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Homosexuality: Biological? Learned? Part 1 of 2: Internet Links
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Page Index: The Gay 'Gene' / 'Genes' Search & Related Issues.  - Problems With Media Reporting on Genetic Study Results. - 'Gay' Animals & Insects & Related Issues. - Human Homosexuality: Historically & Cross-Cuturally, Percentages. - Reports of Studies Suggesting Genetic or Biological Causes for Homosexuality. - Gay Speech': Learned? - The Social Construction of Homosexuality & Related Issues. - Homosexuality & Evolution. - Abstracts. - Bibliographies. - Books. - Full Text Papers.


Applied Knowledge Fails

"For more than a decade now, the unchecked spread of HIV/AIDS around the world has made
our profound ignorance concerning human sexuality painfully evident" (N/A = Not Available).
Google Citation Reference
This quotation begins the paper by Parker, Richard (1995). (Annual Review of Anthropology Paper by Author)
The social and cultural construction of sexual risk, or how to have (sex) research in an epidemic.
In: Han ten Brummelhuis, Gilbert Herdt, Eds., p. 257.
Culture and Sexual Risk: Anthropological Perspectives on AIDS, 256-269. (Routledge Reference) (Abstract)

Profound Ignorance of Human Sexuality.

Global sex: sexuality and sexual practices around the world. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Ahmadinejad's Nightmare: Does homosexuality exist in every human society? (2011, Alternate Link)

Field of Sexuality Studies: What Is It? (2004, Alternate Link)
Categories such as ‘heterosexual’ or ‘homosexual’ or ‘bisexual’ as defined in Western societies
do not necessarily carry the same meaning elsewhere.

The Evolutionary Mystery of Homosexuality (2012).

Epigenetics May Underlie Homosexuality, Study Finds (2012).
Homosexuality Is Epigenetic, Says Study (2012)
Scientists May Have Finally Unlocked Puzzle of Why People Are Gay (2012).
Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development (2012, PDF).

 Mostly Straight, Most of the Time (2010)
Am I Bisexual? Am I Gay? Am I Straight? A Journey through Sexuality (2009). 

Aren't We All a Little Bisexual?”: The Recognition of Bisexuality in an Unlikely Place (2011 Paper - Abstract).

Is your child a “prehomosexual”? Forecasting adult sexual orientation (2010).
Are We Born Gay? How do early childhood preferences develop in the first place? (2011).

Part of the 'Story': 'The Making of Heterosexual Males?'
Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection
- 2011 - by Niobe Way.

The secret lives of boys: Niobe Way conducted hundreds of interviews with boys from 11 to 18 and found that more than 85 percent of her respondents suggested their closest friends, especially those during early and middle adolescence, “share the plot of ‘Love Story’ more than the plot of ‘Lord of the Flies.’” She argues such friendships fade as they age because of ingrained societal norms... [Why such friendships fade?] They become, she said, “increasingly attuned to cultural messages about manhood and maturity.”“Rather than focusing on who they are,” Way added, “they become obsessed with who they are not.” [Is it possible that boys who are supposed to love/desire females and especially have sex with them - or at least lie about that - so that no one will think/believe/suspect that they are homosexual/gay? For one possibility of what may happen in adolescent friendship boy groups when homo-sex is acceptable, see: "Acadia, Arcadia - what's the difference?"]
Ask an Academic: The Secrets of Boys: When they talk about intimacy that might remain in their closest male friendships, they use the expression "no homo" to underscore their heterosexual status. Questions about close friendships from the interviewers become, for the boys during late adolescence, questions about sexuality.
Examples of homo-sex having been the rule for male-bonding adolescent boys in some human cultures are given in: The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations in Human Societies - 2009 - by James Neill (Google Books).

Masculinity for Boys: Resource Guide for Peer Educators (UNESCO, New Delhi, 2006, PDF, PDF): Men have always secretly known and understood the universal male need for intimacy with men, but have also known that the society strongly discourages open acknowledgement of such desire... What would surprise many is that before the British arrived in India, the Indian society had many socially approved spaces in the mainstream male society, where male-male intimacy flourished openly. Most such spaces and customs were destroyed by the long British rule, but some survived till a century ago... We have seen how the heterosexualisation of Indian society is changing this traditional masculinity pattern. Heterosexualisation also includes the homosexualisation of male-male love. It is one of the most basic forms of male oppression.

Saudi Study: Nearly a Quarter of Children Raped; Up to 46% of Students "Suffer" from Homosexuality: In addition to that, there is a study from the Office of Societal Supervision, which is also very serious. This study reported that 46% of students in the city of Riyadh suffer from homosexuality. Twenty-five percent of students in Jeddah suffer from homosexuality. We must be aware of this in order to combat these numbers quickly. The society has become fragmented. When we have a percentage of students - children or teenagers - who are gay, this is a catastrophe, a true catastrophe. I mean, we don’t have a strong society. We should really look at this more seriously.

The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole: Testosterone, Perceived Dominance, 
and Sexual Preference in Men (by Ross Brooks, 2004: HTML, PDF)

Gay Guise: When Straight Men Have Sex With Other Men (2008).
Male-on-Male Blowjobs are No Longer Gay (2009).

A study of former high-school American Football players has found that more than a third said theyhad had sexual relations with other men (2007).

Book Proposal for SO YOU SAY YOU’RE STRAIGHT: The one in five hidden homosexual heterosexuals:
It is a little-known fact that the majority of people in the community who experience homosexual feelings are predominately heterosexual in feelings and sexual behaviour and identify as heterosexual.  Studies to date suggest that as much as 17 percent of the population could be described in this way.  However, this group remain hidden in the majority of studies, which continue to examine sexual behaviour within the restrictive categories of homosexual, heterosexual, and bisexual.

Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic (2008):
32.8% of the men and 65.4% of the women reported such potential...
Question: What would cause 'some' to to not acknowledge to themselves or others that such same-sex sexual attractions/desires exist within?

 Same-sex relationships may play an important role in evolution:
Biologists claim that same-sex relationships help drive the evolution of animals' physiology, life history and social behaviour.

A study of former high-school American Football players has found that
more than a third [40%] said they had had sexual relations with other men
.

Homosexual Behavior in the United States, 1988-2004:
Quantitative Empirical Support for the Social Construction Theory of Sexuality (2009).

Situational Homosexuality or Behavioral Bisexuality ... a recap ... subsequent discourse so far (2011)

Evolution from mammalian heterosexual reproductive behavior to human erotic bisexuality (2007).

The Politics of Biology by Shivanda Khan (PDF). Defining terms used in working with male-to-male sex.
"Self-masturbating is a same-sex behaviour. It is a ‘manly’ hand holding the penis,
no matter what the surface imagination relates."

Visual Definition of a Male Masturbating
(Likely the most engaged-in sexual behavior of males in western countries):
'A male having sex with a male who happens to be himself'

Grero: The Masculine Gender and Cure for Heterosexuality (Or: Did You Know You're Not Straight?)

The Erotic Theater of the Mind: Secret Sexual Fantasies (2010): "Even, perhaps especially, the outwardly homophobic male has gay fantasies. Why do you think a guy like that is so scared of gays “converting” straight men?  Because in his fantasies, that’s exactly what happens: a hugely endowed male dominates him, forcing him to have sex—usually giving oral or taking anal--and he likes it, at least in fantasy (again, this doesn’t necessarily mean he’s truly gay).  Masters & Johnson reported that heterosexuals often fantasize about homosexual encounters and vice versa, more often reflecting curiosity and other impulses than the desire to change the gender of one's real-life lovers. Norman Mailer went so far as to say that “There is probably no sensitive heterosexual alive who is not preoccupied with his latent homosexuality.”  I would add “at some point in his life,”  since such desires come and go. Our society tends to make things black or white, good or bad, male or female, heterosexual or homosexual. But the human sexual imagination is most definitely bisexual, even what you might call omnisexual... - Bisexuality: The true norm?


Revolution Postponed: Why the Human Genome Project Has Been Disappointing (2010)

Lady Gaga Starts Born This Way Charity. - Your brain on culture: The burgeoning field of cultural neuroscience is finding that culture
influences brain development, and perhaps vice versa. 

Symposium (2012): Whom You Love: the biology of sexual orientation.

To "The SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!


The Gay 'Gene' / 'Genes' Search & Related Issues

Biological Determination Of Sexuality Heating Up As A Research Field (The Scientist, Jan 8, 1996). - Is homosexuality genetic? A critical review and some suggestions (1996): To date, all studies of the genetic basis of sexual orientation of men and women have failed to meet one or more or any of the above criteria.  - Some of the ongoing research on the genetics of homosexuality and on masculinity, femininity, and sexual orientation by J. Michael Bailey N/A (J. Micheal Bailey: Research). - Are people straight or gay? Most theories say yes N/A. - The Question of Questions: Beyond Binary Thinking: This is a shortened version of the first chapter of Rethinking Language and Gender Research (1996).  - Sexual Gender: This essay will show you how gender is a lot less 'black and White' than we have always believed. - Lessons from Sharing the Story of My (Possibly) Gay 6-Year-Old Son (2011): It got me thinking and after awhile I started to feel like I knew this big secret that shouldn't be a secret at all: Every gay adult used to be a gay kid. - In Search of the Elusive Definition of Heterosexuality (2010): “If male and female are two of a variety of sexes, and masculine and feminine two of a variety of genders, then heterosexual and homosexual are two of a variety of ways to combine them,” she notes. Against Nature Exhibit, Norway. - Homosexuality & Choice: Are Gay People 'Born This Way?' (2012). - Genetic or Not, Gay Won’t Go Away (2012).

Preference v. Orientation: The Search for a Gay Gene (1999). - 6/12/95 Science, Time Magazine: Search for a gay gene (1995). - Molecular Genetic Study of Sexual Orientation: Researchers from the NorthShore University HealthSystem Research Institute, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, and University of Illinois at Chicago are searching for genes that influence male sexual orientation. We are seeking families with two or more living gay brothers to assist us in our research. Participants are asked to provide a DNA sample (blood or saliva) and answer questionnaires. Participants will be reimbursed for time and any expenses associated with the study... - This FAQ provides background information about the “Molecular Genetic Study of Sexual Orientation,” which is under the direction of Dr. Alan R. Sanders. The FAQ also describes some background on sexual orientation research, especially with regards to gay men, and a discussion of some of the ethical, legal, and social implications of sexual orientation research. - Determinismo reducionista biológico e a explicação do comportamento [Reductionist biological determinism and the explanation of behavior., Google Translation]. - New Theory: Sexual Orientation Determined by Brain Hemisphere Dominance (2012).

World Science Festival - The Origins of Orientation (2011, Videos): Love and the Opportunistic Brain. - Making Impossible Predictions about Sexuality. - What is Sexual Orientation? - The Birds and the Bees across Species. - The Many Faces of Human Sexuality. - Is Sexuality a Choice? - Blogs: Making Impossible Predictions about Sexuality: What happens when science finds the cause - genetic or otherwise - of homosexuality? - Sexual Orientation in 2011: What is sexual orientation? What criteria can you use to define it? Is it behavior? Is it psychology? How have these notions changed over time? - Instant Reaction:  Origins of Orientation: Origins of Orientation panelists delved into riveting discussions about arousal, longing, bonding and, of course, sexual activity on Saturday night at the World Science Festival. - Sexual Orientation: “The Eyes Have It” (2012): new research showing that changes in pupils may be just as effective as genital measurements in studying sexual orientation. - Sexual Orientation: Eyes Reveal Who's Straight & Who's Gay, Study Suggests (2012).

My genes made me do it (1995): (Alternate Link) " Just about every week now, we read new headlines about the genetic basis for breast cancer, homosexuality, intelligence, or obesity. In previous years, these stories were about the genes for alcoholism, schizophrenia, and manic depression. Such news stories may lead us to believe our lives are being revolutionized by genetic discoveries. We may be on the verge of reversing and eliminating mental illness, for example. In addition, many believe, we can identify the causes of criminality, personality, and other basic human foibles and traits. But these hopes, it turns out, are based on faulty assumptions about genes and behavior. Although genetic research wears the mantle of science, most of the headlines are more hype than reality... In the debate over the genetics of homosexuality, the data supporting a genetic basis are similarly weak... But for many, the politics of a homosexual gene outweigh the science. A genetic explanation for homosexuality answers bigots who claim homosexuality is a choice which should be rejected. But to accept that nongenetic factors contribute to homosexuality does not indicate prejudice against gays..." - A Modern Refrain: My Genes Made Me Do It (2005). -  My Genes Made Me Do It! - A Scientific Look At Sexual Orientation - 1999 - by Neil Whitehead, Briar Whitehead (Review: Includes voluminous references to support their thesis that homosexual activities do not have or have very little genetic basis. Our sexuality, as well as most of our behavior, they believe, is all about the learning process. The Whiteheads do not appear to be on a fundamentalist moral crusade since they also believe that neither homosexual nor heterosexual orientation is genetic!) (Reviews).

The life of the gay gene: from hypothetical genetic marker to social reality (2012): The gay gene was first identified in 1993 as a correlation between the genetic marker Xq28 and gay male sexuality. The results of this original study were never replicated, and the biological reality of such an entity remains hypothetical. However, despite such tenuous provenance, the gay gene has persisted as a reference in science news, popular science writings, and in press releases and editorials about biomedical research. An examination of the life of the gay gene in U.K. news media demonstrates that the gay gene has become an assumed back-story to genetic sexuality research over time, and that the critique of its very existence has been diminished. Latterly, the gay gene has entered into the online biomedical databases of the 21st century with the same pattern of persistence and diminishing critique. This article draws on an analysis of the U.K. press and online databases to represent the process through which the address of the gay gene has shifted and become an index of biomedicalization. The consequent unmooring of the gay gene from accountability and accuracy demonstrates that the organization of biomedical databases could benefit from greater cross-disciplinary attention. - The secret identity of a biology textbook: straight and naturally sexed (2011).

Now What? The Latest Theory of Homosexuality (2000). - Searching for the Sin Gene (1993). - The Gay Gene: What does it matter? (1996). - Is There Really A Gay Gene? (1996). - Is There Really A Gay Gene? (2009).  - Defining terms used in working with male-to-male sex in South Asia (2004): PDF Download. - New Genetics Study Undermines Gay Gene Theory (2005. Alternate Link). - Sniffing Out the Gay Gene (2005). - Homosexuality And Human Evolution – Why Homosexuality Is Natural (2012). - Saint Aelred the Queer: The Surprising History of Homosexuality and Homophobia.  - Gay By Choice? The Science of Sexual Identity (2007): If science proves sexual orientation is more fluid than we've been led to believe, can homosexuality still be a protected right? - Queer physiognomies; or, how many ways can we do the history of sexuality? - Heroic Heretical Heterosexuality (2004). - Are there asexuals among us? On the possibility of a "fourth" sexual orientation (2009). - Homosexual selection: The power of same-sex liaisons (2009). - Hunting the gay gene (2007): With the pendulum swinging back and forth between nature and nurture as explanations for sexual preference, critics argue that science is asking a simplistic – and dangerous – question. - Genetic and Biological Causes of Homosexuality: The Genesis of Homosexuality (2009): The idea of a gay gene is pretty silly - since most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are determined by many genes, not just one single gene... - Sex Research Honeypot: Seductive ideas for intelligent people.

American Society of Human Genetics, 2012 Annual Meeting: Genome Wide Association Study of Sexual Orientation in a Large, Web-based Cohort. E. M. Drabant, A. K. Kiefer, N. Eriksson, J. L. Mountain, U. Francke, J. Y. Tung, D. A. Hinds, C. B. Do 23andMe, Mountain View, CA. (Alternate Link, Must Scroll) (Poster Presentation): We adapted the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid to examine seven elements of sexual orientation. All items were rated on a seven point scale by participants. Initial analyses focused on the “self identification” item as a continuous variable in response to the question “How do you label, identify or think of yourself?” In a sample of 7,887 men and 5,570 women, 77.2% of men 74.6% of women identified as heterosexual only, 7.3% of men and 15.3% of women as heterosexual mostly, 1.1% of men and 2.7% of women as heterosexual somewhat more, 1.3% of men and 3.5% of women as bisexual, 0.7% of men and 0.5% of women as homosexual somewhat more, 2.9% of men and 1.6% of women as homosexual mostly, and 9.5% of men and 1.8% of women as homosexual only. In both men and women, sexual identity was most significantly correlated with sexual attraction (men r=0.97, women r=0.90), sexual behavior (men r=0.95, women r=0.83), sexual fantasies (men r=.96, women r=.75), and emotional attraction (men r=0.79, women r=0.45), and the least strongly correlated with heterosexual/homosexual lifestyle (men r=.54, women r=.37), and social preference (men r=.15, women r=.08). We carried out GWAS stratified by sex in a cohort of 7887 unrelated men and 5570 unrelated women of European ancestry collected in the two months since the initial survey release. No clear genome-wide significant associations have been found thus far, and the current data do not show any direct association for markers within chromosome band Xq28. However, data collection is still ongoing, and increased sample size may help to clarify the roles for currently suggestive associations.

From limp wrist to long finger (New Statesman) (2000): Neil McKenna thought he was gay; now science says he's not. He fears that it will all end badly. - The Binary Oppositions of Inclusive Identities (1997, Alternate Link). - An Interview with my Inner Critic.(2001, Alternate Link): It does not take a genius to see that a person who can masturbate can engage in sex with a person of either gender, and we know that heterosexuals will engage in same-sex sex under the right circumstances, so the potential for homosexual sex probably lies in our large problem-solving brains, not in one or a few isolated genes.

Sex and Race in the Long Shadow of the Human Genome Project - 2006 - by Roger N. Lancaster. - Jurassic Park and the "Gay Gene": The new genetics seen through the distorting lens of the media (1993). - The gay baby (2007): Science may soon allow you to predict - and even alter - the sexual orientation of your unborn child. If that happens, no matter what you believe about gay rights or abortion, life will never be the same. - My top ten reasons for believing that there is a genetic component to homosexuality (Word Download). - Homosexuality is biological, not just genetic (2004).

I'm gay, but I'm not sure it's genetic (2002). - Metaphysics, Science, Homosexuality. Are we talking biology or choice? 13 possible causes for homosexuality (2005).  - Causes of Homosexuality: A Christian Appraisal of the Data (2005). - ProCon Summary: Is sexual orientation determined at birth? - Neurobiological Bases of Homosexuality? Some Evidence and Inquiries (2008): Until such studies can successfully establish lines of causality, however, consideration of other non-biological factors may not be dismissed. - Behavioral Genetics: Can We Know Too Much? (2007). 

Gay? it's all in the genes, says UCLA study (2003): "Is there such a thing as a gay gene? Scientists at UCLA have discovered 54 genes in mice which suggest that homosexuality may not be a choice as sexual identity is hard-wired into the brain before birth... While stressing the study was "not about finding the gay gene," Dr Vilain said “the first human implication will be to understand transexualism, which is different than homosexuality.” ...Dr Vilain added that finding the exact gene that results in homosexuality would require considerable more research and added that if future research does determine conclusively that homosexuality is genetic and not a choice, the implications would be huge."

