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Brautigam, Christel Katharina Ireme (2004). The Image of Homosexuality in Recent Novels for Young Adults. Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF
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Bridge, Sally (2010). No place on the shelves? Are Northern Ireland’s school libraries addressing the information needs of their lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered students? Master's Dissertation, Department of Information Studies, Aberystwyth University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Bridgman, Becky L (2008). LGBTQ Course(s) in Public Education. Master's Dissertation, Division of Teacher of Education of the College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Health Services. PDF Download. Download Page.
Busch, Rebecca (2006). Wisconsin School Counselor Perceptions of Schol Climate Experiences of Gay and Lesbian Youth. Master of Science Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout. PDF
Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li (2008). “It’s stupid being a girl!” The Tomboy character in Selected Children’s Series Fiction. PhD. Dissertation, Murdoch University, Australia. PDF
Correa, Dierdra Marie (2009). Creating
a socially supportive environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual,
transgender, and questioning youth through education, advocacy, and
school-based support groups. Master's Dissertation, California State University, Long Beach. PDF
Working Through Tension: A Response to the Concerns
of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Secondary School Students. PhD Dissertation,
Youth Research Centre, Department of Education Policy and Management, University
of Melbourne. PDF Downloads (Download
Davison, Kevin G (1996). Manly expectations: memories of masculinities in school. Master's Dissertation, Education, Simon Fraser University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Denton, Mary Jean (2009). The lived experiences of lesbian/Gay/[bisexual/transgender] educational leaders. PhD. Dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Minnesota. PDF
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Eaton LE (2005). Constructing Rainbow Classrooms: Non-heterosexual Students Journey Toward Safer Schools. PhD. Dissertation. Educational Research, Leadership, and Policy Analysis, North Carolina State University. PDF
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Fong, Sabrina (2010). Homophobic bullying and safety for queer youth in high school, a retrospective study. Masters' Dissertation, Social Work, California State University Sacramento. PDF Download. Download Page.
French J (2009). Support of marginalized students in science: An examination of successful lesbian individuals in science career paths. PhD. Dissertation, College of Education and Human Ecology, Ohio State University. PDF
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Glynn, Warrick (1999). Non-hegemonic
masculinities and sexualities in the secondary school: construction and
regulation within a culture of heteronormativity. Masters dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Melbourne. PDF
Gobby, Brad (2006). Captured becomings: An assemblage of sexual difference, neoliberal capitalism and bodies in the boys‘ education debate. Master's Dissertation, Education, Murdoch University, Australia. PDF
Healey, Norma M (2004). Is curriculum in the closet? Instructors' perceptions about gay and lesbian content in Alberta university gender courses. Master's Dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of Lethbridge. PDF
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Hoffman, Jennifer D (2001). Teachers' perceptions on including gay and lesbian issues in the classroom. Master's Dissertation, University of Wisconsin. PDF
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Hooker, Steven Dale (2010). Closeted or Out? Gay and Lesbian Educators Reveal Their Experiences about Their Sexual Identities in K-12 Schools. EdD Dissertation, University of Cincinnati. PDF Download. Download Page.
Kiyak SE (2004). Teacher Management o Homophobia and Homosexuality in High Schools. Master's Dissertation, Rowan University. PDF
Knight, Calvin (2000). The Triangle Program: Experiences of Lesbian, Bisexual and Gay Students in the Classroom. Master's Dissertation, Ontario lnstitute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. PDF Download.
Koehler. Elizabeth M (2011). The School Library Can Do More to Counteract Homophobia. Master's Dissertation, School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PDF
Kuban, Kaila Gabrielle (2010). That Which Is Not What It Seems: Queer Youth, Rurality, Class and the Architecture of Assistance. PhD Dissertation, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts - Amherst. PDF
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Duane Joseph (2009). Out of the Classroom Closet: Why Only Some Gay and
Lesbian Teachers Are Out. Master's Dissertation, Department of
Educational Psychology and Leadership Studies, University of Victoria. PDF
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Lee JR (2000). Teenage boys' perceptions of the influence of teachers and school experiences on their understanding of masculinity. PhD. Dissertation, School of Religious Education, Faculty of Education, Australian Catholic University. PDF
Mabitla, Makwetle Aubrey (2006). Causes and manifestation of aggression among secondary school learners. Master's dissertation, Education, University of South Africa. PDF
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Macintosh, Lori B (2004). Queering the body’(s) politic? : GSAs, citizenship and education. Master's Dissertation, Educational Studies, University of British Columbia. PDF
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Mac Manus E (2004). The school-based lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Master of Science Dissertation. University College Dublin, Ireland. Word Download.
Madison, Dale Guy (2010). How Can the Use of Arts Education Make an Impact on the LGBT Youth who are at Risk. Master's Dissertation, Education, Antioch University, Los Angeles. PDF Download. Download Page. Author Articles.
Mahaffey, Cynthia Jo (2004). Wearing
the Rainbow Triangle: The Effect of Out Lesbian Teachers and Lesbian
Teacher Subjectivities on Student Choice of Topics, Student Writing,
and Student Subject Positions in the First-Year Composition Classroom. PhD. Dissertation, English/Rhetoric and Writing, Bowling Green State University. PDF
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Mayo, James B Jr (2005). Negotiating
Curricular Boundaries And Sexual Orientation: The Lived Experiences Of
Gay Secondary Teachers In West Central Florida. PhD. Dissertation, Department of Secondary Education, College of Education, University of South Florida. PDF
McIntyre, Elizabeth (2008-2010). Teacher discourse on lesbian gay and bisexual pupils in Scottish schools.
The Silence. Unpublished paper containing excerpts from a dissertation
accepted as part of a Doctoral Award in Educational Psychology,
University of Newcastle, 2007. Word Download.
Mikulsky, Jacqueline A (2005). "In
or ‘Out?’": An Examination of the Effects of School Climate on Same-Sex
Attracted Students in Australia. PhD Disseration, Faculty of Education
and Social Work. University of Sydney. PDF
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Mondanaro, Janelle (2007). Teaching tolerance through lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning young adult literature. Master's Dissertation, Department of Middle and High School Education, The City University of New York. PDF
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Morgan DJ (2003). Knowledge and attitudes of preservice teachers towards students who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered. PhD. Dissertation, University of North Texas. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.
Murphy, Julia Anne (1999). "Targeted" young adult fiction: the need for literature speaking to gay/lesbian and African-American youth. Master's Dissertation. Full
Text. Referencing Page.
Navarra, Joseph (2011). Urban High School Climate: Students’ Perceptions of Bullying and Homophobic Remarks in School. Master's Dissertation, Counselor Education, The College at Brockport: State University of New York. PDF Download. Download Page.
