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Latin America, The Caribbean, and Africa: Part 4 of 4: Study Abstracts
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Bibiography: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Ph.D and Master's Theses

ABSTRACTS/HIGHLIGHTS: Papers, Articles, & Books
ABSTRACTS: Ph.D & Master's Theses

Full Text Dissertations: African Sexual Minorities

Annandale, Gertruida Cornelia (2006). The experiential world of adolescent learners with homosexual parents. Master's Dissertation, Education, University of South Africa. PDF Download. Download Page.

Arndt, Marlene (2010). Attitudes towards bisexual men and women: the relationship between respondents' attitudes and their sexual orientation. PhD Dissertation, University of Johannesburg. Download Page.

Balcha, Daniel Iddo (2009). Homosexuaity in Ethiopia. Master's Dissertation, Faculty of the Social Sciences, Lund University. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Download Page.

Butler A (2000). A Qualitative Study on the Coming Out Process of Gay and Lesbian Youth. PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Porth Elizabeth. PDF Download. Author Website.

Coetzee, Catherine Anne (2009). The development and evaluation of a programme to promote sensitive pscyhotherapeutic practice with gay men and lesbians. PhD Dissertation, Rhodes University. Abstract and Download Page.

Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page.

Hagos, Saifu (2006). Assessment of HIV/AIDS related risks among men having sex with men (MSM) in Addis Ababa. Master's Dissertation, Department of community health, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. PDF Download. Related paper: Gebreyesus SH, Mariam DH (2009). Assessment of HIV/AIDS related risks among men having sex with men (MSM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health Policy, 30(3): 269-79. Abstract.

Kalamar, Matthew John (2009). Exploring the factors affecting HIV prevention interventions for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cameroon : a case study of Alternatives-Cameroun, an NGO based in the city of Douala. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download. Download Page.

Li, XinLing (2010). Disjunctures within conventional knowledge of black male homosexual identity in contemporary South Africa. Masters Dissertation, Rhodes University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Lundholm, Klara (2009). Challenging heteronormativity in the post-colonial nation building of Namibia. Master's Dissertation, Department of Political Science, Umea University. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mabitla, Makwetle Aubrey (2006). Causes and manifestation of aggression among secondary school learners. Master's dissertation, Education, University of South Africa. PDF Download. Download Page.

Maunze, Rumbidzai (2009). A history of debates on sexuality in Zimbabwe. Master's Dissertation, Historisch-Kulturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität Wien. Download Page.

Monamodi, Nthabiseng (2009). Rainbow Pride in The Rainbow Nation: The fictional representation of lesbians on the South African Broadcasting Corporation. Master's Dissertation, Faculty of Humanities, The University of the Witwatersrand. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mudavanhu, Jannet (2010). The attitude of the Methodist Church in Zimbabwe to homosexuality: towards a socio-sexological theological investigation. PhD. Dissertation, University of Birmingham. PDF Download. Download Page.

Ntuli, Praisegod Mduduzi. (2009). IsiNgqumo : exploring origins, growth and sociolinguistics of an Nguni urban-township homosexual subculture. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Abstract.

Peach, Ricardo (2005). Queer cinema as a fifth cinema in South Africa and Australia. PhD. Dissertation, University of Technology, Sidney.  Abstract and PDF Download Page.

Polders LA (2006). Factors affecting vulnerability to depression among gay men and lesbian women. Master's Dissertation, University of South Africa. PDF Download. Download Page.

Reddy, Vasu (2005). Moffies, stabanis and lesbos: the political construction of queer identities in southern Africa. PHD Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download (Very large: 159 Megs). Download Page.

Rees, Jennifer (2010). Masculinity and sexuality in South African border war literature. Master's Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch. PDF Download. Download Page.

Schaap, Rudy (2011). State of Emergency: An exploration of attitudes towards homosexuality in the SADF, 1969-1994. Master's Dissertation, History Department, Stellenbosch University. Abstract and Download Page.

Sinclair R (2005). The official treatment of white, South African, homosexual men and the consequent reaction of gay liberation from the 1960s to 2000. PhD Dissertation. University of Jahannesburg. Download Page.

Sonnekus, Theo (2009). Invisible Queers: Investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual cultures. Master or Arts Dissertation, University of Pretoria. PDF Download. Download Page.

Theuninck AC (2000). The Traumatic Impact of Minority Stressors on Males Self-Identified as Homosexual or Bisexual. Master's Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. Full Text & Summary N/A. (Archive Link)

Tlou, Benedictor Leah (2007). Being gay in the management echelon of the South African Department of Defence: a life history. PhD Dissertation, University of Johannesburg. Download Page.