Jannini EA, Blanchard R, Camperio-Ciani A, Bancroft J (2010). Male homosexuality: nature or culture? The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(10): 3245-53. From Abstract: Debate continues on whether or not male homosexuality (MH) is a result of biological or cultural factors. The debate persists despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Biological theorists produced evidence, however, that these are not always robust. On the other hand, social theorists, without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, with good argument, methods and results of the other side. The aim of this Controversy is to understand the reasons of both perspectives... The JSM's readers should recognize that there are several biological factors in MH. However, these findings do not seem to be able to explain all cases of homosexuality. Some others may be due to particular environmental factors. The issue is complicated and multifactorial, suggesting that further research should be undertaken to produce the final answer to the question raised in this Controversy section.  

A Pre-Birth Determination? (2007) Pity the poor fetus. There's a lot coming its way. And now there's talk on a conservative evangelical blog of a hypothetical hormone patch that an expectant mother might wear to eradicate her fetus's natural gayness. The patch, the biological determinism: It's all conjecture, for now..."  - Born That Way? Facts and Fiction about homosexuality (2004). - Choosing the Sexual Orientation of Children (1998, PDF): "This paper considers the moral and legal implications of such procedures (whether or not they would work). It is argued that the availability of procedures to select the sexual orientation of children would contribute to discrimination and prejudice against lesbians, gay men and bisexuals and, more generally, undermine the maintenance of a just society." - Is Your Baby Gay? What If You Could Know? What If You Could Do Something About It? (2007).

Southern Baptist Seminary Leader Takes Heat for 'Is Your Baby Gay?' Article (2007).  - A Critique of Schüklenk and Brookey: “Biomedical Research on Sexual Orientation: Researchers Taking Our Chances in Homophobic Societies” (1998): "They develop several themes of which the most radical appear to be that “research has no value of its own” and that the products of research may be used for evil purposes, that we should greatly fear advances in knowledge, and (at least by implication) that we should put a stop to research and to advancing knowledge on the origins of sexual orientation." - The Ethics of Genetic Research on Sexual Orientation (1998, Google Books). - Gay Times: The origins of homosexuality are uncertain and hotly debated. Is it biologically defined? A free choice? And, ultimately, does it matter? - How homosexuality is 'inherited' (2004). - Consider Dilemma of a ‘Gay Gene’…If One Exists (2007). The great dangers of assuming a 'gay gene' based on reports that gay males are more like females in a number of ways, including in their brains: Girl brain, boy brain? (2009). - Male Brains and Female Brains: Nature or Nurture? (2009). - Queer By Choice Dot Com (1999-2009). - Isocrat.org: LGBT Issues, Research, and Perspective: The Causes of Homosexuality- "Gays Go Straight" Paper Unleashes Storm N/A. - The Politics of Homosexuality (1993).

The great nature/nurture debate (1995). - Homosexuality: Nature or Nurture (2003). - Nature? Nurture? It Doesn't Matter (2004). - Nature versus Nurture: Homosexuality's Link to Biology and Society (2005). - Homosexuality: nature or nurture? (2006). - Nature vs. Nurture Debates Over Sexuality (2008). - Nature or Nurture: The Controversial Dilemma of Homosexuality (2008). - What Makes People Gay? The debate has always been that it was either all in the child's upbringing or all in the genes. But what if it's something else? (2005). - Science tried to find deviancy in our faces, ears and genes (1996). - Homosexuality: biologically or environmentally constructed (1998). - Theories of Sexualities; "Queer in Germany: Sexual Culture and National Discourses" (1999). - Homosexuality: An Analysis of Biological Theories of Causation (1994). -  NGLTF Statement on NIH Genetic Study on Homosexuality (1993). - L'homosexualité : innée ou acquise? (2000, Google Translation). - Homosexualité : une origine génétique… peu convaincante (2000, Google Translation). - Is there a straight gene? (2000, Alternate Link: Must Scroll) - Essentialized Social Categories I: Gender Essentialism (2006). - Implications of the Transsexual Identity (2007): "Although the exact science behind transgender identity is still undetermined, it is generally agreed upon in the scientific (and cultural) community that there are direct biological causes for transsexuality.  A transsexual individual, born one sex but associating their gender identity with the opposite sex, is born with this identity..." - Major Theorists on the Origin of Sexual Orientation. - Unbiased Study shows Importance of Environment in Sexual Orientation Development? (2008). - Homosexual behaviour due to genetics and environmental factors (2008). - American Psychological Association: No "gay" Gene (2009). 

The resurgence of biological determinism (Word Download N/A): "Homosexuality and Biological Determinism: Does it really matter whether we can scientifically ascertain the cause of homosexuality? And if we can, what are the social, political, and personal ramifications of such knowledge? When it comes to human diversity and social acceptance of people who are different than the majority, biological determinism has often been called on to support the extermination, alteration, or marginalization of minority groups. This historical precedence creates a wariness and reluctance for us to advocate the biological innateness of sexual orientation. However, environment as a “cause” is equally problematic. If one’s surroundings lead to a certain sexual orientation and social values label that orientation as deviant, then demands can be made to force people away from those surroundings. Neither biological determinism nor environmental influences matter when it comes to protecting people from discrimination. Science cannot be a justification for marginalizing people, and scientists ethically must be the guardians of their research. Therefore, until gay people are protected from discrimination and harassment, scientists cannot ignore the social implications of their research on the potential causes of homosexuality."

Tyranny of the heterosexual/homosexual binary?  - Unresolved Issues in Scientific Sexology: "The majority of men and women who report homosexual feelings and/or behavior report predominant heterosexual feelings and behavior and do not identify as homosexual. These consistent findings remain ignored. Studies of the etiology and development of homosexuality and heterosexuality treat them as distributed categorically rather than dimensionally and investigate only self-identified homosexuals and heterosexuals. With this methodology the predominantly heterosexual majority are excluded or misclassified." - BiBrain.Org(2011): The video above confirms what three separate academic papers to be published soon have found: there is objective scientific evidence for bisexual arousal patterns in human malesas well as females. Put differently, it is wrong to say a person is "straight, gay or lying."

The Hypothetical Genetics of Sexual Orientation (1994). Biological Correlates of being Gay - Biological Determinism? (2000). - Is there a Biological Basis for Sexual Orientation? (2000).  - The "Gay Gene" WebSite. Moderated by Chandler Burr, author of A separate creation: the search for the biological origins of sexual orientation (1996). - The Gay Gene: Research and Commentary.  -  Why Conservatives Should Embrace the Gay Gene (1996). - A review of current literature provides a compelling body of research linking sexual orientation to genes. But I'd like to play devil's advocate here. - Homosexuality and biology by C. Burr in the Atlantic Monthly (1993). - The Gay Gene: Assertions, Retractions, and Controversy (2002). - Revealing Same-Sex Attraction’s Evolutionary Role: One researcher brings back a dead hypothesis (2010, Paul Vasey, based on fa'afafine in Samoa). 

Do Genes Determine Whether We are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Straight? (The Council for Responsible Genetics) - Links to Critiques of "Gay Gene" Studies. - Are People "Born Gay?" A look at the most cited biological research studies. Quotations from Gay Researchers LeVay and Hamer N/A. - Genetics and Homosexuality: No conclusions can be drawn from studies relating genetics to sexual orientation, according to an October 30, 1996 panel at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) annual meetings in San Francisco. (Gene Letter Review) - Science, 'Gay Genes', and the 'Third Sex' by Udo Schüklenk (1997). - But God made me this way (2002). - Demystifying homosexuality (2004).

Born Gay Forum: Paul Billings & Jonathan Beckwith (1993). - Billings, Paul (1993): Genetic discrimination and behavioral genetics: The analysis of sexual orientation. -  The Gay Gene? (Jeffrey Satinover, M.D.)Homosexuality: Nature, Nurture and Compassion (Probe Ministries).Science and Sexuality (Anglican, New Zealand) (1995). - The New Eugenics (2003): "The problem is that it may eventually become possible not just to cull embryos associated with dwarfism, but also to screen out baldness, pug noses or homosexuality, or even to choose the embryo most likely to get into Yale." - A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. (Full Text) (Full Text). - Discover Magazine June 2007 Article (Full Text): Born Gay? Is homosexuality nature or nurture?  Science is homing in on the answer. - Genetics, environment tied to homosexuality: study (2008). - Gay Is Not All in the Genes (2008). - Is gender nonconforming behavior in children indicative of adult homosexual orientation? - Bio-Rhetoric, Background Beliefs, and the Biology of Homosexuality (2001).

Gene Scam? (Or access via search) - No "homosexual gene" can be found, new study says. - Is there a homosexuality gene? (2006). - The Gay Gene: Going, Going... Gone. - Genes influencing male homosexuality identified (2005). - The Search For a "Gay Gene": Quest Finds Few Solid Answers, Opens Up Debate Over Its Merits. - The repressive politics of homosexuality : To suggest, as he does, that homosexuality is changeable threatens the prevailing homosexual credo - that it is inborn and immutable (1997).- Discovery of "Gay Gene" Questioned: Research 1999 - University of Western Ontario (1999). Related article - Study fails to support existence of a `gay gene' (1999). - The "Gay Gene" studies. - A gay gene? How about 54 of them? - Science - research on genetic aspects of sexual identity (2003). (Note: All human identities are learned. e.g. Having an "African American" identity is "learned" and did not exist before Black African people came to America. Ditto for French Canadians.). - The self-righteous gene: debunking the notion of a gay gene (1999). - Homosexuality: "For years scientists have been attempting to ascertain whether or not homosexual behavior can be linked to a biological catalyst..." - Sexual Orientation Lecture Notes. Lesbigay Special Interest Group of NAFSA: Association of International Educators: About 400 human sexualities. - Why Are We Gay? (The Advocate, 2001). - Genetic essentialism and social deviance: an anthology N/A: Paper in Book: Deviance and Deviants (2000).

The Neurobiology of Sex/Gender-Based Attraction (2010): Abstract... "What causes same-sex attraction? Or, more broadly, what controls sex/gender-based attraction? Over the years there have been numerous theories, but more recently scientists have focused on the biology and, more specifically, the neurobiology of gender-based attraction. This article takes the reader through a critical review of the current literature related to sex/gender-based attraction. In examining this literature it is important to ask who is doing the studies, who has an interest in the results, and how the assumptions of the investigator and the audience affect the study design and conclusions." Ending of Paper: Sexuality is more complicated than we could ever imagine, and yet we use rather simple language to describe it. Sociobiological theory tells us that we have certain “predispositions,” and that culture overlays and shapes those. However, we assume that these predispositions are the same as the categories of sexuality that we have culturally created. We argue that people are “born” with predispositions to be gay and then those are shaped by culture. What if there is no predisposition to be gay? What if we are born with an interest in or arousal to soft things, rough things, tall or short things, old or young, passive or active, or certain smells? What if even those descriptors are too broad? Gayle Rubin makes this point by comparing sexuality to our appetite for food: “The belly’s hunger gives no clues as to the complexities of cuisine. The body, the brain, the genitalia, and the capacity for language are all necessary for human sexuality. But they do not determine its content, its experiences, or its institutional forms. . . . It is impossible to think with any clarity about the politics of race or gender as long as they are thought of as biological entities rather than as social constructs. Similarly, sexuality is impervious to political analysis as long as it is primarily conceived as a biological phenomenon or an aspect of individual psychology. Sexuality is as much a human product as are diets, methods of transportation, systems of etiquette, forms of labor, types of entertainment, processes of production, and modes of oppression.” (Rubin, 1993) - The Social Construction of Sex: Intersex as Evidence (2009).

What is Queer? (1998) "The lesbian woman or the gay man is constructed by a heterosexual society and a part of this. The opposite standpoint is essentialism, or biodeterminism, and would argue that there is a biological explanation of homosexuality, as well as arguing that gender is rooted in our biological sexes. We both find this idea quite absurd; if gender is biological,..." - Notes on show (Listen to Episode): Original Airdate 04/19/2005 - Genetic Determinism: "John Dupré, Professor of Sociology and Director of EGenIS (ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society), University of Exeter... Are there genes for practically everything? For being gay? For being mean? For being a philosopher? Does modern science show that we are largely the product of our genes --- or not? ... Dupre thinks that genetic determinism is false. Does this mean that anyone can become anything? What does his view entail? There are limits, but they are not imposed solely by genes. Dupre thinks we should shift from focusing on the genome to concentrating on development." [Note: At the site, the link for the article is dead, but is given here: "Article discussing whether there is a gene for homosexuality". 

Homosexuality: choice or fixed orientation? - ‘Choice’ of homosexuality focus of dueling meetings: Activists counter faith-based group (2010). - Accepting What Cannot Be Changed (1999). (Alternate Link) - Toward the "New Synthesis": Evolution, Human Nature, and the Social Sciences (Choice Magazine, Sept., 1998).  -  Homosexuality and the Truth: Is it Natural and Normal? - Sexual acts are a choice, but desire simply exists (Must Scroll). - Study says gender identity may be malleable after all (1998, Alternate Link). - Being gay is a choice. - Is Being Gay a Choice? (2009, YouTube). - Is homosexuality inherited? (1995). - Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy: Special 1998 Issue on Etiology of Homosexuality - Abstracts. - Homosexuality: Theories of Etiology (1998). - Of evolution and homosexuality (2004).

Scientific communities, gay communities and the production of knowledge: The social construction of biological ideas about same-sex sexuality (2001).  - Ain't no cure for love (2006): "If life for homosexuals is limited to choices between prayer, punishment or therapy, where's the good stuff? With support groups that offer homosexuals a space to express thoughts and feelings without making them feel like they need to change. This, rather than pathologising their lives, is what really helps, writes Vinay Chandran..." - Being Gay Is Not A Choice. Is Homosexuality an Innate or Learned Behavior? (2006). - Do Gays Have a Choice? (2006) Science offers a clear and surprising answer to a controversial question... Sexual orientation exists on a continuum, with genes and environment determining where people end up. - Homosexuality: A Choice or Biological Destiny? (2009). 

Homosexuality and Science: Biology and the Social Sciences (By Jeramy Townsley, Presented at the Midwestern Bisexual Lesbian Gay Transgender Allies College Conference, February 2001). Sexuality/Gender Terms. - Theories of Etiology: Psycho-social Origins, Biological Origins. - Social Science Research Homosexuality: Professional Opinion on our Mental Health, Psychological Testing, Queer relationships, Myths about Homosexual Behaviors, Prevalence of Homosexuality in Contemporary Western Societies, Mental Health Issues Facing the Queer Community.

Conservatives applaud "gay gene" theory: The Weekly Standard Says Theory Shows "Cure" Potential (1997). - Studies suggest human behavior isn't as predetermined as some thought (1999). - Official says genetic link won't help gays (1995). - New research claims to prove that homosexuals are born and not made. Peter Ray thinks that idea is unscientific, irrational - and very dangerous N/A. (by Peter Ray, from Living Marxism, No. 50, December 1992—on Simon LeVay's "gay brain" study.). Genetic Testing's Political Implications Must Be Addressed (1997, The Scientist). - The Science Of Sexuality Still Needs Social Science (1995, The Scientist): "Even though the researcher himself is offering genetics only as part of the explanation for an unknown percentage of the homosexual population, many scientists and laypersons alike have jumped on the genetic bandwagon as a complete answer to the more cosmic question of sexual orientation. - Gay or straight? Watch his walk (2007): New study suggests body movement gives clues to sexual orientation... “There’s reason to think that gay people can’t conceal their homosexuality,” says Michael Bailey, a professor of psychology at Northwestern University. “I don’t think it’s a performance that gay people enact. I think it’s something that either is inborn, or it’s acquired very early, perhaps by watching members of the other sex.” - Are homosexual brains different from birth? (2008).

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behavior (Full Text, 2008): - Society's attitudes have little impact on choice of sexual partner. - Swedish twin study: Q & A with J. Michael Bailey

Council For Responsible Genetic: - Brief on Sexual Orientation and Genetic Determinism (May 2006, Alternate Link):  "We are sexual beings, yet this does not mean that we are born homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual. Our sexual expression can change over time, towards different people, through different experiences. A lack of understanding about this type of human variability often leads to a perspective that our genes define who we are. Each of the above areas of research displays findings that hinge on the assumption that a given individual’s sexual expression neatly fits into the categories “straight” and “gay.” By not considering evidence of human sexual fluidity, debates regarding origins and biology are not substantial or complete. Current efforts fail to tell the whole story. And even if we were to accept that the assigned sexual orientation of the individuals participating in these studies accurately reflected their lifelong expression, conclusive proof of a link between this and their genes has yet to be found..."

Special Issue of Qualitative Sociology, 2003: Sex and Sociology: Sociological Studies of Sexuality, 1910-1978 (Abstracts): - “The Sociologist as Voyeur”: Social Theory and Sexuality Research, 1910–1978. - The City as a Sexual Laboratory: The Queer Heritage of the Chicago School. - Introduction to “Sexual Scripts: Origins, Influences and Changes.” - Sexual Scripts: Origins, Influences and Changes: Sex and Sociology: Sociological Studies of Sexuality, 1910-1978. - Sex and Gender in the 1970s: Sex and Sociology: Sociological Studies of Sexuality, 1910-1978: "Even in the 2000s, the stigma of homosexuality has not entirely disappeared. And, above all, the essentializing categories of homosexual, bisexual and heterosexual remain firmly entrenched in public discourse, sociological analysis, homophobia and gay activism." - Queers, Bodies and Postmodern Sexualities: A Note on Revisiting the “Sexual” in Symbolic Interactionism. - Gay-for-Pay: Straight Men and the Making of Gay Pornography. - Gay For Pay. - Gay for Pay: Are there really any straight men in gay porn? - What Makes People Gay? (2005, Alternate Link) "The debate has always been that it was either all in the child's upbringing or all in the genes. But what if it's something else?" - What makes people gay or straight, by Desmond Morris (2007). - Does Biology Have Anything to Contribute to Thinking About Sex and Gender? (2004).

Rejecting the Gay Brain (and choosing homosexuality) (1994). - On choosing a homosexual lifestyle (1987). - Choice in Sexual Orientation: The Sword That Cuts Both Ways (1997). - We're here, we're queer, we're genetically determined N/A. - La recherche des causes de l'homosexualité: une science-fiction? (Google Translation) by Michel Dorais (Dorais Michel, 1994, “ La recherche des causes de l'homosexualité : une science fiction ? ” in Welzer-Lang D., Dutey P., Dorais M., La peur de l'autre en soi, du sexisme à l'homophobie, Montréal, V.L.B., pp. 92-146.) - Queer by Choice Site. - A variety of information related to 'choosing' one's sexual orientation. - Queer by choice: lesbians, gay men, and the politics of identity - 1996 - by Vera Whisman (Google Books) (Review). - The Sociology of Human Sexuality: Homosexuality: Gay and Lesbian Sexual Behavior. - What Ever Happened to Ritual Homosexuality? The Incitement of Modern Sexual Subjects in Melanesia and Elsewhere by Bruce M. Knauft, Department of Anthropology, Emory University (Word 97 Download N/A, Author's CV).

The "g0y" phenomenon: Their slogan is "G0ys take the 'A' out of 'Gay'. They are men who have feelings of "real warmth and affection for other guys" but do not classify themselves as homosexual. Turned off by the idea of anal sex, g0ys enjoy being affectionate with other men, whether that means kissing, cuddling, hugging, drunken wrestling (according to http://www.g0ys.org) or oral stimulation. Furthermore, while they respect masculinity, they detest the ways in which homosexuality has been linked to effeminacy. - G0YS.org - Spelled with a ZER0. - g0ydar. - g0y sites & groups. Generally, g0ys believe in Friendship First. In addition to rejected anal behavior they also reject anonymous hook-ups and instead favor developing these initially non-sexual Friendships (plural) over time. In this manner, some friendships may only remain platonic, but other may strengthen and grow to levels in which intimacy becomes a possibility. They are not looking for the 'guaranteed lay', but instead put emphasis on developing a core group of buddies around us that we know will become a life-long association.

