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See "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!

See: More Than 250 Full Text Papers and Documents Related to GLBT Suicidality.
ABSTRACTS: Ph.D & Master's Theses - Full Text Dissertations Available Online are listed Below. Full Text Papers Available Online are on Another Webpage. 

Full Text Dissertations

Armengol Carrera, José María (2006). Gendering Men: Theorizing Masculinities in American Culture and Literature. PhD Dissertation, University of Barcelona. Download Page.

Basilio, Camille (2010). Community definition and benefits: Perspectives from African American lesbians. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. Abstract and Download.

Boarts, Jessica M (2008). Psychological Predictors of Health Risk Behaviors in Minority Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Adolescents. PhD Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Kent State University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Brown, Clarence, E (2008). Racism in the Gay Community and Homophobia in the Black Community: Negotiating The Gay Black Male Experience. MS Thesis, Sociology: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PDF. Download Page.

Brown, Warren (2013). Out of many one people: telling the stories of Jamaican gay men and their move to Canada. Master's Dissertation,  Intercultural Communication, Faculty of Social & Applied Sciences, Royal Roads University. Download Page. Related Videos.

Castro, Daniel (2010). Stigma and disclosure issues experienced by older gay Latino men living with HIV/AIDS. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. PDF Download. Abstract and Download Page.

Chang-Ross, Aurora (2010). Racial Queer: Multiracial College Students at the Intersection of Identity, Education and Agency. PhD Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. Abstract and Download.

Choudhuri, Sucheta Mallick (2009). Transgressive territories: queer space in Indian fiction and film. PhD. Dissertation, University of Iowa. PDF Download.

Coronado, Ramon (2009). Gay Latino men and their fathers: A qualitative study on their relationship. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. PDF Download. Abstract and Download.

Delucio, Kevin (2010). Challenging Silences, Creating Visibility: Queer Latino Self-Identity Negotiation and Community Formation. Bachelor's Honors Dissertation, Williams College. PDF Download.

Diaz, Elizabeth Maria (2010). Demographic differences in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth's participation in school-based gay-straight alliances in the United States. Master's Dissertation, George Washington University. Abstract & Download. - Note: "Black and Latino/a youth were less likely than White youth, and males were less likely than female or transgender youth to participate in their school's GSA. Findings highlight a need for further research examining barriers to GSA participation."

DiPillo SL (2009). Identity Among Black Gay Men: The Relationship Between Racial and Sexual Orientation Identity Development. Master's Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF Download. Download Page.

Dorsainvil Monique (2009). Resisting the Margins: Black Lesbian Self-Definition and Epistemology. Bachelor of Arts with Honors' Dissertation, Faculty of Emory College of Arts and Sciences of Emory University. PDF Download.

Easton, Marlaina (2010). Resisting Multiple Oppressions: An African American Lesbian's Counter-Narrative. PhD. Dissertation, Union Institute and University. Read Online.

Géliga-Vargas, Jesús A (1999). Ethnic identity, gay identity and sexual sensation seeking: HIV risk-taking predictors among men of color who have sex with men. Master's Dissertation, University of North Texas. PDF Download. Download Page.

Gopalkrishnan, Carl (2000). A Sociological Analysis of Gay Racism and Its Affect on Asian Men in HIV Social Research in Australia. Master's Dissertation, Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Murdoch University. Page for Thesis Download (Alternate Link).

Hill, LaToya Cherie (2006). The racial and sexual identity development of African American gay, lesbian and bisexual students at a religiously affiliated Historically Black University. PhD Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hucks, Tonya Camille (2004). Racial and Sexual Orientation Identity and Social Support as Predictors of Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior Among African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men. PhD. Dissertation, Arts and Sciences, Psychology, University of Cincinnati. PDF Download. Download Page.

Jamil, Omar B (2010). I am the melting pot: Multiple identity integration among gay/bisexual/questioning male ethnic minority adolescents. Theses and Dissertations. Paper 68. PhD Dissertation, DePaul University. PDF Download.

Kim JH (2007). Performing Female Masculinities at the Intersections of Gender, Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality. PhD. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. PDF Download. Download Page.

Kudler, Benjamin A (2007). Confronting Race and Racism: Social Identity in African American Gay Men. Thesis, Smith College School for Social Work. PDF Download. Download Page.

Lee, Byron King Hin (2007). Reading GAM in craigslist personal ads: Constructing gay Asian males during the negotiation of anal intercourse & Remembering spaciality: Refocusing the History of Vancouver's Gay Community. Master's 'Dissertation', Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Leis, Genevieve (2001). HIV Prevention from Indigenous Youth Perspectives. Master's Dissertation, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia. PDF Download.

Lewis-Williams, Jeniece T (2006). Race, religion, and homosexuality: Black Protestants and homosexual acceptance. Master's Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Baylor University. PDF Download. Download Page.

López, Candace (2010). Walking contradictions : Latina lesbianas, immigration and citizenship. Master's Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. PDF Download. Download Page.

Loppie, Samantha Terri (2011). Splitting the Difference: Exploring the Experiences of Identity and Community Among Biracial and Bisexual People in Nova Scotia. Master's Dissertation, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. PDF Download.

McLachlan, Christine (2010). Queering gender : an exploration of the subjective experience of the development of transgender identity. Master's Dissertation, Clinical Psychology, School of Psychology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg. PDF Download. Download Page.

