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Male Prostitution: Adolescents / Young Adults: Part 2 of 4: Internet Links B
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Contents of Part 1-B (this page): History of Male Prostitution - Films - Books - General Information.

Contents of Part 1-A: Male Protitution Information for - North America - Latin America & the Caribbean - Europe - Australia / New Zealand / Pacific Islands - Asia - Africa.

 

HISTORY:

Ancient World: - Homosexuality In Classical Antiquity. - Brothels, Baths and Babes Prostitution in the Byzantine Holy Land.(1996, Alternate Link) - Roman Sexualities (1997): A boy prostitute holiday in Ancient Rome. - Non-Standard Roman Male Sexuality: Male prostitution (directed toward other males), for instance, was so common that the taxes on it constituted a major source of revenue for the imperial treasury. It was so profitable that even in later periods when a certain intolerance crept in, the emperors could not bring themselves to end the practice and its attendant revenue. - Male Prostitution (Wikipedia). - glbtq: Sex Work and Prostitution: Male. - Prostitution en Grèce antique (Translation). - Prostitución en Grecia Antigua. - In classical Rome, men proved their virility not only with women, but also with male slaves, according to a UGR study (2004): Romans associated their power with virile power and they proved it not only with women, but also with their male slaves – never with other people´s - and with male prostitutes, according to the study “Homosexuals in the Ancient World” prepared by UGR Professor Francisco Salvador Ventura. This work is included in the book: “In Greece and Rome: people and things”, edited by Professors Andrés Pociña and Jesús María García, which has been published jointly by the University of Granada and the Spanish Society of Classical Studies.

The Problem with Pornoi:  Male Prostitution and the Law in Classical Athens (Word Download. Abstract for paper presented at the 2011 meeting of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South, Inc.): According to Athenian law, citizens who could be proven to have been prostitutes were barred from public activity, such as speaking in the Assembly or proposing litigation (Andocides, Mysteries 100-101; Demosthenes, Androtion 21-32; Aeschines, Timarchus 21).  This punishment, called atimia, was a dishonorable banishment from politics which effectively disenfranchised these men.  This paper analyzes accusations of prostitution within the genre of forensic oratory in order to determine the precise nature of the shame attached to male prostitution that rendered it incompatible with active public life. I argue that this shame arises chiefly from the desire for profit shown by the prostitute, and not, as most historians argue, from passive sexual positions.

Male Prostitution in Ancient Rome: Male prostitutes could be any age, but it seems that a large proportion of them were youths. Pederasty was a normal component of Roman sexual life by the first century C.E., and a legitimate outlet for free Roman citizens, as long as the boy was not free-born himself. This is an extension of the larger culture of ancient Mediterranean pederasty with a distinctly Roman spin. Absent is the initiatory pedagogical aspect evident in Greek culture where an older man took a youth under his wing to teach him about life while enjoying him sexually, and accented is the social distinction between free and not free, citizen and not citizen, active and non-active. The sex trade in the ancient world was unglamorous for the vast majority of its employees, although presumably the beauty and young age of the male prostitute were his main assets. The first century C.E. satirist Persius describes how a boy prostitute could stay young and beautiful by Roman standards: caring for his skin, sunbathing, and depilating the face, genitals and anus. The second century C.E. writer Artemidorous wrote that if a man who was both young and handsome dreamed that he turned into a bridge, he would become a prostitute, highlighting his two most desirable qualifications. Male prostitutes were also often identified with Ganymede, the young shepherd whose good-looks ensnared Zeus, and the story of his abduction and romance by the great god developed definite homoerotic connotations in ancient art and literature.  - Flesh: The historical construction of male sex work (2003): PDF Download. Full Text. I would first like to thank the organisers for inviting me to present an overview, spanning 3000 years of the historical constructions of sex and sex work. I hope that one of the most important aspects of this presentation is the extent to which many contemporary themes have resonance in the past as well as the present.

Des historiens très orthosexuels! La prostitution, Historia thématique, juillet-août 2006... "Un ensemble d’articles signés d’historiens et de chercheurs, complété par des articles non-signés dignes de la presse à scandale. Le tout fournira quelques bons supports pédagogiques, mais attention, la prostitution altersexuelle est quasiment éradiquée du champ de ces historiens à œillères! ... Ce qui est consciencieusement ignoré, c’est la prostitution masculine, et la prostitution transgenre. " Historians generally ignore male and transgender prostitution.

Europe: - Same-sex Relations Among Men in Europe, 1700-1990 N/A. "In all big scandals, male prostitution with a generous supply of soldiers, male servants, college- and messenger-boys played a role." (Reference: Gert Hekma,"Same-sex relations among men in Europe, 1700-1990", in: Franz Eder, Lesley & Gert Hekma (eds), Sexual Cultures in Europe, Vol. 2: Themes in Sexuality, Manchester 1999, pp.79-103. - The Gay Subculture in Early Eighteenth-Century London (New Website): The first gay cruising grounds and gay brothels may have appeared in London towards the middle of the seventeenth century, but the evidence is scant... However, homosexual prostitution was of only marginal significance during the eighteenth century; men bought their potential partners beer, but there is very little suggestion that money exchanged hands. I find it difficult to believe that male prostitution was thriving in the seventeenth century, and then lay dormant in the eighteenth century, until it blossomed once again in the nineteenth century.

England: Information about male prostitution at the turn of century given in the book Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis - first published from 1898 to 1905 (Full Text Online). Now available as part of collected works of Havelock Ellis titled Studies in the Psychology of Sex published from about 1936 onward. Reports that "trade" prostitution by military men in London was extremely common both in and out of uniform. Boys were also involved in varying arrangements with men. London: - 19th Century - ""Some of the barracks are great centers of male prostitution.... The number of soldiers who prostitute themselves is greater than we are willing to believe. It is no exaggeration to say that in certain regiments the presumption is in favor of the venality of the majority of the men.... On summer evenings Hyde Park and the neighborhood of Albert Gate are full of guardsmen and others plying a lively trade, and with little disguise, in uniform or out.... - The Vere Street Coterie. (Alternate Link) - Inverts, perverts, and Mary-Annes. Male prostitution and the regulation of homosexuality in England in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (1980/1981).  - Contextualizing the Construction and Social Organization of the Commercial Male Sex Industry in London at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century (2001). 

Savvidis, Dimitris (2011). Male prostitution and the homoerotic sex-market in Early Modern England. PhD Dissertation, English Studies, University of Sussex. PDF Download. Download Page. This thesis explores male prostitution in early modern culture and calls for a reconsideration of linguistic representations of sodomy and homoeroticism in literary and historical criticism. It argues that as a variant expression of homoeroticism, its examination unfolds significant ideological and cultural implications for established perceptions of male relations. As instructed by classical textuality and misogynistic stigmatization of prostitution, the boy prostitute becomes a relational category that eludes easy classification, emerging syntactically alongside the female whore in English culture. Adopting a social constructionist approach, this dissertation traces male prostitution’s ambivalent representational properties in various genres and discourses, namely poetry, plays, historical narratives, theatre historiography, defamation accounts, philosophical diatribes and lexicography. The diverse vocabulary employed to describe homoerotic relations and identities is closely scrutinised in order to expose the metaphoricity and ambiguity embedded in such terms as ‘Ganymede’, ‘ingle’, ‘mignon’ and ‘catamite’. An analysis of the terminology demonstrates the ways in which discursive systems of language, within specific historical and cultural contexts, have facilitated the concomitant textual emergence of the sodomite with the male prostitute. The Introduction establishes the theoretical framework through which male prostitution from the medieval period until the mid-twentieth century has been discussed in twentieth-century criticism. Chapter One assesses its textual appearance in early modern Italy, France and Spain, while it sets the parameters for its examination in seventeenth-century England. Chapter Two analyses the representation of the male prostitute in Donne’s, Marston’s and Middleton’s satires and Chapter Three examines the theatrical institution and the ways in which theatre historiography misdirects discussions on sodomy and prostitution. The penultimate chapter focuses on textual constructions of the male prostitute in educational contexts and the final chapter addresses possible interrelations between prostitution, servitude, favouritism and friendship as represented within lexicography, slanderous discourse and historical narratives on King James and Francis Bacon.

Soldier Heroes and Rent Boys: Homosex, Masculinities and Britishness in the Brigade of Guards, 1900-60 (Journal of British Studies, 42:3, 2003 - Abstract: PDF Download by Matt Houlbrook. Excerpts: "In the twentieth century, the guardsman has thus come to represent both the British nation and an object of queer desire... It was through this trialectic symbolic encounter between soldier hero, rent boy, and queer that particular British masculinities were produced and contested. Those masculinities forever remained unstable, for the guardsman’s simultaneous and dissonant status generated profound anxieties. If the embodiment of British manhood could participate in homosex, the nation’s gendered body was threatened... The soldier hero, however, was also a rent boy... The desires that drew the guardsman to these sites and his interactions with queer men were, however, more complex than the label ‘‘rent boy’’ suggests. In part, the organization of the guardsman-queer encounter as a commercial, casual, and often anonymous sexual transaction represented a contingent response to social inequality and low wages—the dominant paradigm through which it was represented. ‘‘A mercenary motive,’’ noted Xavier Mayne in 1908, ‘‘is . . . most common.’’ Yet to foreground this commercial basis is both misleading and unproductive, for this was, in one sense, paradoxical. While cash or gifts could be accepted from middle-class men, taking money or drinks from other guardsmen undermined masculine status. This paradox highlights the limitations of analytic categories of ‘‘prostitution’’ in understanding these encounters, suggesting the need to move beyond seeing homosex as an instrumental response to poverty, to explore understandings of sex and masculinity within the Brigade..."

Italy: - Florence - History: Paper by Paul Halsall notes: R.C Trexler: "La Prostitution Florentine au XVe Siecle: Patronage et Clienteles" in Annales ESC 36:6 (1981), p. 984 points out that Florence built municipal brothels specifically to lure young men away from sodomy. - From:  LA CHAIR ET LA FLECHE: Le regard homosexuel sur saint Sébastien tel qu'il etait representé en Italie autour de 1500. Translation. (Also available as PDF Download (Translation): Access web page for download: Translation) The effort to get men away from boys is again noted with a date given for the initiative: 1403. Cities such as Florence and Venice had the centuries-old 'problem' of females dressing up as boys to be successful in the world of prostitution.

France: - Sodomites and police in Paris, 1715 (2002): The Archives of the Bastille in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal include hundreds of police reports, none of them currently available in English or even in print, about male same-sex relations in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. The documents translated here, interrogations of eight men arrested in 1715, provide information about networks and prostitution, age and class, surveillance and deception in the sodomitical subculture of the capital. - Homosexualité et prostitution masculines à Paris (1870-1918) - 2005 - de Regis Revenin (Translation) (Google Books). - Hôtels garnis, Garçons de joies. Prostitution masculine, lieux et fantasmes à Paris de 1860 à 1960 - 2012 - de Nicole Canet (Translation) (Expo photos: la prostitution masculine du Paris ancien: Translation).

Pederasts and Others: Urban Culture and Sexual Identity in Nineteenth-Century Paris - 2004 - by William A. Peniston (Google Books). Review: In the second part, Peniston explores the homosexual subculture of Paris: the socioeconomic background of those investigated by the police, the venues where they met and had sex, the types of sexual behaviour in which they engaged, and the social relations which they established with each other. The final part of the book looks at three fascinating case studies: a count arrested in 1876 for solicitation of a young artisan at a pissotière near the Champs-Elysées; a group of friends, lovers and tricks bound together by sex and sociability (as well as prostitution and petty crime); and the case of a cohabiting couple of men (complete with an episode of murder).