Plante, Kelly J (2008). The Impact of a Gay Straight Alliance on Middle and High School Age Students. Master's Dissertation, Guidance and Counaeling, University ofWisconsin-Stout. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page.
Powell, Gailene Yvonne (2003). Artist's Notes on Belonging. Master's Dissertation, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia. PDF
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Starfield, Amanda Louise (2008). Adult support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questinging (LGBTQQ) youth in high school. MSW Dissertation, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. PDF
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Travers, Shaun (2006). Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Issues in Education. PhD. Dissertation, Education in Educational Leadership. PDF Download.
Wehner RD (2004). Methods to Ensure a Safe Environnment for Homosexual Students in High School: a literature review and analysis. Master's dissertation, Guidance and Counselling, University of Wisconsin-Stout. PDF Download. Download Page.
Wickens, Corrine Marie (2007). Queering young adult literature: examining sexual minorities in contemporary realistic fiction. PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University. PDF Download. Download Page.
Wynne, Nora (2008). An Analysis of Student Teacher Preparation in Relation to Homophobia. Master's Dissertaton, Education, Humboldt State University. PDF
Abstract by author: Utilizing five instruments, this study examined the attitudes/feelings, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors of middle level teachers regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues as they relate to middle level students; the extent to which the demographic variables of the teachers related to these dependent variables; and the extent to which their attitudes/feelings, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors were related.
Twelve hundred randomly selected public school middle level teachers in Colorado were surveyed, and responses were received from 369 teachers (31%). The principal findings were:
(1) Most teachers expressed moderate to high levels of homophobia and had moderate to high numbers of misconceptions about homosexuality and homosexuals;
(2) Most teachers had never had a course nor participated in a professional development activity that included information regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues, and there was clearly a lack of knowledge (awareness) about issues facing gay and lesbian youth;
(3) Teachers were slightly willing to positively address issues of homosexuality and gay and lesbian students in the school, especially in the area of student harassment, but there was still much hesitation expressed in the area of proactive teaching roles, particularly in light of perceived lack of administrative support;
(4) Teachers who were more homophobic, had more misconceptions about homosexuality, had less knowledge about issues facing gay and lesbian youth, and projected that they might participate in fewer supportive behaviors and professional activities relating to homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues, had one or more of the following traits: were male; had some religious affiliation; were heterosexual; taught in a rural area; had 26 or more years of teaching experience; had less than three kinds of associations with a gay, lesbian, or bisexual person; and/or had zero courses o r professional development activities which included information regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues; and
(5) Teachers who were more homophobic were more likely to have a greater number of misconceptions about homosexuality, less likely to be knowledgeable about the issues facing gay and lesbian youth, and less likely to engage in behaviors and professional activities supportive of these issues.
Fisher JB (1996). The effect of an education program on teacher and school counselor knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding homosexuality and gay youth. Ph. D. Thesis, The University of Utah, DAI, vol. 57-04A, p. 1569, 213 pages.
Abstract by author: Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth comprise a population of young people who have been found to be underrepresented in the literature, although their needs are many. Studies show that gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth are at increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, substance abuse, dropping out of school, and suicide. The school is in a unique position to help with these issue, but often support for these youth is not available. The purpose of this study was to determine if a course about gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth issues would increase secondary education teacher and school counselor knowledge level, and decrease homophobic attitudes and beliefs. In order to test the research question, a pretest posttest control group design was utilized with 14 subjects in the treatment group and 15 subjects in the control group.
The subjects participated in a 27-hour course about homosexuality and gay youth issues. All participants received four questionnaires as the pretest and posttest: The Modified Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (MATHS), the Index of Homophobia (IHP), the Index of Attitudes Toward Gay Students, and the Information About Homosexuality Index. The control group received the course following the completion of the treatment group course and were again posttested. Results by MANCOVA analysis at the p< .05 level indicated inconclusive results (F = 2.7909, p =.054). Post hoc analyses combined treatment and control groups (N = 29).
Results indicated that change did occur in participants over time, although these results must be interpreted with caution due to a lack of control group for this procedure.
Recommendations for future studies include increasing the sample size utilizing the same design, looking at those with extreme attitudes toward homosexuality, addressing more personal biases of participants, the inclusion of more bisexuality information, modifying the curriculum to address population needs, and studying the long-term effects of such a course. Other recommendations include ideas for working with school districts on sensitive issues, and how to deal with community and political pressure.
Ginsberg RW (1996). In the triangle/out of the circle: gay and lesbian students' school experience. Ed. D. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, DAI, vol. 58-01A, p. 72, 163 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation research was a study of the school experience of students in gay/lesbian support groups in two high schools located in a mid-sized southwestern city. A qualitative methodology incorporated the tools of ethnography and naturalistic inquiry to guide the observations and interviews of students both in and out of the "closet" who participated in these support groups. Analysis of the data yielded the need for the public teaching institutions to provide opportunities for gay/lesbian students to explore questions related to their shared sexual identity.
The stories delivered in the students' own voices provided a basis for understanding gay/lesbian students in the context of their school experience. Their previously unheard voices contribute another dimension to the educational discourse and incorporates a deeper understanding of and appreciation for the similarities and differences that characterize today's adolescent population in schools.
The study found that the homosexual adolescents in the study population spent a major portion of their school lives feeling isolated, fearful, and confused, forced to confront their emerging sexuality in settings that range, as they understood it, from ignorance of their existence, on the one hand, to open hostility, on the other. The study also found that these gay/lesbian adolescents exhibited considerable ambivalence about their sexual identity and, that apart from this one aspect of their lives, they appear to be much like their heterosexual peers, even with respect to their attitudes toward homosexuality and in the extent and nature of their sexual activity.
Nevertheless, this singular difference likely is the core reason behind a gay/lesbian adolescent rate of suicide that is almost three times that of the adolescent population at large. Responding to this national problem, a few schools have established on campus support groups wherein trained counselors facilitate discussion among students who may be questioning their sexuality or simply are curious about the topic. This study, based on the activities of two such support groups, found the adolescents hoped for the continuance of these groups; they considered the groups to be of vital importance to them at this point in their life.
A review of the existing literature revealed that although much has been written about the subject of gays/lesbians, a dearth of literature exists. Also, much of that literature has been generated outside of the academy and includes fiction and "new media" forms of which many educators are unaware. Thus, the study includes an appraisal of the breath of pertinent literature and a list of references that may aid future researchers. Recommendations as to the kinds of future research that could further illuminate the subject, and recommendations regarding curricula, teacher education, and the implementation of gay/lesbian support groups also comprise an important part of the conclusions.