Meladze, Pikria (2009). Integration of culture, religion and sexuality: A study of Caucasian and Asian gay men. Honours Dissertation, Thesis, Macquarie University. PDF Download.

Moreno C (2002). Invisible Lesbians: Latina Immigrant Lesbian Coming Out Experiences. PhD Dissertation, Maimonides University. PDF Download.

Narui, Mitsu (2010). A Foucauldian analysis of Asian/American Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students’ Process of Disclosing their Sexual Orientation and Its Impact on Identity Construction. PhD. Dissertation,  Ohio State University. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.

Nelms SD (2006). The Black lesbian experience: the intertwining of race and sexuality. PhD. Dissertation, Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin. PDF Download. Download Page.

Nguyen, Hoang Tan (2008). A view from the bottom: Asian American masculinity and sexual representation. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Abstract. Full text.

Ramirez CA (2006). Bearing Witness: Resiliency In the Lives of (Homo)Sexual Latino Men. Master of Arts Disseration. Digital Arts and New Media, University of California, Santa Cruz.  PDF Download.

Sar, Michael S (2009). Out of the Killing Fields, out of the closet: A personal narrative on finding identity as a gay Cambodian-American. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. PDF Download. Download Page.

Shek, Yen Ling (2005). The relationship of racial identity and gender-role conflict to self-esteem of Asian American undergraduate men. Thesis. Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park. PDF Download. Download Page.

Silberman, Seth Clark (2005). Youse awful queer, chappie": Reading black queer vernacular in black literatures of the Americas, 1903--1967. PhD Dissertation, Uiversity of Maryland. Abstract. PDF Download.

Tajón, Manuel Montoya (2009). Identity Development of Latino Gay Men. PhD. Dissertation, Psychology in Clinical Psychology, Antioch University, Southern California. PDF Download. Download Page.

Tang, Denise Tse Shang (2001). Queering the Pacific Northwest : a case study of the Leaving Silence project. Master's Dissertation, Uiversity of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Thing, James (2009). Entre maricones machos, y gays: Globalization and the construction of sexual identities among queer Mexicanos. PhD. Dissertation, University of Southern California. PDF Download. Abstract & Download Page. PDF Download.

Thompson, Beverly Yuen (1999). The Politics of Bisexual/Biracial Identity: A study of Bisexual and Mixed Race Women of Asian/Pacific Islander Descent. PhD. Dissertation, San Diego State University. Abstract. PDF Download.

Tran, Janine (2010). Sexual identity and depression among Vietnamese-American gay and bisexual men. Master's Dissertation, Department of Social Work, California State University, Long Beach, CA. Abstract. PDF Download. Abstract and Download.

Yang, Pahoua K (2008). A Phenomenological Study of the Coming Out Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Hmong. PHD. Dissertaton, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page.

Young JC (1999). Alternative genders in the Coast Salish world : paradox and pattern. Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page.

Acevedo Rl (1992). A comparable analysis of lesbian identity development amongaculturated Latina and Anglo lesbians. PH.D. Thesis, United States International University, DAI, Vol. 54-01B, p. 515, 128 pages.

Abstract by author: The problem. Lesbian identity development has been examined limitedly and usually within the context of male homosexuality. Additionally, there is a paucity of research on Latina lesbian identity development. This study comparing lesbian identity development among Latina and Anglo lesbians examined the question of whether ethnic culture affects sexual identity development in a Latina lesbian population.

Method. Fifty-six questionnaires compiled by Anglo lesbians were compared to 49 newly gathered questionnaires completed by Latina lesbians. The 49 new subjects also completed a newly quantified version of Klein’s Sexual Orientation Grid, the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, and a selected demographics questionnaire.

Results. While Latinas appear to confront and adopt a lesbian identity sooner, than do Anglo lesbians, sexual activity is equal for both Latina and Anglo lesbians.  There was no significant difference in the rate of sexual abuse reported by either group. While Latinas reported knowing other homosexual family members more often, there were no cultural differences in the extent to which homosexually was discussed (rarely) or the way it was handled in the family (usually unfavorably).

Publication No 9311144

Alquijay MA (1993). The relationship among self-esteem, acculturation and lesbian identity formation. PH.D. Thesis, California School of professional Psychology,  DAI, Vol. 54-04B, p. 2269, 155 pages.

Abstract by author:  This exploratory study investigated the relationship among self-esteem, acculturation, socioeconomic strata and lesbian identity formation. Ninety-two Latina Lesbians answered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, adult, short version (1990), Mendoza’s Cultural Lifestyle Inventory (1989), Cass’s Homosexual Stage Allocation measure, and a demographic questionnaire designed specifically for this study.

Results suggest that occupation status, level of education, and Cultural Resistance typology of acculturation are significant predictors of stage of homosexual identity development.  It was found that a subject’s self-rating on Kinsey’s scale of sexuality and her intention regarding future sexual activity with a male were significantly correlated with stage of homosexual identity development. Additionally, it was found that subjects who participate in the Lesbian community, are more likely to endorse the more evolved stages of homosexual identity. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant predictor of homosexual identity development. A subject’s income as well as how she explained her sexual orientation were not found to correlate with homosexual identity.

The findings are discussed in terms of psychosocial factors.  Recommendations for future research are provided. And, the implications for clinical intervention and assessment are discussed.

Publication No 9324320

Bowers MA (1993). Crossing cultures: self-identity in the writing of Suniti Namjoshi. M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta, MAI Vol 32:02, p. 430, 109 pages, ISBN 0-315-82227-9.