De La Torre, Miguel (1999). Beyond Machismo: a Cuban Case Study. The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 19, 213-33. Internet Availability: Full Text. Full Text. "To tell a man not to be a maricón, also means "don't be a coward." Cuban homophobia differs from homophobia in the United States. We do not fear the homosexual; rather we hold him in contempt for being a man who chooses not to prove his manhood. Unlike North Americans, where two men engaged in a sexual act are both called homosexuals, for Cubans only the one that places himself in the "position" of a woman is the maricón. Only the one penetrated is labeled loca (crazy woman, a term for maricones). In fact, the man who is in the dominant position during the sex act, known as bugarrón, is able to retain, if not increase, his machismo."

From Exotic To Erotic- Roots of sexual orientation found in personality, childhood friendships: a developmental theory of sexual orientation (1996, Alternate Link, Alternate Link) - Bem DJ (1996). Exotic becomes erotic:  a developmental theory of sexual orientation. Psychological Review, 103(2), 320-35. - Full text online (Alternate Link). - Bem DJ (1997). Exotic Becomes Erotic: Explaining the Enigma of Sexual Orientation. Full text online  Is EBE Theory Supported by the Evidence? Is it Androcentric? A Reply to Peplau et al. Psychological Review, 105(2), 395-8. Full text online (Alternate Link). Related publications: - Abstracts of Recent Bem Articles: Complete text of underlined titles are online and can be accessed directly. - Interpreting Biological Correlates of Sexual Orientation (Alternate Link). - Offending Gender: Being and Wanting in Male Same-Sex Desire.

Gay Identities, communities and places in the 1990s in Istanbul. - Performing Sexual Identity: Naming and Resisting 'Gayness' in Modern Thailand (1999). - Greek Masculinity and Male Homosexuality. - Imagining men: ideals of masculinity in ancient Greek culture - 2008 - by Thomas Van Nortwick (Google Books) (Review). - Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity - 1999 - by Craig A. Williams (Google Books) (Review). - Essentialism, Social Constructionism, and the History of Homosexuality (1998). 

Biological Research on Women's Sexual Orientations: Evaluating the Scientific Evidence.- by Rosemary C. Veniegas (Journal of Social Issues, Summer, 2000) - Categories and Sexuality.- (Review) by Charlene L. Muehlenhard (Journal of Sex Research, May, 2000) - Understanding Women's Sexualities and Sexual Orientations: An Introduction - by Linda D. Garnets (Journal of Social Issues Summer, 2000) - Culture and Women's Sexualities - by Evelyn Blackwood (2000). - A scholar finds women's sexual orientation to be surprisingly fluid (2007). 

Lesbian Identity and the Politcs of Butch-Femme Roles. - Butch - Femme Information. - Butch An Evolving Identity. - Butch-Femme Resources on the Web. - The Porcelain Throne: Meditations by a hickster dyke on the conundrums of identity, activism, diversity, and toilets (On Labels)... Identity is a strange thing, coming and going like a psychosis. - On Sexuality, Labels and Identity. - Sorting the Alphabet Soup of Sexual Orientation and Identity: a Guide to LBGT Sources (PDF Download). - What do women really want?.....another woman?! - Building Boxes and Policing Boundaries: (De)Constructing Intersexuality, Transgender and Bisexuality (2008).

Genetic homosexuality: 21st century phrenology (2004): "It’s a modern, Western conceit that homosexuality is something aberrant and unusual, which must be “explained.” There have been numerous societies in which homosexual behavior was accepted as a social norm and even seen as desirable, and in these societies essentially all of the men engaged in homosexuality when circumstances allowed. There are too many of these societies, arising independently from too many different races and in too many different areas, for there to be a common genetic explanation for the near-total incidence of homosexuality in these societies (accepting the genetic hypothesis, one would have to assume all men in these societies had the “gay gene”). Social norms, not genetics, dictated these societal differences; the idea that we are stamped “GAY” or “STRAIGHT” at conception reflects ignorance of the historical record. Similar study of any other sexual preference also tends to show virtually all of our sexual preferences (skin color, body type, lip size, eye color, hair color) are more a function of our social environment than our genes..."

On the Historiography of Sexuality: "The past twenty-five years, the argument over the etiology of homosexuality has dominated the field of GLBTQ (Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgendered/Queer) studies. Essentialists maintain that sexual orientation is hard-wired in our consciousness. Biology determines, in short, our sexual orientation. Social constructionists, in contrast, argue that the social environment configures the direction of our sexual desires. The wide-ranging debate between these two viewpoints has made for some strange bedfellows. Social constructionists, for example, comprise groups such as queer theorists and activists on the left and Christian fundamentalists on the right, as well as traditional psychoanalysts who do not fit neatly into any political category. Essentialists bring together scientists, especially geneticists and neurologists, and political centrists. The American public, too, has been shifting decidedly in the direction of essentialism in the past generation. This movement has occurred within the gay and lesbian community, as well, particularly among those who want to depoliticize and “normalize” homosexuality.... In 2007, we simply do not have the means, scientific or socially-scientific, to offer definitive proof about the origins of homosexuality, heterosexuality, or any other form of sexual desire, behavior, or identity."

Discussing results of "genetic" studies in Singapore: Brother and Twins (1997):  Get any group of people together and let them talk long enough about homosexuality, and I can guarantee you the nature/nurture topic will come up. Many straight people will offer all sorts of pet theories about how people "turned" gay, but almost all gay persons will aver that it is in-born. They believe so because their sexual orientation is not something they have ever chosen, nor something they can unchoose. This, of course, is oversimplified. A lot of things that are acculturated in us, like feelings of guilt in certain situations, or our sense of ethnic identity, are, except for a handful who can somehow radically unmake themselves, an essential part of us, inerasable till the day we die. In other words, even if our gayness is something we cannot excise from ourselves, it doesn't necessarily mean it must be in-born...- Discovery and dissimulation (1997). -  The Hormones Did It! - Essence and Fluidity (1998). - Where Straight Men Come From (1999). - "Where Gay Boys Come From" by Camille Paglia, 1994, Havard Gay & Lesbian Review.

 Peter Tatchell suggests that gay identity has nothing to do with biology and everything to do with homophobia. Winning gay freedom will make gay identity redundant. - Homosexual Honesty (2008): A very revealing case of homosexual honesty comes from Peter Tatchell, an Australian-born, British-based homosexual activist, who spills the beans on the "gay gene". There is none, he asserts, and says homosexual desire is not genetically determined. Writing for Spiked online, June 24, 2008, he makes some very interesting remarks about homosexual determinism. He in fact sounds very much like, well, me. I have been saying similar things for years, and have been howled down by the homosexual lobby as bigoted, intolerant and homophobic. But it is nice to hear homosexuals saying similar things... - Related "Peter Tatchell" Articles: Gene Genie: Genetic explanations of homosexuality don't add up and are doomed to failure. - Born Gay Or Made Gay? Genes and hormones alone cannot explain the complexity of human sexuality - Born Gay Or Made Gay? How, Why and Does it Matter? (2008) Claims that sexuality is determined in the womb do not add up. - Homosexuality isn’t natural (2006): Biology is not destiny. One-sided genetic explanations of homosexuality are crude, simplistic and doomed to failure.


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Problems With Media Reporting on Genetic Study Results

The Portrayal of Research into Genetic-Based Differences of Sex and Sexual Orientation: A Study of "Popular" Science Journals, 1980 to 1997 (1999): "The study uncovered a number of enduring images of genetic research and genetic differences that underlie shifts in research foci evident during this period. The article discusses the nature of these images and implicit gender and heterosexist biases and argues the case for further analysis of how the media portrays genetic difference." - Constructing the ‘Gay Gene’ in the News: Optimism and Skepticism in the US and British Press (2001). - Cultural Context and the Conventions of Science Journalism: Drama and Contradiction in Media Coverage of Biological Ideas about Sexuality (2003). - Science reporting to the public: Does the message get twisted? (2004). - Do the print media "hype" genetic research? A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers (2004).

 Genes and Psychology in The News by Carl Ratner (New Ideas in Psychology, 2004, 22: Download Page) (PDF Download). - Science communication in transition: genomics hype, public engagement, education and commercialization pressures (2006). - How geneticists can help reporters to get their story right (2007). - Media Hype in Genetics??? Blame the Geneticists (2008). - All in the genes? I don't think so (2008): A TV show investigating the basis of one star's sexuality showed the trend of blaming our destiny on microbiology doesn't add up. - Online Science Fiction and Fantasy : Cheer Up Emo Kid: Being Depressed (or Gay) is Not All in Your Genes (2008): In recent years, popular science journals have been full of articles excitedly reporting "genetic markers" for depression, sexual orientation, alcoholism, IQ, and any number of other behavioral traits... - Constructing and Deconstructing the ‘Gay Gene’: Media Reporting of Genetics, Sexual Diversity and ‘Deviance’ (2005).

Representing Genes: Testing Competing Philosophical Analyses of the Gene Concept in Contemporary Molecular Biology.

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'Gay' Animals & Insects & Related Issues


Gay dolphins: Biologists Claim to have found evidence of homosexual relationships between dolphins (2001, Alternate Link). - Wild dolphins off Brazil engage in homosexual behavior (2001). - Homosexuality in dolphins N/A (YouTube, National Geographic) - Gay penguins : the love that dare not squeak its name (2004, Alternate Link). - They're in love. They're gay. They're penguins... And they're not alone (2002). - Central Park Zoo's gay penguins ignite debate (2004). - Toronto's Gay Penguins Were Just in a Bromance (2011). - Controversial Toronto Zoo Penguins Not Gay after All? (2012). - Scientists engineer gay fruit flies (2002). - For Fruit Flies, Gene Shift Tilts Sex Orientation (2005, Alternate Link). - Gay Drunk Fruit Flies (2008). - Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (2001). - Researchers discover gay orangutans (2001, Alternate Link). - Homosexual behavior discovered among wild orangutans (2001). - 1,500 animal species practice homosexuality (Alternate Link). - List of animals displaying homosexual behavior (Wikipedia). - Can Animals Be Gay? (2010). Can Animals Be Gay? (2010). - Can Animals Be Gay? (2013): The insulting cult of the gay animal. - Are animals gay? (2013).

Homosexual Activity Among Animals Stirs Debate (2004). - Lesbian Japanese monkeys challenge Darwin's assumptions (2003). - Sexual Partner Preference in Female Japanese Macaques (2002): "Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate... Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual." - Homosexuality is biological, suggests gay sheep study. (2002, Alternate Link). - Origin of homosexuality unresolved despite study (2004). - Evolutionary Origins of Homosexuality.

'Gay' Sheep Controversy: - Of Gay Sheep, Modern Science and Bad Publicity (2007): " Dr. Roselli, a researcher at the Oregon Health and Science University, has searched for the past five years for physiological factors that might explain why about 8 percent of rams seek sex exclusively with other rams instead of ewes... But since last fall, when People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals started a campaign against the research, it has drawn a torrent of outrage from animal rights activists, gay advocates and ordinary citizens around the world — all of it based, Dr. Roselli and colleagues say, on a bizarre misinterpretation of what the work is about. The story of the gay sheep became a textbook example of the distortion and vituperation that can result when science meets the global news cycle..." 'Gay sheep man' fights back (2007).

The politics of gay sheep: How the science of sheep sexuality somehow became a controversial subject (2007). - Of Gay Sheep, Modern Science and Bad Publicity (2007). - Brokeback Mutton (2007): gay sheep and human destiny: just up the road from Brokeback Mountain, closeted away in their own private Idaho, the gay sheep were getting it on. Well, it wasn't exactly private. They were doing it in front of scientists at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station near the Idaho-Montana-Wyoming border. The scientists arranged the trysts. It's called "sexual partner preference testing." - Scientists try to turn gay sheep straight (2007). - Martina Navratilova Slams 'Gay Sheep' Experiments (2006, Alternate Link).  - Yep, They're Gay (2007). - On Gay Sheep and Shepherds (2007). Google Search: "Gay Sheep". [Lots of gay male sheep, eh? Most likely to end up in supermarket, for sure.... because of no reproductive value?  More of them than other males? A Holocaust-like situation? Wonder what 'gay' zealous ones would 'think' if meat packages were labeled as gay or heterosexual male sheep?  Which would gay mutton lovers choose to eat? Don't consumers have the right to know? :-)]

Gay flies turned on by heat (2002, Alternate Link). - Even the whales are gay down Mexico way (2002, Alternate Link). - German Zoo Forces Gay Vultures to Mate With Females (2010). *Note: "gay" is a recently invented socially constructed identity, somewhat like being "African American" or "French Canadian." Furthermore: behavior does not an identity make! - Homosexual, but not Gay (2004). For challenging concepts, see: Male homosexuality in South Asia: 1, 2.  - 'Acadia, Arcadia - what's the difference?' ["Gay" concept, as  it is presently understood, cannot exist where the majority of males know they can enjoy relating sexually with other males and have had such experiences.] - Defining the word gay. - Is Homosexuality a Result of Overshadowing? (2008): In her 2006 book, Possessed by Ghosts, Wanda Pratnicka, a Polish psychotherapist, healer, and exorcist, states that one of the primary causes of homosexuality is possession of a child by a ghost of the opposite sex. “When a woman-ghost has dominated the mind of a boy, he will seek out contacts with men,” Pratnicka writes. “…The same thing happens by analogy to a girl who has been possessed by a man.” - Neuroscience and sexual orientation.  

The dangers of labeling non-humans as being "gay":  - The Science of Gaydar (2007): "But for most in the animal kingdom, same-sex pairing is either fleeting or situational. Even Silo and Roy, for six years the poster-penguins for same-sex love in the Central Park Zoo—they famously raised a daughter together—were not destined to last forever. Silo waddled off with a female named Scrappy in 2005, says zoo director Dan Wharton, adding that we shouldn't worry about Roy's hurt feelings. "Penguins are matter-of-fact about these things." - Flap over a tale of gay penguins (2006): "But the twist in the tale - which is not touched on in the book - would please social conservatives who see gay marriage as a threat to society. In real life the gay penguins of Central Park split up last year after Silo took up with a female penguin called Scrappy." - The Penguin is Political (2005). - Gay penguin couple split when the bi guy finds traditional mate (2009). - Bi penguin couple become parents at German zoo (2009). - Oslo gay animal show draws crowds (2006). - Gay Animal Museum (2006). - The Gay Animal Kingdom: The Effeminate Sheep & Other Problems with Darwinian Sexual Selection (2006). - List of animals displaying homosexual behavior (Wikipedia). - Gay animals: the truth behind the cover-up (2012): It was a long-held scientific secret but from gay giraffes to mostly-lesbian chimpanzees to prostitute penguins, all animal species seem to be bisexual.

Can Animals Be Gay? (New York Times, 2010): Since 2003, in addition to his investigation of female-female macaque sex, Vasey has also been studying a particular group of men in Samoa. “Westerners would consider them the equivalent of gay guys, I guess,” he told me — they’re attracted exclusively to other men. But they’re not considered gay in Samoa. Instead, these men make up a third gender in Samoan culture, not men or women, called fa’afafine. (Vasey warned me that mislabeling the fa’afafine “gay” or “homosexual” in this article would jeopardize his ability to work with them in the future: while there’s no stigma attached to being fa’afafine in Samoan culture, homosexuality is seen as different and often repugnant, even by some fa’afafine.)... [Note: Are western gay males maybe "Third Gender" but in denial? Is it not "gender nonconformity" that best distinguised them from heterosexual males? Why was the NY Times piece titled "Can animals be gay?"  Why not "Can animals be fa’afafine? or... Can animals be hijras?"  Does this reflect the ongoing incredibly arrogant supremacist-like white western bias? More colonialism? As in also attempting to make the western socially constructed "gay" concept into something that is rooted in biology?]  - The Real Question: Could Animals Be Any More Gay? (2010). - Can animals be gay? Many display same-sex behavior, but it's not for human reasons, researchers say (2010). - Gay vs. Homosexual Behavior (2010).

Reports on 'gay' animal research criticised (2012): The media's coverage of scientific research into same-sex animal behaviour promotes negative stereotypes of gay and lesbians, say researchers. Dr Andrew Barron from Macquarie University, and Dr Mark Brown from Royal Holloway University of London, present their analysis today in the journal Nature. "People who identify with these minority groups in a human population see themselves presented for titillation, humour and not to be taken seriously," says Barron. He and Brown identified 11 recent scientific papers on key areas of same-sex animal behaviour research. They then searched for media coverage of these papers and chose 48 representative press reports to analyse in detail. "Consistently any scientific report of same-sex sexual contact in any animals is reported as gay or lesbian behaviour," says Barron. "It's presented for titillation, often for humour, regardless of what the science actually is." ...

Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity - 1999 - by Bruce Bagemihl (Review) (Review) (Review).   


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Human Homosexuality: Historically & Cross-Culturally
- Percentages

History of human sexuality.. - Homosexuality in History (2000). - GLBTQ; Ethnography. - Biased Use of Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Male Homosexuality in Human Sexuality Textbooks (1998, Review Full Text). - Semen 'Cults': Melanesia. -  Bernard SERGENT, Homosexualité et initiation chez les peuples indo-européens, Payot & Rivages, 1996 (Google Translation). - HN Parker, "The Myth of the Heterosexual: Anthropology and Sexuality for Classicists," Arethusa 34 (2001) 313-62: PDF Download, subscription needed.

Queerying Borders: An Afrikan Activist Perspective (2008): Abstract: This article offers an overview of academic work that focuses on queer sexualities in Africa and argues that binary categories, those imported from outside Africa are not adequate for addressing African sexualities... So how should one define lesbian? Many people I associate with define lesbian as the equivalent of gay homosexual, i.e. the opposite of heterosexual. While the construct queer embraces those who are non-heteronormative and includes the inbetween fluids and thus the construct lesbian does not necessarily include me, because I define myself as beyond binaries, as inbetween and fluid, dynamic and variable. Perhaps some may call me bisexual, but this term too subscribes to a notion of polarity, that I am both poles, when in fact I shift and change positions, not on a static linear continuum, but on an endlessly spiralling ellipse, that not ironically is ovoid, symbolic of female reproductive power. Is lesbian defined as orientation, or as preference? Are we victims of biology, or active agents with choice?

"A Natural History of Homosexuality" Lectures. Download Page (Includes Summaries, not given here) For:  01 - Nauseous Subjects and Loathsome Expressions: Some Words of Introduction. 02 - Born That Way: The Biological Basis of Homosexuality. 03 - Down and Dirty with Drosophila: Evolution and Homosexuality. 04 - My Mother Made Me Homosexual: Psychoanalysis and “Cure”. 05 - Cardinal Sin to Capital Vice: The Social Construction of Homosexuality. 06 - But what do gay men actually do? Models of Male Homosexuality. 07 - Boy Wives of the Aranda: The Pre-History of Homosexuality I. 08 - Making Men in Sambia Gardens: The Pre-history of Homosexuality II. 09 - A Closer Look at Sacred Cows: Pedophilia and Pederasty. 10 - The Beautiful Way: Homosexuality in Japan. 11 - Comrades of  the Cut Sleeve: Homosexuality in China. 12 - Making Mischief and a Past Reclaimed: Homosexuality in India. 13 - Gazelles In the Garden of Allah: Homosexuality in the World of Islam. 14 - City States and Civic Virtues: Homosexuality in  Ancient Greece. 15 - Real Men and Mincing Queans: Homosexuality in Ancient Rome. 16 - Ragamuffins and Heroes Berserk: Homosexuality in Pre-Christian Europe. 17 - Unpardonable Vice and Unspeakable Sin: Homosexuality in the Christian West. 18 - Mother Clap and Scribblers Galore: Homosexuality in England in the Age of Enlightenment. 19 - Shirt-lifting Down-Under: Sodomy in Sydney Town. 20 - Diversity in Diversity: The Modern Gay Rights Movement & “Gay Marriage”.