Harbeck KM (1987). Personal freedoms/public constraints: an analysis of the controversy over the employment of homosexuals as school teachers. (Volumes I and II) Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, DAI, vol. 48-07A, p. 1862, 611 pages.
Abstract by author: Although society has confronted the issue of the homosexual school teacher since Socrates educated the youth of Greece, it was not until the 1950's that laws were enacted for the first time to prohibit lesbians and gay men from teaching school. Since World War II, changing views of individual civil liberties and minority rights have threatened the traditional power of school officials to hire, fire and credential teachers.
Social and legal consensus on the definition of "immoral" conduct has broken down in the face of changing sexual mores, expanding personal freedoms, and the emerging collective political identity of lesbians and gay men. This study traces the social, legal, political, and historical contexts of these competing values as exemplified in the litigation and legislation on homosexual teachers.
A computerized search of federal and state case law pertaining to homosexuality and teacher dismissal identified thirty-nine cases. Additional information was gathered from the attorneys and special interest groups that participated in this litigation. State and local efforts to regulate the employment of homosexual teachers also were analyzed, including California's Proposition 6 Initiative, Oklahoma's Helm's legislation, referendum efforts in Dade County, Florida and other communities, and the anti-discrimination policies enacted by school boards and municipalities across the nation.
Litigation on homosexual educators commenced in the 1950's in an era of Communist purges and police action against lesbians and gay men. Under California law, the arrest of a teacher was reported to school officials. Litigation challenged the procedural legitimacy of this action. With the Morrison decision in 1969, however, precedent was set for teachers' rights and homosexual rights. This trend continued until 1977 and 1978, when fundamentalist conservatives challenged anti-discrimination protections for homosexuals and then moved to ban lesbians and gay men from the teaching profession.
Since 1978 there has been renewed support for homosexual educators, but the litigation demonstrates social and legal indecision and the judiciary's attempt to avoid establishing social policy in this domain. In the light of the conservative majority on the United States Supreme Court and their deference to states' rights, it is likely that policy decisions will occur on the state level.
Hollier GD Jr (1996). A study of school counselors' perceptions with respect to counseling gay and lesbian students in the school setting. Ed. D. Thesis, University of Houston, DAI, vol. 57-09, p. 3825, 96 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to describe the feelings and attitudes that middle and high school counselors in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas have concerning counseling gay and lesbian students in their schools. The research design used was the survey method. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data reflecting the Texas Rio Grande Valley school counselors' attitudes and feelings with respect to counseling gay and lesbian students in the school setting. Every middle and high school counselor in the thirty-two independent school districts in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas were mailed the survey questionnaire and asked to participate in this study.
In the thirty-two school districts in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, there were four hundred middle and high school counselors identified for this study. Each of the four hundred middle and high school counselors were provided a survey packet which was sent to them through the United States Postal Service. Of these four hundred middle and high school counselors one hundred and eighty-nine responded. This study achieved a 47.3 percent return rate. A thirty-four-item questionnaire was utilized in this study based on a comprehensive literature review on homosexuality developed by Dr. James H. Price and Susan K. Telljohann of the University of Toledo (Price and Telljohann, 1991). The comprehensive analysis of the survey data consists of analysis of frequency of responses, percentages of responses, and standard deviations.
The findings of this study suggest that the majority of the counselors that participated in this study are unenlightened concerning: (1) the existence of gay and lesbian adolescent students in their schools; (2) the specific issues and problems that are peculiar to gay and lesbian adolescent students; and (3) the etiology and criteria for establishing gay and lesbian sexual orientations. Recommendations for providing the middle and high school counselors of the Rio Grande Valley with the means to improve their knowledge and counseling skills for this at risk adolescent student population are offered.
Jones PJ (1995). An assessment of secondary school counselors' HIV-related knowledge, attitude, and stage of moral development. Ed. D. Thesis, The College of William and Mary, DAI, vol. 56-11A, p. 4281, 127 pages.
Abstract by author: This study focused on secondary school counselors employed in public schools in the state of Virginia. It investigated the direction and strength of the relationship of level of moral development, locus of control, HIV knowledge and HIV attitudes. Locus of control was measured by Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E Scale). The Defining Issues Test (DIT) was used to assess counselor level of moral development. An HIV questionnaire examined counselor attitudes and knowledge. Kohlbery's theory of moral development provided the basis for the study. It was hypothesized that the level of moral development would show a significant positive relationship with the counselors' HIV knowledge and a significant negative relationship with the counselors' HIV attitudes.
Additional hypotheses suggested that the locus of control would relate positively to counselors' HIV attitudes and negatively with HIV knowledge. A significant negative correlation was predicted between counselors' moral level of development and locus of control. Of the 286 secondary schools contacted, 118 counselors elected to participate. They completed an HIV questionnaire, the I-E Scale, and the DIT. All assessments were conducted during the spring of 1995. Data from the study were submitted to product-moment correlations to test the hypotheses. In addition, step-wise multiple regressions were used to analyze the survey variables: HIV attitude and HIV knowledge.
The data did not support a negative relationship between HIV knowledge and level of moral development. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between HIV attitude and level of moral development. There was statistical support for the existence of a negative correlation between locus of control and counselors' HIV knowledge. The positive relationship between locus of control and attitude was not supported. The study data supported the relationship between counselors' moral level of development and their locus of control. The higher the level of moral development, the lower (internal) the level of locus of control. Additional significant relationships were found and recorded. An analysis of responders versus non-responders on the DIT instrument was performed because of the large number of incomplete or unreturned test forms.
The study's data combined with the results of previous research suggested several areas of application: HIV education for counselors, college curriculum, counselor support groups, school systems, state departments, and professional organizations. While the results of the study apply specifically to secondary school counselors employed in the state of Virginia, there is no reason to believe that the specific location would affect the relationships between variables or limit the applicability to counselors in other states.
Suggestions for further study included expanding the survey to include middle school counselors or to include secondary school counselors in other states. Similar studies might be undertaken to assess counselors' attitudes and knowledge regarding gay adolescents or to determine the absence or presence of counselor homophobia. An additional area for exploration includes a survey of counselor education programs' inclusion or exclusion of HIV/AIDS training.
Juul TP (1994). A survey to examine the relationship of the openness of self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual public school teachers to job stress and job satisfaction. PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI, vol. 56-02A, p. 416, 369 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to improve and enrich our understanding of how the disclosure or non-disclosure of a lesbian, gay male, or bisexual teacher's sexual orientation at work influences his or her perceptions of job satisfaction and job stress. Consideration was also given to the general level of job satisfaction and job stress among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual teachers as compared to previous studies using the same instrumentation with assumed heterosexual populations.
