as a woman, cross-dressing, hormones and sex reassignment, sex behavior, fetish, and dreams and fantasies. Based on the work of Buhrich and McConaghy (1977a, 1978), the 63 participants were placed in four groups: true transsexuals (N = 20), fetishistic transsexuals (N = 18), transvestites (N = 11) and residual (N = 11). Three subjects were judged to be psychotic and were eliminated from the study.

The multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI scales by four groups simultaneously revealed significant differences between groups. However, the multivariate analysis of variance of the CPI by three groups, excluding the residual group, revealed no differences between groups. An inspection of the differences between four groups indicated that the residual group was significantly different from the other three groups in terms of mental health. Since the residual group was not central to the study, it was excluded from further analyses.

One-way analyses of variance were calculated on interval level variables from the questionnaire and the structured interview. Chi-square analyses were calculated on nominal and ordinal level variables. The analyses revealed differences between true transsexuals, fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites on 51 variables. Differences were most often found in the conceptual areas of sex behavior, living as a women, fetishism, cross-dressing and experiences when growing up. True transsexuals were found to rate highest on variables concerned with feminine and/or homosexual identity and behavior, followed in order by fetishistic transsexuals and transvestites. These findings are similar to the findings of Buhrich and McConaghy.

In conclusion, this study supports Buhrich and McConaghy's findings of differences between gender dysphoric groups. This study should be replicated on a larger sample in an effort to find personality differences between groups. Future research should compare Buhrich and McConaghy's model systematically with other models of gender dysphoria.

Publication No. 8110171

Bowman AR (1996). Acoustical and perceptual measurements of transsexual voice. M.S. Thesis, MGH Institute of Health Professions, MAI, vol. 35-01, p. 238, 33 pages.

Abstract by author: Utterances produced by three male-to-female transsexuals were acoustically analyzed for feminine voice characteristics, including mean fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, shifts in fundamental frequency and breathiness. The utterances were also submitted to perceptual evaluations. Results for all the utterances produced by each speaker indicated variation in acoustical signal and no clear trend in any one acoustical characteristic for production of feminine speech by transsexual speakers. Acoustical and perceptual analysis of individual utterances indicated that when all the vocal parameters were produced within the range for feminine speech, the speakers were perceived to be feminine.

Publication No. 1381620

Chang H-H (1990). Transvestite sub/versions: power, performance, and seduction in Shakespeare's comedies. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, DAI, Vol. 52-01A, p. 166, 208 pages.

Abstract by author: This study is an attempt to explore the subject of female transvestism in Shakespeare's comedies under a feminist "both/and" politics of reading. The central discussion is situated among competing discourses on transvestism - the humanist one which emphasizes the discrepancy between the outer appearance and the inner essence; the modernist one which privileges the notion of "a wardrobe of costume selves"; the postmodernist one which exteriorizes gender as merely a corporeal stylization through costume, voice, gesture and body movement.

Three theoretical frameworks - the materialist, the deconstructive, and the psychoanalytic - are adopted to map out respectively the ideological and theatrical sub/versions of the three individual plays - The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. The materialist approach highlights the political aspect of gender fashioning the The Merchant of Venice. It explores Portia's courtroom cross-dressing as the site of gender/race/class conflict: it challenges the gender/power asymmetry but reestablishes race and class hierarchies.

The deconstructive approach offers a critique of the binary oppositions of masculinity/femininity, reality/appearance, signified/signifier, truth/fiction and origin/copy foregrounded by the theatrical practice of transvestism in As You Like It. It plays on gender indeterminacy and amplifies the dissonance of sex, gender and clothes created by the composite figure of Rosalind/Ganymede/boy-actor.

The psychoanalytic approach draws attention to the process of sexual differentiation and the heterosexual discourse of desire in Twelfth Night. It demonstrates how sexual difference between men and women is finally achieved in the play by a repression of the difference within men and women: Cesario, Viola's transvestite internal-double, is irrevocably replaced by Sebastian, Viola's biological external-double.

Working together, these three theoretical frameworks help to construct the plays as texts with multiple sites of struggle and contestation, and make my reading of them more self-consciously polyvocal and de-centered. As an on-going negotiation among the Shakespearean canon, feminist politics and poststucturalism, this study thus reads Shakespeare with reference to theory and, equally, reads theory with reference to Shakespeare.

Publication No. 9116144

Chauncey GA Jr (1989). Gay New York: urban culture and the making of a gay male world, 1890-1940. PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-01A, p. 270, 416 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation examines the construction of gay male identities and communities in New York City, 1890-1940.  It analyzes the representation of homosexuality in popular culture and the "street-level" cultural dynamics that influenced the ways in which homosexually-active men were labelled, understood themselves, and interacted with others. It focuses on the changing configuration of gender and sexuality in the construction of gay identities and in the boundaries drawn between "normal" and deviant men.

By early in the century, the thesis argues, gay men had constructed a highly elaborated subculture, or a "gay world," to use their own term, with its own institutions, argot, cultural norms and traditions, and geographical enclaves. This study examines the development of the commercial institutions-saloons, speakeasies and bars, bathhouses, cheap cafeterias and elegant restaurants-which sustained that world, the stratagems gay men developed to protect them, and the role they played in the process by which men identified themselves as gay. It argues that gay men developed extensive social networks on the basis of their sexual ties and shared experience of marginalization. They also created cultural institutions and rituals (such as regularly-held transvestite balls, some of which drew thousands of participants in the 1920s) that sustained and enhanced their communal ties and group identity, much as the ethnic theater and dances of immigrant groups did. And they forged a culture that provided them with the resources they needed to negotiate their presence in a hostile world and to resist internalizing the negative attitudes about homosexuals pervasive in their society.

Publication No. 9015238

Costopoulos J (1986). Homosexuality on the new York stage:  its critical reception, 1926 to 1968. PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI, Vol. 47-09A, p. 3243, 525 pages.

Abstract by author: Public reaction to homosexuality on the New York professional stage from 1926 to 1968 included measures taken by officials, particularly through forms of legal and administrative censorship. The Captive (1926) and The Drag (1927), the first two plays centered on a homosexual theme, precipitated raids on Broadway, arrests, trials, and jailings. Mae West's transvestite Pleasure Man (1928) was also raided. Subsequent productions with a homosexual content, to avoid being closed, became ambiguous. In the 1930s, Girls in Uniform and The Green Bay Tree escaped censorship action, but The Children's Hour, not equally covert in its homosexual implications, was denied the Pulitzer Prize and its production blocked in Boston and London. When the License Commissioner shut down Trio in 1944, the theatre community's unified protest led to legislation restricting outside interference in the theatre.

Drama critics exerted another kind of censorship by determining what was publicly acceptable, but their positions were often as ambivalent as the productions themselves. They blamed Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955) with being evasive, but panned openly homosexual plays, such as The Immoralist (1955) and Compulsion (1957). In the late 1950s and 1960s, certain critics attacked homosexual playwrights, notably Tennessee Williams, William Inge, and Edward Albee, for the submerged homosexuality in their plays, and boycotted dramas, such as Fortune and Men's Eyes (1965), which unrestrainedly depicted it. By the early 1960s, homosexuality in American performance succeeded irrespective of reviews;

British dramas containing homosexuality flourished on Broadway, and a homosexual theatre group, the Caffe Cino, inaugurated Off Off-Broadway. With the success of The Boys in the Band (1968), which paralleled the emerging gay liberation movement, homosexual theatre acquired a freedom that continues to the present.