Abstract by author: This thesis explores the work of Suniti Namjoshi, an Indian lesbian feminist who writes in English, and whose work has received little critical attention. The study focuses on her prose fiction and evaluates the political debate in her writing regarding her concept of self and that self’s relationship with society. The discussion deals specifically with the problems of self identity for those marginalised by patriarchal society, that is women, particularly lesbians, and subjects in a colonial or cross-cultural context.

The first chapter examines the text in which Namjoshi reveals and revises the patriarchal tradition in mythological literature and thereby liberates marginalised identities from the limitations imposed by patriarchy. The second chapter examines the progression of three of Namjoshi’s characters to an understanding of the concept of a post-structural self from which a feminist utopian community is postulated. This utopia is evaluated in the concluding chapter.

Publication No MM82227

Christian KS (1994). Performance and the construction of identity in United States Latin fiction. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Irvine, DAI Vol. 55:08A, p. 2388, 365 pages.

Abstract by author: This study of ten recent U.S. Latino novels supports the thesis that identity is constituted through a series of performances. This model was developed to theorize the array of subject positions in relation to U.S. dominant culture, ancestral culture, and traditional Latino gender constructs that writing by U.S. Latinos encompasses. In addition, the model accommodates identities at the intersections of ethnicity, gender, and sexuality that are excluded by essentialist Chicano, Cuban-American, and Puerto Rican identity projects. The dissertation proposes a critical approach to ethnic literature that involves neither totalization nor judgment based on a work’s ‘authenticity.’ The methodology is based on a modification of Judith Butler’s notion of gender performativity.

In American society, language usage, familial structure, material culture, and religious practices that transgress dominant cultural norms are identified as performances of ‘excess’; these performances produce an illusion of cultural essence. The novels discussed challenge such essentialism and the collective fictions (cultural nationalism, traditional gender norms) that circulate in U.S. Latino communities and suggest that U.S.  Latino identity be viewed as a construct.

Chapter One is devoted to Judith Ortiz Cofer’s The Line of the Sun and Julia Alvarez’s How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents, immigrant novels in which ethnic U.S. Latino space is forged through negotiation between culture of origin and dominant American culture. Chapter Two focuses on the gay and lesbian protagonists in John Rechy’s City of Night and Sheila Ortiz Taylor’s Faultline and Southbound. These characters subvert cultural norms of both American dominant society and the Chicano community; their identities are constituted through constant shifting between subject positions.  Chapter Three, which deals with Elias Miguel Munoz’s The Greatest Performance and Oscar Hijuelos’ The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, proposes that identity be conceptualized as an ongoing drag show that parodies the notion of cultural and gender essence. The final chapter, on Cecile Pineda’s The Love Oueen of the Amazon, Ana Castillo’s So Far from God, and John Rechy’s The Miraculous Day of Amalia Gomez, examines the potential of ‘magical realism’ and Latino Catholic mysticism to operate as normative discourses.

Publication No 9500571

Conerly G (1997). Policing the boundaries: defining black lesbian/gay identity and community relationships. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa, DAI Vol. 58:05A, p. 1934, 342 pages.

Abstract by author: In my dissertation, I examine: (1) how African-Americans with a same-sex sexual identity conceptualize their social (including sexual), political, and/or cultural relationships with each other, white lesbigays, and heterosexual blacks; (2) how the ways in which these relationships are constructed affect the meanings they attach to race/ethnicity, same-sex sexuality, and gender; (3) the cultural politics among African-American lesbians and gays over how these relationships and identities ‘should’ be constructed; and (4) how primary community choice (white lesbigay, heterosexual black, black lesbigay, or some combination) affects how black lesbians and gays see these relationships, identities, and cultural political battles.

To explore these issues, I interviewed eight people who were part of the ‘post-Stonewall’ generation. What distinguished them were their gender and the primary social world they inhabited. I interviewed one person of each gender who, relatively speaking, negotiated his/her identity as a black lesbian/gay primarily in either white-dominated lesbigay spaces, heterosexual-dominated black spaces, black lesbigay spaces, or some combination. I conclude with a discussion of how future researchers may explore the relationships between identity and community among African-American lesbigays.

Publication No 9731781

Ferguson AD (1995). The relationship between African-American lesbians’ race, gender, and sexual orientation and self-esteem. PH.D. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park, DAI Vol. 56:11A, p. 4565, 205 pages.

Abstract by author: African American lesbians have multiple group memberships and belong to groups which have historically been stigmatized and oppressed.  Current identity models (i.e., race, ethnic, gender, sexual orientation) provide limited insight for understanding the psychological effects for those individuals who have multiple group memberships.  Moreover, many do not specifically address the issue of coping with and integrating multiple identities, particularly if the multiple identities are mutually stigmatizing. Therefore, the issues explored in this study pertained to three specific investigations: (a) examining African American lesbians’ racial, womanist, and sexual orientation stage identity attitudes independently; (b) examining the interrelationships of African American lesbians’ group identities (i.e., race, gender, sexual orientation); and (c) examining the relationship between their racial, womanist, and sexual orientation identities and personal and collective self-esteem.

