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Brown, Clarence, E (2008). Racism in the Gay Community and Homophobia in the Black Community: Negotiating The Gay Black Male Experience. MS Thesis, Sociology: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PDF
Clouse, Sean Travis (2007). Development And Validation Of The Perceived Parental Social Support Scale- Lesbian Gay (ppss-lg). PhD. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia. PDF
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Demirkan-Martin, Vulcan Volkan (2009). Queerable spaces: homosexualities and homophobias in contemporary film. PhD. Dissertation, Cultural Studies, University of Canterbury. PDF Download. Download Page.
Denton, Mary Jean (2009). The lived experiences of lesbian/Gay/[bisexual/transgender] educational leaders. Ed.D. Dissertation, Educational Policy and Administration, University of Minnesota. PDF Download. Download Page.
Emslie M (2002). Marginalised by the mainstream: the construction of sexuality and representations of lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in Australian youth policy. Master's Dissertation, School of Social Science and Planning, RMIT University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Haskell, Rebecca (2008). A "Gentle Violence"? " Former student's experiences of homophobia and transphobia in British Columbia high schools. Master's Dissertation, School of Criminology, Simon Frazer University, British Columbia. PDF
Heffner, Paul Samuel (2010). The subjective life experiences of identified or perceived male GBTQ adolescents in high school settings: a retrospective study. Master's Dissertation, Social Work, California State unibersity Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.
Ito, Daisuke (2007). College Students' Prejudiced Attitudes toward Homosexuals: A Comparative Analysis in Japan and the United States. Master's Dissertation, Department of Sociology, Georgia State University. PDF
Mullane, William Andrew (2008). The articulated thoughts of heterosexual male college students in reaction to anti-gay hate speech. Master's Dissertation, University of Southern California. PDF Download. Related PhD Dissertation: Utilizing the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm to examine the differential impacts of anti-gay verbal aggression and non-biased verbal aggression on heterosexual and sexual minority male college students (2011).
Nicely, Eric S (2001). Internalized Homophobia, Stages And Processes Of Change And Alcohol Use Among Gay Men: A Clinical Dissertation. PhD. Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Alemeda, CA. PDF
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Robison, Matthew K (2012). Through the Eyes of Gay and Male Bisexual College Students: A Critical Visual Qualitative Study off Their Experiences. Educational Policy Studies Dissertations, Paper 89, Georgia State University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Smith, Dale Chad Allen (2008). Making Sense of the Senseless: The Experience of Being Gay Bashed. Master of Social Work Dissertation, Faculty of Social Work, University of Manitoba. PDF Download. Download Page.
Abstract by author: The silence and invisibility of gay and lesbian educators has perpetuated the oppression of heterosexism in our schools. Some affected areas are educational policy, curriculum, and the school environment itself. Gay and lesbian students and educators are at risk in most schools because safe working and learning environments do not always exist for those who are not heterosexual. In 1992, Massachusetts Governor William Weld created the nation’s first Governor’s Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth to investigate the epidemic of suicides by gay and lesbian adolescents. School environments, with regard to homophobia, were outlined. Students and teachers testified of verbal and physical abuse of gay and lesbian students. The Safe Schools Program was created to address these issues and to promote safe and supportive school environments to assist gay and lesbian students in realizing their full learning potential.
Through in-depth interviewing, data was gathered from ‘explicitly out’ (Griffin, 1992) gay and lesbian educators who work at Massachusetts schools participating in the Safe Schools Program. From the interview data, portraits of each participant were shaped and common themes identified, to answer the question, ‘What is it like to be a gay or lesbian educator working in a Massachusetts school participating in the Safe Schools Program?’ Data was viewed through the lenses of oppression theory, heterosexism and identity theory. Participants stated their negative experiences were tied to homophobia, mostly internalized, which paralleled past studies. Their positive experiences were related to being ‘out.’ They described reaching a level of self-acceptance to be ‘out’ at school and in their daily lives.
For the participants, working in the Safe Schools Program was a positive experience. For the schools they work in, there has been forward motion toward a safer environment. Gay and lesbian educators make the Safe Schools Program a success and the Safe Schools Program gives them the social and legal permission to do the work. Future research could study experiences of gay or lesbian educators who are closeted and work in participating schools, who are ‘publicly out’ (Griffin, 1992) and working in Safe Schools Programs, or who reside in other states.
Kramer B (1986).The relationship of gender, homophobia and beliefs about homosexuality to self-disclosing behavior in same-sex dyads. PhD. Thesis, DAI, Vol. B47-08, p. 3504, 235 pages.
Abstract by author: This study investigated the relationship between negative attitudes towards homosexuals of one’s own sex and self-disclosing behavior between males and between females. The rationale for exploring these variables was based on sex role theory which has proposed that negative responses to homosexuality constitute an aspect of the male role which reduced intimacy and self-disclosure between males. It was further speculated that women’s partial adoption of male role behaviors might likewise reduce self-disclosure between females. A peer interview format was utilized so that actual self-disclosing behavior could be examined. Participants were 50 male and 50 female college students who were asked to disclose on a number of personal topics to trained peer interviewers. Anti-homosexual attitudes were assessed via a multidimensional approach which included affective as well as cognitive measures. A personal data questionnaire and exit interview questions were also administered.