Sexuality in Fifth Century Athens (1994, Alternate Link):: "There is now a very considerable body of evidence to suggest that human sexual behaviour is, to a great extent, socially constructed. That is to say that the way women and men conduct their sexual lives is determined to a marked degree by what a particular society finds acceptable. Before we come to Athens in the fifth century BC, it is instructive to consider the case of Ireland in the 19th and 20th centuries... Sexuality in fifth century Athens was also socially constructed. The basic point here is that human sexuality in Athens was organised to meet the needs of the adult male citizen, whose body was the locus of all power in the state. All other human beings--all women, all slaves, all foreigners, and adolescent aristocratic boys--existed sexually in relation to the adult male citizen and existed for his sexual gratification. Aristocratic women existed to provide, after marriage, legitimate children; all other women were regarded as sexually available to the male citizen, whether they were prostitutes, concubines, or high-class courtesans. Slaves, who were women and boys, the lowest level of society, were similarly sexually available to male citizens. These citizens also engaged in homosexual relationships with adolescent boys between the ages of 12 and 18 from their own class, these relationships being more complicated in their practice and ideology...."

The myth of heterosexuality: where science and religion meet (2008): Culture creates ontological categories for things that have social consequences, and in America, whether you’re identified as homo/hetero is one such and can have deadly consequences. But why does our culture consider the duality of which gender you screw so fundamentally important when, historically, most cultures have not? Men who are primarily attracted to women and women who are primarily attracted to men are hard to find in the classical record, but we who are their cultural, racial, and religious heirs think we’re the normal ones... It makes me laugh to read that these men of science and religion used similar arguments with the hubris to imagine their own modern ideas of knowledge and morality weren’t tainted by the politics of their day. The status quo always seems “natural” for the people of their time, something eternal, unalterable, and commanded by God.

Homosexuality N/A: "Who is a homosexual? On the level of individual psychology, most adults experience themselves, and identify themselves to others, as either heterosexual or homosexual, despite the well-recognized fluidity of human sexual orientation. A smaller number of adults experience themselves as having relatively little preference for one sex over the other, and they identify themselves as bisexual. The terms gay and lesbian have been adopted by a large number of self-identified homosexual individuals as preferred ways of referring to their gender orientation as well as to the culture they have developed as an alternative to mainstream straight (ie, heterosexual) culture. On the societal level in the United States, there is remarkably little tolerance for the varying expressions of sexual orientation, and there tends to be an imperative to identify individuals as being either heterosexual or homosexual. For example, many military, religious, educational, and voluntary organizations often demonstrate intense interest in whether one of their members is or is not a homosexual, and they determine ways to deal with the individual once this label has been applied (Wood, 2000; Sobel, 2001). The intent is usually to expel, or in some way marginalize, the homosexual individual. Gradations of sexual orientation are given little credence, and the notion that evidence of any same-sex–oriented behavior indicates that an individual is a homosexual is often given credence. This forced choice into rigid, predetermined categories is a custom that has clear parallels in racist attitudes and practices. For example, individuals have been categorized as either colored or white, with the stigmatized colored status conferred on people of mixed heritage even when most of their relatives were white."

Measuring Gender (1999): "I will argue that the concepts of gender used in the attempt to demonstrate a causal connection between CGN and sexual orientation are inappropriate because they provide no uniform, consistent method for identifying and measuring the biologically significant components of gender. I will also argue that the concept of gender that does emerge from these studies suggests an hypothesis about the connection between sexuality and gender that is not consistent with the cross-gendered theory of the etiology of homosexuality." - Studying and Measuring Gender in the Social Sciences (2007). - Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review (1997): "If advances in the understanding of sexual orientations are to be made, it is critical that definitions and measures of sexual orientation be standardized." - What is a Sexual Act? "The author analyses the meanings that sexual intercourses between sexes take for the Baruya, a population of inner New Guinea. There are two kinds of intercourses, homosexual before marriage, heterosexual after..." - Evidence that male sexual orientation is a matter of degree (1997). - A Question of Sexual Orientation (1994): "ASU Professor Frederick Whitam studies questions related to sexual orientation. His research suggests that gay and lesbian people are a permanent part of sexual orientation arrangements in all societies..." - Psychometric measures used in sexuality and gender studies.  

Studies Discover Clues to the Roots of Homophobia." (New York Times, 1990). (Alternate Link) - Fear and loathing. Prejudice, abuse, violence, sometimes murder. Why are lesbians and gay men hated? Dennis Altman explores the psychology behind the hostility (1989). - Riddle Homophobia Scale Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Identity. - Latent Homosexuality: Paranoid Delusions Rage and Anxiety. - Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal? (1999) - The 1996 paper: "Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?" - Is Homophobia Associated with Homosexual Arousal? (1998) - A related article: Protesting too Largely.  - APA article: New Study Links Homophobia with Homosexual Arousal (1996). (Alternate Link) - A similar perspective from Singapore: An Epidemic of Self-Hate (1997). - The Hate That Makes Men Straight: Psychoanalysts probe the roots of homophobia (1998, Alternate Link). - Psychologists Examine the Motives of Perpetrators and the Origins of Homophobia (1998). - The Psychology of the Closeted Individual and Coming Out (2007).

How Many Gay People are there? - Demographics of sexual orientation (Wikipedia, Requires Some Updating. e.g. Sri Lanka national adolescent homosexuality sexuality results reported below). Includes: "A random survey of 1672 males (number used for analysis) aged 15 to 19. Subjects were asked a number of questions, including questions relating to same-sex activity. This was done using two methods - a pencil and paper method, and via computer, supplemented by a verbal rendition of the questionnaire heard through headphones - which obtained vastly different results. There was a 400% increase in males reporting homosexual activity when the computer-audio system was used: from a 1.5% to 5.5% positive response rate; the homosexual behavior with the greatest reporting difference (800%, adjusted) was to the question "Ever had receptive anal sex with another male": 0.1% to 0.8% [Study: Turner CF, Ku L, Rogers SM, Lindberg LD, Pleck JH, Sonenstein FL (1998). Adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and violence: increased reporting with computer survey technology. Science, 280 (5365): 867-73. Abstract. Full Text.]. Pioneers in using this methodology in a 1992 survey were Bagley C, Tremblay P (1998). On the prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality in a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 27. The Journal of Homosexuality, 36(2), 1-18. Full Text (Draft) PubMed Abstract. Pre-Survey Testing Results were reported in Bagley C, Genuis, M (1991). Sexual abuse recalled: Evaluation of a computerized questionnaire in a population of young adult males. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 287-288 - Abstract.

Morales Knight LF, Hope DA (2012). Correlates of same-sex attractions and behaviors among self-identified heterosexual university students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(5): 1199-1208. Abstract. PDF Download. Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. 

How many gay and lesbian people are there? - Homosexual myths, including challenge of the Kinsey 10% estimate, by Probe Ministries. - Examining that mythical 10%. - Data Integrity and Homosexual Politics.  - Kinsey and the homosexual revolution.Science: Kinsey and Other Studies - The Kinsey scale. - The Kinsey Heterosexual to Homosexual Rating Scale.  - Rethinking Kinsey and the "Sexual Revolution". - Bagley & Tremblay (1996) for a summary of related research & Problems. - New Yorker article attacks Kinsey: gay & unscientific - Says Male Sexual Bonding Overemphasized by a "Closeted" Researcher Kinsey's "Husband & Father" Image Called "Carefully Cultivated".- Survey Terminology Related to Sexual Orientation: Does It Matter? "However, on one item, the difference was significant. In the true-false statement, "I have had at least one homosexual experience during the last year," only 2.5% of the respondents marked it true. However, for the statement, "I have had at least one sexual experience with someone of my gender during the last year," 10.4% of respondents indicated this as true." - 5% of American voters report their homosexual or bisexual orientation in electoral poll. - Percentage reporting homosexuality in the Cardia Cohort Study. - Gays Comprise 5 Percent of Electorate in 2002, New Poll Finds. - In new survey, men call themselves straight but have sex with men (2006): A survey of 4,193 men living in New York City conducted by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene found that nearly 10 percent of male participants who identified themselves as straight reported having sex with at least one man during the previous year. - Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic (2008): 32.8% of the men and 65.4% of the women reported such potential... Question: What would cause 'some' to to not acknowledge to themselves or others that such same-sex sexual attractions / desires exist within? - UK Government Survey: 1.5 Percent of Population is Gay (2010). - Researching and monitoring adolescence and sexual orientation: Asking the right questions, at the right time (2011).

Gay people count, so why not count them correctly? (2011, Alternate Link). - 9 million Americans estimated to be gay or bisexual, but solid figures elusive (2011). - Gay Population In U.S. Estimated At 4 Million, Gary Gates Says  (2011). - Reliable Tally of Gay Population Proves Elusive (2011): One of the most prominent social scientists in this field sought to produce a fresh estimate of the gay population recently, with what he and other researchers say are inconclusive results. In findings published last week, Gary Gates, a demographer and distinguished scholar at the Williams Institute of the University of California, Los Angeles, concluded that roughly 3.5% of Americans tell pollsters they identify themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual. To arrive at that figure, Dr. Gates simply averaged the results from five earlier surveys conducted over the past decade. By examining two additional surveys, Dr. Gates determined that an additional 0.3% identify themselves as transgender. That adds up to nearly nine million U.S. adults who identify as LGBT. Other demographers say the 3.5% figure seems much more plausible than the discredited Kinsey number. But they say the data available are too scant to draw definitive conclusions. One problem they cited with Dr. Gates's findings is that they combine results from surveys with different sample sizes and interview formats... - How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? by Gary J. Gates (2011).

Gallup Special Report: The U.S. Adult LGBT Population (2012): A special Gallup report finds that 3.4% of U.S. adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), with the highest incidence among those who are non-white, younger, and less educated. The findings are based on the largest representative sample of LGBT men and women ever collected. Unlike Census data, which looks only at same-sex couples, Gallup collected data based on more than 120,000 interviews of adults in the US. This is the first of several reports that will analyze data collected as part of Gallup’s daily tracking survey where respondents are asked if they personally identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender... Younger Americans (age 18-29) are more than three times as likely as seniors aged 65 and older to identify as LGBT (6.4% v. 1.9%, respectively).  Among those aged 30 to 64, LGBT identity declines with age — at 3.2% for 30- to 49-year-olds and 2.6% for 50- to 64-year-olds... Contrary to many studies using smaller data samples, Americans with lower levels of education are more likely than their higher educated counterparts to identify as LGBT.  Among those with a high school education or less, 3.5% identify as LGBT compared to 2.8% of those with a college degree and 3.2% of those with a graduate education.  LGBT identification is highest among those with some college education but not a college degree, at 4.0%. - Special Report: 3.4% of U.S. Adults Identify as LGBT (Data Analysis, 2012).

Studies Reporting the Prevalence of Homosexuality / Bisexuality / Heterosexuality: - Prevalence and dimensions of sexual orientation in Swiss adolescents: a cross-sectional survey of 16 to 20-year-old students. Acta Paediatrica, 2003; 92(2): 233-9 (Abstract). - Demographics of sexual orientation among native American adolescents(1996). (Abstract/Paper) - Prevalence and dimensions of sexual orientation in Swiss adolescents: a cross-sectional survey of 16 to 20-year-old students. - On the prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality, in a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 27 (1998). - Sex in Australia: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults (2003). - The Prevalence of Bisexual and Homosexual Orientation and Related Health Risks Among Adolescents in Northern Thailand (2004). - Australia: small gay population but many curious (2003). - What percentage of the population is gay? (2003) - Census information on same-sex couples. - Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic (2008): 32.8% of the men and 65.4% of the women reported such potential... Question: What would cause 'some' to to not acknowledge to themselves or others that such same-sex sexual attractions/desires exist within? - The prevalence of homosexual behavior and attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: results of national population-based samples (1995). - Why are so many girls lesbian or bisexual? (2010).  

Sexual diversity in urban Norwegians (2002): Study Sample: In November 1997, the Central Bureau of Statistics drew a random sample of 5,000 persons aged 18-49 years residing in Norway's capital, Oslo... Table 1 shows the percentage of the respondents who reported experience with the four different aspects of sexual diversity, by gender. A total of 92.5% reported to have been in love with only persons of the opposite gender, 90.9% had had sex with only the opposite gender, 87.9% reported to have felt sexually attracted to only the opposite gender, and 75.9% had fantasized about having sex with only the opposite gender. More women than men reported never to have had bisexual fantasies or felt homosexual attraction, but there was no gender difference in bisexual contact and love. More men than women reported exclusively homosexual experiences..." - Bi- and Homosexuality in the National Surveys in Europe (2004). - Multiple Aspects of Sexual Orientation: Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates in a New Zealand National Survey (2010): Data came from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative community sample of New Zealanders aged 16 years or older, interviewed face-to-face (N = 12,992, 48% male). The response rate was 73.3%. Self-reported sexual identity was 98.0% heterosexual, 0.6% bisexual, 0.8% homosexual, 0.3% "Something else," and 0.1% "Not sure." Same-sex sexual behavior with a partner was more common: 3.2% reported same-sex sexual experience only and 1.9% reported both experience and a relationship. 

Chandra A, Mosher WD, Copen C, Sionean C (2011). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. National Health Statistics Report, (36):1-36. Hyattsville, MD: Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PDF Download. - From Abstract: Twice as many women aged 25-44 (12%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetimes compared with men (5.8%). Among teenagers aged 15-19, 7% of females and 9% of males have had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, but no vaginal intercourse. Sexual attraction and identity correlates closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behaviors, attraction, and identity vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin.

Culture and Women's Sexualities (2000, Abstract): Anthropological studies of women's same-sex relations in non-Western societies provide an important source for theorizing women's sexuality because they allow us to go beyond a narrow focus on Western cultures and concepts. Looking at studies from groups other than the dominant societies of Europe and America, I explore the diversity of women's sexualities and the sociocultural factors that produce sexual beliefs and practices. This article argues that sexual practices take their meaning from particular cultures and their beliefs about the self and the world. Cultural systems of gender, in particular, construct different sexual beliefs and practices for men and women. I conclude the article by suggesting some broad patterns at work in the production of women's sexualities across cultures.

Herek GM, Norton AT, Allen TJ, Sims CL (2010). Demographic, Psychological, and Social Characteristics of Self-Identified Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in a US Probability Sample. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7(3):176-200. Abstract PDF Download... Discussion: To begin, the composition of the sample is noteworthy. With design weights applied to account for aspects of the sampling procedures that might have affected respondents’ likelihood of inclusion in the KN panel, fully half of the participants identified as bisexual, indicating that bisexuals constitute a substantial portion of the self-identified sexual-minority population. In addition, gay men outnumbered lesbians at a ratio of approximately 2.4:1. This finding is consistent with data from other national probability samples (Black et al. 2000; Laumann et al. 1994) and suggests that self-identified gay men may outnumber self-identified lesbians in the US adult population. Among self-identified bisexuals, by contrast, the weighted proportions of women and men did not differ significantly. Within genders, the weighted sample included more gay than bisexual men and more bisexual women than lesbians, but the difference was reliable only among the women respondents. Of course, any inferences from these patterns about the composition of the sexual-minority population must be considered tentative until more data are obtained from other probability samples.

Sexual Behaviors In The USA: The Verdict Is In…: "About 7% of adult women and 8% of men identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual…however, the proportion of folks who actually engage in same-sex sexual behaviors is higher." Download free special issue (The Journal of Sexual Medicine) where related papers are published... from here: http://nationalsexstudy.indiana.edu/. - Just 1.5 per cent of Britons are gay, says pioneering survey (2010): "These figures estimate that Britain's gay community accounts for 1.5 per cent of the total population - much lower than previous estimates... "However critics said the estimate might not be accurate as respondents could be reluctant to talk about their sexuality on the doorstep." Therefore, this is only an estimate of who will tell a stranger that they are gay, lesbian, or bisexual "on their doorstep."- UK gay, lesbian and bisexual population revealed (BBC, 2010): People aged 16 and over were questioned about their self-perceived sexual identity, and asked to respond with one of four options: heterosexual/straight, gay/lesbian, bisexual or other. The data showed that 95% said they were heterosexual, 1% gay or lesbian, 0.5% bisexual, 0.5% other, and the remaining 3% either did not know or did not answer... Chief Executive Ben Summerskill said: "This is is the first time that people were asked and data collection happened on doorsteps or over the phone, which may deter people from giving accurate responses - particularly if someone isn't openly gay at home." 

Weinstein N, Ryan WS, Dehaan CR, Przybylski AK, Legate N, Ryan RM (2012). Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: Dynamics of self-acceptance and defense. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(4): 815-32. Abstract: When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. - Homophobia linked to lack of awareness of one's sexual orientation and authoritarian parenting, study shows (2012): Homophobia is more pronounced in individuals with an unacknowledged attraction to the same sex and who grew up with authoritarian parents who forbade such desires, a series of psychology studies demonstrates. The study is the first to document the role that both parenting and sexual orientation play in the formation of intense and visceral fear of homosexuals, including self-reported homophobic attitudes, discriminatory bias, implicit hostility towards gays, and endorsement of anti-gay policies.

Adams HE, Wright LW Jr, Lohr BA (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3): 440-5. PDF Download.  PDF Download. PDF Download.

Country Report, Sri Lanka, 2006 (PDF Download):  National Survey on Emerging Issues among Adolescents in Sri Lanka: 18.2% of in-school boys aged 14-19 reported “homosexual relations” (N=4664). 13.0% of out-of-school boys aged 15-19 reported “homosexual relations” (N=5042).  Results or other studies given. MSM identity is complex because MSM refers to behaviour: some gay men marry due to social and cultural pressure. there are MSM who consider themselves straight but have sex with men. MSM face harassment from law enforcement in cruising areas as well as extortion of money and forced sex; violence against MSM impacts negatively on their sexual and emotional health. Poverty and exposure to sexual violence leads men to work as sex workers...

Perera B, Reece M (2006). Sexual behavior of young adults in Sri Lanka: Implications for HIV prevention. AIDS Care, 18(5): 497-500 (Abstract). "Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 3,134 higher secondary school (grades 12 and 13) students between the ages of 18-20 in six geographically representative districts of Sri Lanka... Homosexual relationships of the participants were not examined extensively in this study, but data on some aspects of same gendered sexual relationships were collected. Twenty female students (1.1%) and 138 (10%) male students reported that they had a same gendered partner at the time of the study (x2 (1, 3134) = 126.1, p < 0.001). With regard to past sexual experiences, less than 1% of female students (n = 14), but 13.1% of male students (n = 180) reported that they had engaged in oral sex with a same gender partner (x2 (1, 3134) = 199.1, p <  0.01). About 20% (n = 279) of male students reported having had inter-femoral sex with a male parter." It is also reported that 17.7% of males (age = 17), 21.7% of males (age = 18) and 22.9% of males (age = 19) reported having experienced anal sex with at least one other male.