Pastorello, Thierry (2011). Stigmatisation et identification des pratiques homosexuelles masculines à travers des membres des classes populaires parisiennes au cours de la première partie du xixe siècle. Atelier du Centre de Recherches Historiques, 8. Full Text. Translation. Au cours de la première partie du xixe siècle, l’homosexualité masculine est stigmatisée au travers de la figure du pédéraste. Il devient une figure emblématique du désordre, liée à divers fléaux sociaux. Les médecins légistes construisent un personnage personnifiant la transgression d’un ordre sexuel. Cependant, ces discours ont-ils un impact réel sur certains hommes issus des classes populaires urbaines ? On distingue parfaitement deux types d’hommes dans certains fichiers de police. Certains hommes « efféminés » sont affublés du qualificatif de tante. D’autres ne sont pas affublés de ce qualificatif et correspondraient à ceux que Georges Chauncey nomme Trades : ils répondent aux sollicitations des tantes. De plus, certaines libertés d’attitudes, de même que le développement de la prostitution masculine pourraient démontrer le poids limité des discours stigmatisants.

Wilson, Michael L (2006). Suspect Physiognomy: The Male Prostitute in Belle Époque Print Culture. Proceedings of the Western Society for French History, 34: 193-204. PDF Download. PDF Download. Full Text. Scholars have long remarked on how, in texts aimed at a popular audience, a wide gallery of social types has served to people the French cultural imagination. From widely circulated prints through middlebrow novels, popular discourses relied on the classification and characterization of recognizable social identities. The panorama of modern life was imagined by means of familiar figures: the flâneur, the courtesan, the bohemian, the ragpicker. One type, though, has been marginal even to the cast of outsiders who preoccupy cultural historians. Here is his physiognomy: "Hair curled, face made up, neck bared, waist cinched to accentuate his curves, the fingers, ears, and chest covered with jewels, the most penetrating perfume wafting from the whole person, and in his hand a handkerchief, flowers or some needlework: such is the strange, repulsive, and by all rights suspect physiognomy that betrays pederasts." This vivid description of the "pederast" is drawn from one of the founding works of nineteenth-century legal medicine, Ambroise Tardieu's 1857 volume, Les attentats aux moeurs (Outrages Against Morals ).[1] Tardieu's book was considered authoritative on matters of criminality and sexuality and was routinely cited as such well into the twentieth century. This particular passage had an especially vigorous afterlife, appearing as a direct quotation or in paraphrase in almost every printed discussion of pederasty – as male-male sexuality was most commonly termed – through the end of the Belle Époque. Although Tardieu's description purports to be of the pederast as a general type, he embeds it within and makes it exemplary of his broader discussion of male prostitution as an outrage against morals. The figure Tardieu outlines is not merely a pederast, but a pederast who sells his tightly-clad, bejeweled, and over-scented body. Tardieu's easy and unselfconscious movement from a treatment of pederasty as a general social phenomenon to an examination of male prostitution is central to my current research, a reconstruction and analysis of the articulation and circulation of popular understandings of male same-sex sexuality in France between 1880 and 1914...


Belgium / Belgique: - Deligne C, Van Criekingen KGM, et Jean-Michel Decroly J-M (2006). Les territoires de l’homosexualité à Bruxelles: visibles et invisibles. Cahiers de géographie du Québec, 50(140): septembre: 135-150. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page. Translation. Brussels has recently seen the emergence of a Gay Village in an area of the inner city known as the Saint-Jacques district. Based on empirical studies, this article investigates the nature of this new kind of space, increasingly common in Western cities, for homosociability. It also tries to position the phenomenon within a wider geography of homosexual territory on a city-wide scale. The study highlights the contrast between a concentration of visible marks of homosexual presence in the inner city (such as bars and associations), particularly in the Saint-Jacques district, and a wider spatial diffusion of more heterogeneous and less visible types of homosexual territory in urban space.

Spain: - Homosexualidad en la Sevilla del siglo XVI: La prostitución masculina (Translation). - E Adriano a Lorca - Capítulo correspondiente al Estado Español de la Enciclopedia de la Homosexualidad, por Daniel Eisenberg: "El Estado Español es uno de los países con más rica historia homosexual. Se puede considerar como una constante de la historia española, a lo largo de distintos períodos la apreciación del amor entre hombres así como un culto a la belleza y a la poesía. Sí bien no existe evidencia directa alguna de la homosexualidad en la misteriosa y rica civilización preromana del sur de la península, ésta es considerada como una cultura sexualmente permisiva. Hispania fue una de las provincias más romanizadas de Imperio, y en este sentido, asimiló la moral sexual propia de Roma, quizás no sea una coincidencia el hecho de que tanto Marcial, uno de los autores latinos más homosexuales, como Adriano, uno de los emperadores más gays, fueran ambos de origen hispano. Así mismo, el hecho de que existiera un término especial, «hawi» en el Islam occidental para designar la prostitución de hombres nos sugiere el hecho de que tales prácticas fueran algo común antes del advenimiento del Islam..."

Germany: - Las aberraciones sexuales en la Alemania nazi (Translation). - Gay Prostitution In Germany, 1871-1933, Part 1. - Gay Prostitution In Germany, 1871-1933, Part 2.

Evans JV (2003). Bahnhof Boys: Policing Male Prostitution in Post-Nazi Berlin. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 12(4): 605-636. Full Text. PDF Download.

Russia: - Moscow, 1861-1917: The Appearance of a Homosexual Subculture: Cab-drivers who supplemented their income (or simply took pleasure) in this fashion are not unusual characters in Russian legal and psychiatric literature of the era (Tarnovskii 1885: 69-71). Coachmen were not alone among male servants willing to service male employers sexually. From medical reports we can observe that youths and young men profited in this fashion as waiters, household staff and as simple soldiers or officers' servants.11 It is not always possible to gauge whether subordinates were motivated solely by incentives of money and advancement, but the easy willingness of Russia's urban serving classes to tolerate 'gentlemen's mischief' as they were said to call it (Tarnovskii 1885: 70) suggests continuities with an earlier indulgence of mutual male relations.

Latin America: - Pleasures in the Parks of Rio de Janeiro during the Brazilian Belle Époque, 1898-1914. (Alternate Link): The term puto, the masculinized version of puta, or female prostitute, was used in colonial Brazil and in Portugal to refer to “a boy who prostituted himself with the vice of sodomy or masturbation.” It was a popular version of the older term, sodomita, with its biblical origins, that was the standard religious and legal way of describing persons who had anal sex with persons of either sex in colonial Brazil. During the Brazilian belle époque, the pervasive stereotype for men who had sex with other men emphasized their link to prostitution. Physicians, politicians, lawyers, intellectuals, and artists portrayed modern sodomites as effeminate men who engaged in anal sex as passive partners and supported themselves as streetwalkers. As we shall see throughout this work, the connection between prostitution, effeminacy in men, and homosexuality remained a powerful representation of same-sex erotic behavior well into the second half of the twentieth century, when alternative notions of sexual identity emerged that challenged this dominant paradigm. - Héroes nacionales y mitos: Homosexualidad masculina e historia  brasileña (2000, Translation). 

de Andrade LT, Teixeira AE (2004). A territorialidade da prostituição em Belo Horizonte. Caderno Metropole, 11: 137-157.  PDF Download. Translation. O artigo realiza um mapeamento da distribuição espacial da prostituição masculina e feminina em Belo Horizonte em três períodos. Durante o primeiro período, entre 1897, ano de fundação da cidade, até 1930, predomina a prostituição feminina nos cabarés situados em uma “região moral”. O segundo período compreende as décadas de 30 a 60, quando a prostituição feminina ainda predomina, mas entra em cena a figura do “homossexual valente”. Nesse período, a prostituição ocupa novas áreas da cidade, mas ainda se confina a regiões bem delimitadas. No terceiro período, que se inicia nos anos 70 e vai até os dias atuais, registra-se a emergência da prostituição masculina nos espaços públicos e semipúblicos da cidade e um espraiamento tanto da prostituição feminina quanto da masculina pela cidade, conquistando áreas consideradas nobres. Verifica- se ainda a emergência de novos tipos, como a travesti, o michê e as garotas de programas e uma significativa mudança nas relações entre os diversos atores envolvidos na prática da prostituição, marcadas agora por uma maior impessoalidade e profissionalização.

Europe / America: - The Sexual Division of Labor, Sexuality, and Lesbian/Gay Liberation: Towards a Marxist-Feminist Analysis of Sexuality in U.S. Capitalism (by Julie Matthaei): "What is perhaps less well known is that male prostitution was also very common; indeed, the word "gay" in the nineteenth century referred to a prostitute (Weeks 1977: 42). Weeks estimates that about half of the prostitutes in Europe in the late nineteenth century cities were young men; I have not found comparable data for the United States, but male prostitution appears to have been common, especially in large cities. Weeks points out the continuity between male heterosexual and homosexual sex/prostitution: the interest was in sex; encounters were usually casual, not long-term; the prostitute was a sex object, performing sexual services in exchange for money or gifts; the client was a man with money to spend... There were also many part-time male prostitutes, who were working class youth employed in low wage jobs: sailors, soldiers, labourers, newspaper boys, messenger boys and the like (Weeks 1989: 207; Katz 1976: 64, 78)... Some men may have become male prostitutes because it gave them a way to live out aspects of the feminine gender role to which they were attracted -- feminine dress, desire to be a passive sexual partner, erotic attraction to a man. In a sense, they wanted to be women, and were doing "women's work" of prostitution... While engaging the services of a male prostitute was certainly not viewed as good or normal, through the early twentieth century men who did so were not necessarily viewed as homosexual, if they maintained their masculine gender role in the sexual act. When the concept of homosexual developed in the late nineteenth century, it referred only to males who took the "feminine" role in homosexual sexual encounters -- men who were "cocksuckers" or who liked to be anally penetrated -- not to the men who were sucked off by or had anal intercourse with men (Chauncey). In other words, deviating from one's gender role in the sex act was the stigmatized behavior, not sexual relations with a person of the same sex per se." (Reference: in Amy Gluckman and Betsy Reed, eds., Homo Economics: Capitalism, Community, & Lesbian and Gay life. London: Routledge, 1997. Also in Review of Radical Political Economics 27:2 (June 1995), 1-37. Also in Amy Gluckman and Betsy Reed, eds., Homo Economics: Money, Community, & Sexual Orientation in the United States.)