Differences between the three Affectional Identity groups were examined in the areas of job satisfaction, job stress, and identity-disclosure. Membership in a gay teacher organization was appraised as a factor in job satisfaction, job stress, and identity. Supplementary analysis was undertaken to assess the effects of tenure, age, level of school, type of community, and AIDS deaths on job satisfaction, job stress, identity, and demographic variables.
Approximately fourteen hundred survey packets were distributed to thirteen previously contacted gay and/or lesbian teacher organizations. Each packet contained two surveys. Each member was asked to give the second survey (snowball) to another known, non-member lesbian, gay male, or bisexual colleague. Nine hundred and four surveys were returned prior to the cut-off date. Results indicated that open lesbian, gay male, and bisexual teachers experienced greater job satisfaction across interpersonal factors. Those who had openly confronted the heterosexual assumption experienced greater satisfaction with administrators and were more self-actualized. Identity dissonance was significantly lower for open teachers. Those who were open with administrators showed an increased sense of personal accomplishment.
The sample was generally more satisfied and slightly more stressed than teachers in previous studies. Differences were found between lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals in job satisfaction and job stress. Lesbians were generally more satisfied and more stressed than gay males. Bisexuals were least satisfied and most stressed. Memberships of gay and/or lesbian teacher organizations showed no differences in job satisfaction or job stress than non-members; however, there were significant differences in openness and identity-disclosure. Tenure was not shown to be related to openness. AIDS related deaths were related to openness, increased job satisfaction, and decreased stress.
Kivel BD (1996). In on the outside, out on the inside: lesbian/gay/bisexual youth, identity and leisure. Ed. D. Thesis, University of Georgia, DAI, vol. 57-03A, p. 1322, 223 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to understand the role of leisure as a context for identity formation among young people, ages 18-23, who, during high school, self-identified as being lesbian/gay/bisexual. Leisure has been identified as one of several important contexts for identity formation among young people. The bulk of literature on adolescent identity formation, however, does not typically include the experiences of lesbian/gay/bisexual youth. At the same time, most of the research literature on lesbian/gay/bisexual youth focuses on the self-destructive behaviors in which they engage as a result of the isolation and concomitant homophobia they experience in their respective communities. Very little attention has been paid to examining the different contexts of development among this segment of the adolescent population. Another purpose of this study, then, is to broaden the mainstream discourse about adolescents and development and to begin to understand the role of leisure as a context for identity formation among lesbian/gay/bisexual youth.
Participants were chosen from a lesbian/gay/bisexual student group on a college campus in the southeastern United States. Four sampling strategies were used: stratified purposeful, criterion-based, convenience and snowball. Ten participants, five women, five men, including four youth of African-American descent, one young person of Chinese descent, one participant of Russian/middle eastern, Jewish descent, and four young people of European American descent were chosen for this study. The participants ranged in age from 19-23.
Participants were interviewed on two separate occasions between April and September, 1995, and were asked to reflect, retrospectively, about their experiences of leisure and the ways in which leisure contexts helped them to negotiate their understanding of themselves, their relationships with others and with the world while in high school. The data were analyzed using narrative analysis and modified constant comparative analysis. Two chapters of findings were developed. Chapter 4 includes individual profiles with an analysis of the relationship between identity and leisure for each participant; and Chapter 5 includes a discussion about the findings in terms of categories.
The core category suggests that leisure is a context for developing personal identity among young people, between the ages of 18-23, who, during high school, self-identified as being lesbian/gay/bisexual. The two supporting categories suggest that for participants in this study leisure was experienced on a continuum of "doing and being" and the marginalization of lesbian/gay/bisexual youth influenced their identity and their choices within leisure contexts. This study focused on understanding leisure as a context for identity formation at the personal, individual level. Future studies should focus on examining this issue at the level of the individual and at the level of cultural ideology. The next step is to begin to understand how leisure contexts contribute to a hegemonic process which creates "insiders" and "outsiders."
Knowles EA (1997). Experiences of gay and lesbian educators who work in Massachusetts school participation in the safe school program. Ed. D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, 58-02, p. 352, 291 pages.
Abstract by author: The silence and invisibility of gay and lesbian educators has perpetuated the oppression of heterosexism in our schools. Some affected areas are educational policy, curriculum, and the school environment itself. Gay and lesbian students and educators are at risk in most schools because safe working and learning environments do not always exist for those who are not heterosexual. In 1992, Massachusetts Governor William Weld created the nation's first Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth to investigate the epidemic of suicides by gay and lesbian adolescents. School environments, with regard to homophobia, were outlined. Students and teachers testified of verbal and physical abuse of gay and lesbian students.
The Safe Schools Program was created to address these issues and to promote safe and supportive school environments to assist gay and lesbian students in realizing their full learning potential. Through in-depth interviewing, data was gathered from "explicitly out" (Griffin, 1992) gay and lesbian educators who work at Massachusetts schools participating in the Safe Schools Program. From the interview data, portraits of each participant were shaped and common themes identified, to answer the question, "What is it like to be a gay or lesbian educator working in a Massachusetts school participating in the Safe Schools Program?" Data was viewed through the lenses of oppression theory, heterosexism and identity theory.
Participants stated their negative
experiences were tied to homophobia, mostly internalized, which paralleled
past studies. Their positive experiences were related to being "out." They
described reaching a level of self-acceptance to be "out" at school and
in their daily lives.
For the participants, working in the Safe Schools Program was a positive experience. For the schools they work in, there has been forward motion toward a safer environment. Gay and lesbian educators make the Safe Schools Program a success and the Safe Schools Program gives them the social and legal permission to do the work. Future research could study experiences of gay or lesbian educators who are closeted and work in participating schools, who are "publicly out" (Griffin, 1992) and working in Safe Schools Programs, or who reside in other states.
Lipkin AS (1990). A staff development program for antihomophobia education in the secondary schools. Ed.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, vol. 51-08A, p. 2713, 266 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of the study was, having elaborated a theoretical rationale, to assess the impact of a twelve-hour anti-homophobia workshop on the attitudes and professional practice of 16 staff participants at the public high school in Cambridge, Massachusetts.The theoretical aspect included an application of Kohlberg moral development theory and theories of sexism to an analysis of homophobia. The resulting Stage Model of bigotry was used in conducting the voluntary staff development workshop, "Gay and Straight at CRLS: Creating a Caring Community."