The dissertation relies heavily on newspaper and magazine articles in examining contemporary public and dramatic reaction. It studies text and production modes of significant plays to compare productions with critical response.

Publication No. 8614497

Crawford KV (1984). The transvestite heroine in Seventeenth-Century popular literature. PH.D. Thesis, Harvard University, DAI, Vol. 45-07A, p. 2109, 391 pages.

Abstract by author: This is a study of a recurrent image in seventeenth-century popular English literature - that of the woman in masculine disguise. Chapter One traces an outline of the history of attitudes towards transvestism in the West, and links cross-dressing with various concepts of androgyny. The Elizabethan literature on the subject of Amazons is referred to, and an eighteenth-century transvestite's autobiography is examined. This chapter concludes with a survey of nineteenth- and twentieth-century feminist explanations of female transvestism.  Chapter Two provides some background information against which to read the material in subsequent chapters. The meaning of masculinity and femininity in seventeenth-century England is examined. I look at the role of women in the religious and political movements of the period, as well as discussing pamphlets, tracts and poems written by women. Finally, this chapter discusses the controversy over fashions in clothing which were perceived as blurring the distinction between men and women.

Chapter Three is concerned with the ballad, which I argue is both a medium by means of which the dominant ideology is expressed at the popular level, and a means of subversion.

Chapter Four examines the transvestite heroine in Shakespeare's plays, whilst Chapter Five scrutinises the gender-disguised woman in non-Shakespearean drama. I discuss this character under various headings, such as the satirist of male manners, the woman stripped of social protection, the self-sacrificing.

Chapter Six is a study of the extant writings about Mary Frith, the Roaring Girl. I refer to satires, plays and a biography.

Publication No. 8419319

Devor HJ (1990). A comparison of gender schema constructs and conformity among female-to-male transsexuals, lesbian and heterosexual women. PH.D. Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 51-06A, p. 2160, 367 pages.

Abstract by author: The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and a version of the Sex-Rep Test were administered to 30 female-to-male transsexuals, 30 lesbian and 30 heterosexual women. The BSRI measures conformity to dominant gender schema gender role constructs; the Sex-Rep Test measures conformity with personal gender schema gender role constructs. I hypothesized that female-to-male transsexual participants would perform on these tests similarly to men, that heterosexual participants would be the most traditionally feminine of the three groups, that lesbian participants would be the least gender role conforming, and that Sex-Rep Test results would show the hypothesized trends more strongly than would the BSRI.  The data provided some support for these contentions.  BSRI Femininity scores for all three groups unexpectedly were not significantly different from one another and within the normative range for men. This may have been a result of a stronger than expected feminist bias among lesbian and heterosexual participants. BSRI Masculinity scores for heterosexual women were within published norms for females; transsexual and lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were within the normative range for males but lesbian participants' Masculinity scores were not significantly different from those of heterosexual or transsexual participants.

Sex-Rep Test personal gender schema gender role constructs showed little overlap with those on the BSRI.  Sex-Rep Test Femininity and Masculinity scores for transsexual and lesbian participants differed from BSRI scores in the expected direction. Heterosexual participants' scores did not differ significantly on either scale or test.

Female-to-male transsexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Masculinity gender role categories. Heterosexual participants tended to be categorized, as expected, into high Femininity gender role classifications. Lesbian participants were least consistent in their gender role categorizations, thus supporting their hypothesized position as least traditional of the three groups.

In conclusion, I argued that variations in gender role categorizations among the three groups might be partially accounted for by variations in the gendered sexual identities of the three groups rather than simply by gender or sex. I therefore suggested a model of the social construction of gendered sexuality.

Publication No. 9025997

Donnell SE (1994). Clothes make the man: transvestism or the re-dressing of masculine identity in spanish golden age and colonial theatre. PH.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, DAI, Vol. 55-09A, p. 2854, 260 pages.

Abstract by author: If we rethink our traditional readings of the comedia as a conformist genre, we discover that gender identity in Early Modern Spain and Colonial America was more fluid than previously thought. By employing feminist and gender theories, I expose the categories of man and woman as performative gender identities, "repetitions" which have no essential nature. My chapters on Lope de Vega's peninsular work, El paraiso de Laura, and Sor Juana's colonial piece, Los empenos de una casa, pay special attention to the power that the male cross-dresser derives from cultural anxiety over instability in gender and its alliance with the transgressive power of the gracioso (or 'comic figure'). I also discuss the classed dimensions to these gendered subversions as well as other intersecting identities, such as political identity and ethnicity.

In my chapters on Monroy y Silva's peninsular comedia, El caballero dama, and Calderon de la Barca's libretto for the zarzuela, La purpura de la rosa, I turn to cross-dressing in mythological themes and their performance.  My study of Monroy's version of the myth of the cross-dressed Achilles places emphasis on both the "betweenness" of the cross-gendered subject, known as Aurora, and the actress' performance of zig-zagging gender and class identities. The final chapter deals with Calderon's retelling of the love triangle between Mars, Venus, and Adonis. Here I look at the cross-gendered performance of masculinity in the context of female singers playing the roles of the mythological heroes, especially in colonial and present-day revivals.  In all four chapters, I focus on how cross-dressing leads to the possibility of same-sex desire which, in turn, undermines closure in the comedia. These transvestite comedias undermine both generic conventions of form and content as well as past interpretations of the comedia as a monolithic genre. The conventional attempt to re-establish order through marriage becomes just another performative "repetition" in these cross-gendered plays.

Publication No. 9503750

Ezdinl L (1988). George Sand's literary transvestism: pre-texts and contexts. PH.D. Thesis, Princeton University, DAI, Vol. 49-02A, p. 264, 291 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation situates George Sand within the sociological context of women writing during the Romantic period in France. Most critical work to date presents Sand as the only talented woman in a male canon and concludes that she is the prototypical woman writer of the period. In contrast, I show that Sand's highly complex authorial self-representation can be properly interpreted only by relocating her literary career within the socio-historical context of women's writing in France. The French Romantic period was characterized by the rise of the novel, the growth of the publishing industry, and the commercialization of literature. The thesis demonstrates how intense sexual rivalry within the literary marketplace led to the concept of the femme auteur as a pejorative label invoked by male critics to discourage female literary ambition. I explore the tensions that resulted from such images for the women writing at the time, especially as they are reflected in the prefatory practices of the period. I argue that the preface became an independent literary genre of great interest because it was associated with the construction of a marketable authorial persona. I then analyze the strategies of women who used their prefaces to protect themselves from the threat of social and commercial marginalization. Finally, I position Sand in relation to other women writers of her period and develop the ways in which Sand's literary transvestism served as a self-empowering literary strategy created to differentiate her from all other writers, both female and male. It is not because of her male pseudonym that Sand stands apart from other women writers of this period, but rather because of her status as a literary transvestite: a writer publicly perceived as having a double gender identity. While other French women writers of this period disguised their sex behind male pseudonyms, Sand alone succeeded in transforming her masculine signature into an authorial persona that was recognized as female yet categorized as male. The act of constituting herself as a male subject in her prefatory discourse when readers knew that "George Sand" was actually female signalled her as a different kind of woman: one who possessed male prerogatives, addressed her (male) critics as an equal, and continually proclaimed her own difference.