Three research hypotheses were generated from the literature on sex roles, attitudes towards homosexuality and self-disclosure. It was hypothesized that anti-homosexual beliefs and homophobia would be negatively related to self-disclosing behavior. Anti-homosexual beliefs were not found to be significantly related to self-disclosure between males or between females. It was suggested that the belief dimension of anti-homosexual attitudes may be measuring general cognitive rigidity as manifested by anti-homosexual prejudice rather than a salient dimension of the male role which would affect self-revelation. Homophobia was found to be related to self-disclosing behavior for males but not for females, suggesting that anti-homosexual affect may be a significant aspect of the male sex role for men but not for women. It was also hypothesized that males would be less self-disclosing then females; this hypothesis was confirmed.
Specific recommendations were made for future research, including the need to focus on the affective domain of anti-homosexual attitudes.
Linsay JM (1995).Male minority: society’s oppression of gay men. A heuristic study. PhD. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI, Vol. B56-07, p. 4063, 179 pages.
Abstract by author: Lindsay’s study supports the thesis that there are significant effects that gay men experience socially, legally, and psychologically due to their status as a sexual minority. This research emphasizes the interconnectivity of male socialization, gender expectation, and negative societal attitudes and its effects on the psychological health and well-being of gay men. The study looks at developmental differences, intimate relationships, HIV and AIDS, hate crimes, and Post-traumatic Stress within the context of a homophobic and heterosexist society.
The term ‘homophobia’ as used here refers to the fear of homosexuality and homosexuals. The term ‘heterosexism’ refers to the societal assumption that its members should be and are heterosexual. The study also incorporates an analysis of how gay men can use their experience of society as a source of empowerment.
Lindsay’s approach to the study is multidimensional. He focuses on revealing a deep understanding of the inner dynamics of gay men, both conscious and subconscious. He employs the heuristic method of qualitative, phenomenological research, which requires the researcher’s immersion in the topic to be studied. He includes six in-depth interviews of gay men picked at random. The interviews are interwoven into the chapters of a book written for a popular audience that is included in the study.
This research demonstrates that there are significant negative effects which gay men experience as a result of society’s attitudes toward homosexuality. It also demonstrates that the treatment of gay men is neither fair nor justified. It shows that the fears and prejudice which underlie homophobia and heterosexism come from a lack of knowledge and familiarity.
Lyons CC (1994).Internalized homophobia reconsidered: self-discrepancy theory as a tool for understanding lesbian identity and experience. PhD. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, DAI, Vol. B55-06, p. 2405, 282 pages.
Abstract by author: A common theme in gay-affirmative psychological literature is that homosexual individuals inevitably internalize aspects of the dominant culture’s negative views about homosexuality. Typically referred to as internalized homophobia, numerous authors have suggested that such conflicting beliefs about the self contribute to the development of a range of negative psychological situations. To date, however, little empirical evidence has supported these claims. In response to this lack of information, this study examined internalized homophobia from the standpoint of self-discrepancy theory (i.e., Higgins, 1987), a model which distinguishes between different self-representational domains (i.e., ‘Actual,’ ‘Ideal,’ and ‘Ought’ selves), as well as identifying two different standpoints from which these can be generated (i.e., one’s ‘Own’ perspective and the imagined perspective of some significant ‘Other’).
Congruent with both the self-discrepancy and internalized homophobia literature, a series of hypotheses concerning the relationships between self-discrepancy, psychological distress and lesbian identity development were articulated. The respondents in the study consisted of 106 self-identified lesbian women. Each completed the Selves Questionnaire (Higgins, Klein, & Strauman, 1985); the Stage Allocation Measure (Cass, 1984b); the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1977); and the Revised Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (Welkowitz, Lish, & Bond, 1985). Subjects’ responses to these instruments were analyzed using both zero-order and partial correlations.
A significant positive association was found between overall level of self-discrepancy and the degree of psychological distress reported by subjects, lending support to the validity of self-discrepancy theory as a framework for quantifying the extent of subjects’ conflicting views about themselves as lesbians. However, the results indicated no significant relationship between total amount of self-discrepancy and level of lesbian identity development, or between types of self-discrepancy and different types of symptoms. These findings were difficult to interpret due to the unexpectedly high intercorrelations between various dimensions of the Selves Questionnaire. Possible explanations for this confounding factor are presented, followed by suggestions for future research which may minimize the degree of intercorrelation. The discussion of the results concludes with an overview of the potential clinical implications of this research.
Publication No. 9429338
Marcellino EM (1996). Internalized homonegativity, self-concept and images of god in gay and lesbian individuals. PhD. Thesis, Boston University, DAI, Vol. A57-01, p. 273, 323 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how the self-hatred that is internalized by gay and lesbian individuals because of negative social attitudes toward homosexuality relates to their self-concept and images of God. Psychologists of religion suggest that both self-concepts and images of God are at the core of the personality. Previous research in the field of social stigma indicates that the internalized self-hatred experienced by minorities bears some relation to self-understanding and self-image, often in harmful ways. This dissertation integrates and extends such literature by exploring how internalized self-hatred, as it is experienced by gay and lesbian people, relates to self-concept and images of God.