Male Prostitution in the Twentieth Century: Pseudohomosexuals, Hoodlum Homosexuals, and Exploited Teens. (By Kerwin Kaye, Journal of Homosexuality, 46(1/2), 2003 - Abstract. Full Text). Excerpts: "In the following essay, I attempt to trace something of the history of male prostitution from the late 1800s to the present. I focus particularly upon the ways in which the emergence of “homosexual” identity decisively shaped the social patterns of exchange which characterized male prostitution, turning it from something engaged in by “normal” men into something only “queer” men practiced. Issues of class also played a significant role in shaping outsider evaluations of male prostitution, however, and, as will be seen, even served as an important touchstone in relation to the formation of homosexual identity... George Chauncey’s insightful study of gay culture in pre-World War Two New York (1994) argues that the sexological discourse of the medical professionals initially had little impact upon the largely working-class worlds in which “fairies” and “queers” (to use the self-chosen terms of the time) resided. While sexological categorizations became generally hegemonic within the middle-class, working-class culture was characterized by an entirely different system of sexual categorization... Sexologists frequently identified “true homosexuality” with “inversion,” linking same-sex sexual practice with gender deviance. In many ways, however, this sexological notion of gendered difference simply reflected the social practice of the time... But while these forms of male prostitution, in which men and youths identified as fairies sold sex to straight men, were predominant at the turn of the century, by the 1910s and 20s they were in rapid decline (Chauncey, 1994: 67). With the spread of sexological discourse and the hetero/homo divide, fewer and fewer “normal” men were willing to hire other men, even if the worker was clearly identified as a fairy... Having “normal” men sell sex to “fairies” was not new, however, to the 1920s or 30s. The most notorious form of such prostitution, in which soldiers sold sex to gay-identified men, has its roots at least as far back as the 1700s (Weeks, 1977: 35), when a “homosexual” identity was undergoing its initial stages of development... Military prostitution was supplemented by a large number of straight-identified youths who also sold sex to gay-identified “fairies.” ... Two waves of anti-gay hysteria swept across the United States, the first from 1937 to 1940 (when FBI director J. Edgar Hoover called for a “War on the Sex Criminal”; Freedman, 1987: 94), and the second from 1949 to 1955 (the McCarthy period)... The ongoing rise of the hetero/homo dichotomy affected men engaging in prostitution in a variety of other ways as well. While previously a wide-cross section of the straight male working-class had been willing to trade sex for money, by mid-century only the most marginalized were willing to deal with the stigma associated with gay identity. The literature concerning male prostitution in the 1950s, 1960s, and even into the early 1970s is replete with stories of “deviants” or “hoodlum types” who engaged in prostitution as a means of obtaining spending money..."

Romesburg D (2009). "Wouldn't a boy do?" Placing early twentieth-century male youth sex work into histories of sexuality. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 18(3): 367-92. Reference. Reference. Excerpt:.From the 1880s through the 1910s urban U.S. reformers and police only infrequently sought out male youth sex work, but they still found it. They happened upon it while attempting to intervene into immigrant families, prevent juvenile delinquency, temper child labor, or suppress female prostitution. From the 1910s through the 1930s in Chicago social investigators, psychologists, and sociologists found male youth sex work when they examined the “individual delinquent,” the social world of hobos, the lives of boys in street trades or gangs, and the deviancies of homosexuals, whom they largely conceived of as adult men. The “discoveries” of male youth sex work that occurred while such experts looked for something else provoked a mixture of alarm and indifference.1 As a result, authorities, while compelled to make sometimes extensive comments on male youth sex work in field, court, or clinic notes, made scant, vague reference to it in their published reports. Consequently, reform and policing activities regarding male youth sex work were much more inconsistent than were actions regarding female prostitution, commercialized amusements, and more anticipated forms of boy delinquency such as theft and truancy. It was as if experts could only understand male youth sex work out of the corners of their eyes, on the margins of the supposedly more pressing issues they conceived of as their main concerns...  Many histories of prostitution tend to replicate early-twentieth-century experts in relation to male youth sex work, describing it, when at all, in passing. In the historiography of prostitution and in much of the contemporary critical feminist, sociological, and cultural studies scholarship on prostitution and sex work, male youth sex often gets acknowledged as a form of sex work that, because it falls outside the conventional definition of prostitution, is beyond the scope of a given theory or history...

Sovereigns of Themselves: A Liberating History of Oregon and Its Coast Volume VI... Sodomy Laws 1800s: "In the 1800s, sodomy laws were found in all states and territories, but were selectively enforced. In 1873, Lawrence G. Murphy, a civilian post trader at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, was charged with a "most unnatural” relationship with a local official in an effort to conceal his military contract. In El Paso, Texas, an 1896 charge of sodomy against Marcelo Alviar brought with it a bond set at $500, the same amount as for murder. The prohibitively expensive bond was punitive, and virtually guaranteed jail time or the loss of the defendant's life savings or property. This system of select enforcement was similarly applied to gambling houses, saloons, and brothels. Male prostitution existed in varying degrees, from a "elegantly furnished" 1882 Midwestern brothel to a particularly clandestine male street prostitution ring in San Francisco in 1902. Homosexuality in Western prisons was so common that in 1877, San Quentin director Dr. J. E. Pelham launched a crusade against it, advising solitary confinement as therapy.  In 1898, Boulder teamster W. H. Billings left his wife and sold his horses in order to run away with Charles Edwards, a saloon entertainer who played banjo and performed acrobatics. A Denver paper reported that Billings was "not happy unless he was trailing around the streets with Edwards" and that "if his home had any charms for him, said his wife, they had fled and all on account of a banjo player."  Among Westerners there existed a gentleman's agreement that arose from the need to survive in the frontier. One part of this agreement was mutual respect, allowing one "the right to live the life and go the gait which seemed most pleasing to himself." Historian David Dary has written that cowboys "sought to live lives that were free from falsehood and hypocrisy." This frontier code of conduct allowed many people to enjoy open relationships that would have otherwise not been possible.  On the open range, cowboys often developed strong and loyal relationships with each other. The dangers of stampedes and general rigors of the trail required absolute cooperation: a cowboy who could not be relied on found himself outcast. Loyalty was "one of the most notable characteristics of the cowboy," and devotion to one's "pard" was highly regarded. The cowboy expression that one was "in love" with someone could sometimes be taken literally. The Texas Livestock Journal remarked in 1882 that "if the inner history of friendships among the rough, and perhaps untutored cowboys could be written, it would be quite as unselfish and romantic as that as of Damon and [Patroclus]."  Many circumstances contributed to personal closeness on the ranch and trail. Cowboys frequently bedded in pairs with their "bunkie," and a ranch bunkhouse was occasionally called a "ram pasture." Many cowboys engaged in "mutual solace," a tender, expressive, and euphemistic term for sexual relations. Vulgar and explicit "ugly songs" describing phallic size, virility, and sodomy were sung around campfires. In 1920s Nevada, the "sixty-nine" sexual position was common enough among cowboys to warrant its own euphemism, "Swanson neuf."  Gay cowboys continued to be an intrinsic part of the West. In 1957, two Texas cowboys visiting the Mayflower Bar, an Oklahoma City gay bar, described their life as one where there are generally two or three gay cowboys to a ranch, who quietly recognize each other, keeping their identity a secret from the others. While many working horsemen and horsewomen maintain a quiet reticence associated with the broader aspects of ranching culture..."

Strapped for Cash: A History of American Hustler Culture - 2003 - by Mack Friedman (Google Books). Review. Review: It would have been easy for Mack Friedman to write a superficial, pandering book that sensationalized a subculture, but Strapped for Cash's author doesn't travel the easy path. Instead, he uses extensive research (hundreds of endnotes close the book), oral histories, and intense historical journalism to tell the history of male prostitution in America from 1600 to the present. The shock in the book comes not from prurient glimpses at kinks but from the ultimate historical lesson: Far from being a marginal (or pitiful) subculture, hustlers were with us long before the Founding Fathers and have reached a lot further into "straight" culture than many realize...  From tales of turn-of-the-century sailors who turned tricks to supplement their meager stipends to accounts of hustling as a means of escape for rural boys, Strapped for Cash triumphs in its humanization of an unspoken and poorly understood subject. Whenever possible, Friedman steps back and lets the boys and men speak for themselves through their writings and, even more compellingly, the oral histories he gathered during his research.

Canada: -  'Horrible temptations': sex, men, and working-class male youth youth in urban Ontario, 1890-1935 (Full Text) or access via Index Page. Canadian Historical Review, 06, 1997: "... sexual relations between boys and men have generated little interest among historians. There are a few exceptions. Jeffrey Weeks noted some time ago that in late nineteenth-century England working-class youths featured prominently in all the major scandals, like the messenger boys in the Cleveland Street scandal... intriguing discussion of  wolves' and  punks,' an erotic system of intergenerational sex common among seamen, prisoners, and hoboes... Before turning to the homosexual underworld of boys and men, ...As Susan Houston has demonstrated, poor and working-class boys in late-Victorian urban Ontario forged their own  street culture.' Boys  who worked the streets,' Houston has written,  lived in an identifiable society of their own, frequenting the municipal baths and, more often, the pool halls and cheap theatricals.' Less well known is the fact that sites within boys' street culture often overlapped with those in urban homosexual subcultures. In devising their survival strategies, boys gave more than one meaning to  working the street... Gossip about men circulated in the subaltern world of boys. As John said about Moise having sex with boys, all the lads in the bowling alley were telling me about it... For boys who were interested, such talk alerted them to the existence of  men who had sex with boys and where those men could be found... Boys traded sex with men for food, shelter, and admission to the theatre, but most often, in what is best described as a form of casual prostitution, boys exchanged sex for money. David K.'s experience was typical. In 1914, David met a man on Yonge Street..."

Middle East: - Power and Sexuality in the Middle East (1998, Reference, Alternate Link): Sex, that is, penetration, took place between dominant, free adult men and subordinate social inferiors: wives, concubines, boys, prostitutes (male and female) and slaves (male and female). What was at stake was not mutuality between partners but the adult male's achievement of pleasure through domination. Women were viewed as naturally submissive; male prostitutes were understood to submit to penetration for gain rather than pleasure; and boys, "being not yet men, could be penetrated without losing their potential manliness." That an adult male might take pleasure in a subordinate sexual role, in submitting to penetration, was deemed "inexplicable, and could only be attributed to pathology.".

China: - The Cult of Hu Tianbao and the Eighteenth-Century Discourse of Homosexuality N/A (Late Imperial China, 19-1 (June, 1998), 1-25, accessible only via JSTOR. - History of Chinese homosexuality (2004): "The years 1573-1620 marked the most flourishing period of the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644). With great developments in industry and trade, luxurious life-styles also proliferated, according to Li's book. Prostitution was a common practice at that time, due to the moral concept which advocated the acceptance of natural sexual needs, an approach promoted by the neo-Confucian philosopher Wang Yangming. Male prostitutes (gigolos) were widely available to meet their clients' specific requirements."

Taiwan: - Huang HT (2004). Policing Sex: State Power, Prostitution and the Establishment of the Sexual Order Under the Police Offence Law in Postwar Taiwan - Towards a Genealogical Critique of ‘Virtuous Custom’. Paper presented at “By Culture”, the Annual Meeting of Cultural Studies Association, January, Taipei (PDF Download). See section on pilicing male prostitution in Taiwan.

Japan: - "Traditions of same-sex love and cults of youthful male beauty flourished in later centuries, and male prostitution was broadly available throughout the country. There are even public parks which have been cruising spots for hundreds of years and guidebooks devoted to homosexual pleasures published in the 1760's! - History: Japanese Boy Prostututes. - Texto extraido del articulo "urbanismo y transformacion de la sexualidad: de Edo a Tokio" de Chizuko Ueno (2005, Translation): "La prostitucion masculina florecio tambien en la ciudad de Edo, en otro barrio de la ciudad, cercano a los teatros. Habia mancebos para clientes masculinos, a menudo para monjes budistas. La zona se llamaba de hecho "mercado de niños". Algunos eran entrenados para, en su madurez, ser actores travestidos de teatro Kabuki. Tambien habia mujeres entre la clientela de estos chicos publicos. Esta documentado incluso un caso en el que un matrimonio compro un chico para compartirlo."