Publication No. 8804848

Friedli LK (1987). Crossing gender boundaries in Eighteenth Century England. PH.D. Thesis, University of Essex, DAI, Vol. 49-11A, p. 3478, 471 pages.

Abstract by author:  This thesis is concerned with processes of gender constitution, transgression and transformation during the Eighteenth Century, with specific reference to three figures: the maternal woman, the hermaphrodite and the transvestite. The significance of these figures is discussed in relation to a series of debates regarding the meaning of sexual differences. Four sites are selected as examples of areas in which the term 'woman' gained new meanings: in relation to the law, the family, employment and the institution. The importance of competing versions of sexual difference is then discussed from the perspective of an enlightenment epistemology, medical discourse and religious debate.  Texts from an eighteenth-century 'feminist debate' are then considered in terms of the retheorisation of political subjectivity which provided a language for the articulation of 'female rights', and in terms of the specific concerns of female apologists. The examples of women who dressed as men, definitions of effeminacy and mid-century debates regarding hermaphrodites are used to provide an account of the possibility, meaning and significance of gender transgression. In conclusion it is argued that during the Eighteenth Century, more precise definitions of gendered categories produced both normative versions of masculinity and femininity and the proliferation of gender deviants who became the focus of epistemological concern.

Publication No. D-84396

Fryrear VL (1989).Transsexual students in the classroom: implications for teachers, counselors and administrators. ED.D. Thesis, Seattle University, DAI, Vol. 50-10B, p. 4794, 167 pages.

Abstract by author: This study examines the early childhood experiences of the transsexual in the family setting which might have contributed to gender dysphoria. Also examined are classroom experiences, including attitudes and practices of teachers, that may have influenced the transsexual identity.

The "Survey Instrument for Sample Population of Transsexuals" and the "Survey Instrument for the Sample Population of Parents of Transsexuals" were developed to generate data about childrearing patterns inherent in the families of selected transsexual subjects and the classroom methods utilized by teachers of these transsexuals. These survey instruments were administered to twenty-five identified transsexuals and four parents of transsexuals in Seattle, Washington, and San Diego, California. Summary statistics and analyses were compiled to determine commonalities and/or relationships.

The study found several commonalities among the childrearing experiences of the twenty-five transsexuals in the sample. Eighty-four percent said loneliness is common for them. Parents of these transsexuals disapproved of their children's sexual identities when the children were between the ages of six to ten years.  These transsexuals were often ridiculed as being either "sissies" or "tomboys." One hundred percent of the transsexuals interviewed related that they, as children, had often envied members of the opposite sex. Fathers were identified as the primary disciplinarian in the homes of these transsexuals, especially when the child had committed "forbidden" acts like dressing in clothes appropriate for the opposite sex. Ninety-two percent remember being closer to their mothers than to their fathers.

While the majority of transsexuals in this study waited until adulthood to decide to change their anatomical sex, 84 percent remember feeling different from others of their sex before the age of ten, and 60 percent knew before the age of five. Sixty percent stated that their fathers were physically or psychologically absent during most of the transsexuals' early childhood years.
Ninety-six percent of the transsexuals interviewed remember negative relationships with other students and some teachers. Physical education classes were listed as the most traumatic.

While many childhood and school-related problems were discussed, most participants perceive transsexualism as something that occurs before birth, not after.

Publication No. 9007606

Gurvich SE (1991). The transsexual husband: the wife's experience. PH.D. Thesis, Texas Woman’s University, DAI, Vol. 52-08A, p. 3089, 159 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact upon a woman when her husband considers himself to be transsexual. Specific areas examined included the woman's reaction to her husband's desire for sex reassignment, her coping mechanisms, and her use of support systems. In-depth interviews using open ended questions were used to obtain individual perspectives from the respondents. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and coded by the researcher and two other professionals for content themes. The final form of the data was organized according to the research questions using quotations from the individual interviews to illustrate identified themes. Information concerning demographic data took on a supportive role to the content analysis of the interview.

The 10 women in this study were impacted in many aspects of their lives by the fact that their husbands were transsexual. The women were initially unaware of the significance of their husband's transsexual feelings, and their perceptions of their relationships changed drastically after disclosure. These women appeared to consider their partner to be in charge of the relationship and experienced themselves as fairly powerless in the situation. Strong emotional and physical reactions were present in these women, including: feelings of abandonment and rejection; shock, horror, and disbelief; anger and feelings of betrayal; depression and anxiety; feelings of helplessness and confusion; self blame; loss of self confidence and self esteem; weight changes; sleep difficulties; and stomach and digestive difficulties. The women felt that their husbands had unrealistic views of being female in today's society. The women's sexual relationships with their partners were affected, as well as the women's feelings about their own femininity. Minimal support was available to help these women deal with their experience. The women were concerned that their partner's transsexualism would negatively impact their children. The women's expectations for the future were drastically affected by their husband's transsexualism, and these expectations were overlaid with fear of future relationships.

Publication No. 9203121

Hausman BL (1992). Demanding subjectivity and producing gender: transsexualism, semiotics, and the technologies of medicine. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa, DAI, Vol. 54-02B, p. 1139, 350 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation is an examination of the emergence of modern transsexualism and the production of the concept of gender in the twentieth century. The definition of transsexualism - a gender identity disorder that manifests itself in the desire to change sex - relies on management protocols developed in the 1950s for the treatment of intersexual patients. In this context, the term "gender" was used to describe a subject's psychological orientation toward his/her physiological sex and its cultural meanings. The production of the idea of gender to describe the social articulation of sex effected a semiotic reversal such that gender became the conceptual ground for sex. Clinicians' and critics' reliance on the idea of gender as a cause for transsexualism has limited both clinical management of transsexual subjects and critical assessments of the cultural significance of the transsexual phenomenon. In addition, gender is a problematic category for feminism, since it is based in a theoretically untenable distinction between the "natural" body and its cultural identity.

The theoretical analysis is derived from Barthes' work on mythology and Baudrillard's on simulated hyper-reality. Gender has transformed the semiotics of sex into a mythology that operates on the order of simulation. This transformation occurred as developments in the technologies of medicine made it possible to alter physiological signifiers of sex. That is, the human body can be made to simulate the other sex. The development of the idea of gender as the psychological core of sex is one result of these developments in technology that, while enabling intersexual subjects to have a sex at all, ultimately discredited physiology as a reliable signifier of sex identity.

Gender effects a compulsive deconstruction of the idea of sexual difference. This is enacted literally by transsexuals, who demand the excision of their sexual organs and the manufacture of new ones to reflect their felt sense of core gender identity. Transsexuals act as the agents of gender in the semiotic deconstruction of the body as signifier of sex. Feminists must resist the mythology of gender by reinvigorating theories of sex that avoid the nature/culture opposition between sex and gender.