The research participants consisted of 181 women of African descent who self-identified as lesbian. Participants completed a demographic/biographical questionnaire, three identity measures (the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, the Womanist Identity Attitude Scale, and the Group Identity Attitude Scale), and two self-esteem measures (the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale). Participants were generally contacted through social organizations, book stores, and e-mail networks that were lesbian identified, and lesbian identified support and social groups (i.e., snowball sampling). Participants were requested to complete the survey materials independent of any other participant in the study.

Results of the study revealed relationships existed between racial and womanist identity attitudes and personal self-esteem. Results also indicated that Encounter racial attitudes and Preencounter and Encounter womanist attitudes were predictive of higher personal self-esteem for this population.  Internalization womanist attitudes were predictive of lower personal self-esteem. Group identity attitudes were not predictive of personal or collective self-esteem. These results suggested that many of the African American lesbians in this study may be in a continual recycling process in which they retain ties with all three social identities and communities, but to greater or lesser degrees. The consequences of openly committing to a lesbian community within the African American community may cause lesbians to diminish the importance of a lesbian identity to their self-esteem.

Publication No 9607757

Gallegos YL (1997). A look at the unique challenges of Latina lesbians. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI Vol. 36{02, p. 408, 63 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to explore various challenges related to the Latina lesbian experience, with specific emphasis on the issue of ‘coming out’ to their families. The sample consisted of 15 Latina lesbians residing in Los Angeles County. The instrument was a 39-item questionnaire designed by the researcher which explored a range of questions that addressed ‘coming out’ issues, and the impact of culture on sexual orientation.

The findings support the literature which suggest that Latina lesbians are alienated from both their Latino communities and their homosexual community. They are marginalized in their own Latino communities and are often forced by cultural constraints to be invisible in their own homes. This study also found that Latina lesbians go outside of their Latino communities in order to receive validation for their lifestyle choices.

Publication No 1387587

Garcia BC (1997). The development of a gay Latino identity. PH.D. Thesis, The Fielding Institute, DAI, Vol. 58-04A, p. 1454, 189 pages.

Abstract by author: This study was designed to explore the identity development process for gay Latino men. Much has been written on gay identity development and ethnic identity, but research that examines the cross-section of both identities is very limited. Stage sequential ethnic and gay identity development theories do not fully explain the identity development process for gay Latino men because the theories are static and dependent on unresolved issues to be resolved for growth to occur.  This qualitative study examines the integration of a Latino and gay identity. The constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of interviews with 10 gay Latino men.

The men in this study experienced the struggle of allegiances between Latino ethnic identity and gay identity that is similar to the assimilation and acculturation struggle that occurs with ethnic identity development. For the majority of men in this study, the integration of a Latino and gay identity, although difficult and challenging, is demonstrated through concentric circles that intersect and one’s choice to move in and out from them. Identity within concentric circles allowed most of the men to open themselves up and explore different parts of themselves and who they are. The identity development of these 10 men is better illustrated through a multicultural model whereby an individual learns to function optimally by moving in and out of two or more discrete cultures.

The theories that emerge from the transcripts also illustrate the factors, including family and religion, that can block or support the process of identity development for these 10 gay Latino men.

Publication No.   9729111

Hall DA (1997). Self-concept  and multiple reference group identity structure in lesbians of Black-African descent. Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Berkeley/Alameda.  Source: DAI, Vol. 58-05, p. 2718, 117 pages.

Abstract by author:  This study examined the interrelationships and structure of three multiple reference group identities (race, gender, and sexual) in lesbians of Black-African descent and examined how these identities predicted both Eurocentric and Africentric self-concept. One hundred lesbians of Black-African descent ranging from 18 to 61 years of age who resided predominantly in the San Francisco/Bay Area were recruited through various community, academic, social, and spiritual avenues. Multiple measures were used. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale measured Eurocentric self-concept; the Social Outlook Scale measured Africentric self-concept.  The Racial Identity Attitude Scale, along with its adaptations for gender and sexual identity, measured the multiple reference group identities, and the Multiple Identity Questionnaire, designed by the present researcher, measured the interrelationships among the identities. Although results indicated that the participants' race, gender, and sexual identities were interrelated, their race identity exerted the most influence on the other identities. Results were mixed regarding the structure of the multiple identities. A statistically significant number of participants ranked their identities as equally important, yet of those participants who did rank their identities, almost a third ranked their race identity as most important. In social contexts, participants expressed their race and gender identities more easily than their sexual identity. Specifically, it was easier to express their gender than their sexual identity in a Black social context and easier to express their race than their sexual identity in a female social context. Neither race nor gender identity was perceived to be easier to express in a lesbian social context. None of the identities differentially predicted the Eurocentric self-concept, whereas gender identity accounted for most of the variance in the Africentric self-concept. These findings stress the polycultural, multiple identity issues lesbians of Black-African descent experience. These issues are important for clinicians to understand when working with this population in individual, group, couples, or family therapy. Suggestions for future research include investigating whether the interrelationships and structure of the multiple identities change over time and how these changes affect interpersonal and social functioning.

Publication No 9734284

Hawkeswood WG (1991).  “One of the children”: an ethnography of identity and gay black men. PH.D. Thesis, Colombia University, DAI, Vol. 52-08A, p. 2968, 391 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation is an ethnographic exploration of gay Black identity in Harlem, New York City. The first part includes an outline of the ethnography and locates it within the existing literature on Black men, Black culture, and the gay community.

The gay Black men who comprise the subject population are described and their community defined: both the personal social networks which constitute the gay “family” and the public social institutions that comprise the “gay scene”.