The methodology included analysis of the responses to a questionnaire and interview given two years after the workshop was conducted. The results show that participants were more likely to be female, politically and religiously liberal staff members with little or no academic experience with the topic of homosexuality. Response to the workshop was very positive with an emphasis on empathizing with families of gay/lesbian people, being moved by testimony of co-workers dealing with their own experiences as gay/lesbian teachers or as parents of gay/lesbian children, and recognizing the inhospitable environment at the high school for gay/lesbian students.
Most of the participants felt the workshop sharpened their view of homosexuality as an issue at the school and made them more likely to confront homophobic attitudes/behaviors around them. Participants' near unanimous support for a gay/lesbian student support group, which has been formed at the school as a consequence of the workshop, underscores the idea that a community of caring (Kohlberg Stage 3) was the moral atmosphere created by the workshop.
Lubking SW (1995). Perceptions of captains of female high school teams with regard to coaching as a career. Ed.D. Thesis, Temple University, DAI, vol. 56-04A, p. 1287, 226 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of captains of female high school athletic teams with regard to coaching as a career choice. Identifying potential causes for the decrease in numbers of women coaches may provide insight to the resolution of the problem. Through initial survey and ensuing ethnographic interviews with selected subjects, perceptions of captains of female high school athletic teams toward their athletic experiences and coaching as a career were examined.
Review of the literature showed increases in participation rates for girls in sports while, at the same time, numbers of female coaches have declined as evidenced in studies by various researchers. The literature review indicated that social approval of significant others and behaviors learned from negative and/or positive models in social situations have an effect on the development of sex-roles, the self, and choices made in sport. It was also found that homophobic behaviors and gender stereotyping have an impact on girls' sports activities.
Analysis of the results of the study indicate that, with one exception, demographic factors of race, religion, and economic status had no statistically significant effect on subjects' choice of coaching as a career. Evidence was found that the educational level of the father was associated with influence on coach career decisions. Several psychosocial factors were significantly associated with coaching choice. These included social approval of significant others; stereotyping of female coaches as gay/lesbian with resultant homophobic behavior experienced toward female athletes; a perceived negative male model of coaching; and lack of motivation, encouragement, or activity from significant others in presenting coaching as a desirable career option for girls.
Subjects showed a general lack of understanding of the responsibilities and professional training requirements involved with coaching. They displayed great confidence that they possessed the skills and qualities required of coaches while recognizing that they would need some experience to be fully competent to coach. A perception that coaching was more of a part-time job than a career was prevalent, perhaps due to the model they have experienced and the absence of knowledge with respect to coaching salaries.
Maddux JA (1988). The homophobic attitudes of preservice teachers. Ed.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati, DAI, vol. 49-08A, p. 2091, 299 pages.
Abstract by author: This quantitative descriptive study examined the effects of attitudes of pre-service teachers towards gay and lesbian students in the public school. The rationale for this study was based upon theories of attitudes formation, gender identification, sex-role development, the development of homosexual orientation, and the negative social stigmatization associated with adolescent homosexuality. Questionnaire packages were distributed to ninety pre-service teachers at the University of Cincinnati, and included three questionnaire instruments that assessed attitudes towards: (1) homosexuality in general, (2) distal and proximal relationships with homosexually oriented persons, and (3) teaching and working with homosexually oriented students. A fourth questionnaire assessed the subjects' knowledge about homosexuality and homosexually oriented persons.
Seven hypotheses were tested using scores from the four questionnaires and from a combined Single Score Homophobia Total, which served as the dependent variable. Independent variables included: (1) age, (2) gender, (3) religious affiliation, (4) parent's educational background, and (5) the extent to which a subject knew a gay or lesbian person. Descriptive statistics, raw percentages, stepwise regression analysis, Pearson correlations, analysis of variance, Scheffe Multiple Range testing, and predictive statistics were used to analyze the data. Reliability and validity assessments of the questionnaires were also completed. Quantitative results revealed the following positive conclusions: (1) A significant percentage of subjects expressed moderate to high levels of homophobic attitudes towards the issue of homosexuality, and gay and lesbian persons. (2) A significant percentage of subjects expressed moderate to high levels of homophobic attitudes towards gay and lesbian students. (3) All levels of homophobia scores recorded on the attitudes questionnaires correlated significantly to scores on the information about homosexuality instrument. (4) Fundamental Christianity was demonstrated to contribute significantly to increased levels of homophobia. (5) Subjects who knew a gay or lesbian demonstrated a lesser degree of homophobia than did subjects who did not know a gay or lesbian.
The results of this study corroborate testimony presented by gay and lesbian students concerning the homophobic environment currently operative in American public secondary schools.
Maher MJ Jr (1997). The dis-integration of a child: gay and lesbian youth in Catholic education. Ph. D. Thesis, Saint Louis University, DAI, vol. 58-08, p. 3078, 414 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation involved four studies: a document analysis of contemporary Catholic magisterial teaching on the philosophy of Catholic education as it pertains to the topic of homosexuality, a survey of incoming freshman at a Midwestern Catholic university on their level of agreement with 16 points of Catholic teaching on the topic of homosexuality, a study using in-depth interviews with 25 (13 male and 12 female) gay and lesbian adults who attended Catholic high schools and graduated in the 1980s and 1990s, a study using in-depth interviews with 12 counselors currently working in Catholic high schools. The document analysis yielded the conclusion that Catholic education must discuss the topic of homosexuality, must reduce homophobia in its students, parents, and teachers through education, and must provide support services for gay and lesbian students.
The survey (N = 103) demonstrated that students graduating from Catholic high schools generally had more positive attitudes toward homosexuality and gay and lesbian people than those graduating from non-Catholic high schools. Females generally had more positive attitudes than males. Among Catholic school graduates, those graduating from coeducational schools generally had more positive attitudes than those graduating from unisex schools. Agreement levels in terms of the Church's responsibilities to gay and lesbian people and the unacceptability of verbal harassment of gay and lesbian people were disturbingly low.
The study of gay and lesbian alumni of Catholic high schools demonstrated a theme of "Dis-integration." Subjects were dis-integrated socially, institutionally, spiritually, and in a terms of sexual identity. This is particularly important because integration at all these levels is a goal of Catholic education. The study of Counselors yielded the conclusion that Catholic schools generally are not doing enough to help this population.
Mandel LS (1996). Heterosexism, sexual harassment, and adolescent gender identity: a social and sexual continuum in junior high school. Ed. D. Thesis, Hofstra University, DAI, vol. 57-07A, p. 2775, 180 pages.