Publication No. 9318441

Hefner CJ (1994). Ludruk folk theatre of east Java: toward a theory of symbolic action. PH.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, DAI, Vol. 55-10A, p. 3225, 346 pages.

Abstract by author:  In this study I treat ludruk folk theatre of East Java, Indonesia as a dynamic, aesthetic performing arts genre that effectively works to evoke fundamental notions constitutive of the world view of the participants.

Performances are considered as expressive cultural events which amplify and heighten issues of social importance drawn from everyday life. I explore how ludruk performances establish an important social and political forum, negotiating issues of control, power, authority, and local identity. Ludruk is meaningful in the lives of the participants because it appropriates local meanings, and offers methods to deal with sources of conflict and tension in their society.

Important to understanding context, I present an overview of the history and development of ludruk, explore the East Javanese social matrix, and discuss the form and structure of the ludruk performance.

Performance is then considered as a cultural method of positing, legislating and channeling subjects of importance. Actors in ludruk align themselves with a larger, more encompassing social identity through the aesthetic use of sung poetry, dance, songs, music, and melodramatic folk stories. Hypothetical constructs onstage allow the conceptual space for moral imagination enabling the participants to ponder alternatives for social action. Through symbolic action in the performance, situations can be mocked, tested, discussed, and realized in a fashion not available through any other means.

Two important characters, the transvestite and the clown, seek to reckon incongruities between social and political ideals and everyday lived experience. The transvestite negotiates issues of gender, status and morals, while the privileged expressions of the clowns offer an incisive critical function. Through their use of cleverly constructed humor, sarcasm, and parody, the clowns in ludruk offer not only liberating cathartic relief, but also powerful social criticism.

Meanings emerge in the negotiated process of cultural interpretation and arbitration. A semiotic approach deepens our understandings of how performances enrich society, by moving analysis beyond a referential focus as the primary locus of meaning. Reading the performance reflexively adds a resonating echo to the importance of social action portrayed on the ludruk stage.

Publication No. 9506209

Hogan-Finlay MT (1995). Development of the cross-gender lifestyle and comparison of cross-gendered men with heterosexual controls. PH.D. Thesis, Carleton University, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4075, 00225 pages, ISBN:  0-612-08844-8.

Abstract by author: This study had two main goals. The first goal was to test the hypothesis that a cross-gendered lifestyle progresses in a developmental and invariant order. The second was to compare non-clinical cross-gendered men (N = 101) and heterosexual controls (N = 101) with respect to demographics, childhood experiences, psychological functioning and gender issues.

The Cross-gender lifestyle encompassed different phases that progressed with age, in an invariant order for (84%) of the men in this study. This lifestyle occurred during two main age periods: adolescence through early twenties where private cross-gender activities predominate (fantasies, cross-dressing, fetishism), and the mid-thirties through early forties when a public cross-gender lifestyle occurs; some pass in public and use a femme name, while others take hormones, live more as a woman and may have sex-reassignment.

Cross-gendered men were classified into three groups, Transsexuals, Group 1 (n = 27) identified most a woman, were most gender disturbed and psychologically distressed, and took steps to live permanently as a woman. Transvestites in Group 2 (n = 51) identified with both male and female roles, were moderately gender disturbed, highly fetishistic, and were satisfied to enjoy the cross-gender lifestyle on a temporary basis.  Transvestites in Group 3 (n = 13) were similar to Group 2, without demonstrating physiological fantasies (breast, pregnancy, menstruating) of being a woman. The Cross-Gender Lifestyle Inventory developed for this research is proposed as a possible instrument to identify phases of the cross-gender development.

Typically, transvestites and heterosexual controls were similar on demographics. Groups were discriminated only on having been dressed as a girl, gender identity, gender disturbance, fetishism, and, psychological distress: Transsexuals reported having been dressed as a girl during childhood more frequently than the two transvestite groups, controls were hardly ever dressed as a girl; Transsexuals were more highly distressed compared with transvestites and controls who scored within the normal range; Transsexuals identified more as females, were more gender disturbed compared to the tranvestites groups or controls. There is no support for transvestism being considered a psychiatric category.

Publication No. NN08844

Hotchkiss VR (1990). Clothes make the man: female transvestism in the Middle Ages. PH.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 51-07A, p. 2375, 250 pages.

Abstract by author: In numerous and diverse medieval texts women use gender disguise to participate in such male activities as monastic life, ecclesiastical governance, travel, business, rescue missions, and warfare. A hitherto overlooked topic, female cross-dressing is so widespread in medieval literature and, to a lesser extent, history that feminine stereotypes, women's roles in literature, and the perception of women in the Middle Ages must be reexamined in light of this phenomenon. As alternative models for female heroism, disguised women combine traditional feminine virtues with male qualities such as adventuresomeness, strength, and perseverance.

Paradoxically, however, the empowering force of male disguise reveals the limitations imposed upon women in medieval society since their success is contingent upon suppression of female identity. Moreover, emphasis on the femininity of women in disguise often betrays biases against women; according to many sources women are exemplary precisely because they strive to be like men.

This study of medieval cross-dressing covers the following topics: the symbolism underlying the popular vitae of transvestite saints; the confluence of hagiography and biography in the historical case of Hildegund von Schonau; the legend of the female pope and its diverse interpretations before and during the Reformation; the phenomenon of disguise in secular literature, particularly tales of wives and lovers who use disguise to rescue men or regain their affections; and, finally, extraordinary cases of female protagonists in courtly romance who experience a crisis of sexual identity. In these discussion, literary analysis is combined with sociological and historical approached to explore the wide range of meanings and manifestations of transvestism in the Middle Ages.

Publication No. 9034212

Humphrey GW (1989). Cross-dressing in males: the attempt to retain the comforting object. PH.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego, DAI, Vol. 50-11B, p. 5318, 186 pages.

Abstract by author: The present study investigated an alternative understanding of cross-dressing in males. Transvestism has traditionally been viewed as an oedipal problem, viz., anxieties associated with fear of bodily injury (castration anxiety) yield a compromised sexuality where erotic stimulation is safely achieved through a representation of the object (female clothing).

Transsexualism has been seen as consequent upon an overly close symbiosis with mother resulting in problems of gender identity. Taking an object relations respective, the present research conceptualizes both transvestism and transsexualism as related, preoedipal phenomena. Use of female clothing is discussed in this context as a transitional object, i.e., assisting the cross-dressed individual to evoke a sense of soothing.

Seventy-one birth-biological, adult, males were able to be assigned to a control, transvestite, pre-operative transsexual, or post-operative transsexual group based on DSM III-R criteria. Individuals completed a demographic questionnaire, an instrument developed by the researcher to assess stimulation versus calming function of female clothing, the Hansburg Separation Anxiety Test (SAT), and the Bell Object Relations Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI). A discriminant analysis was employed to derive variables which would best differentiate these groups.