The second part analyzes the elements of Black and gay cultures which these men deem significant to their self-identification as Black men who just happen to be gay.

The meaning of sexuality for gay Black men and the impact of the AIDS epidemic on the gay Black community in Harlem are shown to contribute to the social construction of gay Black identity. Finally, the combination of these elements of gay Black identity are discussed as they are expressed in gay Black culture.

Publication No 9202677

Kivel BD (1996). In on the outside, out on the inside: lesbian/gay/bisexual youth, identity and leisure. Ed. D. Thesis, University of Georgia, DAI, Vol. 57-03A, p. 1322, 223 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to understand the role of leisure as a context for identity formation among young people, ages 18-23, who, during high school, self-identified as being lesbian/gay/bisexual. Leisure has been identified as one of several important contexts for identity formation among young people. The bulk of literature on adolescent identity formation, however, does not typically include the experiences of lesbian/gay/bisexual youth. At the same time, most of the research literature on lesbian/gay/bisexual youth focuses on the self-destructive behaviors in which they engage as a result of the isolation and concomitant homophobia they experience in their respective communities. Very little attention has been paid to examining the different contexts of development among this segment of the adolescent population. Another purpose of this study, then, is to broaden the mainstream discourse about adolescents and development and to begin to understand the role of leisure as a context for identity formation among lesbian/gay/bisexual youth.

Participants were chosen from a lesbian/gay/bisexual student group on a college campus in the southeastern United States. Four sampling strategies were used: stratified purposeful, criterion-based, convenience and snowball. Ten participants, five women, five men, including four youth of African-American descent, one young person of Chinese descent, one participant of Russian/middle eastern, Jewish descent, and four young people of European American descent were chosen for this study. The participants ranged in age from 19-23.

Participants were interviewed on two separate occasions between April and September, 1995, and were asked to reflect, retrospectively, about their experiences of leisure and the ways in which leisure contexts helped them to negotiate their understanding of themselves, their relationships with others and with the world while in high school. The data were analyzed using narrative analysis and modified constant comparative analysis. Two chapters of findings were developed. Chapter 4 includes individual profiles with an analysis of the relationship between identity and leisure for each participant; and Chapter 5 includes a discussion about the findings in terms of categories.

The core category suggests that leisure is a context for developing personal identity among young people, between the ages of 18-23, who, during high school, self-identified as being lesbian/gay/bisexual. The two supporting categories suggest that for participants in this study leisure was experienced on a continuum of "doing and being" and the marginalization of lesbian/gay/bisexual youth influenced their identity and their choices within leisure contexts. This study focused on understanding leisure as a context for identity formation at the personal, individual level.  Future studies should focus on examining this issue at the level of the individual and at the level of cultural ideology. The next step is to begin to understand how leisure contexts contribute to a hegemonic process which creates "insiders" and "outsiders."

Publication No 9624035

Lam BT (1994). Psychosocial adjustment and coping strategies among Vietnamese American gay men. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI Vol. 33:01, p. 95, 99 pages.

This study examined interactional anxiety in Vietnamese American gay men in a society harboring racist and homophobic attitudes, and sources of their support to deal with these attitudes.  Twenty self-identified Vietnamese American gay men (ages 28-48) were recruited via support groups and snowball sampling. Respondents who reported a low level of interactional anxiety reported better psychosocial adjustment through involvement in social networks. Most reported positive experiences with homophile organizations, supporting the idea that associating with similarly situated others enhances a sense of well-being.  Most respondents reported support from gay and lesbian communities rather than from family members or religious communities. Despite potential hostile societal reaction, many respondents reported that they did not fear exposure of their homosexuality. Development of self-concept and autonomy were shown to be influenced by peer group interaction.  Recommendations for future research and social work practice were presented.

Publication No 1357601

Lane AJ (1997). Homosexuality and the crisis of black cultural particularity.  PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, DAI Vol. 58:06A, p. 2211, 317 pages.

My dissertation interrogates how constructions of homosexuality that were developed in black discourses during the Black Power Movement reflected, as homophobic discourses, a sense of ‘crisis’ in black communities regarding the authenticity of black culture within capitalism. This sense of crisis was precipitated by (1) the intensified penetration of state-corporate capitalism, primarily through the culture industry, in every domain of American life, and by its one-dimensional organization of society; (2) black migration to the northern urban centers, which facilitated the erosion of distinct cultural patterns within black communities; and (3) the trajectory of integration that characterized the Civil Rights Movement, through which the distinctiveness of black culture was often subsumed by claims to ‘American’ culture and identity. I analyze how the specific construction of homosexuality as a white cultural phenomenon is used both to position black culture against capitalism and its homogenizing imperative, and to prove black authenticity. These uses of homosexuality are enabled by the fact that whiteness itself is equated with capitalism and technological development, which are, in turn, defined as white. Ultimately, constructions of homosexuality have been mobilized to argue that, in spite of state-corporate domination, black culture maintains its particularity. Homosexuality is, in this regard, an ‘otherness’ that reinscribes the difference of blackness.

Publication No 9737365 (Not Available from UMI)

Lester JS (1997). Power and marginality: the politics of writing about black or lesbian identity. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University, DAI, Vol. 58-04A, p. 1341, 255 pages.