Of the 172 men and women, ages 19 to 61, who volunteered to participate in this study, 119 belonged to one of six Jewish and Christian, gay and lesbian affirming faith communities (Dignity/Boston, Am Tikva, Metropolitan Community Church, St. John the Evangelist, Church of the Covenant and Arlington Street Church) and 53 claimed no faith affiliation. Participants completed the Multi-Axial Gay/Lesbian Inventory, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, Gorsuch’s Adjective Ratings of God Scale and a demographic questionnaire which yielded additional data pertaining to the participant’s religious background and sexual identity. The instrument scores and demographic data were analyzed to determine relationships among the variables. Results indicate that internalized homonegativity does relate both to images of self and God.
The correlational analyses indicate that as internalized homonegativity increased, self-concept decreased. Findings in this study confirm previous research utilizing factor analyses of God images suggesting that God images are rarely uniform; they are multi-valent and often contradictory. More specifically, an increase in internalized homonegativity was correlated with three seemingly contradictory findings: a decrease in God as transcendent and omnipotent, identified by Gorsuch as ‘Traditional Christian’: an increase in factors describing God as ‘benevolent’, ‘kind’ and ‘companionable’; and an increase in God as ‘wrathful’ and ‘powerful but passive’.
Comparisons between participants belonging to a faith community and those with no faith affiliation demonstrate that those who belong to such a community report lower levels of internalized homonegativity. They also have less positive images of God. No differences were found between groups on self-concept on negative images of God.
Melamed DK (1992).Internalized homophobia and lesbian couple functioning. PhD. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, Vol. B53-07, p. 3784, 196 pages.
Abstract by author: During the past decade, the psychological literature on gay issues has included a specific emphasis on the functioning and treatment of lesbian couples. However, theory about these couples has often been formulated on the basis of clinical observations and, as a result, has tended to portray lesbian couples in rather biased and pathologized ways. In order to more accurately understand the functioning of lesbian couples, it is crucial to conduct non-biased, empirically-based research which takes into account their unique realities. Chief among these is the experience of integrating the lesbian identity which, because of the societal bias against it, carries a significant stigma. Clearly, the achievement of a viable lesbian relationship entails the resolution of ‘internalized homophobia,’ which is defined as self-devaluation based on the social stigmatization of homosexuality.
The present study was an attempt to explore the adjustment, satisfaction, and commitment of well-established lesbian couples, with a particular focus on the effects of internalized homophobia. Its main hypothesis was that higher levels of internalized homophobia would be associated with lowered dyadic adjustment and decreased relationship satisfaction and commitment. It was also hypothesized that higher levels of internalized homophobia would be associated with lower levels of self-esteem. A national sample of 223 lesbian couples was recruited. Subjects had a mean age of 36 years, and a mean relationship duration of 7.5 years.
Results showed that couples’ levels of internalized homophobia did vary inversely with dyadic adjustment and with relationship satisfaction and commitment, and that individual internalized homophobia varied inversely with self-esteem. In an interesting supplementary analysis, it was found that women who identified themselves as ‘exclusively homosexual’ tended to have lower rates of internalized homophobia and higher levels of relationship adjustment than those who described themselves as ‘predominantly homosexual, only slightly heterosexual.’ In general, then, these findings confirmed the notion that the lesbian woman’s feelings about her gay identity have a profound influence on her interpersonal and intrapsychic experience.
These results were discussed in terms of their relevance for lesbian women’s overall mental health, as well as for their specific clinical implications.
Meyer IH (1993).Prejudice and pride: minority stress and mental health in gay men. PhD. Thesis, Columbia University, DAI, Vol. B54-12, p. 6499, 284 pages.
Abstract by author: This study describes a special type of psychosocial stress - stress derived from minority status - and explores its effects on psychological distress in gay men. The concept of minority stress is based on the premise that gay people in a heterosexist society are subjected to chronic stress related to their stigmatization, and that this stress leads to adverse mental health outcomes. The idea that stigmatization may be stressful stems from diverse theoretical orientations, but research has not shown that members of stigmatized groups have higher rates of distress than others, leading researchers to refute minority stress conceptualizations.
Taking a different methodological approach, instead of comparing rates of distress, the present investigation specified mechanisms of minority stress, and directly tested their association with mental health in a group of gay men. Three stressors were considered: Internalized homophobia, which relates to gay men’s direction of societal negative attitudes toward the self; stigma, which relates to expectations of discrimination and rejection in interactions with the world; and actual experiences of discrimination and violence. But minority groups are not passive recipients of societal oppression - against a hostile social environment, the gay community has developed positive minority coping. It was therefore suggested that sense of cohesiveness with the gay community protects gay men from the detrimental effects of minority stress. The mental health effects of the three minority stressors, and the buffering effect of sense of cohesiveness, were tested in a community sample of 741 New York City gay men.
The results supported minority stress hypotheses: each of the stressors had a significant independent association with mental health measures (including, generalized sense of demoralization, guilt feelings, suicide ideation and behavior, AIDS-related traumatic stress response, and sex problems). Odds ratios suggested that men who had high levels of minority stress were twice to three times more likely to suffer from high levels of distress. In addition, sense of cohesiveness was significant in reducing distress, and interactive buffering effects were significant in buffering the effect of internalized homophobia. Public health and public policy implications are considered.