Factors affecting sexual and non-sexual risks behavior among bisexual and homosexual Filipino youth: Evidence from the 1994 "Young Adolescent Fertility Survey" in the Philippines (Dr. Rommel "Mely" Jacinto D. Silverio, Demographic Research and Development Foundation, Inc., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 186 Antonio Luna Street, Barangay Marilag, Project 4, Quezon City, 1109, Philippines, (632) 4212734, mely62@yahoo.com). Abstract: "Despite strong social stigma in a predominantly Catholic country like the Philippines, a sizeable sexual minority group exists among the Filipino youth. In particular, among 10,879 youth respondents aged 15 to 24 in the second nationwide “Young Adolescent Fertility Survey” conducted in 1994 by the University of the Philippines, about 7% of these young adults indicated bisexuality and slightly over 10% professed homosexuality. As Philippine society tends to traditionally censure sociological studies of human sexuality as taboo, much remains largely unknown about the social lifestyle of bisexual and homosexual Filipino youth, even much less about their sexual and non-sexual risk behaviors that impinge adversely upon health. In this light, this paper aims to identify some influential socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting the incidence of such sexual and non-sexual risk behaviors as premarital sexual activity, smoking, drug and alcohol use, and prostitution among these two sexual minority groups. The ultimate objective of the study focuses on establishing more responsive program approaches that will effectively address the unique conditions and needs of bisexual and homosexual Filipino youth, particularly with respect to these contemporary health issues." Presented at The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA: 2002.

Debate on Black homosexuals by Cleo Manago: "I was recently involved in a public debate on "Black Homosexuality" organized by members of the Nation of Islam. "The Great Debate: The Origins of Homosexuality In the Black Community" featured renowned Africentric health scholar, Dr. Llaila Afrika, and I as opponents. Afrika believes homosexuality is a degenerative state and a disease resulting from sexual addiction, white supremacy, diet (yes, diet!) and institutionalized subliminal recruitment techniques. He also believes that homosexuality was introduced to Blacks/Africans by European invasions on Black/African life." Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies in African Homosexualities: Homosexuality in “Traditional” Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa (Google Books) - Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Sudan -Mabasha and Their Mashoga in Mombasa. - Interpreting Absence of Evidence and Assertions of Absence (Nuer and Lango). - Spiritual Vocations in Western Africa. - Hausa Roles. - Yoruba Exceptionalism: Antagonistic Acculturation? - A Sometimes Lifelong ”Adolescent Phase” (Dahomey). - Gender-Crossing Wolof and Their Neighbors. - The Kitesha Role Among the Bala - Other Central African Reports. - Angola. - Wives of the South African Mines. - Contemporary Black South Africa and Zimbabwe. - Relations Between Women. (Book Review) (Book Review) (Excerpts) (Amazon Reference) (A review by Gert Hekma par Gert Hekma, Université d'Amsterdam, published in Thamyris, 1999). - Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes.)

Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition - 1983, 1995 - by Barry R. Burg (Amazon Reference) (Google Books). Review: "You have to love a book that begins, "The England that produced three generations of sodomitical pirates was a land far different from modern Britain or America." Burg, a professor of history at Arizona State University, wrote Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition in 1983 and updated it in 1995 (it's now in paperback). It describes how most if not all of the pirates and buccaneers who sailed the Caribbean from 1650 to 1700 had sex with each other. Homosexual behavior was rarely condemned in the West Indies or Great Britain during that century, when most of the pirates were growing up. By the early 1800s, the party was over and sailors were being executed for the crime of loving another man — or at least having sex with him. The first chapters trace the history of the perception of homosexuality in modern English society. For the most part it was tolerated if kept discreet. Sex was sex. Even in the American colonies, sexual crimes were condemned severely in the law but not in practice... Burg contrasts the pirate lifestyle with homosexual acts you find among prison inmates and notes many differences. In prison, men see their homosexuality as temporary — it's more about power, a way of saying "I'm in charge." Among the pirates, it more closely expressed their sexualities. Burg documents how many pirates, if they came upon a ship with women aboard, wouldn't touch them... The lesson Burg draws from his research is that "aside from the production of children, homosexuals alone can fulfill satisfactorily all human needs, wants and desires, all the while supporting and sustaining a human community remarkable by the very fact that it is unremarkable.... The male engaging in homosexual activity aboard a pirate ship in the West Indies three centuries past was simply an ordinary member of his community, completely socialized and acculturated." Except for that killing and looting part, sure." - Under the Black Flag - 1997 - by David Cordingly (Amazon Reference): "Cordingly separates fact from fiction about the 17th century pirates who terrorized the seas, including challenging Burg's theory that many pirates were gay..." - Pirate Utopias: Some Related Information. - Sexuality At Sea (2007).


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!


Reports of Studies Suggesting Genetic or Biological Causes for Homosexuality


Lesbianism & Genetics: Female Sexual Orientation Partly Hereditary, But Erotic 'Plasticity' Still Unexplained (2012): Lesbianism is indeed at least 25 percent genetic, as determined by a 2011 study of twins conducted in the United Kingdom. The study found that identical twin sisters (who share 100 percent of their DNA) are more likely to both be lesbians than are fraternal twin sisters (who share just 50 percent), proving that, all other environmental factors being equal, genes matter. While scientists have a theory for how male homosexuality propagates from one generation to the next, no one has yet produced a viable explanation for how the genes that promote lesbianism might do the same... Therefore, the question "why are there gay women?" may be better worded as "why is female sexuality so fluid?" Plenty of women exist at both extremes of the straight-gay spectrum, but it is the formation of this slippery spectrum itself that most needs explaining. Evolutionary biologists have yet to determine what survival or reproductive benefit women's "erotic plasticity" confers.

Why Are There Gay Men? (2012): While female sexuality appears to be more fluid, research suggests that male gayness is an inborn, unalterable, strongly genetically influenced trait. But considering that the trait discourages the type of sex that leads to procreation — that is, sex with women — and would therefore seem to thwart its own chances of being genetically passed on to the next generation, why are there gay men at all? ... The theory holds that the same genetic factors that induce gayness in males also promote fecundity (high reproductive success) in those males' female maternal relatives. Through this trade-off, the maternal relatives' "gay man genes," though they aren't expressed as such, tend to get passed to future generations in spite of their tendency to make their male inheritors gay... The new study will appear in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Sexual Medicine. Of course, no single factor can account for the varied array of sexual orientations that exist, in men as well as in women. "It is quite possible that there are several influences on forming a homosexual orientation," said Gerulf Rieger, a sexual orientation researcher at Cornell University. He noted that environmental factors - including the level of exposure to certain hormones in the womb - also play a role in molding male sexuality. But as for why genetic factors would exist that make men gay, it appears that these genes make women, as well as gay men, alluring to other men. 

Biology and sexual orientation (Wikipedia).  The genetics of homosexuality (1997). xq28 The 'Gene For Geneder'Report Suggests Homosexuality is Linked to Genes (1993). - Homosexuality and Neoteny; Are Homosexuals Maturationally Delayed? (Neoteny Web Site) - Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous System (1998). - NPR Letters on the Biological Basis of Homosexuality (1993-1995). - More Evidence that Homosexuality is Genetic (1995). - Homosexual males, their brains and evolution (2004).

Studies of human body may find causes for homosexuality: Is biology to blame for my being gay? (1995). - Homosexuality: genetic or acquired behavior? An interview with Simon LeVay - Gay Brains (1998). - All in the Genes (1996). - The Biology of Sexual Orientation (2007). - Queer Science Indeed N/A (Scientific American, Oct., 1997 Book Review: Excerpt, must scroll). - Survival of genetic homosexual traits explained (2004. Alternate Link). - Biology not Bigotry (1999). - Origins of Homosexuality? An Evolutionary Perspective (2000). - Is Homosexuality Genetic? - Gay or straight, sexual orientation is in your blood (2008). - Gays and Genes (2003).

Challeging Levay's Findings: "The Interstitial Nuclei of the Human Anterior Hypothalamus: An Investigation of Variation with Sex, Sexual Orientation, and HIV Status: (2001, Alternate Link) "HIV status significantly influenced the volume of INAH1 (8% larger in HIV+ heterosexual men and women relative to HIV- individuals)... Although there was a trend for INAH3 to occupy a smaller volume in homosexual men than in heterosexual men, there was no difference in the number of neurons within the nucleus based on sexual orientation." - Science and Belief: Psychobiological Research on Sexual Orientation (1995). - Simon LeVay's Home Page (Includes recent articles). - LeVay Shares Thoughts On 'Gay Gene' Research (1996). - The Biology of Sexual Orientation by Simon Levay (2003-2009).

Is Homosexuality Biologically Determined (1992, Related to Levay's work: PDF Download)? - Study of gay brothers may find clues about sexuality (2007). - Molecular Genetic Study of Sexual Orientation: Updates. - Do recent neurological studies prove once and for all that homosexuality is biological? (2008).  - Fingers give tip to sexual orientation.- Sexual orientation and the second to fourth finger length ratio: A meta-analysis in men and women (2010): we found that heterosexual women had higher (more feminine) left- and right-hand 2D:4D than did lesbians, but we found no difference between heterosexual and gay men. - Lady Fingers, Empty Calories? (2007).

Researchers believe that they may have found the genetic reason for Lesbianism (1998). - Lesbian women are at least three times as likely as heterosexual women to have a sister who is also a lesbian (1993). - Study Suggests Biological Basis for Lesbianism Researchers Say Hearing Discrepancy Finding Supports Brain Anatomy Theory (1998). - The Genetics of Female Sexual Behavior (2008). - Research links inner ear and sexual preference. - The Relation Between Sexual Orientation and Penile Size. - Genesis of sexual orientation - from Plato to Dorner (2006). - Big Brother Makes You Gay (2006). 

Gay men, straight women have similar brains (2008). - What does gay look like? Science keeps trying to figure that out (2008): Finding common biological traits -- things like hair growth patterns, penis size, family makeup -- might one day shed light on the origins of sexual orientation. - 60 minutes: The Science Of Sexual Orientation (2006). - 60 Minutes: Research on homosexuality - nature, nurture, genetics, hormones? Interesting research on homosexuality. Is it nature, nurture, genetics or hormones or a combination thereof. I think one thing is pretty clear, it’s not a choice (2009, Video). - 60 Minutes: Homosexuality and nature - nurture (2009, Video, Alternate Link). - Brain Imaging Studies Show Different Cultures Have Different Brains (2010): "The emerging field of cultural neuroscience reveals fascinating differences in brain function between cultures and environments." 

Gay Twins and the Science of Epigenetics (2009?, Video). - Why is John Barrowman gay? On a quest to find out about his sexuality Torchwood star John Barrowman has known he was gay since he was nine. But was he born that way or did his upbringing have something to do with it? Here, he explains why he set out to try to solve this mystery, for the BBC One show The Making of Me (2008). - Study Finds Gay Men Nurture Nieces and Nephews; Likely to Pass Down Genes (2010). - Gay guys make generous uncles, study shows: Homosexual men may perpetuate genes by nurturing nieces and nephews (2010).

Rice WR, Frieber U, Gavrilets S (2012). Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 87(4): 343-368.  PDF Download. Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA markers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly caused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications (“epi-marks”) originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-thanaverage de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a wider phenomenon in which recently evolved androgen-influenced traits commonly display gonad-trait discordances at substantial frequency, and that the molecular feature underlying most homosexuality is not DNA polymorphism(s), but epi-marks that evolved to canalize sexual dimorphic development that sometimes carryover across generations and contribute to gonadtrait discordances in opposite-sex descendants.

Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction (Abstract, Working Paper. Alternate Link. Published Paper.). "The etiology of human same-sex romantic attraction is generally framed in terms of (1) social influences, (2) genetic influences, or (3) hormonal influences. In this article, we show that adolescent males who are opposite-sex twins are twice as likely as expected to report same-sex attraction; and that the pattern of concordance (similarity across pairs) of same-sex preference for sibling pairs does not suggest genetic influence independent of social context. Our data falsify the hormone transfer hypothesis by isolating a single condition that eliminates the opposite-sex twin effect we observemdashthe presence of an older same-sex sibling. We also consider and reject a speculative evolutionary theory that rests on observing birth-order effects on same-sex orientation. In contrast, our results support the hypothesis that less gendered socialization in early childhood and preadolescence shapes subsequent same-sex romantic preferences." NOTE: The results of this paper received no media coverage.

Isocrat.org: LGBT Issues, Research and Perspectives: - Homosexuality in Nature. - How Homosexuals Are Different. - The Fraternal Birth Order Effect. - Handedness as Orientation. - The Causes of Homosexuality. - Nature vs. Nurture

Born Gay: The Psychobiology of Sex Orientation - 2005, 2009 - by Glenn Wilson, Qazi Rahman (Press Release) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

From The Knitting Circle:  School of genetics & bibliography: - Links to press articles relating to homosexuality and genetics.


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Gay Speech

Gay Speech: - Gay lisp (Wikipedia). - Lavender linguistics (Wikipedia). - Talk: Gay lisp (Wikipedia). - Beyond Lisping: code switching and gay speech styles (Archive: Older WebSite). - Speech, male sexual orientation, and childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). - Sounding gay: Nailing down just what makes a gay voice gay is as vague and slippery as human sexuality itself... - /-s/ Deletion in gay speech in São Paulo, Brazil. - Sounding Gay. - Gayspeak: Is there a gay language? (2010). - The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation. - Studies on LGBTQ Language: A Partial Bibliography (Gregory Ward, 2006). - IsiNgqumo – Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety (2008).

Pronunciation of 's' sounds impacts perception of gender, researcher finds (2013): "A high-frequency 's' has long been stereotypically associated with women's speech, as well as gay men's speech, yet there is no biological correlate to this association," said CU-Boulder linguistics and anthropology Associate Professor Kira Hall, who served as Zimman's doctoral adviser. "The project illustrates the socio-biological complexity of pitch: the designation of a voice as more masculine or more feminine is importantly influenced by other ideologically charged speech traits that are socially, not biologically, driven." Vocal resonance also affected the perception of gender in Zimman's study. A deeper resonance—which can be thought of as a voice that seems to be emanating from the chest instead of from the head—is the result of both biology and practice. Resonance is lower for people whose larynx is deeper in their throats, but people learn to manipulate the position of their larynx when they're young, with male children pulling their larynxes down a little bit and female children pushing them up, Zimman said.

Perceived sexual orientation and attitudes toward sounding gay or straight. - Sounding Gay: Pitch Properties in the Speech of Gay and Straight Men, by Rudolf P. Gaudio, 1994.


Munson, Benjamin (2013). The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation. In press, Language and Speech. Word Download.

Augustsson, Mats-Erik (2011). Queer as Folk: Representation of Gay Language in Popular Culture. Essay / Research Report, English, C-level, University of Gothenburg. PDF Download.

Rauch, Jacalyn (2011). Researching Gay Speech Patterns at the U of I. English 401 Essay / Report, University of Illinois. Word Download. Download Page.

Zimman, Lal (2011). Explaining gay-sounding voices: Trends, insights, and future directions. PPT Presentation for the Ling Circle colloquium series organized by the Department of Linguistics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. March 16, 2011. Read Online.

Podesva, Robert J (2010/2011). The Californian Vowel Shift and Gay Identity. Draft of Article in American Speech (2011). PDF Download. Related Commentary: California English and the “Gay Accent” (2011). The California Vowel Shift and Gay Identity (2009, VOX California PPT Presentation).

Zimman, Lal (2010). Female-to-male transsexuals and gay-sounding voices:  A pilot study. Colorado Research in Linguistics, 22(1). PDF Download.

Wolfel, Amanda (2010). Analyzing Celebrity Gossip Blogs to Gain a Better Understanding of the Language Stereotype of Gay Men. Master's Dissertation, University of Toledo. Download Page.

Schwieter JW (2010). Describing and Perceiving Sexual Orientation Based o Linguistic Cues: At the Crossroads of Bilingualism and Language Acquisition. In J. Watze, M. Mantero, & P. Chamness Reece-Miller (Eds.), Readings in Language Studies, vol. 2: Language and Power (pp. 89-111). New York: International Society for Language Studies, Inc.

Mack, Sara (2010). Perception and Identity: Stereotypes of Speech and Sexual Orientation in Puerto Rican Spanish. Paper based on PHD Dissertation. Cascadilla Proceedings Project. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mack S, Munson B (2010). The Influence of /s/ Quality on Perception of Men's Sexual Orientation: Explicit and Implicit Measures of the 'Gay Lisp' Stereotype. PDF Download.

Munson, Benjamin (2010). Lavender Lessons Learned - Or - What Sexuality can teach us about Phonetic Variation. PDF Download.

Labotka, Lori (2009). Language and Woman’s Place in Drag: Power, Femininity, and Gay Speech. Texas Linguistic Forum 53: 18-28. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Symposium About Language and Society – Austin. April 10-11, 2009. PDF Download. Download Page.

Munson B (2009). Pathology or social indexing?  In C. Bowen, Children's Speech Sound Disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 342-346. PDF Download. Download Page.

Munson B (2009). Variation, implied pathology, social meaning, and the ‘gay lisp’: A response to Van Borsel et al. (2009). Journal of Communication Disorders. PDF Download. Download Page.

Munson B, Ferguson SH, Connealy C (2009). Perceived sexual orientation and speech style: A perceptual and acoustic analysis of intentionally clear and conversational speech. Poster presented at the spring 2009 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America. Also in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 2574. PDF Download. Download Page.

Munson B, Hall K, Smith E (2009). An acoustic analysis of /æ/ variation and its relationship to perceived sexual orientation in American English. Poster presented at the spring 2009 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America. Also in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, 2574. PDF Download. Download Page.

Munson B (2009)Levels of Phonological Abstraction and Knowledge of Socially Motivated Speech-Sound Variation: A Review, a Proposal, and a Commentary on the Papers by Clopper, Pierrehumbert, and Tamati; Drager; Foulkes; Mack; and Smith, Hall, and Munson. PDF Download. Download Page. Reference & Excerpt.

Zimmerman L (2009). Perceived sexual orientation and gender normativity: What do gay men, nerds, and female-to-male transsexuals have in common? (PDF handout). New Ways of Analyzing Variation 38. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. PDF Download. Download Page.

Zimmerman L (2009). Identity, socialization, and gay-sounding voices (PDF handout). 2nd Conference on Culture, Language, and Social Practice (CLASP). University of Colorado,  Boulder, CO. PDF Download. Download Page.

Zimmerman L (2009). One of these things is not like the others: Why power matters for the study of gay-sounding voices (PDF handout). 83rd Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America. San Francisco, CA. PDF Download. Download Page.

Murakami, Masataka (2008). Japanese Final Particles and Self-Expressions in Japanese Gay Males. Honors' Dissertation, Swarthmore College. PDF Download. Download Page.

Mack S, Munson B (2008). Implicit Processing, Social Stereotypes, and the 'Gay Lisp'. Oral presentation given at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago, IL.PDF Download. Download Page.

Smith EA, Munson B, Hall KC (2008). Rethinking the meaning of Minnesotan [æ]: sexual orientation or personal well being? Oral presentation at the conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV), Houston, TX. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract.