Abstract by author: Power and Marginality is an interdisciplinary, comparativist, and theoretical work concerned with the social production of knowledge about Black and/or lesbian identity through writing. I argue that contemporary use of the keywords “marginality”, “invisibility”, and “silence” are highly problematic when used to represent Black or lesbian identity, whether the terms are embraced as tools for radical possibility change, or whether they are repudiated. For through the use of these three keywords, “theoretical knowledge” and “experiential” knowledge are placed in binary opposition, reifying the very social constructs of dominance that the terms are employed to oppose. I map a methodology for using discursive space, time, and bodies in order to socially construct “positional knowledge(s)” from which we can represent Black and/or lesbian power rather than marginality, invisibility, or silence.

In Chapter One I engage the work of Audre Lorde, Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Antonio Gramsci, Michel Foucault, George Chauncey, and Donna Haraway as I define the terms: “the discursive”; “hegemony”; “common sense”; and “keywords”. In Chapter Two I assess the ways in which the margins are theorized as a material place, similar to a ghetto, rather than as a discursive space. In that chapter I ask: what is the perceived danger for discourses of Black and/or lesbian marginality of claiming cultural theory? In Chapter Three I argue that the use of the terms “invisibility” and “silence” defines lesbian and/or Black identity as “invisible” when a white and/or heterosexual hegemonic presence refuses to “see” and as “silent” when it refuses to hear. In Chapter Four I argue that we must unite the binary of experiential and theoretical knowledges as “positional knowledge” by using the tool of discursive time in conjunction with overt representation of discursive spaces and bodies. Finally, in Chapter Five I “rewrite” the margins as a location of “positional power” through an interwoven reading of the theories of Audre Lorde, Michel Foucault, and James C. Scott.

Publication No  9731057

Manalansan MF, IV (1997). Remapping frontiers: the lives of Filipino gay men in New York. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Rochester, DAI Vol. 58:09A, p. 3588, 316 pages.

Abstract by author: This dissertation is an ethnographic study of Filipino gay men in New York City. Based on more than three years of fieldwork, participant observation, and more than a hundred informal interviews, this work focuses on the life narratives of fifty Filipino gay men who create a sense of self and belonging or citizenship in the face of emerging notions of globalization of gay identity and cultural practices. I demonstrate how these men negotiate between Filipino and American sexual and gender traditions and their experiences as a multiply-marginalized group. In these negotiations, these men cross the borders between the individualist formation of the self found in Western gay identity and the performative relational self in Filipino bakla tradition. They deploy a performative or dramaturgical worldview to make sense of their experiences, and as such, they are able to navigate various social hierarchies and exclusions. Filipino gay men’s experiences and discourse do not construct a consistent monolithic self, but rather a configuration of possible scripts of self/selves that shift according to the situation.  Furthermore, I argue that these men’s experiences are inflected and reconfigured by race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and immigration status.  As immigrants, these Filipino men are located between competing cultural traditions, memories, and practices. Therefore, their claims towards membership or citizenship in the gay and mainstream communities and the meanings that they create as part of this struggle are the result of dynamic maneuverings and strategic manipulation of their social, cultural, economic and racial positions.

Publication No  9808898

Merighi JR (1996). Coming out in black and white: an exploratory analysis. Ph.D. Thesis (Social Work), University of California, Berkeley, DAI, Vol. 57-08A, p. 3682, 242 pages.

Abstract by author: The lives of young gay males are shaped by a complex set of social and psychological factors that either facilitate or hamper the coming out process. While much of the literature on gay identity development has focused on retrospective accounts from lesbian and gay male adults, this study explored the intersection of race, sexuality, and coming out among African American and Caucasian gay male youth.  Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to examine the coming out process of 18 African American and 25 Caucasian gay males, ages 18 to 24.

Questionnaires were administered to collect demographic data and examine patterns of alcohol use. Psychological measures included the Gay Identity questionnaire to assess gay identity stage development, the Beck Depression Inventory to assess depression, and the Self-Esteem Rating Scale to assess self-esteem. Face-to-face, tape-recorded interviews were conducted to explore aspects of the coming out process in terms of race, alcohol use, and the importance of community programs, services, and role models. Both parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were used to compare group responses to study measures. Interview transcripts were coded thematically using grounded theory procedures in order to elucidate themes and theoretical categories.

Comparisons of African American and Caucasian gay male youth did not yield significant differences for self-report measures of gay identity, depression, self-esteem, and sexual orientation milestones. Further, no significant group differences resulted for frequency of alcohol use or heavy drinking during the past year or number of drinks per sitting. However, African Americans reported significantly fewer drinks to get drunk as compared to Caucasians. Analysis of transcript data resulted in “acceptance” as a primary theme in the coming out experiences of study respondents.

Both study cohorts reported alcohol use as a means to gain acceptance in the gay community, but only African American gay males reported difficulties of acceptance in both the African American and Caucasian gay communities. The findings of this exploratory study underscore the importance of examining gay issues from a cross-cultural perspective and have implications for social work practice with gay youth.

Publication No 9703216

Piedmont O (1996). The veils of Arjuna: androgyny in gay spirituality, East and West. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies, DAI Vol. 57:06B, p. 4076, 401 pages.