Fajardo JS (1996).Machismo, homosexualismo, and alburismo: an exploration of Mestizo Mexican male homosexual attitudes and humor. PH.D. Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, DAI Vol 57:04A, p. 1708, 304 pages.

Abstract by author: Octavio Paz, the renowned Mexican philosopher, in his celebrated work, The Labyrinth of Solitude, states that masculine homosexuality is regarded with a certain indulgence in Mexico. The qualification is that the participant must take only the active, or insertor role. In this relation, only the passive participant, the insertee, is deemed a homosexual. Paz asserts that this Mexican homosexual tradition is made very clear in certain popular word games, full of homosexual allusions, where the winner symbolically possesses the loser, the passive agent. This is an interesting and rare revelation, because the common view among most students of Mexican culture has been that homosexuality is practically absent in Mexico, and that it is due to the strong macho tradition that exists in that country. The purpose of this study will be to examine this issue.

The thesis, as supported by the data examined in this study, is that homosexuality not only exists in Mexico, it appears to abound there, perhaps even more so than in the United States. The major factor seems to be the Mexican’s excessive notion of machismo whereby it is not only the prerogative but the obligation of men to sexually exploit any passive being, whether it be male or female. Thus, many self-proclaimed heterosexual men see passive, effeminate, men as legitimate sexual targets. This point of view is enculturated predominantly through the male peer group, but also to some extent by some of the more burlesque type public entertainment. This entire area of Mexican homosexual attitudes and behaviors is excellently reflected in the Mexican albur, the word game mentioned by Paz.

An important correlation established in the study is between attitudes and behaviors and how these relate to the broader areas of heterosexual gender relations. The study also examines Mexican homosexuality in terms of its implications to the A.I.D.S. epidemic in that country. The study was carried out in Mexico and the United States and used both bibliographical and ethnographic methods. The main ethnographic method used was participant observation and interviewing, which included a sample population of twenty-five mexicano male musicians.

Publication No 9628542

Green JN (1996). Beyond carnival: homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Brazil. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, DAI Vol 57:07A, p. 3206, 421 pages.

Abstract by author: This social and cultural history of homosexuality in twentieth-century Brazil examines the development of a subculture in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo and the appropriation, use, and expansion of urban space for same-sex erotic sociability. The image of uninhibited and licentious Brazilian homosexuals, expressing sensuality, sexuality, and camp during Carnival festivities, has come to be equated with an alleged cultural and social toleration for homosexuality or bisexuality in Brazil. Apparent permissiveness during Carnival, so the stereotype goes, symbolizes a sexual and social regime that unabashedly accepts fluid sexual identity, including male-to-male sexuality. By widening the perspective beyond the gender transgressions which take place during Carnival, this study examines the broader social and cultural realities of male homosexuality. Using police and medical records, newspapers, literature, homecrafted newsletters, and oral interviews, this project recreates the lives of men coping with arrests and street violence, negotiating around family restrictions, developing alternative support networks, having sexual adventures, and maintaining relationships.

The first two chapters examine the formation of same-sex subcultures in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo in the early twentieth century. This is followed by an analysis of the medicalization of homosexuality in the 1920s and ‘30s and the means by which medical and legal professionals attempted to control, contain, and cure this ‘deviant’ behavior. A fifth chapter maps the expansion of urban spaces, both public and private, in the post-World War II period. The final section explores the emergence of new gay identities in the 1960s and the first stages of politicalization of activists in the late 1970s. By this time, I argue, a new social and political situation among Brazilian gay men led to the development of a social movement that mobilized its members against discrimination, social stereotypes, and the marginal status of Brazilian homosexuals in everyday life.

This study of men who have crossed sexual boundaries, in turn, reflects back on the overall framework of Brazilian social values and rules of acceptable behavior and as such reveals much about normative definitions of masculinity and femininity.

Publication No 9640230

Jer-Don JE (1997). The literary insertion of homosexuality in Caribbean identities. PH.D. Thesis, Brandeis University, DAI Vol. 57:08A, p. 3483, 202 pages.