Results suggest both transvestites and transsexuals may use female clothing as a transitional object to dissipate anxiety, lift depression, and generally enhance feelings of calm and soothing. High scores on a clothing-to-soothe variable by post-op transsexuals (in the same range as transvestites), suggests an underlying sense of insecurity has not been assuaged by SRS. Lower scores of pre-op transsexuals on this calming variable are interpreted as failure of the transitional object resulting in a merger fantasy (SRS) seen as the antidote to insecurity. Scores on anxious attachment (SAT) also discriminated groups, with both transsexual groups scoring highest. Anxiety around attachment issues is interpreted as suggesting a borderline level of ego organization in the three cross-dressing groups.

Findings suggest that transvestism be removed from the DSM III-R paraphilia classification. Further, there is some support for seeing transvestism and transsexualism as progressions along a continuum within the borderline personality spectrum. Lastly, further support is offered to the growing evidence that SRS may served as a momentary palliative, but does not resolve the transsexuals elusive search for security.

Publication No. 9009611

Jafari M (1997). A descriptive study of male to female transsexualism: the prevalence and use of dissociative experiences. PH.D., California School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. 58-05B, p. 2736, 109 pages.

Abstract by author: The transsexuals' account of alienation and detachment from their biological gender, in particular from their genitals, is analogous to reports of individuals with depersonalization experiences. Depersonalization is a subcategory of the defense of dissociation. In this study the prevalence of dissociative experiences of Male to Female transsexuals was evaluated and compared to the prevalence of dissociative experiences in a control group of males and females.

The study group consisted of twenty-seven male to female transsexuals. The control group consisted of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females, matched to the study group in respect to age and education. The participants' ages ranged from twenty-one to sixty-five.  The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Questionnaire for Experiences of dissociation (QED) were used to assess dissociative experiences. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean DES score of the group of MF-transsexuals with the entire control group, consisting of twenty-seven males and twenty-seven females (T = 2.5; P = 0.2).

Forty-one percent of the transsexual participants compared to seventeen percent of the control group scored at or above the cutoff score of fifteen on the DES. This difference was statistically significant (p =.02). Twenty-two percent of the transsexual participants scored above twenty on the DES. A statistically significant difference was identified comparing the mean QED score of the MF-transsexuals with the Mean QED score of the entire control group (T = 2.5; P =.01).

Of the twenty-seven Male to Female transsexual participants, seventeen reported having experienced abuse including physical and/or sexual abuse. Ten participants did not report any abuse. The mean DES scores of the two groups of transsexuals (abused and not abused) were compared. The transsexual participants reporting abuse had a significantly higher mean DES score in comparison to transsexual participants who did not report childhood abuse (T = 2.6; p < .01).

In addition to this data, information on family history and personal meanings of femininity and masculinity are presented in a qualitative data analysis and the etiology of transsexualism is reconsidered.

Further research is suggested to evaluate the occurrence of dissociation in transsexualism and, in general, in the etiology of gender disorders.

Publication No. 9734269

Johnson Sl (1987). The relationship of the typological features of male transsexualism to psycho/social adjustment and disturbance. PH.D. Thesis, University of Washington, DAI, Vol. 48-03A, p. 604, 121 pages.

Abstract by author: Cumulative research on the psychological well-being of male transsexuals has concluded that mental health in this population varies along the entire spectrum of adjustment. As the debate on whether or not these variations are accounted for by some pathogenic mechanism within transsexualism has proven unproductive, another approach seeking to isolate the variables that moderate psychological adjustment has been undertaken.  To date only one variable, gender reorientation, an indicator of gender adjustment, has been isolated.

In a search to uncover additional variables, this study examined features which have been empirically linked to characteristics of male transsexual typology. Data from 25 male transsexual volunteers was examined by means of multiple regression analysis to determine whether symptoms of introversion, depression or tension, as well as, adjustment to work and gender reorientation could be linked to the typological variables of Androphilia, Gynephilia, Cross-gender Fetishism, Feminine Gender Identity in Childhood and Age of Onset of transsexualism.

Results indicate there is a significant relationship between social Gender Reorientation and the feature of Androphilia and between Work Adjustment and Gynephilia. This differential adaptation is explained in terms of the different course that transsexualism takes within each typological subgroup. These findings offer evidence as to why some transsexuals may more readily adopt a female gender identity than others, and further validates the view that the sub-category of homosexuality-heterosexuality accounts for the greatest percentage of interindividual variation in the transsexual population. There was no relationship found between the typological features and those variables measuring psychological disturbance.

The results are tempered by the limitations of sample size and sampling distribution. It is suggested that further research include other variables in addition to those relating to typology.

Publication No. 8713376

Latimer RM (1987). Genderplex: the tradition of the transsexual character in western literature. M.A. Thesis, MAI, Vol. 26-02, p. 187, 100 pages.

Abstract by author: The transsexual character, who appears in Classical literature as a warrior, lover, or seer, possesses firm traditions upon which Modernist writers like Joyce, Eliot, Woolf, and Djuna Barnes capitalize in their own works. Modernist idiom portrays the transsexual as more of a consciousness than a character, a fact arguing that the Modernist transsexual, like its forebears in Classical literature and in fairy tale, legend, and fantasy, succumbs to the representational norms of the era in which it appears. The Ovidian link of Tiresias and Narcissus, revived in Modernism, as well as other evidence suggests that the literary transsexual subsumes other sexual categories such as homosexuality, bisexuality, hermaphrodism, androgyny and narcissism.  The Modernists use the general transsexual figure and the revived Tiresias and Narcissus link to stand as a metaphor for the philosophical and aesthetic dilemmas subsequent to an empirical worldview. They also use the transsexual to challenge the patriarchal worldview.

Publication No. 1331689

Li SL (1995). Gender, cross-dressing and Chinese theatre. PH.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, Vol. 56-08A, p. 3131, 229 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation employs an interdisciplinary approach to address the various configurations of the theatrical tradition of cross-dressing in classical Chinese drama as well as in today's regional operas, placing them in a larger cultural and theoretical context of gender studies. Drawing on cultural theory and viewing the various dramatic and performance texts as signs of historical processes, this study investigates gender construction and gender politics in Chinese theatre in terms of the highly mediated representations of women, gender, eroticism, and cross-dressing presented in a variety of discourses from the Yuan period to the present time. Focusing on cross-dressing as a destabilizing force, it addresses issues of the male/female transvestite theatre and modes of erotic desire, the participation of female players in the cultural (re)production and subversion of gender differences in various historical moments, the figure of the woman warrior and the complexities of gender politics in representing female resistance and containment in relation to the contemporary sociopolitical context, the instability of gender representation in textual and visual media, and the generation of the unsettling notion of gender as performance in traditional Chinese theatrical discourse.  The prevalent cross-dressing practice on stage combined with an obsession with "prettiness" and "artistry" in traditional theatre criticism and aesthetics have engendered the subversive feminine, rendering Chinese theatre an unstable site of ideological contestation embodying a simultaneous perpetuation and dismantling of bipolar gender notions and sociopolitical hierarchies.  This dissertation also attempts to show that critical reflections on traditional culture can be made to speak to the concerns of today's ideological resistance to political hegemony and cultural dominants, by way of the unveiling of polyvalent meanings of gendering and gendered differences that are constructed, reproduced, dismantled, and contested in that particular site of Chinese culture, i.e., the theatre.