Abstract by author: This research explored how one aspect of gender socialization, heterosexuality, is a requirement for a culturally normative gender identity. Drawing on a total of 200 interviews and observations with adolescent girls and boys from a middle school and a junior high school on Long Island, this study explored the relationships between female and male descriptions of their gender identities and the heterosexist assumptions embedded in these definitions.
This study identified four assumptions about heterosexuality inherent in students' beliefs about what it means to be a girl/young woman and boy/young man. Further, this study documented five ways these assumptions are enforced in adolescent gender relations in school, in: (1) abusive language directed at girls and homophobic language directed at boys, (2) boys' disrespect of girls and sexual harassment in gender relations, (3) boys' physical aggression toward girls, (4) students' homophobic attitudes and behaviors toward gay males and lesbians, and (5) heterosexual displays in peer social culture.
The implications of this research on adolescent gender identity for practice, theory, and research are far-reaching. First, this study suggests that students' assumptions about heterosexuality perpetuate a norm of heterosexuality and constrain adolescent gender identity. Not only do students believe that a heterosexual identity is central to their gender identity, but stereotypic notions about femininity and masculinity largely inform their beliefs about who they are and who they cannot be. Beyond descriptions of femininity that focus on a girl's appearance and her affiliation with boys, what it means to be feminine is quite contradictory, confusing, and complex for many of these adolescent girls. Students' descriptions of masculinity are also stereotypic and are largely defined by an anti-feminine norm. Unlike the ways in which girls can and do value masculinity, boys do not and cannot value femininity.
Second, this study asserts that there
is a social and sexual curriculum in the culture of middle and junior high
schools by which girls and boys construct their gender identities. This
heterosexist curriculum, it is argued, perpetuates gender role stereotypes,
limits gender identities, empowers masculine boys and disempowers girls,
less masculine boys, lesbians, and gay males. The most pervasive indicators
of this curriculum - due to heterosexism - are illustrated in the amount
of gender disrespect, peer sexual harassment, homophobic language, and
the highly (hetero)sexualized nature of adolescent gender relations in
these middle and junior high schools.
Finally, this study suggests that as we teach girls to develop independence and their personal selves, rather than gain a sense of identity through their relationships with boys, and as we teach boys to develop caring, compassion, and sensitivity, and to develop emotional relationships with girls and boys, we can rewrite the curriculum and build a school culture that is less abusive, less sexualized, more supportive and growth-producing for girls and boys.
Nickerson SS (1980). A comparison of gay and heterosexual teachers on professional and personal dimensions. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida, DAI, vol. 41-09A, p. 3956, 137 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of the study was to provide more sophisticated data on gay teachers than the available anecdotal information. Three instruments were used to gather data on volunteer samples of self-labelled gay teachers (n = 30) and then self-labelled heterosexual teachers (n = 30) for comparison. The heterosexual teachers were matched with the gays on age, sex, and number of years in teaching. The participants taught grades K-12 in both public and private schools throughout the state of Florida and were obtained primarily through personal contact and referral. Previously the only available data on gay teachers were found in magazines and legal journals; these data were described. Other areas of information relevant to the characteristics and stereotypes of gay teachers were also reviewed: the development of sexual orientation, femininity and masculinity, child molestation, and proselytization.
The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) yielded independent scores of femininity and masculinity, based on endorsement of stereotypic attributes. The Teacher Characteristics Schedule (TCS) yielded scores on six scales: attitudes towards pupils and school personnel, religion and religion-associated morality, openness to change/liberal attitudes, social/personal adjustment, dedication to teaching, and validity of response. A personal interview provided information on demographic variables, sexuality as a classroom topic, and perceptions of various aspects of teacher influence on students' sexual identity. Both teacher groups were also compared to normative data from national samples on the two standardized instruments. Variables controlled for in the statistical analyses were sexual orientation (gay or heterosexual), grade level taught (elementary or secondary), and sex (female or male). The level of significance was p = .05 for all tests.
Results from the BSRI indicated that gay women scored significantly higher on the masculine scale than did heterosexual women, with no differences on the feminine scale. Gay men scored significantly higher on the feminine scale than did heterosexual men, with no differences on the masculine scale. When compared to the national sample, the gay teacher group scored significantly higher on both the feminine and masculine scales. No differences were found between the national sample and the heterosexual teacher group. Results from the TCS indicated no significant differences between the gay and heterosexual teachers on any of the scales.
Compared to the normative sample,
gay teachers were more open to change, less religious, more socially personally
adjusted, and less dedicated to teaching; heterosexual teachers were less
religious, less dedicated to teaching, and more prone to give valid responses.
For the interview data, questions with quantifiable responses were reported, including descriptive comments by the teachers. Only one interview question produced a significantly different answer for gay and heterosexual teachers: "Do you think that you can influence the development of sexual identity in your students?" Significantly more gay teachers replied "no."
Differences on femininity and masculinity exhibited between gay and heterosexual teachers within sex concur with the results of other studies. Both lesbians and gay men are more likely than heterosexuals to behave in ways considered appropriate to the opposite sex by cultural standards. The failure to find differences on any of the TCS scales has more than one possible interpretation. The finding could be a function of an unreliable instrument, a Type II error, or the result of actual similarity between gay and heterosexual teachers.
Implications of these results and other data on the employment of gay teachers are discussed. Some misconceptions about gay teachers are delineated, accompanied by research which contradicts those assumptions.
Parravano S (1995). Homophobia and heterosexism: experiences of gay and lesbian teachers in the classroom and in the school. M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto, MAI, vol. 34-02, P. 511, 138 pages, ISBN: 0-315-02020-7.
Abstract by author: Gay and lesbian teachers are frequently subjected to homophobic harassment and heterosexism in the workplace. The concepts of homophobia, gender role and hegemonic heterosexual masculinity are examined. Interviews with 16 gay and lesbian teachers provided information on experiences of homophobic harassment and heterosexism, "coming out" in the classroom, gay and lesbian studies in the curriculum, support services for gay and lesbian teachers, and school, board and Ministry policies and strategies for dealing with homophobic harassment and heterosexism in the future. The issue of invisibility was discussed when addressing "coming out". The teachers felt that policy was central in addressing harassment and heterosexism.
Pekman JH (1997). Gay and lesbian educators' reflections on their experiences of oppression in the San Francisco Bay area schools: a participatory research. Ed. D. Thesis, University of San Francisco, DAI, vol. 58-08A, p. 2971, 211 pages.