Abstract by author: Drawing from readings of novels by Guyanese, Guadeloupan, Jamaican, Puerto Rican, Cuban and Surinamese writers, this work explores the complex relationship between homosexual and national identities in the Caribbean. Questions around this relationship are framed in terms of contemporary Caribbean literary and cultural theory and focus on positionality (hegemonicly defined national space and the place of the homosexual other), instrumentality (strategic deployments of homophobia and heterosexism versus tactical homosexual resistance), and multiplicity of identity (the wide range of possible identity alignments, such as race, class or gender). Reflection on these questions points to a dynamic which has been mapped throughout this work using the terms ‘presence,’ ‘absence’ and ‘proximity’. Specifically, this work asserts that institutionalized heterosexist and homophobic practices, coupled with an official national rhetoric which denies the existence of homosexuality, marginalizes and silences Caribbean lesbians and gays. This marginalization forces the homosexual into proximity with the national, making him or her neither completely absent nor fully present in the national discourse.  This work further asserts that the process by which homosexuals are marginalized points to an untenable tension in national identity itself, where the political and cultural energy of the nation are expended to expunge an homosexuality which, according to official rhetoric does not exist. Each of the novels examined in this work corroborates the existence of this tension between national identity and homosexuality, though each also approaches the problem from a different angle or perspective. Finally, this work aims to demonstrate the ways in which these literary explorations of homosexuality in national identity can be seen as specifically Caribbean. This is accomplished by examining those elements in the texts which shape the problem in uniquely Caribbean terms, including, among other things, the plantation system and the role of the metropole. Taken as a whole this work succeeds in identifying some of the complications of the relationship between the homosexual and the national as they are developed in contemporary Caribbean literature.

Publication No 9703730

Saba ED (1995).Desire and construction of gender in the Chilean narrative. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Riverside, DAI Vol. 56:08A, p. 3148, 213 pages, Spanish.

Abstract by author: The following study examines the representation of gender in the Chilean narrative at three points in time: the 20’s, the 40’s and the 60’s by focusing upon the images of masculinity, femininity and homosexuality. In the tradition of the ‘Criollismo’ as a movement, ‘the masculine’ is presented in the texts of analysis as a stereotyped image of a national identity, created by the Chilean writers who stressed upon a virile and strong figure of man as a vehicle for self-autonomy. A central contention of this study is that, while the ‘Criollismo’ places ‘the feminine’ within an abstract universal category, the rhetoric of the texts written in the 30’s and the 40’s point out the transgressive repercussions of a patriarchal society that sees the element of an ‘eternal feminine’ as a main quality of femininity.  The use of the fantastic as an imagery and cognitive process in the texts of Maria Luisa Bombal, interweaves with the discourse of romantic heroines who through their silence express a repressed sexuality denouncing somehow the social conditioning of women. Rather than problematizing homosexuality as a conflictive social phenomena, this category is analyzed outside the binary construction of ‘the masculine’ and ‘the feminine.’ The comparative construction of homosexuality in the works of Augusto D’Halmar and Jose Donoso bring up the performative elements that help to fabricate the homosexual individual. Significantly, the homoerotic desire is expressed in a mystical discourse as well as through transvestism and cross-dressing, signs that are reflected in the works of the 60’s. In this study, emphasis has been given to the representation of gender as a cultural conflict.  The textual construction of gender is explored in an effort to demonstrate the cultural significations of masculinity, femininity and homosexuality as reflective cultural phenomena.

Publication No 9541068

Sigal PH (1995). Maya passions: colonial Yucatecan ideas of sexuality, gender, and the body.  PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, DAI Vol. 56:09A, p. 3708, 640 pages.

Abstract by author: How do sixteenth to nineteenth century Maya texts interpret sexuality, gender, and the human body?  This work seeks to answer that question by analyzing a large number of Maya language documents, which I translate here. I place these texts in the ethnohistorical context of colonial Yucatan. I compare the conclusions that I draw from them with many of the statements in both Spanish and Nahuatl language documents, thus determining similarities and differences between the various groups. I am able to draw conclusions authoritatively only because I use many different genres of Maya documentation. This work shows that the Maya texts did not view the human body itself as a unified entity. The body is often seen only in its parts. These body parts were central to the Maya spiritual world in a way that the Spanish, emphasizing a dichotomy between the body and the soul, could not understand. I show that the Maya did not assign identities to individuals based on their sexual behaviors. Unlike contemporary Western societies, the Maya did not label people as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. They believed that sexual acts, if excessive, could lead to death and destruction. They did not understand sexuality as a discernible category which they differentiated from other parts of life. While the Maya believed that sexual behavior strongly influenced the course of society, they did not divide sexuality between virtue and sin. The Christian introduction of the concept of sin led to a negotiation of the meaning of the term. While most scholars have suggested that Maya society was a strictly patriarchal society, my research shows that the Maya defined gender in a more complex manner than a strict patriarchal organization would suggest.  Maya women obtained significant power in the spiritual world. At the time of the conquest, the Maya determined kinship lines on both the matrilineal and patrilineal models, extending ritual kinship to both the gods and the goddesses. The Maya spiritual world also allowed deities, shamans, nobles, and commoners to cross genders.  Ritual transgenderism did not, however, extend to any sort of transgender identity.

Publication No 9544180

  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located.

Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist & Glenn Lynas, and Glenn also supplied other forms of assistance.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.


The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

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