Judaism, Homosexuality & Civilisation: "One of the Aztec gods, Xochipili, was the patron of male homosexuality and male prostitution.... Polybius, the Greek historian who visited Rome in the second century BCE, wrote that most young men had male lovers. And Greenberg notes that "Many of the leading figures in Roman literary life in the late Republic - Catullus, Tibullus, Vergil, and Horace - wrote homophile poetry. " In addition, "male prostitution flourished throughout Italy." The emperor Trajan was known for his love of boys; his successor, Hadrian, put up sculptures of his male lover; and Commodus "kept a little boy, naked except for jewelry, and often slept with him." Tatian, a Christian who lived in Rome in the second century, wrote that the Romans "consider pederasty to be particularly privileged and try to round up herds of boys like herds of grazing mares"... Six hundred years later, When the Jesuit Matteo Ricci visited Peking in 1583 and again in 1609-10, he found male prostitution to be altogether lawful, and practiced openly. To his dismay no one thought there was anything wrong with it. Several hundred years later, European travelers still reported that no one was ashamed of homosexuality... "John Fryer, who traveled to Persia in the late seventeenth century, found that 'The Persians, when they let go their modesty.. covet boys as much as women.' " Another visitor to Persia in the same century, John Chardin, reported that he had found "numerous houses of male prostitution, but none offering females;" and "some of the greatest Persian love poetry is written to boys"...

Ireland (Recent History): - The Dirty Boys of Dublin: (Warning: Some Nude Pictures.) - "But 'Dirty' also means sex. Why run away from it?  As survivors of rape, incest, child prostitution (coppers, priests, counselors - the lot of you!) we have neither innocence nor illusions... In time we hope to expand  this site to include all kinds of information and data helpful and necessary to the survival of our brothers still on the street as well as providing a forum for sharing experiences and useful contacts."  - Information related to The Dirty Boys of Dublin- Excerpt below

"The Dirty Boys of Dublin" commentary by Dermod Moore, Hot Press (December, 1998): "I stumbled across an Irish website that wasn't intended for me to see. When I contacted one of the owners, whose photo I recognised from a previous life, he was bemused that I had discovered it, and repeatedly quizzed me as to how I found it... The Dirty Boys of Dublin  is a virtual world of seven guys, who have formed a family of sorts. Most are gay, but not all; three grew up in "care", another three were born into families where drugs were rife, and spells in prison were commonplace. One of them is currently in Mountjoy. What unites them all is that they had all been systematically abused from a very early age, and all had been teenage whores, using sex as a means to an end. These are the boys on the fringes of our society, self-styled junkie rent boys from the inner city, most born in the shadows of the Pro-Cathedral... The website is a place for each of them to tell his own story. These seven statements taken together, as the  author correctly identifies, form a strong challenge to the homogeneity of the World Wide Web.  They are also deeply moving, and leave me, as I'm sure they intend, very angry at the injustices of the world, and most especially at the way children are abused in our society. They also bring home to me my own class-consciousness, to which I usually am blind. I like to think I would listen to the stories of these guys, and guys like them, in real life, if I met them. But where on Earth would I have the opportunity? The only time I did, when I think about it, was in the early eighties, in the Hirschfeld Centre, when there was a sense of community in the gay scene. The quay queens, inner-city rent-boys with pinched white faces, would sashay in to the discos in all their finery, raucous and high as kites, and hysterically funny. They were entertaining us, showing off, earning their right to be there. Occasionally a fight would break out, and a few would be banned for a while, but then they'd be forgiven and let back in... The Dirty Boys have got around this in the classic Irish way; they've told their stories anonymously, to an unseen cyberworld, in confession. Stories of their own heartbreaking childhoods, beatings in jail, abuse from people in charge of their care, well-known paedophile who mysteriously evade police investigation, their own self-loathing and struggle to get out of their own shame cycle, their addictions to sex and smack, their defeats in the courts, their rage at injustice. They say that they're not looking for redemption; others need that, they say, not them... The manifesto pages are deliberately peopled with photos of the faces of dozens of anonymous young boys, taken  from  popular gay websites. They are speaking for them, disempowered, abused, "bad" boys everywhere, and I've never read anything like it. "Sex is power, boys!" they cry, urging the rent-boys of the world to never forget that "seducers and tricks might treat us as sex-slaves, never forget that their desire makes them our slaves!" The best revenge, their motto goes, is living well."

The Lucky New Sex Workers (2011): Today’s sex workers are much luckier than their forbears a generation ago. They do not appreciate their good fortune because they do not remember the sad old days. Some 25 years earlier, due to the Internet and cell phones (and before that gay newspapers) the street hustling scene has changed drastically. The hustlers of old stood on specific street corners waiting for johns. Often, they did “car dates” - hopping into cars whose drivers slowed down to let them in. Conducting business in the streets was extremely disadvantageous for them. First, the were hassled by the police as well as by competitors. Second, they had absolutely no control over their time. They had to wait to be picked up. This could take five minutes or five hours. Third, by standing in designated  street corners they advertised themselves as hustlers to all passersby. Fourth, waiting for johns in inclement weather often forced them to lower their asking price drastically, in order to get out of the rain or snow. Once they could advertise their services on,the Web, they had a much wider market for their services.


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FILMS/PLAYS:

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Sex Work). - Male Prostitution Films. - Male Hookers? Movies about male prostitutes. -  Films about us. - Male prostitution for reel (2006, Manila): "FOR some reasons, Pinoy filmmakers have stopped doing movies about bar girls and female prostitution. Not that there are no more girlie bars and prostitution dens in the Philippine archipelago. It’s just that our filmmakers seem bent on making us pay attention on male prostitution instead..." - Body Without Soul: "As someone who is trying to help a 23 year old recover from that lifestyle, I can say the film is a very accurate representation of not just boy prostitution in Prague in the 1990s but of boy prostitution as such. I saw it, along with many other films on that subject, because I wanted to educate myself as much as possible and had exhausted all other sources of information I could think of." - New doc explores lives of male sex workers: Men For Sale. - Looking for Romeo (2008): Summary: The film explores the phenomenon of male prostitution by telling the stories of hustlers and their clients. From Nice to Prague and New York, from Montreal to Los Angeles and Paris, young escorts and "johns" share their experiences in a series of candid interviews. Challenging stereotypes and common beliefs, they tell shocking stories of love and hate, control and abuse, despair and hope. Without providing simple answers, the film invites the viewer to ponder human condition through the lives of its characters. - Understanding Male Sex Workers & Men That Have Sex With Men In India (Video). - Male prostitution in the arts (Wikipedia).

La soledad y la prostitución masculina, protagonistas de 'Chapero' (2013, Translation): Chapero, que se representa en la sala madrileña Azarte, desenmascara con un estilo cotidiano y sincero tabúes como la prostitución masculina, que rara vez se ha puesto sobre un escenario. La obra narra la historia de Nico, un chico de apenas 19 años, que en su afán irremediable de encontrarse a sí mismo huye de su propia familia. En un encuentro cargado de confesiones, recuerdos y sexo con un desconocido encontrará parte de las respuestas que busca. - Filme sobre prostitución masculina en Cuba llega a la gran pantalla (2012, Translation): Destacó que la cinta, “ambientada en la nocturnidad de La Habana (…) se adentra en el universo gay underground, prostitución masculina y corrupción, consecuencias de la homofobia y crisis económica”. “Con la película estoy defendiendo no solo la lucha contra la homofobia, sino que se puede hacer cine fuera del ICAIC (Instituto Cubano de Cine) y que este puede acogerlo”, dijo Cremata, al precisar que la demora en su estreno “nada tuvo que ver con el tema tratado”, sino con problemas de producción. Asimismo, consideró “importante” que exista un “cine gay hecho en Cuba”, porque “en la medida que las cosas se hablen y se discutan, existen”.

Una puesta sobre la
 prostitución masculina (2012, Translation): Giro negro, original de Enrique Mijares, lleva más de 100 representaciones en El Foco, con un elenco integrado por jóvenes e impetuosos actores en una puesta dirigida por Wilfrido Momox. Entre pedofilia, drogas, sexo, promiscuidad, doble moral y todo lo que conlleva un mundo de bajos instintos donde ya no hay fronteras entre el bien y el mal, la puesta lanza un grito de alerta ante el giro negro de la vida actual. Porque Giro negro en El Foco se convierte en un lugar donde las cosas “YA NO son lo que pudieron ser....”, asienta la compañía que levanta el telón como un producto de teatro gay abierto a todo público, con una desfachatez que muestra las tripas de la sordidez y la prostitución homosexual en un antro cualquiera de cualquier urbe latinoamericana. Sin embargo, el autor, Enrique Mijares, se interna con ojo socioantropológico en un congal gay del norte de la República Mexicana, escarbando en los tipos y prototipos que entran a armar este infierno. Mijares crea un texto de talante periodístico, donde lo testimonial da pauta para contar las microhistorias que darán cohesión a Giro negro, con relatos que se ensamblan a través de un narrador (Momox) que conduce tanto a personajes como a espectadores al horror que puede engendrar una vida dedicada al mundo de la prostitución masculina. En la obra de Mijares hay un narrador omnisciente.

Hidden Subtexts Offered in a Minimalist Film from Beijing: "Feeding Boys, Ayaya" " Zi'en Cui ...has created a dialogue between two brothers - the older one is a virgin who is complying with the religious concept of forgoing premarital sex with his girlfriend since he is a right wing religious conservative, while the younger brother is planning to embrace the life of male prostitution... Meanwhile his younger brother embraces the life of a hustler and even brings his clients home to his parent's house for business..." - YourTube: Portraits: Two Male Prostitutes A Documentary by Aron Ranen. - Interview With 'Rent Boys' Director (2011): 'Every Person Has Value, No Matter What They Do'... "Rent Boys," or "Die Jungs vom Bahnhof Zoo," tells the story of five young male prostitutes in Berlin and shows how the streets of the German capital have changed over the last three decades. The documentary by director Rosa von Praunheim was well received when it premiered at the 2011 Berlin International Film Festival, which has long been committed to showcasing the best of queer film....- Chamaco, un duro film sobre prostitución masculina, llega a los cines cubanos (2012, Translation). - Cuba Gay Film ‘Chamaco’ Opens (2012): The independent film Chamaco, directed by Juan Carlos Cremata, made it onto Cuban cinema screens on Monday — two years after the completion of its filming — to address the issues of male prostitution, homosexuality and police corruption in Cuba. - Nuestro paraíso, una película sobre prostitución masculina (2011, Translation): Grabada durante el 2010, y dirigida por Gaël Morel, Nuestro paraíso, o Notre Paradis, en su nombre en francés, es una película cuya trama se desarrolla en torno a la prostitución masculina. El próximo 28 de septiembre llegará a las salas francesas, y además, lo hará en medio de la polémica, ya que los menores de 16 años no podrán entrar a verla. 

