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Boyer, Debra Kay (1986). Male Prostitution: A Cultural Expression of Male Homosexuuality. PhD. Dissertation, University of Washington. PDF Download. Download Page. [Related Paper: Boyer, Debra (1989). Male Prostitution and Homosexual Identity. IN Gay and Lesbian Youth, Gilbert Herdt, Ed. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press & In: 1989 Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1/2): 151-184.]Canotal, Eugene Espejo (2009). An Overseas Example of "Lighter is Better": The Implications of Colorism Among Male Sex Workers in Thailand. Master of Social Work Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Mass.. PDF Download. Download Page.
Escobar, Laura Maria (2008). Progressive care : an examination of male to female transgender sex workers' experiences within the health care and social service systems in San Francisco, California. MSW Dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Mass. PDF Download. Download Page.Geibel S (2012). Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy. FVV in ObGyn, 4(4): 285-294. [PhD. Dissertation Summary]. PDF Download.
Gille, Christoph (2007). Romanians and Bulgarians in Male Street Sex Work in German Cities: A comparison between their perceptions of living conditions in the countries of origin and in Germany as an example for a broader European migratory pattern. Master's Dissertation, Comparative European Social Studies, Metropolitan University London. PDF Download. PDF Download.
Hallett, Liam Wayne (2003). The experience of the male sex-worker : a phenomenological investigation. Master's Dissertaton, Department of Psychology, University of Zululand. Download Page. PDF Download.Hamada, Souad (2008). Men selling sex in Cairo and Alexandria: perspectives on male sex work and AIDS in Egypt. Master's Dissertation, The American University in Cairo. PDF Download Page.
Hernandez, Laufred I (2002). Sexualities, Identities and Bodies: The Framing of Pagkatao Among Establishment-based Male Sex Workers in the Philippines. Master's Dissertation, Medical Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Universiteit van Amsterdam. PDF Download. Download Page.Holliday, Christopher Scott (2006). Risky Sexual Behavior Among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men: The Effects of Peer Norms for Condom Use on Risky Sexual Behavior as Moderated by Socio-Demographic, Socio-Contextual, and Health-Related Variables. Master's Dissertation, Department of Psychology, Georgia State Universoty. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download.
Lay, John Phillip (2008). Dangerous, Desperate, and Homosexual: Cinematic Representations of the Male Prostitute as Fallen Angels. Master's Dissertation, University of North Texas. Download Page. PDF Download.Leis, Genevieve (2001). HIV Prevention from Indigenous Youth Perspectives. Master's Dissertation, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia. PDF Download.
Saldanha, Rafael Araújo (2007). "A idéia é a fantasia, é ter quem vocệ quiser..." A Prostituição Masculina em SC. Master's Dissertation, History, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. PDF Download. Translation.Salialam Jr. AP (2007). Risk Behaviors of Male Commerccial Sex Workers in Zamboanga City [Philippines]. Master's in Public Health Dissertation, Zamboanga University. PDF Download.
de Souza Neto, Epitácio Nunes (2010). Entre Boys E Frangos: Prostituição Homossexual Masculina em Recife. Master's Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE. PDF Download. Translation.
Suwatcharapinun, Sant (2005). Spaces of Male Prostitution: Tactics, Performativity and Gay Identities in Streets, Go-Go Bars and Magazines in Contemporary Bangkok, Thailand. PhD. Dissertation, University of London. PDF Download. Download Page.Ting, Ming-hao (2009). The study on the male to male sex workers in Shanghai China. Master's Dissertation, College of Commerce, National Chengchi University. Download Page.
Abstract by author: In this study I demonstrate how adolescent male prostitutes have linked the meaning of a personal homoerotic preference and subsequent homosocial identity with the social action of prostitution. In several major studies, a homosexual identity for male prostitutes was disclaimed. Prostitution was explained using socio- economic factors or perspectives of individual pathology. A recent study suggested that male prostitution has become "gayer," but does not describe the relationship of homosexuality to male prostitution in theoretical terms.
Many of these studies are weakened by a Western perspective of homosexuality that is concerned with etiology and pathology. By contrast, I examined homosexuality as a symbolic construct whose expression is shaped by the dominant sex and gender system of American culture. The research approach taken was shaped by my view of homosexuality as one of a variety of permutations of social-sexual behavior to be found in various types of social organization and not the result of individual or social pathology.