Mitchell AA (1997). A methodological examination of white racial consciousness and attitudes toward women, people who are deaf, gay men and lesbians. PhD. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park, DAI, Vol. A58-09, p. 3429, 351 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to examine the methodology and psychometric aspects of a measure of White Racial consciousness (WRC) and secondarily, to examine the relationship of WRC to attitudes toward women, people who are deaf, and gay men and lesbians. In further examining this relationship, comparisons were made between (a) the relationship of WRC to attitudes toward discernible groups (women) and (b) the relationship of WRC to attitudes toward less-discernible groups (deaf people, gay men and lesbians). Additional analyses examined the intercorrelation among attitudes for people of color, specifically for African Americans and Asian Americans.
White students completed the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Preliminary version (ORAS-P; Choney & Behrens, 1996), the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (ATWS; Spence & Helmreich, 1978), the Opinions about Deaf People Scale (ODP; Berkay, Gardner, & Smith, 1993), and the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLGM; Herek, 1988). Students of color completed the ATWS, the ODP, and the ATLGM scales. In both the White and students of color groups, only the responses of undergraduate, hearing, heterosexual students were included in the analyses.
Results showed that various WRC statuses predicted White student attitudes toward specific groups. The predictive capacity of WRC statuses varied by the gender of the participant and by the attitudinal target. In addition, WRC was found to have less predictive utility for women than for men. No distinctions were apparent by the discernability of the attitudinal target. Intercorrelations among attitudes for students of color, African Americans and Asian Americans found significant correlations among various attitudes. Attitudes toward gay men and attitudes toward lesbians were significantly correlated across groups as were (a) attitudes toward women and attitudes toward gay men and (b) attitudes toward women and attitudes toward lesbians. Suggestions were offered for the refinement of WRC methodology and theory. Possible applications for higher education were also included.
Oliver EM (1995).Gays: masculine hegemony and the police subculture. An Ottawa case-study. M.A. Thesis, Carleton University, MAI, Vol. 34-06, p. 2261, 164 pages, ISBN: 0-612-08914-2.
Abstract by author: This thesis examines police-gay interaction effects from a symbolic interactionist perspective. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, serves as the research site. It is argued a gay identity, or ‘gayness’, is ‘contained’ in both the police occupational subculture and the gay community/subculture. The argument is that this is the result of masculine hegemony, and the ‘shaming’ it directs at anyone believed to be gay. Support for the argument is generated from interview data (police, n = 10; gays, n = 16). Responses from subjects in both groups reveal the reciprocal effects of their interactions which keep ‘gayness’ inhibited.
Paget VA (1997).Constraints to ‘gay lifestyle’: functioning with the social environment. M.S.W. Thesis, Grand Valley State University, MAI, Vol. 36-01, p. 84, 75 pages.
Abstract by author: In this paper, Adlerian psychology is used to facilitate a broader understanding of lesbian, gay and bisexual lifestyles. Individual functioning is examined within the context of the social environment. Actual lifestyle functioning of lesbian, gay and bisexual persons is examined using Adler’s life tasks. Of Adler’s three life tasks of work, love, and society, the task of society is examined by measurement of leisure time pursuits.
Three objectives were identified: (1) to become familiar with the constraints to lifestyle functioning experienced by gay and lesbian persons, (2) to broaden current understanding of gay lifestyle, and (3) to provide a foundation for future research. These were accomplished by surveying members of the lesbian and gay community regarding their leisure time. Collaboration with a Grand Rapids organization (The Network) serving lesbians and gays made this possible.
A pilot study of 75 individuals was conducted prior to mailing to the 500 members of this organization. Instrumentation was based on a tool measuring leisure time and developed by nationally recognized experts in the field. No information was available on validity or reliability of this tool. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance, independent t-test, and chi-square. Basis content analysis was conducted of open-ended responses. The sample was composed of 50% lesbian women, 45% gay men, 4% bisexual women, and 1% bisexual men.
Participant’s perceptions of inhibition in their leisure time and levels of identity disclosure were significantly related to leisure satisfaction and companionship. Age, gender, relationship status, and length of time in current relationship to be significantly related to leisure pursuits and values stereotypically attributed to lesbian, gay and bisexual persons.......
Papagni CJ (1995).The relationship between homophobic attitudes and the identity development of heterosexual male students. New York University, DAI, Vol. B56-11, p. 6468, 127 pages.
Abstract by author: This study focused on two relationships. The first was the relationship between homophobia and identity development. The second relationship was between exposure to homosexuality and homophobia. A descriptive survey method was used to measure levels of homophobia, identity development, and exposure to homosexuality. Three instruments were used to collect data. The study was done on a sample group of entering first-year male students at a major urban research university. The subjects were first semester college students; instruments were mailed at the beginning and end of the respondent’s first semester in college.
The first hypothesis posed was that among heterosexual males in their first semester of college, there will be an inverse relationship between the existence of homophobic attitudes toward homosexual males and the degree of identity development. The second hypothesis posed was that when controlling for initial homophobic attitudes toward heterosexuals among heterosexual males in their first semester of college, there will be a relationship between the nature and extent of exposure to homosexuality during the semester and subsequent homophobic attitudes at the conclusion of the semester. Two research questions were asked to determine the possible existence of a relationship between religious and fraternity involvement and homophobia.