Publication No. AAI9541126

Miller JE (1993). Service and subjectivity: the cross-dressed woman in early modern english drama. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. 54-11A, p. 4104, 230 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation begins with the notion that identity is a discursive formation, that we are produced by and limited to the kinds of things that are said or can be said about ourselves at any historical moment. Stories about cross-dressed women in early modern literature seem to represent an awareness of the constructed nature of gender and identity, and even some anxiety about the ability of social forces to define a person in any stable or natural way. In plays that represent the cross-dressed woman working in some way (the familiar "girl-p.," for instance), we can better understand the drama's contributions to society if we consider work or "service" as one of the major social forces that creates subjectivity, gives a sense of identity, and helps to define gender. Although cross-dressing is often looked at as a recurring phenomenon in a survey of the Renaissance literary scene, this is a more narrowly focused reading of three English plays with transvestite hero/ines representing a range of class status and dramatic technique.

By placing the issue of cross-dressing within the historical context of women's work in the Renaissance, we can see it as more than a psycho-sexual phenomenon, but as a way of affecting a woman's value in society.  Social historians suggest that the growing separation of private households and public workspaces contributed to the oppression of early modern women. The cross-dressed hero/ines in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, and Middleton and Dekker's The Roaring Girl challenge public/private and masculine/feminine dichotomies, and perhaps even binary thinking itself, as they take active serving roles and make themselves necessary to their communities. If work is a social force that helps to shape us as subjects, it is important to consider cross-dressing as, at least in part, a strategy by which women avoided passivity and commodification, whether as ornamental wives or as overworked, underpaid drudges. These plays suggest that cross-dressing can be read as an implicating gesture that "subjects" a woman to service while allowing her to assert a kind of subjectivity usually reserved for men who serve their society.

Publication No. 9410300

Mumper AD (1989). Latent male gender dysphoria as measured by the GD scale of the MMPI: a prediction and construct validation study. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Akron, DAI, Vol. 50-01B, p. 349, 265 pages.

Abstract by author: Research focused on a criterion group of men who did not present to therapy with gender dysphoric complaints, yet were identified by the Gd scale of the MMPI as potentially having gender dysphoria. The purpose of the study was to (a) offer diagnostic confirmation of this potentially gender dysphoric group and Gd scale construct validation, (b) improve diagnostic confidence of gender dysphoria as a latent entity, (c) improve understanding of the Gd scale and gender dysphoria multidimensionality, and (d) explore nonbiological gender dysphoria dimensions.

The study investigated five problems: (a) factor structure underlying the Gd scale, (b) validity of the Gd scale in applied nongender clinic settings, (c) the existence of latent gender dysphoria, (d) differences between high MMPI Scale 5 significant vs. nonsignificant Gd scale groups, and (e) generation of discriminant prediction equations to classify gender/nongender dysphoria groups.

The design was ex post facto. Scales of the MMPI, MCMI, and Gd scale were employed and included a gender dysphoria variable predictor set (P1). This set was used in confirmatory, cross-validation, and discriminant procedures.

Results revealed that (a) confirmatory evidence of gender dysphoric traits existed in individuals who had high Gd scale scores but who had not presented to treatment with gender dysphoria complaints; (b) the criterion group was confirmed as having gender dysphoric traits, therefore, the Gd scale withstood a test of construct validation; (c) P1 showed diagnostic prediction potential (rsp2 =.4756, p =.01); (d) three discrete factors underlie the Gd scale; (e) evidence of a subtype of latent gender dysphoria was found; and (f) a discriminant prediction equation classified subjects at an 80% level, accounted for 40% of the variance, and remained stable in cross-validation with less than 10% shrinkage.

Results suggested that a subtype of gender dysphoric men may exist that do not have transsexual anatomic rejection and may not want to be biologically different, but may want the feelings, interests, and activities of a female in a nonbiological sense due to discomfort and a sense of inappropriateness about one's assigned sex.  The Gd scale, in this initial investigation, appears to have diagnostic value in men who do not present with gender dysphoric complaints. As a first study, many research recommendations were made.

Publication No. 8907758

Piedmont O (1996). The veils of arjuna: androgyny in gay spirituality, east and west. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies, DAI, Vol. 57-06B, p. 4076, 401 pages.

Abstract by author: The thesis is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the meaning of gay spirituality in the U.S and India utilizing the symbol of the androgyne as a tool for investigation. Themes of gender transcendence, transformation, healing, psychic equilibrium, and embodied spirituality emerge in a cross-cultural analysis of religious symbols and myths of androgyny between Indian Hinduism and American gay culture. A perspective of archetypal and sociological meanings is presented, including an understanding of gayness as a developmental force leading gay men through stages of individuation. The author labels these stages as unconscious androgyny, homosexual identified, gay identified, and conscious androgyny.

Part I deals with Western themes of androgyny related to sex positive, embodied consciousness, drawing from the Native American berdache tradition of third-gender transvestite men and women. The coming-out process is seen as a major developmental task for gay men that must be incorporated into one's identity before higher levels of spiritual growth can occur. The spiritual significance of drag and community space is analyzed. Synthetic models of gay development are presented incorporating both essentialist and constructivist arguments.

Part II presents Eastern themes of androgyny connected to homosexuality as found in Hindu literature and rituals in India. References to classical Hindu literature, including the Kama Sutra, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, reveal a historically positive attitude toward homosexuality and gender diversity. Description is given to a mythology of androgynous gods, including Ardhanarisvara, Siva-Sakti, Harihara, and Visnu/Mohini, relevant to the gay psyche. Specific reference to Skanda as the god of homosexuals is given. Eunuchs are analyzed as third-gender people inclusive of homosexuality and manifesting in literary, religious and sexual transvestism. Contemporary attitudes in India toward homosexuality reflect an emerging ambivalence characterized by both homophobia and open displays of same-sex eroticism. Particular attention is paid to the institution of same-sex friendships, yaari, and its high value of meaning for Indian men. The study ends with a synthesis of Eastern and Western perspectives into an energy (chakra) system incorporating images and symbols of relevance to gay ontology and spiritual development.

Publication No. 9633907

Prosser JD (1996). Transitional matters: the body narratives of transsexual autobiography. PH.D. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. 57-10A, p. 4372, 00429 pages.

Abstract by author: Centering on the relations between transsexual bodies and autobiographical narratives, this dissertation argues that transsexual subjectivity depends on self-narration. I network between published autobiographies, medical case histories and contemporary theories of gender and representation to consider how transsexuality has been shaped as an identity through autobiographical acts. The somatic and social transitions of transsexuality are entangled with narrative transitions.  Drawing on feminist, gender and queer theory, this project also considers what transsexual trajectories can contribute to their current debates about sex, gender, the body, narrative and construction.

Publication No. 9707144

Schjelderup N (1994). Oral histories of black gay men and a black transgender person in the San Francisco bay area. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. 66, 114 pages.

Abstract by author: This thesis addresses the topic of the lives of black gay men and transgender people, using the disciplines of anthropology and sociology. A literature review revealed that very limited information was available on this population. Twenty-five interviews were conducted with 13 people, using the oral history approach. The goal for this study has been to collect information about what the thirteen people interviewed see as important in their lives, and to contribute to a better understanding of a group of people little research has been devoted to in the past.