Pretty Boy: A gritty and haunting story of a 13-year-old boy's coming of age as a Copenhagen street hustler. (Pretty Boy)-  Skin & Bones - What lies do men tell themselves when they get pulled into the world of prostitution - and not just your everyday street-corner hustling? - Johns (1995): "The subject of male prostitution has been avoided like the plague. But Johns tackles the subject without glorifying it nor condemning it." (A film review) - Hustler White (Film Abstract): "Santa Monica Boulevard: the boy toy walk of fame." - Sex, Work And My American Family (Abstract) "is the story of the filmmaker's search for self identity working as an erotic masseur in New York City." - Sex Warriors And The Samurai (Film Abstract): "is the story of a Filipino transgender sex worker." - Midnight Cowboy - Boxoffice Magazine - Explains how the Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight movie vividly portrays the seamy world of New York's male prostitution. - I Was a Jewish Sex Worker. - 101 Rent Boys - Documentary. - My Own Private Idaho (Review) (Related Information).

La Virgen de los sicarios (Barbet Schroeder): "Esta pelicula habla sobre la cruda realidad de colonbia y sus barrios marginados,y como los jovenes que estan en continua batalla por la supervivencia de sus vidas,en este caso uno de los protagonistas es Alexis un joven de un barrio marginal colonbiano que se dedica a la prostitucion masculina"

New Independent Film From Michael R Barnard Productions To Explore Teenage Prostitution On The Streets Of Hollywood. ""EVERYBODY SAYS GOODBYE: is a powerful fictional story set in Hollywood when a prostitute-hating killer is killing the boys who regularly hustle sex on the streets. Schneider plays the father who discovers that the son he threw out of his home for being gay might "have been one of the victims." - Everybody Says Goodbye: "It is actually the powerful story of a man fighting to fix mistakes he has made. The story possesses hints of “American Beauty,” “Boys Don’t Cry,” and “Billy Elliot,” yet has its own unique and wonderful personality." - High-risk behaviors among male street youth in Hollywood, California (1992).

2006 New York International Fringe Festival: “Return of the Wayward Son: Brian Fraley offers a graphic look at hustlers and johns, but unfortunately there's more depiction than real theater. We see the trajectory of Jimmy (Max Ferguson) as he stumbles onto the world of male prostitution on New York's ritzy East Side. Through a combination of naiveté and lack of engagement he manages to survive pettiness and selfishness in his customers and co-workers. Only the insistence of a family crisis back home breaks the mood, and by the end of the two-hour show and [Attention: plot spoiler coming...] an episode of lethal violence, Jimmy seems ready to leave it all behind. As director, Fraley largely restricts the audience to observer status and never allows a look below the hard-edged surface to the tortured psychology of the seven onstage characters. The lone true theatrical moment, a final meeting between Jimmy and one of his johns (Tim Moore), showed searing emotional penetration combined with engaging humor that was largely lacking elsewhere. This venue worked against Fraley's direction for muddling his too-frequent simultaneous dialogue in different parts of the set. But even worse was Fraley's disregard for the audience at the sides of this in-the-round space. - Return of the Wayward Son: Play Review.

Going Down and Out in Prague and Prerov: " Such stories are rich pickings for a film director, and Wiktor Grodecki is one director who, with his film "Mandragora" (1997), has been tempted by the age-old theme of the corrupting city. Marek is pretty much your average Czech kid. He hates school, he hates his hometown, Prerov, and he's not overly-enamoured with his father, who, as fathers are prone to, thinks Marek should be hard at his homework while he himself is off down the pub. Marek can't face it any longer and, after dramatically stealing a leather jacket, hops on a train to Prague. He soon runs out of money and even his jacket gets stolen from him. He only has one asset left to fall back on: he's cute - very cute. Marek gets used and abused by a series of pimps and clients. He bears the beatings and the humiliation and becomes something of an expert at his newly-found profession and is able to slickly chat up middle-aged tourists in search of male sex with an under-aged Central European..." - The Belly of the Beast. -  "Mandragora".

APUTHEATRE N/A: Our new production is "The Prostitution Plays". Four strong short plays performed consecutively in three hours of powerful, shocking theatre. Film Shows: "The plays explore the lives of young Eastern European men living and working illegally as prostitutes in Amsterdam. Set in the public spaces of a male brothel, a street bar, an hotel suite and Amsterdam's Central Station, young men of four different Eastern European cultures give us an insight into their experiences of life in "freedom city". Czech, Polish, Romanian and Russian, each have their own history, and each their own responses to the realities that face them here." - Aputheatre (Wikipedia): In 1998 Aputheatre’s two founders, John Roman Baker and Rod Evan moved to Amsterdam, where a creative relationship was established with COC Nederland, a Dutch organization for LGBT men and women.[1] The company initially developed four strong plays which explored the sub-culture of prostitution among young East European men living in Amsterdam. 'The Prostitution Plays' together with a later production omophobia have charted the evolution and demise of male street prostitution in Amsterdam that has occurred at the beginning of the 21st Century. -  The Prostitution Plays - 2008 - by John Roman Baker.  -. Film Shows: "The plays explore the lives of young Eastern European men living and working illegally as prostitutes in Amsterdam. Set in the public spaces of a male brothel, a street bar, an hotel suite and Amsterdam's Central Station, young men of four different Eastern European cultures give us an insight into their experiences of life in "freedom city". Czech, Polish, Romanian and Russian, each have their own history, and each their own responses to the realities that face them here." - Male prostitution in the arts (Wikipedia).

Rent-boy tale rises above the street: "A play about sex workers around St Kilda's Shakespeare Grove sounds sleazy, sexy and gratuitous, but as writer and actor Kevin McGreal explains, it's more sensual, and the sex is very much implied. "It's the actors that bring the sexuality to the role," he says. Shakespeare's Boys is a three-hander with McGreal as Ronnie, an ageing rent boy, Juanita Davis as his partner, Tracy, and Nick Ioannidis as Peter, the new kid on the block. It's a story, McGreal explains, of trust, truth and love.

From Fox - The Price of Love: "Fox looks frankly at male teen hustlers ... We could've compromised the film by showing, on the gay issue, that he doesn't want it, he hates it and before he does it again, the police get him and he changes. But we said this is not real." "These young kids keep coming and keep coming over the years," he said. "It never seems to stop. It doesn't get the big headlines, and more or less gets pushed into a corner, falling on organizations like Children of the Night."


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BOOKS

Books on male prostitution. - Bibliography: Female and Male Prostitution (Sex work & the sex industry).- Prostitution Bibliography. - Books About Male Sex Work. - Male and Female Protitution Bibliography. - Bibliohraphy on Prostitution. - Bibliographie: Prostitution juvénile: Publications québécoises. - Books: Male Prostitutes. - Fiction: Male Prostitutes. - Livres: Prostitution Masculine. - Questia Books/Papers on Male Prostitution. Excerpts Free Online. - Popular Male Prostitution Books

Adolescent Male Prostitution: A Social Work / Youthwork Perspective/ Prevention and Intervention with Male Prostitution - 1994 - by Donald LeTourneau in the book Male Sexual Abuse by Gonsiorek, JC, Walter HB., and LeTourneau D. - Young Men in the Street : Help-Seeking Behavior of Young Male Prostitutes - 1995 - by Cudore L. Snell (Google Books). - Runaway Me: A Survivor's Story (A Blooming Press Co., July, 1994) Books excerpts available, including runaway statistics (Amazon).  - The Times Square Hustler : Male Prostitution in New York City - 1994 - by Robert P. McNamara. - Male Sex Work: A Business Doing Pleasure Morrison - 2007 - edited by Todd G. Morrison, Bruce W. Whitehead (Review) (Amazon). - Homosexualité et prostitution masculines à Paris: 1870-1918 - 2005 - by Régis Revenin (Google Books) (Author Commentary). - New York Hustlers: Masculinity and Sex in Modern America - 2010 - by Barry Reay (Review) (Review) (Review). - Prostitution in the Digital Age: Selling Sex from the Suite to the Street - 2012 - by Ronald B. Flowers (Google Books). - Doubles vies: Enquête sur la prostitution masculine homosexuelle - 2010 -  de Hervé Latapie (Amazon) (Translation). - Prostitution masculine, ce qu'en disent les clients (2010, Translation): Hervé Latapie, patron du Tango, le dancing « boîte à frissons » du Marais parisien, partage dans son ouvrage « Doubles vies » son analyse et ses observations sur le monde de la prostitution masculine homosexuelle, et notamment des témoignages de clients, les grands absents des débats sur la prostitution. Interview.

Honey, Honey, Miss Thang : Being Black, Gay, and on the Streets - 1996 - by Leon E. Pettiway (1996). (Review). Against My Better Judgment: An Intimate Memoir of an Eminent Gay Psychologist- 1996 - by Roger Brown (Review: "this book is more concerned with 'exploring the love lives of old professors in [their] interaction[s] with young male hustlers', p. 233") (Review). - For Money or Love : Boy Prostitution in America - 1977 - by Robin Lloyd (Review). - Runaway Kids and Teenage Prostitution: America's Lost, Abandoned, and Sexually Exploited Children - 2001 - by  R. Barri Flowers (Google Books). - Men Who Sell Sex: International Perspectives on Male Prostitution and AIDS - 1998 - edited by Peter Aggleton (Alternate Link / Table of Content) (Google Books) (Book Review). - Hôtels garnis, Garçons de joies. Prostitution masculine, lieux et fantasmes à Paris de 1860 à 1960 - 2012 - de Nicole Canet (Translation) (Expo photos: la prostitution masculine du Paris ancien: Translation). - In the Company of Men: Inside the Lives of Male Prostitutes - 2011 - by Michael D. Smith, Christian Grov (Google Books).

Travailleurs du sexe (Translation) / Les Cowboys de la Nuit (Translation) - 2003 - de Michel Dorais ( Débroussailleur et démystificateur (Translation): Dans son nouvel ouvrage, Michel Dorais éclaire le phénomène de la prostitution masculine. - Les Cowboys de la Nuit: Prostitution masculine (Translation). - Entretien avec l'auteur de "Travailleurs du sexe": Michel Dorais. Translation). - Rent Boys: The World Of Male Sex Trade Workers - 2005 - by Michel Dorais (Review) (Foreword & Study Background / Study Sample). - Prostitué (Translation) - 2007 - de David Von Grafenberg (Review: Translation). - An Inquiry into Commercial Sex in the Community of Men Who Have Sex with Men in China - 2007 - by Tong Ge, Beijing Gender Health Education Institute.(Article). - Sex Workers As Virtual Boyfriends - 2002 - by Joseph Itiel. - Male Homosexuality in West Germany: Between Persecution and Freedom, 1945-69 - 2012 - by Clayton J. Whisnant (Google Books). - Escort Tales: The Trophy Boy and Other Stories - 2003 - by Joseph Itiel (Google Books). - Strapped for Cash: A History of American Hustler Culture - 2003 - by Mack Friedman (Google Books). Review. Review. - Touching Encounters: Sex, Work, and Male-for-Male Internet Escorting - 2012 - by Kevin Walby (Google Books).

Male Sex Work and Society - 2014 - edited by Victor Minichiello, John Scott. - Publishing Announcement: Recent scholarly writing on the male sex industry has largely come from two areas: the social sciences (e.g., psychology and sociology) and the humanities (e.g., history). A range of popular works on male sex work in the visual arts has also emerged, including cinema and literature, most of which has not been accounted for in scholarly writing. For the first time, this work integrates these separate disciplinary approaches in one comprehensive volume. -  Preliminary Announcement Only: This is the first scholarly, comprehensive volume devoted to male sex work. Leading contributors from developed and developing countries (including North and South America, Europe, East Asia and the Subcontinent, Oceania, and Africa) will examine research on male sex workers and their clients. The book will adopt an innovative framework which melds scholarly accounts with biographical narratives.