The first question asked: When controlling for initial homophobic attitudes toward homosexuals among first semester heterosexual males, will there be a relationship between involvement in a fraternity and subsequent degree of homophobia at the conclusion of the first semester? The second question asked: When controlling for initial homophobic attitudes toward homosexuals among first semester heterosexual males, will there be evidence of involvement in a religion and subsequent degree of homophobia at the conclusion of the first semester? Through his findings, the researcher hoped to show the efficacy of facilitating exposure to homosexuality as a means of addressing homophobia.
Pope DJ (1993).Male friendship: the correlation between homophobia, male sex role identity and intimacy in male friendship. PhD. Thesis, University of Southern California, DAI, Vol. B54-04, p. 2276.
Abstract by author: This research examined whether homophobia and male sex role identity can be distinguished empirically, and the relationships between intimacy in men’s friendship and the two outcomes of male sex role socialization. The data was examined to determine the correlation between these factors. Four surveys were used to gather the data necessary for this study. Homophobia, when defined as the fear of being perceived as Gay, was measured using the
Homophobia Index. Also, homophobia when defined as the fear of homosexuals was measured using the Attitude Toward Gays Scale. Male sex role identity was measured using the Gender Identity Scale. Closeness of friendship was measured using the Emotional Intimacy in Same Sex Friendship Scale. The sample composed of 67 homosexual and 82 heterosexual men between the ages of 17 and 67 were anonymously surveyed.
Discussion included the relationship between male sex role identity and homophobia and their correlation to intimacy in male friendship. Theoretical, clinical, and social/educational implications were also discussed, and ideas for future research presented.
Copies available from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los
Angeles, CA 90089-0182.
Purvis RT (1994).A strategy for the treatment of the effects of internalized homophobia in gay males. PSY.D. Thesis, Spalding University, DAI, Vol. B55-11, p. 5084, 214 pages.
Abstract by author: The present study undertook the development of a treatment strategy to reduce internalized homophobia and its effects in gay males and an evaluation of its efficacy. The under-pinnings of the treatment strategy were derived from three major areas of the literature which include: environmental correlates of internalized homophobia in gay males, the acquisition of a homosexual identity, and the identity consolidation phase of psychosocial development. To provide exploratory empirical support for the strategies so derived, a survey of helpful experiences was devised which asked gay males rating low on a measure of internalized homophobia to retrospectively rate how helpful certain experiences would have been in dealing with their own internalized homophobia. Ultimately, one hundred and seven gay men participated in the survey.
The results of their ratings suggest that experiences which promote cognitive restructuring (psychoeducational) and positive interpersonal experiences with other gay males as well as non-gay men and women are essential in reducing internalized homophobia and ameliorating its effects. The results of a literature review as well as the results from this survey were incorporated into an eight chapter interactive workbook. Each chapter consists of topical information followed by questions which promote interaction with the material. Additionally, suggestions to aid the therapist in providing clients with community references to maintain their therapeutic gains are included. Limitations of the intervention, survey, and evaluation are presented along with suggestions for future research.
Riskin SS (1994).The relationship between ageism and homophobia among social workers. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, Vol. 33-01, p. 98, 91 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between ageism and homophobia among graduate level social workers in the United States. A three-part questionnaire was mailed to a national, random sample of members of the National Association of Social Workers (N = 500). Two hundred eight (41.6%) of these social workers returned completed surveys. Two standardized scales were used to measure social workers’ attitudes towards gay, lesbian, and elderly clients:
Tuckman and Lorge’s Attitudes towards Old People and Herek’s Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gays. The study showed that social workers had a positive attitude towards both groups, and that there was a significant positive connection between the two measures of prejudice. The respondents were more likely to possess a favorable attitude if they were female, employed in a public agency, had no children, and were members of the Academy of Certified Social Workers. Implications of the findings for practice are discussed.
Rose CM (1995).Ego strength and internalized homonegativity. PSY.D. Thesis, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, DAI, Vol. B57-02, p. 1452, 75 pages.
Abstract by author: Past research has demonstrated that gay and lesbian identity development can have a profound effect upon psychological adjustment. Research has also demonstrated that there exists a correlation between internalized homonegativity and the subsequent psychological adjustment of gay and lesbian individuals. In light of these findings, the present study sought to examine the relationship between internalized homonegativity and a specific construct related to psychological adjustment, that of ego strength. A sample of 33 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants were administered the Barron Ego Strength Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Nungesser Homosexual Attitudes Inventory, and a demographic questionnaire designed specifically for this study.
A multiple regression analysis indicated that lower measured ego strength significantly predicted higher measured internalized homonegativity. Conversely, higher ego strength significantly predicted lower internalized homonegativity. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that males rated higher in internalized homonegativity than females. The main finding suggests that ego strength may be an important mitigating factor in working through internalized homonegativity and thus a crucial component of gay, lesbian, and bisexual identity development.
Salmi RP (1994).Changing attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men among college freshmen: the effects of a campus intervention program. PhD. Thesis, Boston College, DAI, Vol. A55-06, p. 1425, 125 pages.
Abstract by author: There has been an increase in harassment and hate crimes directed toward lesbian and gay students on campuses across the country. Many lesbian and gay students do not feel safe or supported in disclosing their sexual orientation to others. It has been shown that this inability to self-disclose may hinder the identity development of lesbian and gay students. It may also lead to a self-perpetuating cycle in which lesbian and gay students fearful of disclosure prevent others from getting to know them and so may reinforce negative stereotypes that exist.