Abstract by author: The thesis is a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into the meaning of gay spirituality in the U.S and India utilizing the symbol of the androgyne as a tool for investigation. Themes of gender transcendence, transformation, healing, psychic equilibrium, and embodied spirituality emerge in a cross-cultural analysis of religious symbols and myths of androgyny between Indian Hinduism and American gay culture. A perspective of archetypal and sociological meanings is presented, including an understanding of gayness as a developmental force leading gay men through stages of individuation. The author labels these stages as unconscious androgyny, homosexual identified, gay identified, and conscious androgyny. Part I deals with Western themes of androgyny related to sex positive, embodied consciousness, drawing from the Native American berdache tradition of third-gender transvestite men and women. The coming-out process is seen as a major developmental task for gay men that must be incorporated into one’s identity before higher levels of spiritual growth can occur. The spiritual significance of drag and community space is analyzed. Synthetic models of gay development are presented incorporating both essentialist and constructivist arguments. Part II presents Eastern themes of androgyny connected to homosexuality as found in Hindu literature and rituals in India.  References to classical Hindu literature, including the Kama Sutra, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, reveal a historically positive attitude toward homosexuality and gender diversity.  Description is given to a mythology of androgynous gods, including Ardhanarisvara, Siva-Sakti, Harihara, and Visnu/Mohini, relevant to the gay psyche. Specific reference to Skanda as the god of homosexuals is given. Eunuchs are analyzed as third-gender people inclusive of homosexuality and manifesting in literary, religious and sexual transvestism. Contemporary attitudes in India toward homosexuality reflect an emerging ambivalence characterized by both homophobia and open displays of same-sex eroticism. Particular attention is paid to the institution of same-sex friendships, yaari, and its high value of meaning for Indian men. The study ends with a synthesis of Eastern and Western perspectives into an energy (chakra) system incorporating images and symbols of relevance to gay ontology and spiritual development.

Publication No 9633907

Quintilliani KI (1995). One of the girls: the social and cultural context of a Cambodian-American ‘gay’ group. M.A. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI Vol. 34:03, p. 995, 94 pages.

Abstract by author: This ethnographic field study discusses the social and cultural context of Cambodian American male homosexual behaviors. The study contributes to the growing body of anthropological, sociological, and historical literature on crosscultural homosexuality.  In addition, it provides further evidence that different societies around the world, in this case Cambodia, have particular cultural attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality which influence sexual behavior patterns. Preliminary findings of the study indicate that acculturation into Anglo-American society influences Cambodian men who have sex with men in their choice of sexual partners and practices and in their attitudes toward marriage.  The study also investigates how a group of immigrant Cambodian men have constructed a successful identity as both Cambodian and gay. The preliminary findings provide a foundation for further study of Cambodian sexual behavior and can be utilized to develop effective HIV/AIDS education and prevention strategies for Cambodians.

Publication No 1377446

Retter YG (1987). Identity development of lifelong vs. catalysed Latina lesbians. M.S.W. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, MAI, Vol. 30-03, p. 0885, 167 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify differences in the identity development paths of lifelong lesbians and of catalyzed lesbians (females who knew themselves as lesbian later in life). The sample population was restricted to Latina lesbians.

Hypotheses concerned early and persistent attractions to females, a minimal history of heterosexual activity and a history of cross gender identification. An 81 question survey was used. The survey included a set of open-ended, culture-specific questions.

Significant results suggest that lifelong lesbians had a lack of involvement with males rather than a history of involvement with females.

Publication No 1346828

Rodriguez RA (1991). A qualitative study of identity development in gay chicano males. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, Vol. 52-07A, p. 2474, 182 pages.

Abstract by author: During the last several years, much has been written on the psychological, social, and political processes of ethnic and gay identity development. Only recently have studies been done examining the processes of identity development for gays and lesbians of color. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to develop a grounded theory of identity development and maintenance for a sample of gay Chicano males.

Fifteen adult gay Chicano males from three Southern California counties (Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego) were interviewed by the investigator. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed via qualitative methodology, yielding 38 discrete themes, grouped into three general headings: Chicano identity development, gay identity development, and integration of Chicano and gay aspects of identity.

A grounded theory, derived from the data from the research participants, is proposed, describing the process of identity development as well as the blocks, supports, and strategies utilized for maintenance of identity for gay Chicano males.

Publication No 9136310

Salti RM (1997). Exploring Arab concepts of homosexuality. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Riverside, DAI Vol. 58:02A, p. 448, 227 pages.

Abstract by author: The aim of this study is to examine key texts in the discourse on Arab male homosexuality-works that have helped shape contemporary Arab thoughts and attitudes towards male ‘homosexuality.’ The exploration of an Arab ‘homosexual identity’ will not only be examined through the articulations between homosexuality and homosociality, colonialism, nationalism, traditional gender roles, and various social sanctions (including but not limited to Islam), but also in relation to potentially empowering writings by various postcolonial feminists and western queer theoreticians.

Publication No 9723701

Santiago-Vazquez M (1986). Homophobia among male college students of Puerto Rican descent as a function of residence and acculturation factors. PH.D. Thesis, Adelphi University, The Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, DAI Vol. 47:02B, p. 804, 103 pages.