Smyth R, Rogers H (2008). Do gay-sounding men speak like women? Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 27: 129–144. PDF Download.

Gordon BJ (2008). Gay sounds: A non-discrete model of Gay speech. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Lavender Languages & Linguistics Conference. PDF Download. Download Page.

Harrison, Marlen Elliot (2007). Linguistic Research and Queer Identities: Performance and Perception. PPT presentation for the Linguistics Colloquium at Simon Fraser University. PDF Download.  Author Website.

Podesva, Robert J (2007). Phonation type as a stylistic variable: The use of falsetto in constructing a persona. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(4): 478–504. PDF Download.

Munson B, Babel M (2007). Loose Lips and Silver Tongues, or, Projecting Sexual Orientation Through Speech. Language and Linguistics Compass 1(5): 416–449. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. PDF Download.
 
Christiansen R, Bleile K, Burda A (2007). How Do Gay Men Perceive Their Speech and Overall Communication? Presentation at the ASHA (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention. Boston, MA.
PDF Download.

Hau, Chi-kuk (2007). A Study on Acoustic Characteristics of Cantonese Gay Speech and Perceived Sexual Orientations. Master's Dissertation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. PDF Download.

Taylor, Heather (2007). Polari: A sociohistorical study of the life and decline of a secret language. Undergraduate Dissertation, University of Manchester.
PDF Download.

Levon, Erez (2007). Sexuality in context: Variation and the sociolinguistic perception of identity. Language in Society, 36: 533-554.
PDF Download

Munson B, Zimmerman LJ (2006). The Perception of Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Femininity in Formant-Resynthesized Speech. Oral Presentation given at the Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation in Language, Columbus, OH.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Crocker L, Munson B (2006)
. Speech Characteristics of Gender-Nonconforming Boys. Oral Presentation given at the Conference on New Ways of Analyzing Variation in Language, Columbus, OH.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Wu Wei Chiang, Samuel (2005). Sounding 'gay': Prosodic patterns in gay speech in Singapore. Master's Dissertation, National University of Singapore.
Download Page.

Sisson, Carol (2003). Phonetic Cues in the Evaluation of Gay Male Speech in Canadian English and Québec French. Research Related paper in Linguistic Course.
PDF Download.

Smyth R, Rogers H (2002). Phonetics, Gender, and Sexua \Orientation. Actes de l'ACL 2002/ 2002 CLA Proceedings: 299-311.
PDF Download.

Podesva RJ, Roberts SJ, Campbell-Kibler K (2002). Sharing resources and indexing meanings in the production of gay styles. In: Language and Sexuality: Contesting Meaning in Theory and Practice. Ed. Campbell-Kibler, Kathryn, Robert J. Podesva, Sarah J. Roberts, and Andrew Wong. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
PDF Download.

Jacobs G, Smyth R, Rogers H (2000). Language and sexuality: Searching for the phonetic correlates of gay- and straight-sounding male voices. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 18: 46-61.
PDF Download. Download Page.


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The Social Construction of Homosexuality & Related Issues

A major theorist in the social construction of human sexuality: Michel Foucault. - The History of Sexuality : An Introduction - 1990 - by Michel Foucault (Spark Notes).- Synopsis of Foucault's The History of Sexuality, Vol. I (Society of Social Research Page, U.Chicago)  - Welcome to the World of Michel Foucault. - Queer Theory Web Site Foucault Index. - Foucauldian Cautions on the Subject and the Educative Implications of Contingent Identity (1997). - Foucault on the origins of “homosexuality” (2009).  - Historicizing inversion: or, how to make a homosexual (2001): "At the end of the 19th century, the vocabulary of sexuality - perversion - became one of the primary means by which people began to articulate and think about their individuality, their sense of self... An essential attribute of the literature on 'inversion' was precisely such an historically formed understanding of pathological individuals; an understanding that ushered in the transformation from acts to natures, from individuals to kinds, from sodomites to homosexuals." - Social Construction or Destruction of Homosexuals? - Conservative or Revolutionary Constructionism of the Reality of Homosexuality (2007, English Abstract at the end of document). - Is social constructionism an appealing construction? - Gay Species: Language and Social Construction. - Queer By Choice Dot Com (1999-2009). - When gay is a choice (2012): Actress Cynthia Nixon says she "chose" to be a lesbian. Is the science of female sexual fluidity on her side? ... "I gave a speech recently, an empowerment speech to a gay audience, and it included the line ‘I’ve been straight and I’ve been gay, and gay is better.’ And they tried to get me to change it, because they said it implies that homosexuality can be a choice. And for me, it is a choice. I understand that for many people it’s not, but for me it’s a choice, and you don’t get to define my gayness for me."

Behavior and Not a Person: Chapter One Essentialism or Social Constructionism. - Chapter Two Biological Basis for Homosexuality. - Chapter Three "Gay Brains" and Gay Genes". - Chapter Six Types of Homosexualities/ Gay and Lesbian Homosexual Identity. - Chapter Ten Homosexual Identity Formation.  - The Hypocrites of Homosexuality (1990): " When I was an undergraduate theatre student, I was aware, and not happily so, how pervasive was the reach of the underculture of homosexuality among my friends and acquaintances. After a while I stopped being shocked to discover that someone I had known well, or whose talent I admired, was either moving into or already a part of the not-so-clandestine network of gay relationships. I learned that being homosexual does not destroy a person's talent or deny those aspects of their character that I had already come to love and admire. I did learn that for most of them their highest allegiance was to their membership in the community that gave them access to sex. As a not-particularly-pure-minded heterosexual adolescent, I understood the intensity of sexual desire; as a student of human communities, I have since come to understand how character is shaped by -- or surrendered to -- one's allegiances...  The argument by the hypocrites of homosexuality that homosexual tendencies are genetically ingrained in some individuals is almost laughably irrelevant. We are all genetically predisposed toward some sin or another; we are all expected to control those genetic predispositions when it is possible...  The average fifteen-year-old teenage boy is genetically predisposed to copulate with anything that moves. We are compassionate and forgiving of those who cannot resist this temptation, but we do not regard as adult anyone who has not overcome it; and we can only help others overcome those "genetic predispositions" by teaching them that we expect them to meet a higher standard of behavior than the one their own body teaches them..."

Michel Foucault: problématique pour une histoire de l’homosexualité, Lawrence Olivier avec la collaboration de Roger Noël, Revue sexologique/ Sexological Review, Vol. 2, no 1, printemps 1994 Vol. 2 No. 1 Spring 1994 (PDF Download, or access web for PDF Download - In HTML at Revue sexologique/ Sexological Review) (Google Translation) - Des identités homosexuelles - Propos sur la génèse et les avatars d'un genre contesté (Google Translation), Cécile Bénito de Sanchez, Revue h, été 1996. (PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download) (Google Translation) - Genres et orientations sexuelles: une question d'apparences? (Google Translation), Rommel Mendès-Leité, 1990. (bibliographie) Publication originale : Mendès-Leite, R. " Genres et orientations sexuelles: une question d'apparences ? ". GREH et. al. Homosexualités et Lesbianisme: mythes, mémoires, historiographies. Actes du colloque international (3 volumes). Lille, Cahiers GKC, 1989-1990. pp. 109 - 147. - The Sociology of Human Sexuality: A Darwinian Alternative to Social Constructionism and Postmodernism (2003).

Suck My Nation – Masculinity, Ethnicity and the Politics of (Homo)sex (PDF Download) - by Sasho A. Lambevski (1999). - Abstract: "Class and ethnicity represent major obstacles in establishing new forms of homosexual encounters and emotional engagements between Macedonian and Albanian men at the ‘gay’ scene in Skopje. This article pays special attention to the nationalist imperatives that order Macedonian and Albanian ‘gay’ men to use each other’s penises and orifices as weapons and targets of torture. More precisely, the article offers a multilevel analysis of a range of social (class, ethnic, and gender) relations, as invested in and experienced in the male body, that prevent Macedonian and Albanian ‘gay’ men from establishing new forms of mutual friendship and love." Note: Unfortunately, the author criticizes the socially constructed form of male homosexuality described and does not perceive it to be as valid as the recently invented - also socially constructed - "gay" concept present in western countries. The latter, however, occupies a minority status in the world of male homosexualties. - The Origins of Homosexuality: Insights From The Deep Feeling Psychotherapies.

Adriaens, Pieter R (2007+). Eros’ ambiguity An philosophical history of male love (Full Text)... Conclusion: In this chapter, I attempted to bring Mary Douglas’ analysis of ambiguity to bear to the history of male love. Douglas’ analysis revealed that whatever does not harmonize with our cherished symbolic structures is doomed to be avoided, minimalized, ignored, or eliminated. Male love proved to be no exception to this rule. Before 1700, bisexuals definitely outnumbered “heterosexuals”. Today, they still outnumber “homosexuals”, and yet they continue to be ignored as a sexual population. In their turn, effeminate homosexuals have been avoided, branded, persecuted and even killed, even though they do hold an important symbolic position in many contemporary societies. Indeed: their ambiguity in fact allows them to act as a symbolic dividing line between man and woman, especially in cultures wherein the differences between both sexes increasingly fade away. Publications

The social construction of gender: case study of early male-to-female sex change supports this (1998): Full text. - American Indian Sexual/Gender Constructions and Spirituality (2006). - On Gender and Sexual Orientation (1992). - Orientational Diversity: A New Spin, Part 1 (1999): "In this first of a three-part series, the author invites us to recognize the ways we unconsciously label ourselves when we play by and listen to society’s recordings. The b-side may surprise and enlighten you." - Jeffrey Weeks: The Construction of Homosexuality (1996. In:  Queer theory/sociology - edited by  Steven Seidman, Google Books). - ‘I am my own special creation’: Mexican homosexual transvestites’ construction of femininity(Young, Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 1994, 2(3): s. 3-17). - The Homosexual Identity Was Created by Those Who Fight Against Them: The Irony (2006). - The Social Construction of A Discreet Male Gender (2002).- Eroticism and language. - 'Of pansies, perverts, and macho men': Researching homosexuality through a discursive lens (1997).

The social construction of homosexuality (John Thorp, 1992). - Related information in an interview with David Halperin. (by  Laurel M. Bowman, Interview with David Halperin, Favonius vol. 3 (1991), 27-43) - Beyond Either/Or. the Fluidity of Sexual Desire (Documentary Film). - Submitting or Resisting: Exploring the Popular Central American Belief that Homosexuality Can Be Induced (1997). - Homosexuality from a historical Viking Scandinavia point of view. - Ferenczi: L'homoérotisme: nosologie de l'homosexualité masculine (2000, Google Translation). - Homosexualités - Bibliographie (Google Translation). - Sexualities I:  Dissidence: The aim of this course is to introduce students to cultural and political debates concerning male homosexuality. It seeks to put literary texts, plus two films, in their French social and historical context, and to explore the ways in which their meanings are affected by their culture's understanding of same-sex desire (Word RTF Download). - The Social Constructionist Challenge to Primacy Identity and the Emancipation of Oppressed Groups: Human Primacy Identity Politics and the Human/'Animal' Dualism (2009). - A Field Guide to Social Construction (2007).

Un-queer anti-theory (1998). - Multiple Masculinity's: a world of subculture and homosexual interaction (1998). - The Role of Masculinity in Male Homosexual Culture by Shazza Nakkim (1998). - The (Re) Construction of African-American Masculinity -- Homosexuality by J Cools (1998, African-American Research. Vol. 3-1). - Boys in Schools: Addressing the Politics of Hegemonic Masculinities. - Masculinity and Academic Discourse: Issues and Themes. - Masculinities and men in nursing N/A (2002, PDF Download). - The Gendering of Molecular Biology (PDF Download).

Les méandres de l'identité et de l'orientation sexuelle des hommes (Alternate Link) (Google Translation). - Gay and homosexual are terms, used sometimes interchangeably, but the two words have different meanings. - Exploration of the Preconceived Notions of Homosexuality. - An Analysis: heterosexuality in the male (1970). - Social Protest and the Performance of Gay Identity by Alan Sikes (1997, UnderCurrent, 5). - New Directions for Gay Liberation: The Politics of Identity (1992, 1996). - A queer geography: journeys toward a sexual self (1996, 1998): "'Do Gays exist?' is the provocative question behind Frank Browning's latest jaunt around the globe." "In the end, he demonstrates that while homosexuality may be universal, "gay identity" is a twentieth-century creation already being challenged." - Identité homosexuelle et communauté gaie (Google Translation) (Revue sexologique / Sexological Review, 2, 1, Springs 1994, 33-55.).

The Mythological Realm of Pre-sexuality (2007): Reading Porno through Queer Theory: We are used to think that sexuality is a realm of nature. We think that it only needs some liberation from the boundaries of culture. If we apply Foucaultian reading to pornography we can notice that there is no distinction between nature and culture. There is nothing which can be liberated, for the reason that beyond culture images which give shape to our sexual fantasies does not lay any pre given, natural sexuality. Sexuality is always shaped and it works through the images given within the culture. Therefore pornography is very important phenomena for the task of analysing the formation and function of sexual fantasy and the sexuality itself. In the gay’s world pornography has a very interesting role. In my paper I do not intend to analyse any particular films, I want to concentrate on the particular phenomenological relation between the porno film and the audience. Gay porno films intend to show the pure sex; sex, which is not limited by the social. The vision of purity porno aims to achieve by different visual effects. Nevertheless at some point it is always about the relations of power. When we analyse the gay identity we cannot avoid the phenomena of pornography. In XX century Western culture pornography was of a crucial meaning to the formation of gay identity and gay culture. It is important to try to depict the problems of gay identity from the pornography as the formation of particular shape of the sexual fantasy.

Wunsch, Serge (2007). Rôle et importance des processus de renforcement dans l'apprentissage du comportement de reproduction chez l'homme. [Evolution from mammalian heterosexual reproductive behavior to human erotic bisexuality.] PhD Dissertation, Neurosciences Intégratives, L'École Pratique des Hautes Études. Full Text. Abstract: What are the neurobiological dynamics of mammal and human sexuality? In rodents, mainly sexual hormones and pheromones, and secondarily sexual reflexes and reinforcement processes, would be the main innate factors at the origin of a genuine heterosexual reproductive behavior, the purpose of which is, at the favorable season, to achieve copulation permitting fecundation. It would seem that during evolution, owing to the modifications of the brain of rodents into that of Man’s, the hormonal and pheromonal factors have become secondary, whereas the cognitive factors and the reinforcement processes (or reward systems) have become predominant. For these reasons, in Man, the behavior which leads to reproduction may be conceived not as an innate “reproductive behavior”, but as an acquired “erotic behavior” involving behavioral sequences of stimulation of the most erogenous body zones by a partner – no matter what his or her sex. Résumé: Quels sont les facteurs à l'origine des comportements humains ? Quels sont les processus neurobiologiques les plus primordiaux qui sous-tendent le développement et la dynamique de ces comportements ? Comment ces comportements émergent-ils de l'interaction entre les différents facteurs biologiques et environnementaux ? Afin de répondre à ces questions capitales, nous avons réalisé une synthèse transdisciplinaire (neurosciences, éthologie, ethnologie et psychologie) de la littérature actuelle relative au comportement de reproduction...

Weber, Shannon (2009). Beyond "I Can't Help It": Biological Determinism in American Queer Politics and Possibilities for Agency. Honors' Dissertation, Program in Critical Social Thought, Mount Holyoke College. PDF Download. Download Page.  After establishing the hegemonic influences of biological determinism in supposedly queer-friendly pop culture, including on liberal internet blogs, in movies, and in self-help literature, I ultimately posit that a focus on biological determinism shuts out the voices and experiences of queer people whose identities do not fit into this framework. Further, I argue that an emphasis on biology is inappropriately apologetic and fails to challenge heterosexism and heteronormativity. Finally, I propose that the American queer rights movement will be hindered in the future by clinging to biological determinism, and that as a movement, we must craft our identities in a positive framework for a more hopeful future for activism.

The Kingdom in the Closet: (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) Sodomy is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, but gay life flourishes there. Why it is “easier to be gay than straight” in a society where everyone, homosexual and otherwise, lives in the closet... “It’s a lot easier to be gay than straight here,” he had said. “If you go out with a girl, people will start to ask her questions. But if I have a date upstairs and my family is downstairs, they won’t even come up.” ... "They’re quite shameless about it." Talal, a Syrian who moved to Riyadh in 2000, calls the Saudi capital a "gay heaven." This is surprising enough. But what seems more startling, at least from a Western perspective, is that some of the men having sex with other men don’t consider themselves gay. For many Saudis, the fact that a man has sex with another man has little to do with "gayness." The act may fulfill a desire or a need, but it doesn’t constitute an identity. Nor does it strip a man of his masculinity, as long as he is in the "top," or active, role. This attitude gives Saudi men who engage in homosexual behavior a degree of freedom. But as a more Westernized notion of gayness -- a notion that stresses orientation over acts -- takes hold in the country, will this delicate balance survive? ... When Yasser hit puberty, he grew attracted to his male cousins. Like many gay and lesbian teenagers everywhere, he felt isolated. "I used to have the feeling that I was the queerest in the country," he recalled. "But then I went to high school and discovered there are others like me. Then I find out, it’s a whole society." ,,, In Saudi Arabia, "It’s easier to be a lesbian [than a heterosexual]. There’s an overwhelming number of people who turn to lesbianism," Yasmin said, adding that the number of men in the kingdom who turn to gay sex is even greater. "They’re not really homosexual," she said. "They’re like cell mates in prison." ... What is ‘gay’? In The History of Sexuality, a multivolume work published in the 1970s and ’80s, Michel Foucault proposed his famous thesis that Western academic, medical, and political discourse of the 18th and 19th centuries had produced the idea of the homosexual as a deviant type: In Western society, homosexuality changed from being a behavior (what you do) to an identity (who you are). In the Middle East, however, homosexual behavior remained just that -- an act, not an orientation. That is not to say that Middle Eastern men who had sex with other men were freely tolerated. But they were not automatically labeled deviant. The taxonomy revolved around the roles of top and bottom, with little stigma attaching to the top. "‘Sexuality’ is distinguished not between ‘homosexual’ and ‘heterosexual’ but between taking pleasure and submitting to someone (being used for pleasure),"...A magazine editor in Jeddah told me that many boys in Mecca, where he grew up, have sexual relations with men, but they don’t see themselves as gay. Abubaker Bagader, a human-rights activist based in Jeddah, explained that homosexuality can be viewed as a phase. "Homosexuality is considered something one might pass by," he said. "It’s to be understood as a stage of life, particularly at youth." This view of sexual behavior, in combination with the strict segregation of the sexes, serves to foster homosexual acts, shifting the stigma onto bottoms and allowing older men to excuse their younger behavior -- their time as bottoms -- as mere youthful transgressions...

Veil of Separation, Veils of Identity N/A (2007): But it prompts the question: why do homosexuals exist in societies where a separation of sexes doesn't necessarily apply? Moreover, does such a separation predicate the effect of genuine homosexual desires? And then, are these so-called "homosexuals" homosexuals in the sense that we in the West have defined it? Or are they individuals forced to fulfill a natural desire in the only way they can? Maybe homosexuals [or men who engage in sex with other men] in countries like Saudi Arabia are not necessarily "in the closet" but actually free from having to identify themselves. And rather, we [both homosexuals and heterosexuals in the West] are trapped in a closet of our own, a closet of monosexuality where we veil ourselves with endless layers attempting to define and label sexualities that we eventually [like with everything] ship and market around the world [the international gay?!?].