The challenge for those concerned with promoting student development is to begin changing the negative attitudes of students toward lesbian women and gay men to create a more friendly campus environment for lesbian and gay students. It was the purpose of this study to examine the attitudes of college freshmen toward lesbian women and gay men and the effects of a program of interventions designed to change those attitudes.
A sample of freshman students (n = 215) was selected from two similar Catholic universities. An intervention program designed to change attitudes toward lesbians and gays was administered at one university and not at the other. The Daly Attitude Survey (1989) was employed to measure students’ attitudes in a pretest-post test design. Data were analyzed using analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and analyses of variance (ANOVA).
There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention program on changing the attitudes of students toward lesbians and gays. Students at both schools had a significant increase in scores from pretest to post test. Gender, religion and acquaintance with gays and lesbians were found to have a statistically significant effect on students’ attitudes.
Samis SM (1995).An injury to one is an injury to all: heterosexism, homophobia, and anti-gay/lesbian violence in greater Vancouver. M.A. Thesis, Simon Frazer University, MAI, Vol. 34-04, p. 1456, 151 pages, ISBN: 0-612-06796-3.
Abstract by author: This thesis assesses the nature and extent of anti-lesbian/gay violence, using the results of a 1994 survey of 420 lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in Greater Vancouver. It explores the relationship between personal attributes and lifestyle practices and likelihood of victimization. As well, it examines why the majority of homophobic incidents are not reported to authorities, as well as the relationship between level of ‘outness’ about one’s sexual orientation and the likelihood of reporting incidents.
The survey data reveal that the vast majority of lesbians, gay men and bisexuals in Greater Vancouver have faced some form of discrimination or harassment or have been bashed due to their sexual orientation. The data suggest that, of sampled respondents, the most frequent victims of homophobic violence are those individuals who are most out, who are most active in and integrated into lesbian and gay communities, who live in lesbian or gay neighborhoods (males only), or who most conform to popular stereotypes of what lesbians and gay men should look, act, or be like.
The results reveal important differences between males and females in determining the nature of victimization. The sample data also indicate that most anti-lesbian/gay violence in Vancouver is never reported to authorities. However, the sample data suggest that if a report is made, it is more likely to be made by those who are out than those who are not. The thesis represents the largest and most comprehensive examination of homophobic violence in Canada to date......
Schwartz LB (1990). Adolescent and young adult sexuality: a study of self-identified lesbian and gay youth. PhD. Thesis. University of Pennsylvania, DAI, Vol. B51-07, p. 3616, 271 pages.
Abstract by author: One hundred and ninety-seven self-identified lesbian and gay male youths (157 males, 40 females), between the ages of 14 and 22, from across the country, were surveyed for this study. Data were gathered concerning gay male and lesbian youth’s knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV disease, their safer sex behaviors, internal homophobia (how s/he feels about her/himself being lesbian/gay), anti-lesbian and gay bias (how s/he perceives the world thinks and feels about lesbians and gay males) and ‘coming out.’ To gather these data, I visited fourteen social support groups, which have been established for lesbian and gay youth, across the country. A ninety-seven item questionnaire, based on the works of DiClemente, Nungesser, Troiden, Kirby and others, was distributed. Informal interviews were also conducted with volunteers from the youth groups.
Results of the present study indicate that lesbian and gay males are informed about HIV disease, one hundred and nineteen (60.4%) scored ninety or above on the knowledge section of the questionnaire. An additional fifty-six (28.5%) scored between eighty and ninety. Thus, these results suggest gay and lesbian youth do gain information about HIV disease. When these participants were asked what is the worst thing about being lesbian/gay, one hundred and thirty one (66%) cited homophobia. In addition, data using Pearson correlation coefficients indicated relationships existed between internal homophobia and ‘coming out,’ anti-lesbian and gay bias and ‘coming out,’ willingness to disclose one’s orientation, internal homophobia, an overall sense of homophobia and ‘coming out.’
The findings of this study indicate that sociopsychological prejudices associated with being lesbian and gay in this society (internal homophobia and anti-lesbian and gay bias) have a tremendous impact on the maturing adolescent and young adult. These findings suggest schools, educators, administrators and counselors need to work together to end the prejudice and oppression surrounding sexual orientations as well as to develop programs to meet the special needs of this population.
Publication No. 9026639
Sewell R (1997).Violent politics and the politics of violence: the criminalization of anti-lesbian/gay violence . PhD. Thesis, The Ohio Srare University, DAI, Vol. A58-05, p. 1930, 106 pages.
Abstract by author: The majority of states deny civil rights to lesbians and gay men and half the states criminalize consensual sex between adults of the same sex. Nonetheless, in 1994, 13 states had enacted hate crimes statutes protecting gays and lesbians from bias motivated attacks. This study addresses this issue by examining the determinants of gay/lesbian inclusive hate crime statutes.
Logistic regression results indicate that whether or not a state has enacted a hate crime statute protecting gays and lesbians is a function of four factors: state repression, economic resources, opponent’s power/political environment, and communication/mobilization efforts. The latter factor, communication/mobilization efforts, suggests that the gay and lesbian press plays a key role in determining the success of gay and lesbian initiatives at the state level.