Some of the topics addressed are: family relations, racism in the gay community, homophobia in the black community, choice of partners, relationships with women, and the process of defining a gay or transgender identity. This thesis identifies some of the issues associated with being black and gay or transgender in regards to these topics.

Publication No. 1358226

Smith ME (1996). Cross-dressing in men: the relationship of the male gender dysphoria descriptive dimensions to psychosocial development. PH.D. Thesis, Indiana University, DAI, Vol. 57-12B, p. 7744, 210 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between descriptive dimensions of the male gender dysphoria typology and resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. For many years, psychoanalytic and "core feminine identity" theories dominated diagnostic and treatment approaches to male cross-dressing and contributed to a faulty dichotomy in the literature: sexual motivation (i.e., transvestism) versus gender motivation (i.e., transsexualism) for cross-dressing. Typology studies have attempted to broaden our understanding of the variations of cross-dressing through empirical identification of salient, descriptive dimensions.

Another body of literature has investigated the psychosocial adjustment of cross-dressers and often gives a mixed picture. The present study hypothesized that three descriptive dimensions-cross-gender fetishism, autogynephilia, and adult gender dysphoria- would contribute to problems in resolving developmental conflicts because those dimensions represent, respectively, interpersonal inhibition, self-absorption, and years of identity confusion.

Sixty-two adult males were volunteer participants in this study. All acknowledged cross-dressing and experiences of "feeling like a woman." The participants completed two questionnaires: the Measures of Psychosocial Development and a questionnaire that included scales used in previous studies to measure descriptive dimensions and socially desirable response tendencies, as well as items developed for this study to assess additional descriptive dimensions, demographic information, and anecdotal information.

Significant findings indicated that cross-dressers' self-identification in a "transsexual direction," socializing in a female role, and satisfaction with counseling were associated with resolution of conflicts in psychosocial development. Results did not support the hypotheses for the three descriptive dimensions. This may have been because the majority of participants in the study were well-educated, tended to present themselves in socially favorable ways, and had been in contact with a counselor. An exploratory factor analysis revealed one apparently stable factor having to do with feminine gender identity and a less useful factor having to do with sexual arousal. Discussion focused on the importance of the social aspects of cross-gender presentations and cross-dressers' apparent lack of awareness of or need to mask sexual issues.

Publication No. 9716501

Rubin HS (1996). Transformations: emerging female to male transsexual identities. PH.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, DAI, Vol. 57-04A, p. 1865, 268 pages.

Abstract by author: "Female-to-male transsexualism" is a relatively new category of identity, though individuals have existed throughout history who have felt the way female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) have felt. Men who start their lives in female bodies, at this historical juncture, identify as transsexuals and many use surgical and hormonal medical technologies to become the men that they feel they really were all along.

A significant portion of FTMs have had "lesbian careers"; they had once assumed and then discarded a lesbian identity. Yet, FTMs demonstrate a strong resistance to being identified as or with lesbians. They are not lesbian because they are not women. Though they have female bodies, they are male-identified.

These social facts plus a larger cultural context which confuses lesbian women and FTM transsexuals is explained by an historical analysis of the early 1970s; a critical epoch in the reformulation of modern categories of sex, gender and sexuality. The 1970s saw a proliferation of categories of female-bodied deviance. Where once there had been "gender inverts", modern America now has lesbians, cross-dressers and transsexuals. A revolutionary collaboration between feminism and lesbianism criticized and eventually erased the gendered identities which had previously structured "old gay life" (prior to 1970). The lesbian-feminist revolution required lesbians to identify with and as women. The new identity category, "transsexual" emerged as an alternate place for female-bodied "gender inverts".

Interviews with FTMs provide a phenomenology of FTM transsexualism to complement the history of these categories. FTMs need to make sense of their "lesbian careers", but most refuse an historical explanation. Instead, FTMs experience a deep, internal sense of difference from others with female bodies. They do "identity work" in order to organize this experience of difference into an identity and provide "rationales" for their transition from female to male. FTMs locate their differences from lesbians deep within their flesh. Their essentialist rhetoric is analyzed for the function it performs in justifying their extraordinary life projects.

Publication No. 9626008

Steinmeyer SM (1986). Transsexuals in transition: the impact of a pre-surgical treatment program upon psychological adjustment and self-esteem. PH.D. Thesis, United States International University, DAI, Vol. 47-05B, p. 2216, 147 pages.

Abstract by author: The Problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a pre-surgical management program for transsexual clients upon the self-esteem and psychological adjustment of its participants.

Methods. The study was a non-experimental post-hoc design. Two self-administered inventories, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, were presented to 28 transsexual clients at the onset and at the conclusion of their participation in a pre-surgical treatment program which included endocrine treatment, cross-dressing and membership in an educational/support group under the supervision of a clinical psychologist. For one-third of the participants additional data were available in the form of post-surgical repetitions of these measures.  To supplement the psychometric information, survey questionnaires were distributed among past and current group members to solicit their experiential accounts of the program and thus to add a more subjective point of view.

Results. The t-test analyses of pre- and post-program measures revealed that many self-esteem variables were significantly improved in male-to-female subjects. These gains appeared to hold for post-surgical subjects.

Female-to-male subjects experienced a decline in self-esteem, particularly with reference to family relationships. For subjects of both genders significant positive changes in psychological adjustment occurred, the pattern of these changes appearing to be consistent with sex-role behavior of the adopted gender.

A review of two-point profile codes revealed that the configurations were most frequently "characterological" in nature, and that a sense of non-conformity and independence was the characteristic most resistant to change over time. Correlational analyses of self-esteem and personality measures suggested that the adoption of gender-congruent behavior was not related to enhanced self-esteem.

Survey responses emphasized the value of the program as a source of information and mutual support. However, these subjects indicated that they continued to have difficulty in establishing close or intimate interpersonal relationships.

Publication No. 8617921

Theron A (1979). Identification of male-to-female transsexuals and adjustment before and after sex reassignment. D.LITT., University of South Africa, DAI, Vol. 41-04B, p. 1530, pages.

Abstract by author: Ever since the sensational publication of Christine Jorgensen's sex reassignment operation in 1953 medical doctors are faced increasingly with requests by transsexuals for such operations. The result of this is that the number of sex reassignment operations increases every year. Despite this increase it appears that, compared to other psychopathological disorders, transsexualism is the field that receives least attention from researchers. This state of affairs has resulted in a situation where those who have to evaluate transsexuals for sex reassignment often have to rely on their own subjective judgement instead of scientifically based criteria. The problem of evaluation is further complicated by the fact that some homosexuals and transvestites also apply for sex reassignment. Because they are regarded as poor candidates for sex reassignment it is essential that they should be identified as such during the evaluation.  Although criteria exist for the identification of pseudo-transsexuals, practical experience has shown that it is often difficult to apply these criteria because the evaluator is dependent on the information which the patient is willing to divulge.