We Boys Together: Teenagers in Love Before Girl-Craziness - 2007 - by Jeffery P. Dennis (Google Books): "Teenage boys are wild about girls.When their hormones kick in at puberty, they can think of nothing else, and that"s the way it has always been-- right? Wrong. Before World War II, only sissies liked girls. Masculine, red-blooded, all-American boys were supposed to ignore girls until they were 18 or 19. Instead, parents, teachers, psychiatrists, and especially the mass media encouraged them to form passionate, intense, romantic bonds with each other. This book explores romantic relationships between teenage boys as they were portrayed before, during, and immediately after World War II. The author takes the reader through a rich landscape of media -- sci fi pulps, comics, adventure stories, tales of teen sleuths, boys' serial novels, wartime bestsellers, and movies populated by many types of male adolescents: Boys Next Door, Adventure Boys, Jungle Boys, and Lost Boys. In Hollywood movies, Boys Next Door like Jackie Cooper, Ronald Sinclair, and Jimmy Lydon were constantly falling in love, but not with girls. In serial novels, Jungle Boys like Bomba, Sorak, and Og Son of Fire swung through the trees to rescue teenage boys, not teenage girls. In comic strips and on the radio, Adventure Boys like Don Study, Jack Armstrong, and Tim Tyler formed lasting romantic partnerships with other boys or men. Lost Boys like Frankie Darro, Leo Gorcey, and Billy Halop starred in dozens of movies about pairs of poor urban teenagers sticking together, with never a girl in sight."

Male to Male: Sexual Feelings Across the Boundaries of Identity - 2000 - by Edward J. Tejirian (Related WebSite: Chapter Excerpts) (Review, Must Scroll) (Google Books). From the webaite:  "Male to Male: Sexual Feeling Across the Boundaries of Identity" is a book that shows that feelings of intimacy, love, and sexual attraction are not confined to the boxes that this society has constructed for them. It shows that when ordinary "heterosexual" men--and women-- felt safe enough to disclose their inner thoughts and feelings, it turns out that many of them--about a third of the women and forty-five percent of the men--were consciously aware of some degree of attraction toward the same sex. But this book is not a book about "bisexuality" either, because that just becomes a third box--alongside of "heterosexual" and "gay"--that separates people from each other. Rather, "Male to Male" is about the fluidity and variety of human sexual feeling and how setting up boundaries of identity to separate people from each other falsifies the reality of human sexual feeling. The words of the heterosexually identified men in this book who spoke to me show that the capacity for same-sex attraction is a deeply embedded part of normal male psychology. Their words also show that their same-sex feelings and those of men who identify themselves as gay differ only in their intensity and in the recognition on the partof the gay men that the completion of their inner lives requires physical closeness with someone of the same sex...

The social construction of identities: "The perils of postmodernism" (1995). - Studies on Gay & Lesbian Language: A Partial Bibliography (2006). - The Scenography of HIV Infection for Young Gay Men: Educating Emotion and Desire: Individuation and sexual identity (1999). - A Unified Theory on Homosexual Identity (2000, PDF Download). - Sexual Orientation: The History and Significance of an Idea (in Word & World, 1994: PDF Download). - It's what you do: most of the men who have sex with men in the South probably don't identify themselves as `gay' or `bisexual'. - Essentialism vs. social constructionism in the study of human sexuality - The Use of Theory in Research and Scholarship on Sexuality (1998). - Social Contructionist History Links.

Inescapable Essentialism: Bisexually-Identified Women's Strategies in the Late 80s and Early 90s (2002): "Essentialism, in many ways, is a product of the western political and philosophical use of binary oppositions. Binaries have been used to produce socially meaningful categories in which to classify and understand the world, both human and non-human (Innes 65). Within the assumptions of binaries, however, is the tendency to see these categories as natural and unchanging. In addition to naturalizing or essentializing binaries,western philosophy has also tended to privilege only one side of the opposition while the other is disparaged. The final outcome of this logic is a limited and fixed understanding of the world that masks the political and social power in which the binary categories were created and sustained." - As Nature Made Us? Part I: The Social Construction of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality (2010). Part 2. - The Social Construction of Sex: Intersex as Evidence (2009).

Lost in Translation: Sex and Sexuality in Elite Discourse and Everyday Language (2007): This article questions our own use of language in representing, articulating, and communicating Chinese-speaking people's experiences associated with the words `sex' and `sexuality' in the English language. We notice that whenever the elite discourse fails to fully represent the lived experiences of `the people', their own utterances will demonstrate the creative and subversive potentials of the everyday language. Our research has transformed our understanding of an ever-evolving domain we once tried to capture with the western language of sexuality, and led us to rethink our theoretical positions and methods. We finally arrive at a better understanding of the value and significance of research that engages with people's articulation of their lived experience that might contradict our original position, assumptions and arguments. We wish to caution against the unquestioned privileging of elite discourses produced and distributed from sites of power, and the risk of theoretical imperialism. 

Same-Sex Sexual Relations in Antiquity and Sexuality and Sexual Identity in Contemporary American Society (1996): (Alternate Link) "In antiquity sexual identity was based on the natural fact of sex. Genitals determined gender. For ancient Israel the binary differentiation of male and female served as the structuring of both the natural and social worlds, and was guarded by the Holiness Code of Lev. 17. Same-sex sexual relations were forbidden, at least explicitly to men, and Christianity adopted and transmitted this ideology. The homosexuality that is condemned in the letters ascribed to Paul: Romans, 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy is identifiable as pederasty. There are no ancient texts that suggest that homosexual relationships existed between same-age adults. The word homosexuality first appeared in an English dictionary in 1892. Today the taxonomy of male and female is being subverted by science and technology..."

Toward A Global History of Same-Sex Sexuality:  I favor the term “same-sex sexuality” as one that gets beyond the use of terms such as “queer,” “gay,” “lesbian,” or “homosexual.”  Yet I would like to proceed by looking at manifestations of what we call “same-sex sexuality” in different times and places in order both to explore global patterns and to consider how those patterns problematize the two parts of the term “same-sex sexuality.”  That is, sometimes such manifestations cannot really be considered “same-sex.”  And sometimes they should not really be labeled “sexuality.”  These complications suggest that even the attempt to avoid assumptions about the meanings of desires and acts and relationships by using a term such as “same-sex sexuality” may inadvertently lump together phenomena that are quite different.  This is the difficulty of thinking about a global history of same-sex sexuality.

What's a Modern Homosexual?  An Introduction: Cultures define and regulate sexual desire differently, and homosexuality is a uniquely modern, Western way of thinking about sex between men... - 'Being a Man' in the Ancient World (by Craig Williams, author of Roman Homosexuality, 1999): "What was most important for a man's reputation was that he be thought to play the insertive and not the receptive role in penetrative acts. If he played the insertive role, he might do so with either male or female partners, or both, as he pleased; the sex of his partner had no bearing on his own status as a man." - Male Homosexuality: From Common to a Rarity. - The social construction of male homosexuality, related suicide problems. - Gay Species: Language and Social Construction. - Sexual Orientation - Essentialism Or Social Construction. - The Evolution of Homosexuality: Another dissatisfying theory regarding the evolution of same-sex physical attraction (PPT Presentation). Related Video: Science & Homosexuality: Nature vs. Nurture.. - Utopia and Castration: How to Read the History of Homosexuality (2003).

Greek Eros: Ancient Civilizations of Greece and Rome (2001): Today eros would be considered sexual love, and in the days of ancient Greece, Eros was not only their god of love, but it was also their word that referred to sexual desire. In Greek society, especially during the Golden Age, this sexual desire does not seem to have been gender specific in any way.  In fact most men seemed to be more interested in pursuing and having sexual relations with young boys - a practice known as pederasty - than they were with pursuing women.  While this likely seems strange to a society where the majority of men find it repulsive to think of another man as beautiful, and where until recently homosexuals and bisexuals were looked down upon as being inferior, it was actually quite common and accepted in the ancient world of Greece. 1  In this paper I primarily intend to illustrate how common the acts of pederasty and homosexual love really were, in addition to why these practices came to be so prevalent, and when and how they began to be shunned...  - Active/Passive, Acts/Passions: Greek and Roman Sexualities (2000).

Le Moyen Age: Faits Divers (Google Translation): "Les homosexuels américains ont une sorte de cheval de bataille, selon lequel 10% de la population serait homosexuelle et ils croient que cela a été toujours comme ça. Je ne saurait le dire. En Ancienne Grèce, il faisait partie du procès de citoyenneté que le jeune homme, le garçon, ait un amant, un homme bien formé, qui devait l'initier à la vie sexuelle. Cela n'avait rien de dégradant ni pour le garçon qui avait, semble-t-il des fonctions plus passives ni pour l'adulte, dans la plupart du temps marié et père de famille. A Rome, où l'esprit familial était un peu différent, plus dynastique, cette naturalité n'était pas tellement acceptée, mais elle était loin d'être abominée..."

Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies in African Homosexualities: Homosexuality in “Traditional” Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa (Google Books) - Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Sudan -Mabasha and Their Mashoga in Mombasa. - Interpreting Absence of Evidence and Assertions of Absence (Nuer and Lango). - Spiritual Vocations in Western Africa. - Hausa Roles. - Yoruba Exceptionalism: Antagonistic Acculturation? - A Sometimes Lifelong ”Adolescent Phase” (Dahomey). - Gender-Crossing Wolof and Their Neighbors. - The Kitesha Role Among the Bala - Other Central African Reports. - Angola. - Wives of the South African Mines. - Contemporary Black South Africa and Zimbabwe. - Relations Between Women. (Book Review) (Book Review) (Excerpts) (Amazon Reference) (A review by Gert Hekma par Gert Hekma, Université d'Amsterdam, published in Thamyris, 1999). - Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes.)

Male 'Homosexualities' In India / South Asia: Excerpts from - Khan, Shivananda (2001). Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4), 99-115. & Asthana S, and Oostvogels R (2001). The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India: implications for HIV transmission and prevention. Social Science & Medicine, 52: 707-21. - Cultural Construction(s) of Same Sex Sexual Relations: A course outline (PDF Download N/A). - Making Mischief and A Past Reclaimed: Homosexuality in India. - Voices of Invisibles: Coping responses of Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2006): Religious as well as non religious writings from the Vedic and ancient period show that intense and passionate relationships between men and between women have always existed in India. In some periods and places, homosexuality was considered to be very natural and an inevitable emotional aspect of human sexual life. For this reason, homosexual relationships were accepted and nobody paid much attention to them. For example, Pradhan, Ayyar and Bagadia (1982a, p.182) note that ‘Homosexuality was not a condemned mode of sexualgratification when the temple sculptors of Konark and Khajuraho were depicting it in stone for all posterity to see...

Cultural constructions of male sexualities in India (1995: Word Download): PDF Download, Must Scroll. - Socio-cultural constructions of male sexual behaviours in South Asia. Khan, Shivananda (2001). Culture, sexualities, and identities: men who have sex with men in India. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4), 99-115: Excerpt. Excerpts

Male homosexual identity in Hong Kong: a social construction. - Social construction of male homosexualities in Vietnam. Some keys to understanding discrimination and implications for HIV prevention strategy. - Political-economic construction of gay male clone identity.

Transgendered Like Me (Advocate, Dec. 10, 1996) by Gabriel Rotello who asserts: "Gay people, on the other hand, exhibit a whole range of “sex-atypical” characteristics, meaning characteristics that are most commonly associated with the opposite sex, at least among the heterosexual majority... In that sense we’re all transgendered.... Shouldn’t we stop being the les-bi-gay-trans-whatever movement, with a new syllable added every few years, and simply become the trans movement?"  - Sex, Lies and Feminism (Alternate Link): "The transgender movement's view of gender is also structured along deeply traditional lines. First, in the view of transgender advocates, gender is simply a matter of individual identity. Where identity springs from is never examined, exactly--it just "is"--and, again, practice follows from identity. Gender remains an innate quality or attribute of the person expressing it. Given this, in transgender movement politics there is no room to question where gender and gender identity come from or whether and how they are constructed and by whom. As a result, the current practice of gender is seen as transhistorical, beyond construction and question. It simply "is" what gender is. What transgender advocates have done is move essentialism from the physical body to the self--to one's (presumably unconstructed) gender identity. Second, despite claims of multiple genders, "male" attributes remain male, even if practiced by a physically female body. As do "female" attributes, even if practiced by a physically male body. It is the same patriarchal template: innate, binary, essential and essential to identity. Having used the same template, it is no surprise that transgender exactly reproduces the content and norms of patriarchal gender."

Sexualities Concentration of Women’s Studies: The Sexualities concentration of Women’s Studies will provide students with an understanding of sexualities across aesthetic, cultural, historical, legal, literary, political, and social contexts in which human sexualities have been and are currently being expressed and theorized. The concentration will provide students with insights into the social construction of sexualities through their complex interplay with key variants such as gender, race, and class, within micro-cultural, cross-cultural, national, and global communities.  - Minor in Gender, Sexuality, and Culture



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Homosexuality & Evolution


Evolution myths: Natural selection cannot explain homosexuality (2008, Alternate Link). - Is the existence of homosexuality incompatible with the theory of evolution? - A Revolution In Evolution (2003). - Steven Rose is not entirely convinced by Joan Roughgarden's theory of 'social selection' in Evolution's Rainbow. - Evolution of Sexuality (2006).- Evolution's Rainbow (2004). - On adaptive success and theories of homosexuality (2004). - Study shows male homosexuality can be explained through a specific model of Darwinian evolution (2008). - The evolution of homosexuality: Gender bending... Genes that make some people gay make their brothers and sisters fecund (2008). - Same-sex relationships may play an important role in evolution: Biologists claim that same-sex relationships help drive the evolution of animals' physiology, life history and social behaviour (2009). - Evolution and Homosexuality (2009. Discussion). - The Evolution of a Social Construction: The Case of Male Homosexuality.

A Theory About the Variety of Human Sexual Behavior - Abstract: " Dawkins's theory of gene transmission is extended and applied to develop a theory about the variety of human sexual behavior.  According to this theory, the many different types of human sexual behavior, including the paraphilias, can be seen as having species survival value.  These atypical sexual behaviors all, in some way enhance the general level of sexual excitation in society and therefore increase the likelihood that people will engage in sexual activities that lead to procreation.  Basic differences between men and women can also be understood with this theory.  The political nature of the DSM-III-R, particularly in regard to homosexuality and pedophilia, are discussed as they relate to this theory." "I have never felt completely comfortable with the terms natural and unnatural when they apply to human sexual behavior.  In a sense, one could say that any form of sexual behavior that can be exhibited by a human being must be considered natural in that it is part of the human repertoire.  Generally, the term unnatural has been applied to those variations that have been considered unacceptable to a particular social group."

Why Did Homosexuality Evolve? by Zachary Moore (Video): Is a biological foundation of homosexuality precluded by evolutionary theory? - Darwinizing sexual ambivalence: a new evolutionary hypothesis of male homosexuality (2004).

Zolna, Ben (2009?). The Quandary of Homosexuality: Yet Another Unexplained Hole in Darwinian Evolutionary Theory. In: Karthik Panchanathan, Ed. The Science of Fiction: Evolutionary Explanations of Hypothetical Human Behavior - Volume 1: 31-38. PDF Download.

The Etiology of Homosexuality (and Divorce). - Homosexuality, Birth Order, and Evolution:  Towards a Equilibrium Reproductive Economics of Homosexuality. - "Fossilised Homosexuals": Elizabeth Wilson reviews Jim McKnight's: Straight Science? Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaption. - Wild(e) men and savages : the homosexual and the primitive in Darwin, Wilde and Freud (1998).

True Nature: A Theory of Human Sexual Evolution. Part 1 (Full Text): "A historical review of homosexuality in diverse cultures reveals that significantly many cultures have existed where (male) bisexuality has been rather universal and that all cultures have condemned exclusive homosexuality, either legally or with the threat of social rejection. Neither of these facts can be rationalized using the ballpark ‘10%’ statistic for homosexuality believed to be representative of human beings..." - True Nature: A Theory of Human Sexual Evolution. Parts 2–4 (Full Text: Parts 2, 3, 4). - Related Website: True Nature: A Theory of Human Sexual Evolution. - New phylism theory and the homosexualization of the visualization of lust: "Nature needs nurture is the paradigm that replaces nature versus nurture." - Gènes et comportements. Au-delà de l'inné et de l'acquis. / Gene and behaviors. Beyond nature and nurture. (2009).  

In Search of the 'Gay Gene' By Jack Lucentini - An article proposing an evolutionary reason for bisexuality. (2001, Alternate Link):   For another thing, they say bisexuals far outnumber homosexuals. This idea allows them to raise the possibility that an animal could use benefits gained from a homosexual liaison, such as higher status, to reproduce more or care for offspring better. "Most individuals who engage in homosexual behavior are, in practice, bisexual," wrote R.C. Kirkpatrick, a biodiversity specialist with the Nature Conservancy, an environmental group, who authored another paper on the subject in the June issue of Current Anthropology. Both researchers advocate dropping the distinction between "gay" and "straight" individuals. Nature makes no such distinction, and neither did most humans throughout history, they say. Research should focus on a more neutral, simple concept of homosexual or homoerotic behavior, according to the researchers... - Evolución y orientación sexual (2005, PDF, Google Translation).

Origin of "Homo"- A modest proposal : "Homo homo sapiens sapiens" - The "third sex" that made men out of monkeys: "I suggest a prehistoric origin of "the gay little brother effect" of the last members of a large child-flock. The mothers hormonal warfare against the child in her womb was Nature's way of birth control and means of installing female values intravenously in stead of lecturing tin-eared males. Born was the care-bear, the purser, the servant, the hairdresser, the pedagogue, the nurse, the scientist, the humanist, the Renaissance Man, the creative man, the social adept ape, the social climber, the interior decorator. Gone was the aggressive, the criminal, the muscle man, the psychopath, the wifebeater, the absent father.. - What is the Connection Between Homosexuality and Evolution? (Institute for Creation Research). - Nature, evolution and homosexuality.

Genetics and bisexuality (2007, PDF Download): "A population-genetic model indicates that if there is a gene responsible for homosexual behaviour it can readily spread in populations. The model also predicts widespread bisexuality in humans." - Related Vews Item: The Genetics of Bisexuality. - Bisexuality: A Biological Perspective. - Could you be bisexual? Like blogs and iPods once were, this is the new buzz today. Everybody is saying that everyone else is ‘bi’. Nilanjana Sengupta on whether it is possible for us to be so inclined (2006). - An Ethological Perspective on Homosexuality during Adolescence (1987): "Finally, the "naturalness" of adolescent homosexuality as an outcome of an ethological perspective is proposed. Homosexuality is thus presented as a sexual orientation that is not so much a matter of choice but of biological necessity."