Sheagren JR (1997). Reducing negative social stereotypes: an examination of predictive empathy. M.A. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, MAI, Vol. 35-03, p. 911, 63 pages.
Abstract by author: This paper examines the concept of predictive empathy as a means of reducing negative social stereotypes toward male homosexuals. Predictive empathy is defined as the prediction of another’s feelings or actions in a particular situation. It is the attempt to experience something from another’s perspective. Past research has suggested its potential to increase tolerance and decrease negative attitudes toward another.
Subjects were shown a videotape of a gay man in various situations. At strategic points, subjects were asked to predict the man’s responses, imagine themselves in his position, or to watch his mannerisms. It was expected that subjects in the predict condition would report fewer stereotypes than the other conditions.
Results demonstrated that both predicting and imagining significantly reduced stereotypes. Also examined was the effectiveness of a two-sided communication (acknowledging negative stereotypes) versus a one-sided communication as a means of reducing stereotypes. Gender differences were predicted and observed.
Finally, contact hypotheses were discussed.
Tucker GM (1996).A comparison of the attitudes of gay and nongay men toward gay men: testing Herek’s Psychological Functional Approach. PhD. Thesis, Temple University, DAI, Vol. B57-03, p. 2226, 102 pages.
Abstract by author: This study examined gay men and nongay men’s attitudes toward gay men. Specifically, the psychological functions of attitudes, developed by Herek, were explored. This approach postulates that people express different attitudes for different reasons and that even an individual’s attitude may serve different functions (experiential-schematic, defensive, and symbolic). It is important to undertake this research due to the dearth of literature comparing nongay and gay men, and the fact that men express more intense homophobic attitudes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the following hypotheses: (1) Sexual orientation is related to homophobia; (2) Sexual orientation is related to psychological functions; (3) Psychological functions are related to homophobia; (4) Acquaintance with a gay man is related to homophobia; (5) There is a relationship between religiosity and homophobia. Participants were recruited from classes and organizations from a large Northeastern university as well as community organizations in the area. Fifty gay men and 50 nongay men between the ages of 18 and 24 participated in this research by completing the Attitudes Toward Gay Men scale, Attitudes Function Inventory, and Religious Ideology Scale.
Results of the study indicated the following: (1) Nongay men held significantly more negative attitudes toward gay men than gay men; (2) There was a difference between gay men and nongay men in regards to psychological functions. For nongay men, attitudes were significantly influenced by defensiveness toward gay men; (3) Defensive functions were the single best predictor of homophobic attitudes, with the best pair of predictors of homophobia being defensive functions coupled with social-expressive functions; (4) Men who knew a gay man held more positive attitudes toward them; and (5) Men who expressed greater religious orthodoxy tended to have more negative attitudes toward gay men. Implications, importance of the research, and future directions for research based on these findings are discussed.
This research has implications for clinicians, university programmers, workshop organizers and others to further understand the complexity of homophobia. It is important to continue to conduct this research and continue to study why people express negative attitudes toward gay men (and lesbians) until homophobia is eradicated and this research becomes obsolete.
Uchacz CP (1996).Masculinities: variations on the hegemonic masculine identity by university male athletes. M.H.K. Thesis, University of Windsor, MAI, Vol. 34-02, p. 611, 223 pages, ISBN: 0-612-01424-X.
Abstract by author: This study was designed to investigate male athletes’ perspectives pertaining to socially constructed ‘masculinities’. Three types of ‘masculinities’ emerged within the sample. The ‘Integrationist’ masculine identity included athletes who participated in both Type ‘A’ or team oriented, collision sports and Type ‘B’ or individually oriented, non-collision sports. These athletes are not afraid to challenge male authority, and support equal opportunity for both female athletes and gay male athletes within organized sports. The ‘Segregationist’ masculine identity consisted primarily of athletes who participated in Type ‘A’ sports. These athletes support deference to male authority and challenge the presence of females within organized sports. In addition, they also condone aggressive and violent behaviour and support the social isolation of female from male athletes. The ‘Individualist’ masculine identity consisted primarily of athletes who participated in Type ‘B’ sports. Like the athletes within the ‘Integrationist’ masculine identity, these athletes support equal opportunity in sport for both female athletes and gay male athletes. However, they also condone aggressive but not violent behaviour, and are not willing to sacrifice their physical well-being for participation when injured......
Walker-Matthews SG (1996). The effect of internalized homonegativity on the reaction of homosexual men to anti-gay social commentary. PhD. Thesis, The University of North Carolina, DAI, Vol. B57-09, p. 5936, 80 pages.
Abstract by author: This study measured changes in levels of dysphoria in homosexual males following exposure to a video containing negative social commentary about homosexuals and homosexuality. The primary prediction was that higher levels of internalized homonegativity result in greater vulnerability to dysphoric affect related to this exposure. Internalized homonegativity is defined as prejudicial views about homosexuals, which develop in early childhood prior to the recognition of one’s own homosexuality. As a result, the process of coming out is particularly difficult because it theoretically requires the incorporation of previously held anti-homosexual views into one’s new self-concept as a gay man.
Reduction in internalized homonegative beliefs through identity integration and disputation of prejudicial thinking is thought to be the primary task of the coming-out process. It was hypothesized that the difference between gay men who react toward anti-gay attitudes with depressive affect and those who learn to cope with social prejudice without becoming dysphoric was the level of internalized anti-gay beliefs. Those men who have been able to resolve these issues would be buffered against dysphoria.