Männer kaufen - Unterwegs mit Strichern und Kunden in Zürich: Ein Porträt- und Reportagenbuch - 2012 - by Oliver Demont, Walter Pfeiffer (Translation) (Review: Le monde pas très rose de la prostitution au masculin (Translation): Un monde caché et complexe, échappant aux regards du grand public: il en va ainsi de la prostitution masculine dans le milieu gay. Le journaliste alémanique Olivier Demont a consacré à cette «sous-culture» un essai qui vient de sortir en Suisse. Il s’est intéressé à Zurich, qu’il qualifie de «hot-spot» pour cette activité, attirant des travailleurs du sexe de toute l’Europe et d’Amérique latine, du Brésil, surtout. D’après des estimations, ils sont 700 hommes à proposer leurs prestations, principalement dans les saunas de la ville et via internet.

Um olhar sobre a prostituição masculina - 2008 - by Andrea Martins Vicentini (Translation) (Review: Translation).

The Rent Boys of Prague by Homo Superior (Rick Powell): The book is very much about the young men, many of whom claim to be straight, who earn a living servicing the mainly western men who come to enjoy the cheap, easy, no-strings-attached sex. Rick seems to go for the rough trade types, who are often drug addicts as well as liars and thieves, and even he would seem to admit that he gets too involved with them. Nether the author Rick nor most of the boys are very likable, and yet…. And yet there’s something endearing about them all.

El negocio del deseo. La prostitución masculina en San Pablo (Translation) - 1999 - by Néstor Perlongher (PDF Download). - Lila's House: Male Prostitution in Latin America - 1998 - by Jacob Schifte (Review).

A Life Story Told in Seven Dream Periods: "Paul A. Winter's new book [The Lingering Scent of a Candle Just Burnt: A Memoir Framed by Seven Dream Periods] details his own turbulent life through seven recurring dreams. His book describes his own erratic upbringing and brings forth the awareness of teen male prostitution in South Africa (Amazon).

Males for Sale - 2006 - by Ayse Kudat: Dogan Publishing. Istanbul. Turkey (Summary: Word Download).

Excerpts From Summary: "Male-only occupations such as mining and construction also significantly contributed to MSM. Paying men to have sex with other men by such means as providing protection, giving gifts, making favors, in-kind payments as well as cash payments became a regular part of MSM. However, male dominated societies have suppressed the acknowledgement of regular MSM, resulting in silince concerning the causes and consequences of MSM, including the sale of young boys and male children for the purpose of sex...Each chapter is filled with case studies based on interviews performed by Ayse Kudat herself and on case studies discovered through her research. These case studies bring the book to life, humanizing the issue while providing real life support for the author’s conclusions. The book also contains an extensive bibliography...

Chapter two includes a historical review of male prostitution and discusses how male dominance in society and a culture of silence has hindered research on this subject. In ancient Greek civilization, for instance, sex between older men and younger boys was part and parcel of the culture. Young boys were taken in by older men for the purpose of being mentored, part of the mentoring process involving sex. In the Roman empire young boys were often sold to men. The chapter looks at the important role of young boys in the elite classes and lives of Roman emperors. There is also a look at the role of boys and young men in Christianity and a look at the role of boys in ancient Indian temples and then through the British colonial period. Other historical accounts include research from the Japanese, Chinese and Ottoman empires.

The historical review then looks at male prostitution in the recent past of countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Africa, and Latin America. In conclusion, the chapter shows that males for sale have always been a part of civilizations around the world, and increasingly class issues have cropped up, where slaves were not only used for labor but also for sex. Sodomy became legally acceptable or not acceptable at different times throughout history depending on the views of the ruling class. Here the book shows that male prostituion has always existed, and asks whether we will ever be able to solve its problems...

In much of North Africa, America and Europe, pedophelia is endemic. Many young boys run away from home and end up in the sex market. What does current research say? What can we find in movies, literature and fiction? This chapter also reviews scientific studies on the subject and goes over numbers and statistics, asking “what are the common characteristics of males for sale?” Then the chapter goes through examples from various countries and discusses the different forms of male prostitution. Research shows that there are as many male prostitutes as female, but the issue of male prostitution has not received as much attention and therefore the issue is not properly understood...

Factors such as extreme poverty, incest, rape, the desire to prevent the fragementation of a family’s estate, the fact that the child may not be wanted, have been among the more frequent reasons for the abandonment of children. In history it was assumed that if you abandoned your child someone with a good heart would take it in. In Roman literature, for example, there is the tale of Romulus and Remus being abandoned in the woods where a she-wolf raises them until they grow up and found the city of Rome, becoming rulers. Males for Sale cites many other specific examples, for instance in Lyon, France in the 18th century it is estimated that one out of three children were abandoned. Current examples are cited, such as a study showing that many families in London are selling children to merchants knowing that they will be used for sex. The book looks at how abuse of children takes place in institutions. Examples are given of children being abused in nursery schools, in boarding schools, modern sex slavery, and how children are also used for trade in drugs and arms. Males for Sale asks, what will happen now? What is the main problem? What happens to these male prostitutres as a result of their activities? Health issues, suicide, etc. What are the life risks that they take?.."

A Consumer's Guide To Male Hustlers - 1999 - by Joseph Itiel. Harrington Park Press. Review: Make your professional debut / Hire a hustler & enjoy what you paid for. "...Itiel recommends the model/masseur - men with apartments and telephones and Daytimers and an understanding of the kinds of behaviour likely to gratify the middle classes.

Male Prostitution  - 1993 - by Donald J. West & Buz De Villers: Haworth Gay & Lesbian Studies.  Google Books.

Suburban Hustler: Stories of a Hi-Tech Callboy by Aaron Larrence - Chapter online (Note: Some graphic sexual images) - First of the twenty-four stories in the book. In it I go back and relive the first time I ever escorted.- Male Escort's Handbook.

Lady Boys, Tom Boys, Rent Boys: Male and Female Homosexualities in Contemporary Thailand - 1999 - by Peter Jackson, Ed. Also to be published in Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 9(2.3) - Abstracts at BUBL. Two relevant sections (papers): The Friends Thou Hast: Support Systems for Male Commercial Sex Workers in Pattaya, Thailand and Between Money, Morality, and Masculinity: The Dynamics of Bar-Based Male Sex Work in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Book Abstract and Contents available via Haworth PressOnline Catalogue. Place "Lady boys" in search window. (Review)

Military Trade - 1999 - by Steven Zealand, author/editor. "...challenges assumptions about both chaser and chased and poses pointed questions about the wisdom of those who seek to divide the world into 'straight' and 'gay.'"  (A lover of Soldiers) (A smart and sexy exploration of the question: Why do gay men love men in the military?)

Understanding the Male Hustler - 1991 - by Samuel M. Steward, "...understanding of the causes and impulses (beyond the popular "broken home syndrome") that lead young males into prostitution." Book Abstract and Contents available via Haworth PressOnline Catalogue. Place "Male Hustler" in search window.

Male Order: Life Stories from Boys Who Sell Sex - 1995 - by Barbara Gibson (Abstract). Related information referenced in Young People and Prostitution from a Youth Service Perspective by O'Neill, M, Green, J. and Mulroy, S. in Child Prostitution ed D. Barrett. London, The Childrens Society.  A short review in AIDS Book Review Journal. Must scroll to locate review.

Youth prostitution in the new Europe - the growth of sex work (Amazon) - 2000 - edited by David Barrett from the University of Luton: The increase in youth prostitution across Europe is the focus of a new book... "Youth prostitution in the new Europe." (Review: "One of the problems faced by the authors is that real information on the subject is limited in many countries. People do not like to admit that child prostitution exists, (particularly in relation to boys in some parts of the world), and very little research has been done. It is a covert activity and no-one involved wants to admit to it, whether they are pimps, punters or the children themselves. In consequence, many of the chapters use a lot of space discussing prostitution in general, and then tag on whatever data there are about children."

La prostitucion masculina (Translation) - 1993 - by Nestor Osvaldo Perlongher (PDF Download). Information about the Argentine author.

Prostitution: les uns, les unes et les autres - 1994 - by Daniel Welzer-Lang. (Information about Author: Translation) (Abstract (Translation) - Must scroll to locate.). Related information  (in French) in L'homophobie: la face cachée du masculin) by author (Translation). Reports on male prostitution in Lyon.

Des Transgenders et le Brouilage des Identites sur le marche de la prostitution. Translation. (By L. Mathieu et Daniel Welzer-Lang).

La prostitution clandestine - 1989 - by Eva Thomas (Sunmary in French - (Translation) Must scroll to locate.)

Prostitucion Masculina: Estudio Psicosocial En Nuestro Contexto - 1996 - by Rafael Ballester Arnal.

HIV/AIDS Prevention Project for Male Sex Workers in Metro Manila: final report. (ISBN - 9718508139) Related information by the report's principal author (Michael Lim Tan) in Theory and Method in HIV Prevention Projects The Philippine Experience N/A.

Prostitucion masculina: estudio psicosocial en nuestro contexto (Translation) - 1996 - by Rafael Ballester Arnal. Male prostitution in Valencia, Spain. Information about author.

Hustlers, Escorts, and Porn Stars: The Insider's Guide to Male Prostitution in America by Matt Adams. Book's Home Page. Hustlers, Escorts, and Porn Stars; The Insider's Guide to Male Prostitution in America by Matt Adams

Hustling: A Gentleman's Guide to the Fine Art of Homosexual Prostitution - 1994 - by John Preston. See Dan's review of My Life as a Pornographer & Other Indecent Acts - 1993 - by  John Preston.

Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers, and Johns (Amazon) - 1998 - edited by John Alias, et al. Sections on male prostitution. Book Review.