The majority of people regard their sex organs as important. Therefore the transsexual's request for sex reassignment is incomprehensible and unacceptable to most individuals. In the case of the medical practitioner a further factor is added namely that he sees his task as the treatment of diseases and not the amputation of healthy organs. Furthermore the fact that very little is known about the postoperative adjustment of transsexuals causes surgeons to be hesitant to perform this type of operation and even to hold a negative attitude towards it.

Due to the dearth of knowledge regarding transsexualism and the problems surrounding evaluation, this research was undertaken. The aims of this study were to determine if the adjustment of the postoperative transsexual is better than that of the preoperative transsexual and whether it is possible to distinguish between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals with the aid of psychological measuring instruments.

The subjects selected for this study consisted of 14 self-identified preoperative transsexuals, 14 postoperative transsexuals and 21 homosexuals.

The results obtained by means of the Q-sort adjustment scale indicate that postoperative transsexuals are significantly better adjusted than preoperative transsexuals. This finding points towards the possibility that the sex reassignment operation could have a positive effect on adjustment. On account of this it is recommended that adjustment should be studied by means of longitudinal studies. In this way it could be ascertained to which extent the adjustment and self-concept may be influenced by sex reassignment.

The findings in connection with the distinction between preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals show that neither the MMPI or BSRI were able to distinguish effectively. The results obtained with the BSRI, however, indicate very strongly that the nature of the masculine and feminine dimensions of the transsexual and homosexual's personality require further research. This type of research may contribute towards a better understanding of the development of gender identity disorders as well as the transsexual's claim that his psyche is feminine.

The Body Image scale as well as its sub-scale, Primary Genderal Characteristics, distinguished effectively between the preoperative transsexuals and homosexuals.  It also appears that the Direct and Destructive aggression scales of the Picture Situation Test were able to distinguish effectively between these two groups. It is therefore recommended that these scales should be included in the evaluation program of preoperative transsexuals.

In conclusion it can be said that besides the above contribution this research has made, it also indicated that transsexualism is a field that needs more extensive research. More empirical studies are necessary and results should be published. By doing this a better understanding of and empathy for transsexuals will develop, and those involved with the evaluation of transsexuals will be able to evaluate transsexuals on a more scientifically founded basis.

Publication No. 0533822

Tully JB (1987). Accounting for transsexualism. PH.D. Thesis, Brunel University, DAI, Vol. 49-05B, p. 1960, 370 pages.

Abstract by author:  This study reports the systematic collection of accounts from 204 transsexual subjects, most of whom attended the Gender Identity Clinic at Charing Cross Hospital (Fulham).

A review of the literature covers cross gender behaviour in other societies, recent biological, social and psychological studies on gendered and cross gendered behaviour, a medical history of transsexualism and 'sex reassignment surgery'. Psychological 'frames' for the study of cross gendered careers are derived from attributional theories, and symbolic interactionist approaches to the construction of sexual categories of behaviour and experience.

The collection of accounts follows a methodology derived from Harre and his associates' ethogenic approach to the study of social behaviour, and the principles of generating 'grounded (sociological) theory' propounded by Glaser and Strauss.

There is a short statistical section on the population of research subjects as a whole. Transexuals' accounts, some 500 exerpts, are marshalled under nearly 200 headings and subheadings. These cover almost all areas of relevant life experience.

The conclusions argue that there is a fundamental weakness in the imposition of psychiatric 'syndromes' on gender dysphoric phenomena. Rather, 'gender dysphoric careers' are proposed as fluctuating enterprises in the construction of meanings, some meanings being more fateful and workable than others. An attributional - 'imaginative involvement' model to account for transsexualism is explicated. The implications which can be drawn from this, for the way the management of these unfortunate people could be improved, completes the text.

Publication No. DX82094

Vijnovic SA (1984). A profile of patients at a community agency serving sexual minorities. PH.D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, DAI, Vol. 46-03B, p. 950, 340 pages.

Abstract by author: This study profiles individuals who sought outpatient care at a community agency specializing in the treatment of sexual minorities. Eight subgroups were extrapolated from the population.  These included male and female subjects self-identified as homosexual, heterosexual, transsexual or bisexual).

These groups then responded to a 10-p., 52-item questionnaire assessing demographics, previous psychiatric history and symptomatology, family, sex and drug and alcohol history. Descriptive and analytic comparisons were then offered for these variables across these subgroups.

Publication No. 8617921

Wilchesky M (1995). Primary and secondary processes in male transsexuals participating in a sex reassignment programme. PH.D. Thesis, University de Montreal, DAI, Vol. 57-04B, p. 2892, 00302 pages, ISBN:  0-612-08494-9.

Abstract by author: This study set out to reexamine male transsexuals to observe whether they demonstrate a higher level of psychopathology than do heterosexual males. Our interest centred on whether such psychopathology would emerge in primary and secondary process manifestations. Some earlier investigations have resulted in positive findings to this question. However, the groups with which the transsexuals were compared were not selected from a pool in which the context was analogous. Both Hammond (1984) and Murray (1985) have suggested that in future research a control heterosexual group be selected from those who are in a relevant clinical context.

Responding to these recommendations, we compared 20 gender dysphoric males who had been accepted into a major hospital's transsexual programme, with a group of 20 heterosexual male controls, who were on a waiting-list for genital surgery, and with a third group of 20 male homosexuals from a university gay group. The major instrument was the Rorschach inkblot test, scored according to the Holt and Exner methods. Half of each group of subjects was tested by the same female examiner, and half by a male. Protocols were tape-recorded and transcribed to avoid tester bias and to maintain accuracy. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed by an expert psychologist, who was blind as to the subjects' group identity. Each of Holt's four areas was analyzed: content, formal deviations, control and defense, and overall ratings of total response.

Particular focus was directed on Holt's Defense Demand (DD) in responses with libidinal and aggressive content; Holt's formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression; and Exner's form level (X+%), Special Scores, and Schizophrenia Index, to allow for comparison with Murray's study.

MANCOVA's were performed to analyze the data to correct for age and socio-economic status, and to provide adjusted means for the three groups. IQ was equivalent across groups.

Results showed no significant differences on seven of these eight groups of measures between the transsexual and the control groups. However, a difference was observed on occurrences of a milder form of Exner's Special Scores. This distinction was observed within the context of a good level of formal deviations, defense effectiveness and adaptive regression equal to those of the heterosexual controls, and has been interpreted as an indication of the Ego's creative efforts to integrate those parts of the whole which are hard to reconcile.  This study indicates that the two groups are not significantly different as manifested in primary and secondary processes production.

It would appear that the control of contextual variables (i.e. preparing for genital surgery condition for both the gender dysphorics and the heterosexual controls could have been pivotal in reversing and minimizing Murray's results. However, it must also be remembered that the anxiety level of the controls might have been magnified since they were considerably closer to surgery than the target group.

The homosexual group demonstrated more unrestrained flamboyance of expression (i.e. libidinal and aggressive fantasy material) and minor formal deviations of thought processes than either one or both of the other two groups, albeit in a socially acceptable way (defense effectiveness and adaptive regression).

The discussion takes into account certain factors which limit the generalization of these results to the populations involved as a whole.

Publication No. NN08494

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