Abstract by author: This study investigated ten gay and lesbian educators' reflections on their experiences of oppression in the San Francisco, California Bay Area. Five of the educators were from school districts which provided in- service training for staff on gay and lesbian issues. The other five educators were from school districts which did not offer similar in-service training. Through critical reflections and dialogues with the participants, the researcher investigated the following three areas: (1) Humiliating and inhibiting experiences of oppression, harassment, and discrimination which educators confronted. (2) Ways to end discrimination against gay and lesbian educators. (3) Recommendations for empowering gay and lesbian educators in their professional environment and promoting their personal authenticity and self-integrity.
Results indicated that the five educators from the districts which conducted in-service training for staff on gay and lesbian issues felt that their districts were gay friendly and that oppression and discrimination against gay and lesbian workers were not tolerated. However, they felt that their gay and lesbian peers remained in hiding due to internalized homophobia. They were open about their sexual orientation to their administration and colleagues, but only implied it to their students.
Three of the five educators from the districts which did not provide in-service workshops for staff on gay and lesbian issues were closeted because they feared risking their jobs or losing credibility with their peers, parents, and/or students. Two teachers were out to their students, colleagues and administration. One did not encounter employment problems concerning his sexual orientation while the other continually faced problems with the administration.
Most participants felt that gay and lesbian educators needed to be open about their sexual orientation and work within their school and political structures for change. Conclusions are that many gay and lesbian educators in their districts were closeted because of external or internalized homophobia. The participants felt that providing in-service training on gay and lesbian issues was a powerful tool to make staff more empathetic, understanding, and tolerant of gay and lesbian people.
Pettinger JA (1995). A survey of school psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian youths. PSY.D. Thesis, State University of New York at Albany, DAI, vol. 56-05B, p. 2945, 320 pages,
Abstract by author: In both the popular media and professional literature, increased attention has focused on the subject of homosexuality. While information on homosexuality in adults is available, there is a remarkable lack of information on homosexuality in children and youth. A review of the literature indicated several risk factors associated with youths who are identified as gay and lesbian, including: depression, suicide, parental rejection, social isolation, harassment and violence, school drop-out, and drug/alcohol abuse. As such, it is likely that school psychologists will encounter these students in their schools.
The purpose of this study was to examine the feelings and attitudes of school psychologists toward gay and lesbian youths. In addition, the relationship between these attitudes and feelings and demographic characteristics was examined. A random sample of 500 school psychologists employed in public schools in New York state was surveyed regarding their attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian youths. Specifically, feelings were assessed by using the Index of Homophobia (IH), and attitudes were assessed using the Modified Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale (MATHS). The majority (61.3%) of the school psychologists' MATHS scores fell in the positive attitudes range; none of the respondents' scores were in the negative ranges. When examining feelings, the majority of the respondents' scores fell in the "low grade nonhomophobic" range; 27% of the respondents' scores fell in the "homophobic" ranges.
The relationship between the demographic variables and the feelings and attitudes of the respondents were then examined using Chi-square analyses, three of which were significant. Specifically, gender was significantly related to scores on both the IH and the MATHS, indicating that females had significantly more positive feelings and attitudes than males. Additionally, assessment role activities were related to attitudes. The results of this investigation appear to have implications for education and school psychology. It would seem that schools might want to communicate to all students their awareness of diversity, and ensure the same rights to all students to a safe environment. To this end, provision of a continuum of services to meet the needs of all students is recommended.
Pierce EA (1996). School social worker attitudes towards gay and lesbian youth. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, vol. 34-06, p. 2244, 73 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose
of this study was to examine homophobia among school social workers in
terms of their knowledge of, treatment approach towards, and attitudes
towards gay and lesbian youth. Self-administered questionnaires were completed
by 48 school social workers in a school social work class and school social
workers working in the field.
The instruments consisted of a Knowledge Scale, a Treatment Approach Scale, and the Hudson and Ricketts Index of Homophobia, an instrument which measures homophobic attitudes.
Findings suggested that the more gay and/or lesbian friends/family a school social worker had, the greater the worker's sensitivity and willingness to help gay and lesbian youth. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of close personal contact with gays or lesbians in helping school social workers to work effectively with this group.
Pitot, MM. (1996). Invisible and ignored or out and pushed out: participatory research with gay and lesbian youth. Ed. D. Thesis, University of San Francisco, DAI, vol. 57-04A, p. 1552, 221 pages.
Abstract by author: While mandatory public schooling may provide equal access to education for all young people, it does not provide a fair and just setting to promote equal outcomes to all. This study investigates the alienation and oppression experienced by gay and lesbian teenagers in the educational setting, and searches for solutions to the problems they face. The intent of this research is to provide an in-depth analysis of the life experiences of gay and lesbian youth in order to understand the nature of their educational reality and the dilemmas which they face every day.
This research takes place within the theoretical framework of Critical Pedagogy, and the methodology of the study is that of Participatory Research. At the heart of the research is the interactive process of dialogic retrospection with five gay and lesbian youth, following Maguire's five phase Participatory Research design, Freire's dialogical theory of action, and Kieffer's model of dialogic retrospection.
Findings of the study suggest that schools are clearly not meeting the needs of gay and lesbian students, and school personnel must be willing to address the issue of homophobia if they are to truly embrace the goal of inclusive and equal educational opportunity for all students. The lack of information about homosexuality in the curriculum, in classroom discussions, and in the school library is undeniable. Social networks, support, and adult role models are also lacking, requiring gay and lesbian youth to grow up in a context of isolation. In spite of these obstacles, gay and lesbian youth frequently draw on an amazing reservoir of strength and resiliency, and experience academic, social, and personal success.
It is hoped that this research will provide educators with solutions to the discrimination against gay and lesbian youth found in today's schools. For it is only when people are courageous enough to question all prejudice that we can truly embrace diversity, and it is only then that each of us is free to celebrate our own individuality and uniqueness.
Shershow S (1995). Comparative study of programs/services provided for homosexual students by the Los Angeles County school districts. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI, vol. 33-06, p. 2000, 77 pages.
Abstract by author: This descriptive study explored the range of support services provided to homosexual students by different school districts in Los Angeles County, and the factors which promoted or prohibited the institution/acceptance of services or programs directed at this population. The information was obtained from interviews with administrators of seven Los Angeles County school districts.
The findings reveal a lack of support services for homosexual students in Los Angeles County school districts outside the LAUSD and are consistent with the literature which reports that the majority of school districts across the country do not recognize or acknowledge the difficulties faced by homosexual students as a serious problem which interferes with their education.
The results of the survey indicate that social workers have an important role to play in assisting schools to become supportive and accessible to gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.
Tolman DL (1992). Voicing the body: a psychological study of adolescent girls' sexual desire. Ed. D. Thesis, Harvard University, DAI, vol. 53-05A, p. 1407, 348 pages.