Assuming the Position: A Memoirs of Hustling - 1999 - by Rick Whitaker (Abstract). (Review) (Review). "What we have in this little book, then, are not just the confessions of an unhappy hooker but the musings of a philosopher of carnality. "Assuming the Position" will tell you everything you ever wanted to know about selling the body and will satisfy your nostalgie de la boue in a very muddy way. But it will also stimulate your soul.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

GENERAL:

The Category "Prostitute" in Scientific Inquiry (1992, Reference). - "There is no such thing as The Prostitute; there are only competing versions of prostitution. The Prostitute is an invention of policy-makers, researchers, moral crusaders, and political activists ... The Prostitute functions as a “magic sign” whose meaning always exceeds its definition." (From the book "Sex and Borders: Gender, National Identity, and Prostitution Policy in Thailand" - 2002 - by Leslie Ann Jeffrey. PDF Download of the Introduction from UBC Press. Chapter 1 is also available.) - Reconceptualizing prostitution (1997, Edited version of a paper presented at the 22nd Annual Conference of the Caribbean Studies Association, Baranquilla, Colombia): Over the past 10-15 years, prostitutes have been organizing in the Latin American and Caribbean. In other regions of the world, similar organizations are taking shape. Sex worker rights groups and organizations are known to exist in Australia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, North America, South Africa, Venezuela and various Western European countries. In all this activity, the notion of the 'sex worker' is inextricably related to struggles for the recognition of women's work, for basic human rights and for decent working conditions: struggles that are not specific to prostitution and the sex trade but share much in common with women's fights and organizing efforts for social and economic justice within other formal and informal, unregulated sectors. By claiming the name 'sex workers' the social location of those engaged in the sex trade as workers is stressed. This self-definition emphasizes the flexible and varied nature of sex work as well as its similarities with other dimensions of working people's lives. Sex work, from prostitutes' accounts, is experienced as an integral part of many women's and young men's lives around the world, and not necessarily as the sole defining activity around which their sense of self or identity is shaped. Moreover, commercial sex work, according to prostitutes own definitions, is not always a steady activity, but may occur simultaneously with other forms of income-generating work such as informal commercial trading, market-selling, shoe-shining or office work. It can also be quite short-lived or be a part of an annual cycle of work

Sex Workers and the Gay Community (2013): Why then the opprobrium that so many gays have against male sex workers? For one, the male prostitute is tarred with the same brush as his female counterpart. Gay society has adopted many of the values and prejudices of the straights even when they do not apply to homosexual s. Young and proud males feel that they deserve to have free sex. When they grow older, the idea that they have to pay for if they want to get laid galls them. Jealousy may also be involved. The client who pays for sex usually gets exactly what he wants, with a minimum waste of time, whereas the cruisers in any venue, have to make do with whatever is available to them on at a given time. From its inception, the gay movement has advocated that persons can do with their own bodies whatever they want – even change their birth sex. Why, then, is there so much disdain against sex work if it is not coerced? - The Lucky New Sex Workers (2011): Today’s sex workers are much luckier than their forbears a generation ago. They do not appreciate their good fortune because they do not remember the sad old days. Some 25 years earlier, due to the Internet and cell phones (and before that gay newspapers) the street hustling scene has changed drastically. The hustlers of old stood on specific street corners waiting for johns. Often, they did “car dates” - hopping into cars whose drivers slowed down to let them in. Conducting business in the streets was extremely disadvantageous for them. First, the were hassled by the police as well as by competitors. Second, they had absolutely no control over their time. They had to wait to be picked up. This could take five minutes or five hours. Third, by standing in designated  street corners they advertised themselves as hustlers to all passersby. Fourth, waiting for johns in inclement weather often forced them to lower their asking price drastically, in order to get out of the rain or snow. Once they could advertise their services on,the Web, they had a much wider market for their services.

Joseph Itiel's Weblog (2009): In my first book about sex work (“A Consumer’s Guide to Male Hustlers,”) I wrote at length about the differences between male and female prostitutes. My editor thought that this part was superfluous and wanted me to delete it. I refused, because the difference between male and female adult sex workers is between free male independent contractors and enslaved women. I have never encountered a pimp for male sex workers anywhere in the world. I have heard of unpleasant incidents that adult male sex workers have with their clients (usually not being paid and, very rarely, a physical altercation) but, by and large, for male sex workers, it just a contractual job. In many cases, the customer is at much greater risk. For example, in 1997, the famous designer Gianni Versace was murdered by his expensive and deranged hustler. There are many male sex workers all over the world who ply their trade in a country where their immigration status is illegal. But they do that of their free will, usually making more money than working at the few menial jobs available to them. They are not lured to that country under false pretenses or controlled by vicious pimps, who abuse them physically, confiscate their passports or threaten their families in their homeland.

Sexual conduct and sexual identity in clients of male sexworkers (1992). -  Des Transgenders. Le brouillage des identité sur le marché de la prostitution (Translation). - Symposium on "Male Sex Work Identities and their Implications for Health" (2002). - International Perspectives on Research with Male Sex Workers (2005). - Impact de l'infection et de la prévention chez les sex workers (1994, Translation).

Male Prostitution (Wikipedia). - Prostitution masculine (Wikipedia, Translation). - HIV/AIDS and Prostitution: The Top 25 Resources (2000). - Répertoire de ressources: Prostitution masculine (Translation). - MaleProstitution.Com (To 2000): A Resource Center About Male Prostitution.

Reported in "A Theory of Prostitution" by Lena Edlund and Evelyn Korn (2001, Institute for International Economic Studies: PDF Download): Ford [21] analyzed a sample of street prostitutes in Montreal matched with a sample of hospital workers in 1993. 20 female and 26 male prostitutes were matched with hospital orderlies. Other than gender, the matching was done on the basis of marital status, number of years on the job, and time of shifts worked (evening versus day). The prostitutes had higher earnings than orderlies, and female prostitutes earned more than male prostitutes (among orderlies, men earned more than women). Whereas no orderlies of either sex earned more than CAD 50,000 a year, 75 percent of the female and 35 percent of the male prostitutes did so. This despite the finding that prostitutes had lower educational attainments. In terms of work environment, prostitution and hospital work were surprisingly similar both in terms of perceived stress level, and actual assault rates.

Weitzer, Ronald (2009). Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review fo Sociology, 35: 213-234. Abstract. PDF Download. This review examines key dimensions of contemporary sex work, particularly prostitution. Most research focuses exclusively on street prostitution and female workers, with much less attention devoted to indoor prostitution, male and transgender workers, customers, and managers. Furthermore, most of the literature examines prostitution where it is illegal, neglecting contexts where it is legal and regulated by the government. The review demonstrates how research on these topics can enrich our understanding of contemporary sex work.

A literature review of the sexual health needs of commercial sex workers and their clients (2005): Male sex workers: Male prostitution in the United Kingdom is different from female prostitution: it is less visible because it is mainly off-street - many men are involved in work in pubs, saunas and escort agencies, and it does not generally have the same drug or coercion issues than might be the case for female sex work. Mostly, sex is sold by men to other men in an off-street context and behind closed doors. In this country, coerced and trafficked men are the great minority. Usually, men who sell sex in the UK have chosen it through a range of available options in response to a financial motivation: personal debt, unexpected life events, further education fees, or immigration status restricting legitimate forms of work36. Men usually choose to sell sex for a short period of time, they generally choose when and how to work, and they do not consider themselves victims or abused. Some men have become involved in prostitution due to social disadvantage and problematic family histories. Another reason for men to enter sex work is the rejection from family and society due to their sexual identity - 78% of male sex workers define themselves as gay. Consequently, many non-UK born men coming from traditional Catholic cultures sell sex in London just to have the opportunity of living in a relatively tolerant society39. Literature review_draft report 6 Published data reveal that many men started to sell sex before the age of 18 and they have had their first non-paid sexual relationship before the age of 16, as is the case for the majority of the UK population40. There is very little research in the United Kingdom about male sex workers’ sexual health. This lack of information may reflect, on the one hand, a hesitation from male sex workers to attend sexual health services and, on the other hand, the failure to disclose their involvement in prostitution to health staff41. Nonetheless, higher levels of STIs have been found among this population and it is estimated that approximately 11% of male sex workers are HIV positive43. They are often associated with high risk behaviours such as injecting drug use44, high rates of anal sex, and inconsistent condom use with both clients and non-paying partners. Therefore, male sex workers may provide a significant route for STI infection.

Young People and Prostitution from a Youth Service Perspective by O'Neill, M, Green, J. and Mulroy, S. in Child Prostitution ed D. Barrett. London, The Children's Society (2000): Our experiences and the available literature tells us that there is a huge gap in service provision to young women and to young men involved in prostitution (Barrett 1995). To this end we focus upon the necessary inter-relation between youth service provision and health service provision in developing a model which pivots around the central involvement of the youth service in responding to the needs of young people involved or at risk of involvement in prostitution.. - Amoc/DHV: Questionnaire for organisations working with male sex-workers.

Health Messages Fail to Reach Male Sex Workers (2001): "It is difficult to target male sex workers with safer-sex messages and health services, because many of them work independent of brothels or parlors, according to a commentary that appeared in the April 14, 2001 edition of the journal, The Lancet.To make matters worse, male sex workers are less inclined to seek health services because of the stigma attached to their profession... wrote Adrian Mindel, researcher, Westmead Hospital in Sydney, Australia and Claudia Estcourt, researcher, Barts Sexual Health Center in London, England. "By contrast, with a few notable exceptions, the male commercial sex industry is mostly hidden."

Cross-cultural Studies of Male Sex-Workers: Exploring Same-Gender Prostitution - by Bruce Freeman. Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary (1999):  This paper explores the topic of homosexual male sex-work from an anthropological perspective.  Homosexual male sex-workers are defined here as those males who engage in sexual activity with other males for the primary purpose of immediate material gain.  The use of the term “homosexual” characterizes sexual behaviors rather than the sexual interests or orientation of the males who engage in these behaviors.  As will be discussed in further detail below, while some of these sex-workers choose to define themselves as “gay” and “bisexual,” others do not consider themselves to be homosexual at all and may instead label themselves as “straight.”  The expressions “gay,” “bi,” and “straight” are used in this paper not to typify sexual behaviors but rather to identify self-ascribed labels. The paper is comprised of five sections.  Following this introduction is a brief discussion of the topic of homosexuality within the anthropological tradition.  An overview follows of the characters of two male sex-workers in the film My Own Private Idaho.  In the fourth section of the paper four ethnographies of male sex-workers are summarized.  A brief discussion concludes the paper. 

Children & Prostitution: How Can We Measure and Monitor The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children? Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography - A collaboration between UNICEF Headquarters, New York, Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances Section, Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge and Childwatch International - by   Judith Ennew, Kusum Gopal, Janet Heeran and Heather Montgomery (Second edition, with additional material prepared for the Congress Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Stockholm, 26-31 August, 1996).

Reaching out to sex workers and their clients (2012): The ILO Recommendation concerning HIV and AIDS and the World of Work, 2010 (No. 200) reaches out to all workers. In collaboration with constituents and partners, the ILO promotes the inclusion of female and male sex workers and their clients in HIV responses at the international, national, sectoral and workplace levels. ILO is looking beyond traditional HIV prevention efforts and attempts to tackle the underlying factors that enhance risks of HIV infection. Reducing stigma and discrimination, promoting economic empowerment of women and men and addressing gender dimensions are key components of this approach. - Reaching Out: Male and Female Sex Workers - Durban, 10 July 2000 N/A (XIII International AIDS Conference): "The session entitled Reaching Out: Male and Female Sex Workers brought together presenters from the US, Russian Federation, Germany, Morocco, and the U.K.. In a diverse session where papers were delivered on research and prevention activities targeting male body workers, male and female commercial street sex workers, and men of different social classes who have sex with men." - XIII International AIDS Conference: Indian MSM & Male Sex Work Abstracts.

Acknowledging the Continuum From Childhood Abuse to Male Prostitution (1995): The "Stroll." Any city has one and Vancouver is no exception. On any night of the week, a dozen or more young men can be seen standing along a street in Yaletown. In darkened doorways, leaning against a building, or standing near the curb, these young men (some just barely beyond childhood) are selling their bodies for survival. This is not a lark for them; this is not "a way to have lots of sex and get paid for it." As is the case for female prostitutes, it is a continuation of their childhood victimization. - Information related to a 16-year-old San Francisco male who has been engaging in prostitution (1997). - Boys in the sex business (Social Work): Over the course of the years, the work with boys in prostitution has developed into an independent sub-division within AMOC. Moreover, our range of services is increasingly being aligned with the specific needs of the boys. The approach and methods must be continually evaluated, adjusted and re-implemented. As a result, our work is characterised by a high degree of flexibility and adaptability. 