Abstract by author: The attitudes toward homosexuality of a group of Puerto Rican males were explored. It was assumed that Island Puerto Rican males would hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than the New York Puerto Rican males because of their closer ties to the Latin culture and the Catholic church. It was also assumed that New York Puerto Rican males would show more tolerance towards homosexuality due to their greater degree of acculturation into the presumably more liberal values of the people of the United States. A total of 120 male college students of Puerto Rican descent, whose ages ranged between 18 to 28 years, participated in the study. They were divided into two samples (Island Puerto Ricans and New York Puerto Ricans), based upon their places of residence. Each student completed the following instruments: a Demographic Data Sheet; the Bem Sex Role Inventory; the Sex Role Survey; the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scales (for male and female homosexuality); and two Acculturation Scales (for behavioral and value acculturation).  The hypotheses were tested by using one-way analyses of covariance, with acculturation and social class as the two covariates. Homophobia, the dependent variable, was defined as negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Analysis of the data revealed that even though Island Puerto Rican males displayed more homophobic attitudes than New York Puerto Rican males, the difference between these attitudes were not statistically significant. These findings suggested that the homophobic reactions of many of the subjects were part of a constellation of traits and values that are deeply ingrained and resistant to changes, including those presumably brought about by an exposure to the values of another major culture. A description of some of the traits of the Puerto Rican male homophobe’s personality and the implications of the findings are discussed.

Publication No 8609025

Sauve JR (1997). ‘I ride the bus on the other side of the street!’: the coming-out experiences of black gay men in college. PSY.D. Thesis, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, G.S.A.P.P. DAI Vol. 58:04B, p. 2137, 161 pages.

Abstract by author: A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted to investigate the coming-out experiences of black gay men in college about whom little has been written in the professional literature. Objectives of the study were: (1) to understand better the lived experiences of these men; (2) to develop some provisional hypotheses about the unique issues and challenges encountered in being both gay and black in college; and (3) to identify some of the resources and supports these students have used or could have benefited from in dealing with the psychosocial challenges of their college years. Twelve participants between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five who self-identify as (1) gay, homosexual or queer, (2) of African descent, and (3) undergraduate college students took part in extensive, in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face, audiotaped interviews about their personal experiences. Individual narrative case reports based upon verbatim transcripts were written after each interview, reviewed with respective participants, and revised as appropriate. The narratives provided a wealth of rich, descriptive data about the unique lived experiences of each participant. A qualitative, cross-case pattern analysis of the narrative reports yielded several common themes and other findings that fell into the following main categories: (a) coming out of the closet; (b) disclosure strategies in college; (c) racism in gay groups; (d) homophobia in black groups; (e) the challenges of being bicultural; (f) residential and social life; (g) academic concerns; (h) family matters; (i) religious and spiritual issues; and (j) empowerment strategies. Results of this study highlight both the diversity and commonality of experiences among black gay college students.  Some findings confirm or clarify themes already suggested in the emerging literature on cultural differences in the coming out process. Other findings raise questions about previous reports and suggest possible new directions for future exploration. The practical implications of the study findings for college and university personnel are discussed, and suggestions for concrete action and further research are proposed.

Publication No 9731150

Schjelderup N (1994). Oral histories of black gay men and a black transgender person in the San Francisco Bay Area.  M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI Vol. 33:01, p. 66, 114 pages.

Abstract by author: This thesis addresses the topic of the lives of black gay men and transgender people, using the disciplines of anthropology and sociology. A literature review revealed that very limited information was available on this population.  Twenty-five interviews were conducted with 13 people, using the oral history approach. The goal for this study has been to collect information about what the thirteen people interviewed see as important in their lives, and to contribute to a better understanding of a group of people little research has been devoted to in the past. Some of the topics addressed are: family relations, racism in the gay community, homophobia in the black community, choice of partners, relationships with women, and the process of defining a gay or transgender identity. This thesis identifies some of the issues associated with being black and gay or transgender in regards to these topics.

Publication No 1358226

Walker L (1995). Looking like what you are: race, sexual style and the construction of identity. Ph.D. Thesis, The Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.  DAI, Vol. 57-01A, p. 223, 283 pages.

Abstract by author: This project explores the function of body politics in constructing minority identities, or how people’s physical and stylistic attributes are invested with meanings about who they are. It is interested in how race and sexual differences are defined in the confluence of discourses around visibility and invisibility.

The first two chapters set up the parameters of in/visibility with regard to sexual and racial differences in readings of two paradigmatic texts about visibility, Radclyffe Hall’s The Well of Loneliness, which produces the lesbian as visible in the figure of the butch, and Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, which explores the paradoxical notion that dark-skinned African-Americans’ “high visibility” actually renders them invisible. Chapter 3 reflects on the comparison between racial and sexual paradigms of visibility enacted by the structure of Chapters 1 and 2 through a reading of Blair Niles’s 1931 novel Strange Brother.

Chapter 4 argues that the pattern of identification is central to the way I analyze structures of visibility in the first three chapters. It begins with a reading of Homi Bhabha’s theory of the stereotype as a form of fetishism, and moves into a reading of three novels, Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea, and Michelle Cliff’s Abeng, which are interrelated in that each of the latter two novels rewrites the text(s) which precede it.

The last chapter, “How to Recognize a Lesbian,” analyzes the status of the relationship between identity-formation and visibility within current feminist criticism. It examines how the construction of the identities “butch” and “woman of color” as visible leads to the displacement of those who do not “look like what they are” (women of color who can “pass” for white and femme lesbians who can “pass” for straight) from the communities feminism intends to represent.

Reading the theoretical/autobiographical texts of Audre Lorde, Cherrie Moraga, and Gloria Anzaldua in connection with critical responses to those texts by both white feminists and feminists of color, the chapter argues that strategies of visibility are sometimes deconstructed, but also reinscribed to underpin the construction of lesbian identity within contemporary theories of race, gender and sexuality.

Publication No 9613430

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These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.


The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

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