Abstract by author: A review of the literatures of women's psychological development and adolescent sexual development reveals no psychological research or theory about girls' sexual desire. In this thesis, I ask the questions: Do adolescent girls speak of themselves as experiencing sexual desire? What do they say? I interviewed thirty adolescent girls, from an urban school, a suburban school, and a gay youth group, in individual clinical interviews. I report and discuss what these girls said and describe my method for "making interruption."
Of the thirty girls, 18 said they did feel sexual desire; four of the 18 also said they were confused about their sexual feelings. Three said they did not feel desire, and four said "I don't know." For seven of the thirty girls, I cannot tell whether or not they feel sexual desire. The distribution of these answers is similar across class differences. I heard three voices when girls spoke about their sexual desire - an erotic voice, a voice of the body and a response voice.
A key finding is the centrality of the voice of the body in these girls' experiences of sexual desire that crossed differences. Girls who said they did not feel sexual desire spoke of an absence of embodied feeling. Girls who voiced confusion about their desire said they were unsure of their bodily feelings. Those who said they experienced sexual desire voiced their bodies. Contradictions between what girls said about their desire and how they voiced their bodies meant that I could not tell for some if they felt desire.
The urban girls voiced caution and control in their responses to desire, linking desire with danger and often silencing their bodies; the lesbian and bisexual girls voiced a similar response. The suburban girls did not voice danger explicitly and voiced more responses of curiosity. The different ways in which these girls spoke about and responded to their desire highlights a dilemma of living in a female body: how to stay connected with pleasure and also stay safe from danger. I conclude with questions raised by this study for research on the psychology of women and girls.
Victor SB (1996). Measuring attitudes toward lesbian mothers and their children among school psychologists: a new scale and correlates to the attitude measure. Ph. D. Thesis, City University of New York, DAI, vol. 57-01A, p. 106, 208 pages.
Abstract by author:
This study investigated the attitudes of 269 school psychologists using
a new survey instrument, "Attitudes Toward Lesbian Mothers and Their Children"
(ATLMAC). The purpose of this dissertation is threefold: (1) to summarize
the literature pertaining to lesbian mothers and their children; (2) to
use the ATLMAC with a national random sample of school psychologists; and
(3) to determine what factors are significantly correlated with these attitudes.
ATLMAC scale items were derived from research concerning lesbian mothers and their children and are based on the socio-cognitive theory of prejudice. Factor structure, reliability and validity were examined. Correlates to the attitude measure were explored.
Contact theory, proposed by Allport, posits that contact of equal status between groups of people may reduce prejudice. Social contact was measured using the Social Contact Questionnaire, developed by this author. It was hypothesized that contact with lesbians would be related to more positive attitudes on the ATLMAC. This hypothesis was supported. Conservatism has been correlated to prejudice. A modification of Wilson and Patterson's (1970) Conservatism Scale developed by Collins & Hayes (1993) was used in this study. It was hypothesized that participants who score higher in the conservative scale would exhibit more negative views. This hypothesis was supported.
Attribution theorists note that uncontrollable situations are viewed more neutrally than events under a person's control. Utilizing this construct, particularly Whitley's (1990) ideas, it was proposed that people who perceive lesbianism as a choice would view lesbians and lesbian mothers more negatively than people who perceive lesbianism as unchangeable. The Attribution Survey, designed for this study, was used to test this hypothesis. Attribution was significantly correlated with ATLMAC scores, in the expected direction.
Gender differences, as they relate to sex role stereotyping and prejudice toward lesbian mothers and their children were also examined, using the Expressiveness and Instrumentality Scale (Gill, Stockard, Johnson & Williams, 1987). Expressiveness, or emotional awareness of others' feelings was hypothesized to be correlated with more acceptance of lesbian mothers and their children. This hypothesis was also supported. Additional statistical analysis were also examined to determine the relative weight of demographic factors and the instruments in relation to ATLMAC scores.
Wolfman A (1996). Homophobia in education: dividing practices of sexuality in two Ontario public school Boards. M.A. Thesis, Carleton University, MAI, vol. 35-06, p. 1596, 213 pages, ISBN: 0-612-19464-7.
Abstract by author: How homophobia is deployed as a dividing practice to normalize specific forms of gendered and sexual behaviour in high school students is investigated by comparing a discursive analysis of Ontario Ministry of Education and Toronto and Ottawa Public School Board policies and curricula with the lived experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students attending those boards. The work incorporates Foucauldian analysis and queer theory with qualitative methodology, and uses the Internet as a research medium to conclude that sexualities cannot be quantitatively measured; erasure is integral to homophobic discourse; "semi-official" practices are lacuna for homophobia; and that students can resist homophobia both by being in the closet and by coming out. While all inclusive practices are beneficial for an anti-homophobic education, role models were found to be a determinate factor in the type of resistance that took place.
Woods SE (1990). The contextual realities of being a lesbian physical educator: living in two worlds. Ed.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, DAI, vol. 51-03A, p. 788, 256 pages.
Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to describe, from their perspectives, the experiences of lesbian physical education teachers who work in the public schools and the meanings they made of their experiences. The participants were elementary and secondary school physical educators who identified themselves as lesbians. Twelve teachers were interviewed using an in-depth phenomenological approach. The teachers interviewed were women of various ages, races, and social class backgrounds who taught in rural, urban, and suburban schools. The interview materials were presented in two ways: individual profiles of eight participants and common themes. Several key points from the data emerged.
First, the participants made two assumptions about being a lesbian physical educator: (a) as a lesbian, you will lose your job if you are open about your sexual orientation, and (b) female physical educators are stereotyped as being lesbians. Second, the participants actively attempted to separate their personal and professional lives. Third, the participants used a variety of strategies to manage their lesbian identities within school settings. These strategies were used both to conceal and reveal their sexual orientation. Living in two worlds was an accepted reality for the lesbian physical educators in this study. A conceptual model outlining the process by which the participants made decisions about managing their identities as lesbian physical educators was presented.
Feminism and oppression theory were used to discuss the participants' experiences. The participants' descriptions revealed the prevalence of homophobia and heterosexism within physical education environments. The lesbian label was specifically used to intimidate or harass women in physical education. The homophobia and heterosexism the participants encountered in their worlds kept them silent, isolated, fearful of discovery, and powerless. Consequently, the participants in this study did not share a collective identity as a subordinate or oppressed group. Developing a collective identity was described as a critical next step in changing the conditions of their oppression as lesbian physical educators.
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The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links4.htm) is located.
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