Health and Health Needs of Homeless and Runaway Youth (1992):  Once these youth are on the streets, there are few legitimate means of survival. Although some try various kinds of delinquent activity such as selling drugs, stealing, and panhandling, one of the most common means of obtaining funds is through "survival" sex. Few young women who are on the streets for any period of time fail to become involved and, although young males have more options available for survival, they too are likely to become involved in hustling or other forms of "survival" sex. Street youth often exchange sexual activity for food, shelter, drugs, or protection, from someone who is older and more streetwise (24). Many youth have little or no knowledge of prostitution when they first reach the street, but after talking with involved peers who seem to be making easy money, it becomes less frightening. The number of street youth involved in prostitution varies greatly, and it is usually higher in the largest urban areas, especially New York and Los Angeles. Gay or bisexual youth are even more likely to be involved in prostitution.

It's Different for Boys (Reprinted from Whores and Other Feminists (Google Books), Jill Nagle, ed., New York: Routledge, 1997): Female prostitution takes on new meanings when analyzed alongside male prostitution. Within the gay male world, prostitution is, for the most part, regarded with indifference. This is probably because many gay men have learned not only to accept but also to take pride in sexual deviance... My first argument centers on the notion of victimhood. The stereotypical Hollywood female hooker is regarded as helpless and pathetic, waiting to be rescued by a man (Julia Roberts in Pretty Woman, for example), whereas a stereotypical male hooker is regarded as tough and invulnerable, turning tricks just to be deviant (Keanu Reeves in My Own Private Idaho). - Demographic Information and Sex Work in Canada: How male and female sex workers in Canada differ.

Camille Paglia Sides with G.O.P. Bigots & Southern Baptists Anti-Lesbian Lesbian Equates Male Homosexuality with Prostitution (1998): Ms. Paglia equated homosexuality with prostitution, pontificating that "history shows that male homosexuality, which like prostitution flourishes with urbanization and soon becomes predictably ritualized, always tends toward decadence."

Prostitution Issues: Prostitutes Education Network. - Pacific Rainbow Advocacy Network: Global Network of Sex Work Projects. - Directory of Sex Workers' Rights Organizations and Projects. - Commercial Sex Information Service (CSIS). - Sex Workers Alliance of Vancouver. - The Body: Sex Worker Resources. - Scarlet Alliance: Male Sex Work Resources. - Links. - Scarlet Men: The site for Australian male sex workers (To 2009). - The Humsafar Trust. - NAZ Foundation International. - Prostitution Resources (To 2004). - Male Prostitution: Wikipedia. - Male prostitution in the arts. - Male Prostitution Bibliography.

PLRI: Paulo Longo Research Initiative: PLRI is a collaboration of researchers, policy analysts and sex workers that aims to develop and consolidate ethical, interdisciplinary scholarship on sex work to improve the human rights, health and well being of women, men and transgenders who sell sex.

HookOnline.org'd s Article Index (To 2002). - Article Archives. - Interviews. - New HookOnline Site.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam. - Eastern Europe & Central Asia: - Armenia. - Azerbaijan. - Belarus. - Georgia. - Kazakhstan. - Kyrgyzstan. - Moldova. - Russia. - Tajikistan. - Turkmenistan. - Ukraine. - Uzbekistan. - Middle East & North Africa: - Algeria. - Bahrain. - Egypt. - Iran. - Iraq. - Israel. - Jordan. - Kuwait. - Lebanon. - Lybia. - Mauritania. - Morocco. - Occupied Palestinian Territory. - Oman. - Qatar. - Saudi Arabia. - Sudan. - Syria. - Tunisia. - Turkey. - United Arab Emirates. - Yemen. - Sub-Saharan Africa: - Angola. - Benin. - Botswana. - Burkina Faso. - Burundi. - Cameroon. - Cape Verde. - Central African Republic. - Chad. - Comoros. - Congo. - Côte d'Ivoire. - Democratic Republic of the Congo. - Djibouti. - Equatorial Guinea. - Eritrea. - Ethiopia. - Gabon. - Gambia. - Ghana. - Guinea. - Guinea-Bissau. - Kenya. - Lesotho. - Liberia. - Madagascar. - Malawi. - Mali. - Mauritius. - Mayotte. - Mozambique. - Namibia. - Niger. - Nigeria. - Réunion. - Rwanda. - Saint Helena. - Sao Tome and Principe. - Senegal. - Seychelles. - Sierra Leone. - Somalia. - South Africa. - Swaziland. - Tanzania. - Togo. - Uganda. - Zambia. - Zimbabwe.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Caribbean: - Anguilla. - Antigua and Barbuda. - Aruba. - Bahamas. - Barbados. - Belize. - British Virgin Islands. - Cayman Islands. - Cuba. - Dominica. - Dominican Republic. - Dutch Antilles. - French Caribbean. - Grenada. - Guyana. - Haiti. - Jamaica. - Montserrat. - Netherlands Antilles. - Puerto Rico. - Saint Kitts and Nevis. - Saint Lucia. - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. - Saint-Barthelemy. - Suriname. - Trinidad and Tobago. - Turks and Caicos Islands. - US Virgin Islands. - Latin America: - Argentina. - Bolivia. - Brazil. - Chile. - Colombia. - Costa Rica. - Ecuador. - El Salvador. - Guatemala. - Honduras. - Mexico. - Nicaragua. - Panama. - Paraguay. - Peru. - Uruguay. - Venezuela.

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MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  Oceania: - Australia. - Cook Islands. - Fed. States of Micronesia. - Fiji. - French Polynesia. - Johnston Island. - Kiribati. - Nauru. - New Caledonia. - New Caledonia. - New Zealand. - Niue. - Norfolk Island. - Northern Mariana Islands. - Palau. - Papua New Guinea. - Pitcairn. - Samoa. - Solomon Islands. - Tokelau. - Tonga. - Tuvalu. - Vanuatu. - Wallis and Futuna Islands.


UK-NSWP (United Kingdom Network of Sex Work Projects, 2004). Response to "Paying The Price". PDF Download

Excerpts from Section 4: "Male Sex Work"
: "The majority of early research into male prostitution is largely based on street workers*. This is reflected in "Paying the Price." Indeed, while the document does state in the introduction (section 1,4) that the term prostitute, used throughout the document “should be taken to mean both men and women unless otherwise specified”, there is no substantive analysis of the issues for male sex workers, or distinction regarding how these issues may be different (or similar) to those of female sex workers. Male sex workers are mostly ‘invisible’ within the consultation document...

Most of the consultation document focuses on the stereotypical perception of sex workers as ‘victims of abuse’ who have been coerced into sex work (Introduction, 1.3.1, 1.3.2). The reality for male sex workers is that, whilst there are significant numbers of individuals across the UK who have become involved in the selling of sex due to social disadvantage and problematic family histories, on the whole research conducted by the Working Men’s Project (WMP) and the experience of other projects in our network, such as the Armistead Project, is that many men make an informed choice about selling sex within a range of available options...

The majority of men selling sex in the UK are not coerced or trafficked, do not have pimps or inappropriate relationships with other individuals who ‘control’ their movements. They may be ‘managed’ in a loose sense of the word, by brothel owners or escort agency managers, who may require a commitment to working agreed hours/shifts, etc, but the individual sex worker chooses when to work and how to work (e.g. what sexual activities will be engaged in). N.B. This is not to deny the cases of younger men, for example in care situations, who are coerced by their peers or exploitative adults into selling sex. Some projects in our network support such individuals...

The reality of male sex work in relation to abuse and vulnerability needs to be considered along a continuum. There are those men who have been coerced, who have been ‘damaged’ by their involvement in the selling of sex, who are at one end of that continuum. Young men selling sex are often perceived as “delinquent” rather than vulnerable, so younger men selling sex and their service needs remain largely unseen. The exploitation of young males is often ignored because society often fails to recognize that young men are vulnerable...

Some projects report one of the reasons men may becoming involved in selling sex is linked to issues of rejection from family and society due to their sexual identify. It is important to recognize these complex issues that shape some men’s experience of sex work. “Many of the men we work in Merseyside are very much in control of their own activities yet there are number of men, who as far as we know are the minority, who are controlled by others, usually using emotional manipulation. There are bigger issues also. Homophobia and rejection from sections of the straight community. Also the gay community itself, can react negatively and aggressively to men who sell sex. I think this needs to be looked at more.” (Manager, Gay Men’s Project, Merseyside)...

But for most men involved in the selling of sex, working off-street through brothels, the Internet or from adverts in the gay press, their difficulties with finding accommodation are no more or less than other young men in the general population. A significant number of male sex workers are homosexually identified (78% of those registered with the WMP identify as gay), and often it is their sexuality, rather than their nvolvement in sex work which can present difficulties with finding safe and secure longterm accommodation...

Most of the published research relating to male sex work demonstrates that many men first started to sell sex before the age of 18 years of age (Connell & Hart, 2003), yet many also admit to engaging in consensual non-paid sex before the age of 16 years (as it the case for the majority of the population), however it would be untrue to claim that the majority of the population had been ‘sexually abused or exploited’. The organised commercial scene is self-regulating around the protection of young people...

Male sex workers are most at risk from isolation. This isolation is often three fold: ... These factors combined increase the invisibility of male sex workers, often making it necessary for them to live a ‘double life’ – student, boyfriend, companion, employee by day, and sex worker by night. This leads to increased vulnerability, difficultly in accessing appropriate health and social services, under reporting of crime (on the rare occasions they are victims of crime), and increased sexual risk taking behaviour..."

Lankenaua SE, Clatts MC, Well D, Goldsam LA, Gwadz MV (2005). Street careers: homelessness, drug use, and sex work among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). International Journal of Drug Policy. 16: 10–18. PDF Download.

Excerpt: " Through the narrative accounts of 10 young men, we detailed a kind of developmental process of the accumulation of street capital that preceded surviving on the streets as hustlers or sex workers.We argued that through their experiences in a number of varied institutions—the family, foster care, school, drug treatment, hospitals, jail—these young men gathered fragments of knowledge that we described as street capital. Once homeless, youths became familiar with the experiences and settings of homelessness—often recognizing aspects of homelessness from childhood and adolescence. Formerly diverse, disparate types of street capital and street competencies coalesced into street careers as sexworkers that not only made sense to the youth, but also formed the basis for a pragmatic way of surviving on the streets. While the speed of initiating a career within the street economy varied, the previous life history accounts suggest that these youth began to accumulate street capital and develop street competencies at an early age.

Older males—gang members, drug dealers, and sex work clients—offered emotional and financial support that opened pathways into the street economy. In certainways, these male figures—some a few years older while others as old as their biological fathers—filled gaps left by their parents. For some young men, an uncommitted sexual identity followed a history of emotional and sexual experiences with both older and younger males and younger females. This ambiguity around sexuality coupled with more immediate material and physical needs for housing and drugs may have fostered openness to trading sex for money. Ultimately, entry into sexwork marked a period of crisis for all of these young men—homelessness, failed relationships with parents or girlfriends, release from institutions without job prospects, and escalating drug habits..."

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Scribd.com

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available - OpenThesis.org.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.

To Part 1-A: Male Protitution Information for - North America - Latin America & the Caribbean - Europe - Australia / New Zealand / Pacific Islands - Asia - Africa.  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject (http://www.youth-suicide.com/gay-bisexual/links6.htm) is located.

Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist & Glenn Lynas, and Glenn also supplied other forms of assistance.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.

INFORMATION LIMITATIONS

The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.


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