Wunsch, Serge (2007). Rôle et importance des processus de renforcement dans l'apprentissage du comportement de reproduction chez l'homme. [Evolution from mammalian heterosexual reproductive behavior to human erotic bisexuality.] PhD Dissertation, Neurosciences Intégratives, L'École Pratique des Hautes Études. Full Text. Abstract: What are the neurobiological dynamics of mammal and human sexuality? In rodents, mainly sexual hormones and pheromones, and secondarily sexual reflexes and reinforcement processes, would be the main innate factors at the origin of a genuine heterosexual reproductive behavior, the purpose of which is, at the favorable season, to achieve copulation permitting fecundation. It would seem that during evolution, owing to the modifications of the brain of rodents into that of Man’s, the hormonal and pheromonal factors have become secondary, whereas the cognitive factors and the reinforcement processes (or reward systems) have become predominant. For these reasons, in Man, the behavior which leads to reproduction may be conceived not as an innate “reproductive behavior”, but as an acquired “erotic behavior” involving behavioral sequences of stimulation of the most erogenous body zones by a partner – no matter what his or her sex. Résumé: Quels sont les facteurs à l'origine des comportements humains ? Quels sont les processus neurobiologiques les plus primordiaux qui sous-tendent le développement et la dynamique de ces comportements ? Comment ces comportements émergent-ils de l'interaction entre les différents facteurs biologiques et environnementaux ? Afin de répondre à ces questions capitales, nous avons réalisé une synthèse transdisciplinaire (neurosciences, éthologie, ethnologie et psychologie) de la littérature actuelle relative au comportement de reproduction...



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Abstracts

Abstracts: - On the history of biological theories of homosexuality.(1995). - H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men (1997). - Female sexual orientation and pubertal onset  (1998). - Birth Order in Homosexual Versus Heterosexual Sex Offenders Against Children, Pubescents, and Adults (1998). - Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality (2000). - Saints or Sinners: Sociobiological Theories of Male Homosexuality (2000).  - An immune hypothesis of sexual orientation. (2001).  - It's not a choice, it's the way we're built: symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in the US and Britain (2002). - Evidence against a Relationship between Dermatoglyphic Asymmetry and Male Sexual Orientation (2002). - From gender inversion to choice and back: Changing Perceptions of the Aetiology of Lesbianism Over Three Historical Periods (2003). - Biosocial factors, sexual orientation and neurocognitive functioning (2004).  - The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation (2005). - Two hypotheses on the causes of male homosexuality and paedophilia (2005). - Biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female human sexual orientation (2005). - The biology of human psychosexual differentiation (2006). - The Etiology of Anomalous Sexual Preferences in Men (2006). - The attitudes of American sociologists toward causal theories of male homosexuality (2006). - Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual males (2007). 

Abstracts: - Fluctuating Asymmetry and Sexual Orientation in Men and Women (2008). - Espousing Interactions and Fielding Reactions: Addressing Laypeople's Beliefs About Genetic Determinism (2008). - Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men (2008). - Maternal inheritance and familial fecundity factors in male homosexuality (2008). - Sexism and Sexual Prejudice (Homophobia): The Impact of the Gender Belief System and Inversion Theory on Sexual Orientation Research and Attitudes toward Sexual Minorities  (2008). - New Evidence of Genetic Factors Influencing Sexual Orientation in Men: Female Fecundity Increase in the Maternal Line (2009). - Hair whorl direction and sexual orientation in human males (2009). - Cognitive dimensions of way-finding: the implications of habitus, safety, and gender dissonance among gay and lesbian populations (2009). - What is Sexual Orientation and Do Women Have One? (2009). - Common Genetic Effects of Gender Atypical Behavior in Childhood and Sexual Orientation in Adulthood: A Study of Finnish Twins (2010). - Dissecting "gaydar": accuracy and the role of masculinity-femininity (2010). - The Science of ‘Gaydar’ (2012). - Physical Development and Sexual Orientation in Men and Women: An Analysis of NATSAL-2000 (2010). - Biodemographic and Physical Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Men (2010). - Doing Gender in Sex and Sex Research (2009).  

Abstracts - Homosexual behavior in primates: A review of evidence and theory (1995). - Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (2001). - Intimate Sexual Relations in Prehistory: Lessons from the Japanese Macaques (1998). - Female Choice and Inter-Sexual Competition for Female Sexual Partners in Japanese Macaques (1998). - Mammalian animal models of psychosexual differentiation: When is ‘translation’ to the human situation possible? (2006). - Inter-Mount Social Interactions During Heterosexual and Homosexual Consortships in Japanese Macaques (2008). - Courtship behaviour in Japanese macaques during heterosexual and homosexual consortships (2008). - The Biogeography and Evolution of Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques (2009).

Abstracts: - The Homoerotic Behavior That Never Evolved (1999). - The Evolution of Human Homosexual Behavior (2000). - Is male homosexuality maintained via kin selection? (2001). - A new group-selection model for the evolution of homosexuality (2003). - Darwinizing sexual ambivalence: a new evolutionary hypothesis of male homosexuality (2004). - The alliance theory of homosexual behavior and the perception of social status and reproductive opportunities (2005). - Sexology, the Homo/Hetero Binary, and the Complexities of Male Sexual History (2006). - Sex and Affection in Heterosexual and Homosexual Couples: An evolutionary perspective (2006). - The Evolution of Male-Male Sexual Behavior in Humans: The Alliance Theory (2007).  - Testing Miller's theory of alleles preventing androgenization as an evolutionary explanation for the genetic predisposition for male homosexuality (2009). - Same-sex sexual behavior and evolution (2009). - Psychological Essentialism of Human Categories (2007). - Paving the Way for an Evolutionary Social Constructivism (2008). - Sexual orientation in males and the evolution of anisogamy (2010). 

Abstracts: - Homosexuality in Male Prisons: Demonstrating the Need for a Social Constructionist Approach (1992). - Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality (1998). - John H. Gagnon and William Simon's Sexual Conduct: The Social Sources of Human Sexuality (1999). - Eroticism and language (1999). - Historicizing inversion: or, how to make a homosexual (2001). - The Gendered Nature of Sexual Scripts (2005). - Hypothesis [Proposition related to a largely not recognized non-heterosexual population] (2005). - The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality (2006). - Social Constructionism and Sexual Desire (2006). - Essentialism, Power, and the Representation of Social Categories : A Folk Sociology Perspective (2007). - The future of sexology (2009).


Bibliographies

Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: History and Ethnology. - Queer by Choice: Books List. - Homosexualité : est-ce un genre à part ? Bibliographie sélective, Bibliothèque nationale de France (2009, Google Translation). - Genetic determinism and sexual orientation bibliography (2005). - Homosexuality in History: A Partially Annotated Bibliography (2000). - Recommended Books For LGBTQ Youth. - GLBTRT TRANScending Identities Bibliography (2005). - Academic Discouses on Homosexuality: Bibliography (Archive Link). - Lesbian and Gay Sexualities: Course content, Bibliography (Archive Link).

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!


Books

Born Gay: The Psychobiology of Sex Orientation - 2005, 2009 - by Glenn Wilson, Qazi Rahman (Press Release) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).- Sexual Orientation: Toward Biological Understanding - 1997 - edited by Lee Ellis and Linda Ebertz (Review).- The Science Of Desire - The Search for the Gay Gene and the Biology of Behavior  - 1991 - by Dean Hamer [Wikipedia] & Peter Copeland (Review). - Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality - 1997 - by Simon LeVay  Summary of the book's sections by Simon LeVay (Chapter One: Hirschfeld and the Third Sex ) (BMJ Review, Free Registration)  (Review) (Review) (Review)... Queer Science: Chapter Outlines and three book reviews. - Gay Science: The Ethics Of Sexual Orientation Research - 1997, 1999 - by Timothy F. Murphy (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - The Nature of Homosexuality: Vindication for Homosexual Activists and the Religious Right - 2004 - by Erik Holland (Google Books). - Tall tales about the mind and brain: separating fact from fiction - 2007 -  edited by Sergio Della Sala (Google Books) (See: The elusive search for the 'gay gene') (Review) (Review). - Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development - 2004 - edited by Cynthia Garcia Coll, Elaine L. Bearer, Richard M. Lerner (Google Books). - Gay, straight, and the reason why: the science of sexual orientation - 2011 - by Simon Levay (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Sex, Cells, and Same-Sex Desire: The Biology of Sexual Preference - 1995 - by John P. De Cecco, David Allen Parker (Google Books) (Chapter: Brain Research, Gender and Sexual Orientation). - If You Seduce a Straight Person, Can You Make them Gay? Issues in Biological Essentialism, versus Social Constructionism in Gay and Lesbian Identities - 1993 - edited by John P. DeCecco and John P. Elia (Google Books). - Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy edited by John C. Gonsiorek and James D. Weinrich (Review) (Review) (Review). - A Natural History of Homosexuality - 1996 - by Francis Mark Mondimore (Reviews). - The Mismeasure of Desire: The Science, Theory, and Ethics of Sexual Orientation - 1999 - by Edward Stein (Google Books) (Review) (Author Website). - Bisexual Man Or Evolution of the Sexes - 1912, 2003 - by  Francis Buzzacott, Mary Isabel Wymore (Google Books). - Homosexuality: Its Nature and Causes - 2008 - by D.J. West.

An American Obsession: Science, Medicine and Homosexuality in Modern Society - 1999 - by Jennifer Terry (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Exploding The Gene Myth: How Genetic Information Is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators, and Law Enforcers - 1993, 1997, 1999 - by Ruth Hubbard (Author Interview (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review).The Trouble with Nature: Sex in Science and Popular Culture - 2003 - by Roger N. Lancaster (Amazon) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) [The Place of Anthropology in a Public Culture Reshaped by Bioreductivism (February 2004 Anthropology News)] - Speaking of Sexuality: Interdisciplinary Readings (Third Edition) - 2009 - editec by Nelwyn B. Moore, J. Kenneth Davidson, Sr., Terri D. Fisher (Contents). - Geographies of sexualities: theory, practices, and politics - 2007 -  by Kath Browne, Jason Lim, Gavin Brown (Google Books) (Introduction). - Biologie de l'homosexualité : On naît homosexuel, on ne choisit pas de l'être (Translation) - 2010 - de Jacques Balthazart (Review, Translation. Review, Translation).

Science and Homosexualities - 1996 - edited by Vernon A. Rosario (Google Books) (Review) (Review) "Vernon Rosario in his introductory essay draws attention to the persistence of unhelpful binary divisions in the discussion of homosexuality: nature versus nurture, normal versus pathological, essentialism versus constructionism. Such resort to binary categories seems almost over-determined, given the potential of same-sex desires to destabilise that major distinction of male/female, and the continuing attempts to draw a clear and definite line betwixt gay and straight." - Bioethical Analysis of Sexual Reorientation Interventions: The Ethics of Conversion Therapy - 2004 - by Travis K. Svensson (Google Books). - Anthropology and homosexual behavior - 1986 - edited by Evelyn Blackwood (Google Books).

My Genes Made Me Do It! A Scientific Look At Sexual Orientation  - 1999 - by Neil Whitehead, Ph.D. & Briar Whitehead (Book Website) (Book Download by Chapters) (Review). - Eight Preposterous Propositions: From the Genetics of Homosexuality to the Benefits of Global Warming - 2003 - by Robert Ehrlich (Google Books) (Chapter 1) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Reinventing the Male Homosexual: The Rhetoric and Power of the Gay Gene - 2002 - by Robert Alan Brookey (Amazon) (Google Books) (Table of Contents) (Chapter 1: PDF Download) (Review) (Review) (Related Paper by Author: Bio-Rhetoric, Background Beliefs, and the Biology of Homosexuality, 2001). - Queer by choice: lesbians, gay men, and the politics of identity - 1996 - by Vera Whisman (Google Books) (Review).- Human sexuality and its problems 3rd edition - 2008 - by John Bancroft (Google Books). - Social psychology and human sexuality: essential readings - 2001 edited by  Roy F. Baumeister (Google Books).

Forms of Desire: Sexual Orientation and the Social Constructionist Controversy - 1990 - edited by Edward Stein (Google Books) (Review) (Introduction) (Author Website)- The Construction of Homosexuality - 1988 - by David Greenberg (Google Books) (Review). - The Social Construction of What? - 1999 - by Ian Hacking (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Full Text).  - Sexual Citizenship: The Material Construction of Sexualities  - 1993 - by David T. Evans (Google Books). - Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality - 1995 - by Gill Valentine, David Bell. - Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies: A Reader - 1998 - edited by Peter M. Nardi and Beth E. Schneider (Review). - Sexualities and Society: A Reader - 2003 - edited by Jeffrey Weeks, Janet Holland, Matthew Waites (Google Books). - The social construction of difference and inequality (Table of Contents) - 2002, 2006 - edited by Tracy E Ore. - The sexual self: the construction of sexual scripts - 2007 - edited by Michael S. Kimmel (Google Books). - Queering the Color Line: Race and the Invention of Homosexuality in American Culture - 2000 - by Siobhan B. Somerville (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Sex and sexuality in Latin America - 1997 - by Daniel Balderston, Donna J. Guy (Google Books).

Beyond Gay or Straight : Understanding Sexual Orientation - 1996 - by Jan Clausen, Martin B. Duberman (Review). - PoMoSexuals: Challenging Assumptions about Gender and Sexuality - 1997 - edited by Carol Queen and Lawrence Schimel (Abstract, Table of Contents) (Review). - Male to Male: Sexual Feelings Across the Boundaries of Identity - 2000 - by Edward J. Tejirian (Related WebSite: Chapter Excerpts) (Review, Must Scroll) (Google Books). - Male-Male Intimacy in Early America: Beyond Romantic Friendships - 2006 - by William Benemann (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Straight? True Stories of Unexpected Sexual Encounters Between Men - 1998 - edited by Jack Hart (Review).- Queer fictions of the past: history, culture, and difference - 1997 - by Scott Bravmann (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Trouble With Normal: Postwar Youth and the Making of Heterosexuality - 1997 - by Mary Louise Adams (Google Books) (Review).

Bisexualities and AIDS: International Perspectives - 1996 - edited by Peter Aggleton (Google Books) (Review). - Constructing Sexualities: Readings in Sexuality, Gender, and Culture - 2002 - edited by Suzanne LaFont. - Representing Bisexualities: Subjects and Cultures of Fluid Desire - 1996 - edited by Donald E. Hall, Maria Pramaggiore  (Google Books) (Review). - Sexual Nature/Sexual Culture - 1995 - edited by PR Abramson, SD Pinkerton (Google Books). - Sexual Fluidity: Understanding Women's Love and Desire - 2009 - by Lisa M. Diamond  (Google Books) (Review)- Vice Versa: Bisexuality and the eroticism of everyday life - 1996 - by Marjorie Garber (Review) (Marjorie Garber on Bisexuality).

Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality - 1999 - by Anne Fausto-Sterling (Review) (Review) (Review: The New England Journal of Medicine) (This article is a version of Chapter One) YouTube, Fausto-Sterling on Gender (2009): 1, 2, 3. - Reinventing the Sexes: The Biomedical Construction of Femininity and Masculinity - 1997 - by Marianne van den Wijngaard (Google Books) (Review). - Epistemology of the Closet - 1990 - by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books) (Review).- Psychological Perspectives on Human Sexuality - 2000 - edited by Lenore T. Szuchman and Frank Muscarella (Review) (Review). - Gender and archaeology: contesting the past - 1999 - by  Roberta Gilchrist (Google Books) (Related: Is the archaeology of gender necessarily a feminist archaeology?). - Sexuality in World History - 2009 - by Peter N. Stearns (Google Books) (Review). - Beyond sexuality - 2000- by Tim Dean (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).- Scandinavian Homosexualities - 1998 - edited by Jan Lofstrom (Review).

The Puzzle. Exploring the Evolutionary Puzzle of male homosexuality - 2003 - by Louis A. Berman (Review). - Straight Science? Homosexuality, evolution and adaptation - 1997 - by Jim McNight (Google Books) (Review) (Book Review). - The Prehistory of Sex: Four Million Years of Human Sexual Culture - 1997 - by Timothy L. Taylor. -  Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People - 2004 - by Joan Roughgarden (Author on sex and diversity) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - The origins and role of same-sex relations in human societies - 2008 - by  James Neill (Google Books). - Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity - 1999 - by Bruce Bagemihl (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Homosexual behaviour in animals: an evolutionary perspective - 2006 - by Volker Sommer, Paul L. Vasey (Google Books) (Review). - Conundrum: The Evolution of Homosexuality - 2006 - by N. J. Peters (Review). - Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality - 2007 - by Michael R Kauth, Michael R Kauth (Review) (Review) (Review)

Boy-Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities - 2001 - by Will Roscoe, Stephen O. Murray (Book Review) (Book Review) (Excerpts) (Review). Related: - Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes) - Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies in African Homosexualities (Early parts of manuscript): Homosexuality in “Traditional” Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa (Google Books) - Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Sudan -Mabasha and Their Mashoga in Mombasa. - Interpreting Absence of Evidence and Assertions of Absence (Nuer and Lango). - Spiritual Vocations in Western Africa. - Hausa Roles. - Yoruba Exceptionalism: Antagonistic Acculturation? - A Sometimes Lifelong ”Adolescent Phase” (Dahomey). - Gender-Crossing Wolof and Their Neighbors. - The Kitesha Role Among the Bala - Other Central African Reports. - Angola. - Wives of the South African Mines. - Contemporary Black South Africa and Zimbabwe. - Relations Between Women. - Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History and Literature -1997 - edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Homosexualities - 2000 - by Stephen O. Murray  (Google Books) (Introduction) (Review) (Review). - Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History - 1996 - edited by  Gilbert Herdt (Excerpt).

Bisexuality in the Ancient World - 1992, 1996 - by Cantarella by Eva Cantarella, Cormac Ocuilleanain (Translator). (Comments) (Review) (Review) (Review). - A History of Bisexuality - 2001 - by Steven Angelides (Google Books). - Historical perspectives on homosexuality - 1981, 1985 - edited by Salvatore J. Licata, Robert P. Petersen (Google Books). - Male Intergenerational Intimacy: Historical, Socio-Psychological, and Legal Perspectives - 1991 - edited by Alex Van Naerssen, Theo Sandfort (Google Books) (Review). - Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity.- 1999 - by Craig A. Williams (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Wikipedia: Homosexuality in Ancient Rome).  Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World - 1990 - edited by David M. Halperin, John J. Winkler, Froma I. Zeitlin (Google Books) (Review). - The Invention of Heterosexuality - 1995, 2007 - by Jonathan Katz (Google Books) (Excerpt) (Review) (Review) (Review). - The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity - 1997 - by Rictor Norton (Review). - Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence - 1998 - by Michael Rocke (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia - 1999 - edited by  George E. Haggerty (Google Books).


 

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

,

Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies / Reports (and/or Abstracts):


Full Text "Feminism & Psychology (17(4), 2007) Commentaries on: Unger, Rhoda Kesler (1979). Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender. American Psychologist, 34(11): 1085-1094. - I. It Made Us Think Differently: Unger's `Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender'. - II. The Subtleties of Meaning: Still Arguing After All These Years. - III. On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Sex and Gender.  - IV. Adding Gender to the Mix: A Commentary on `Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender'. - V. Feminist Questions, Feminist Answers: Towards a Redefinition. - VI. Redefinition Reviewed: What `Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender' Can Offer Today. - VII. Meanings of Sex and Gender for a New Generation of Feminist Psychologists. - VIII. Reconsidering `Sex' and `Gender': Two Steps Forward, One Step Back. - IX. From Sex to Gender and Back Again: Co-optation of a Feminist Language Reform. - Afterword: From Inside and Out: Reflecting on a Feminist Politics of Gender in Psychology (by Rhoda Unger).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links4a.htm) is located.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.

INFORMATION LIMITATIONS

The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.


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