The subjects were 69 men (36 self-identified as homosexual, 33 as heterosexual) between the ages of 18 and 54 who were sampled from four cities in the Piedmont area of North Carolina. All subjects completed counterbalanced pre- and post Depression Adjective Checklists, Self Esteem Scales, and Empathy Measures. The homosexual group completed the Internalized Homonegativity Scale and an Outness Measure. The heterosexual group completed the Index of Homophobia Scale.
The homosexual group scored significantly higher than the heterosexual group on their increase in depressive affect between pre- and post DACL administrations in response to exposure to anti-gay commentary. However, correlations between variables indicated that level of internalized homonegativity was not significantly correlated with change scores for the homosexual group. The level of internalized homonegativity, degree of ‘outness’, and self esteem were entered into a regression equation. Results demonstrated that none of these variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in dysphoria change scores. Therefore, these findings do not support the hypothesis that degree of internalized homonegativity affects the subjects’ vulnerability to dysphoric affect. A post hoc analysis of the heterosexual data, however, revealed that level of anti-gay beliefs, self esteem, and level of empathy all accounted for a significant portion of the variance in change scores. This finding provides unique information about the response of heterosexuals toward anti-gay prejudicial beliefs.
White DA (1997).Effects of a psychoeducational intervention on internalized homophobia. M.A. Thesis, San Jose State University, MAI, Vol. 35-05, p. 1531, 78 pages.
Abstract by author: The topic of homophobia has been the focus of much research as a general area of interest. Its impact on gay men and lesbians has also developed as a more specific study, which in turn has led to the concept of ‘internalized homophobia.’ Generally it is described as the internalization of society’s negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. This in turn is evaluated by its impact on the psycho-social development of the gay man or lesbian. This thesis addresses the topic of internalized homophobia and its purpose is twofold. The first objective is to investigate the effect of a psychoeducational intervention on levels of internalized homophobia, and secondly, to identify individual factors that are associated with personal levels of internalized homophobia.
Wurglitz GM (1995) Self-esteem and internalized homophobia in lesbians. Adler School of Professional Psychology, DAI Vol. B56-08, p. 4598, 135 pages.
Abstract by author: Historically, lesbianism has been considered a developmental disorder, evil, sinful, illegal, perverted, and immoral. A lesbian’s low-status position in society due to the double stigma of gender and a same-gender sexual orientation is reflected in negative cognitive and affective personal reactions called ‘homophobia.’ This study explores the relation between self-esteem and internalized homophobia in a sample of 81 self-identified lesbians recruited through women’s support groups, through flyers in women’s bookstores, and through an advertisement in lesbian and non-lesbian periodicals.
Exploring the writings of Allport, Freud, selected Neo-Freudians, and various Lesbian/Feminist Psychoanalytic authors, research hypotheses were chosen suggesting that self-esteem is negatively influenced by the presence of internalized homophobia. Further, it was hypothesized that self-esteem is enhanced and internalized homophobia is lowered by the amount of years a lesbian is ‘out,’ and by the amount of leisure time she spends within the lesbian/gay male community.
Results, however, indicated a nonsignificant relationship between homophobia and self-esteem. Moreover, an analysis of the data did not suggest that the amount of years as an ‘out’ lesbian, or the amount of leisure time spent with other women or men with a same-gender sexual orientation correlated with higher self-esteem or lowered internalized homophobia. Implications for future research are also discussed.
Young PJ (1997).Measure 9: Oregon’s 1992 anti-gay initiative. M.A. Thesis, Portland State University, MAI, Vol. 35-05, p. 1217, 191 pages.
Abstract by author: In 1992 Oregon voters rejected Measure 9, an anti-gay initiative sponsored by the Oregon Citizens Alliance, a conservative, religious organization. Measure 9 sought to amend the Oregon Constitution to prohibit the state from establishing civil rights protections based on sexual orientation. Its passage also would have required government agencies and schools to set a standard that declared homosexuality as abnormal and perverse. The Measure 9 campaign was emotional and divisive. Rhetoric was at an all-time high as the issue of gay-rights made front-page news, and Oregonians from all walks of life were forced to examine their beliefs about homosexuality, religion, family values, and discrimination. Oregon received world-wide attention as the campaign grew more sensational. Opponents blamed Measure 9 for creating a climate that contributed to the rise of violence. They also said Measure 9 was a danger to all Oregonians, as people wondered which group would be targeted next if it passed. Homosexuals were definitely the main target. The gay community responded to the threat in a variety of ways; from the formation of structured organizations to oppose it, to individuals acting on their own. The thesis tells the story of Measure 9. It describes how and why the OCA was formed and why the OCA sponsored Measure 9. The thesis covers the main themes of the campaigns for and against Measure 9, and above all, documents how the gay community responded. Sources include newspaper articles, campaign literature, and personal interviews. Measure 9 is an example of the Religious Right operating at the local level. It’s part of the history of gay-rights. And it’s part of Oregon history.
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The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Their presence at this European Gay / Bisexual Male Youth Suicidality web site was made possibible with the collaboration of Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links2a.htm) is located.
Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary. She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.
The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.
This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.
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