The research process included a combination of quantitative and qualitative procedures. The quantitative data permitted an analysis of conditions and constraints common to male prostitutes. These included: (1) sexual identity, (2) sexual exploitation, and (3) family rejection. I have argued that these factors bounded their perceptions and alternatives. Using an interactionist perspective, I developed an interpretive model to demonstrate the interplay of objective and subjective factors from which male prostitutes construct social definitions and subjective meanings linking homosexuality and prostitution.
I have argued that adolescent gay males develop a self- understanding that includes prostitution as part of their homosexual world due to: (1) stigma associated with homosexuality, (2) approval of active male sexuality, (3) sex construed as a commodity, and (4) self-objectification resulting from experiences of sexual exploitation. I show how the male homosexual subculture provided adolescent gay males with a coherent social role and identity that included prostitution.
In summary, I try to demonstrate how behavior classed as deviant is a socio-cultural phenomenon produced from cultural constructions of sex and gender. From this perspective one can begin to understand how prostitution makes sense to an adolescent gay male who is trying to understand what it means to be homosexual in American culture.
Calhoun TC (1988). Theoretical considerations on the entrance and stabalization of male street prostitutes. PH.D. Thesis, University of Kentucky, DAI vol. 50-04A, p. 1988, 196 pages.
Abstract by author: Most research on male street prostitutes has focused on predisposing variables, while failing to link this behavior to sociological theory. The major theoretical frameworks used in this study include: Goffman's dramaturgical approach with emphasis on two concepts - "passing" and "covering"; Rosenberg's works on self concept development including "reflected appraisals," "self attribution," and "social comparisons"; and some elements of Sutherland and Cressey's Differential Association Theory. Data were obtained from 18 males aged from 13 to 22, most of whom lived in homes with two adult guardians, using semi-structured interviews, direct observations and talking with these and other hustlers daily.
These data affirm that existing sociological theories can be used to enhance our knowledge of the factors which cause some young males to enter and remain active participants in this criminal activity. There was tremendous support for Rosenberg's principles of self concept development. These young males perceived themselves as heterosexual primarily and held negative views of homosexuals prior to becoming involved in street hustling. They make concerted efforts to protect their identity as heterosexual by adhering to the values, attitudes, and behaviors of people whose evaluation of them they cherish. Additionally, they maintain their identity as heterosexual by boasting love and preference for sex with women and by limiting the sexual roles they perform in homosexual encounters. Furthermore, they report that it is money that primarily influences their participation in this behavior.
By asserting that their participation is economically motivated they can separate how they see themselves from how they perceive their "tricks." They accomplish this by using the techniques and strategies of "passing" and "covering" identified by Goffman. These hustlers do not want significant others to learn about their involvement in this discrediting behavior because they believe it would result in negative labeling; therefore, every effort is used to maintain their secret.
Sutherland and Cressey's Differential Association theory identifies how most of these hustlers come to engage in street prostitution. They learn about this activity from friends who provide them with the techniques, motives, and rationalizations necessary to complete the deviant act.
Erickson RA (1986). Entrepreneurs of the night: a psychosocial study of the adolescent male prostitute. PH.D. Thesis, The Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, DAI vol. 47-05B, p. 2158, 447 pages.
Abstract by author: The focus of this descriptive study was to present a psychosocial study of male adolescent prostitutes working in the Minneapolis area. Data collection was organized around a qualitative research strategy consisting of an extensive guided interview, and interpretation of three tests which included the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), the MAPI (Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory), and the TSCS (Tennessee Self Concept Scale). Detailed case studies are included for all participants. The methodology involved a two-part recruiting campaign wherein prostitutes were sought to participate in the study.
The first method involved advertising for adolescent male prostitutes in a local gay newspaper. 81 inquiries came (over a seven week period) in response to that ad, and 10 of those respondees qualified and were selected for participation. The remaining participants, another 10 young people, were recruited off the streets by the researcher who cruised a known prostitution area and approached the hustlers in a manner similar to that of active "Johns". The interviews took place between March 1985, and January, 1986.
The data indicated that the overwhelming majority of these young men had been sexually and/or physically abused as youngsters. It also spelled out significant and clearly contrasting low levels of self-esteem and estrangement from families of origin in comparison to the so-called normal population. All participants seemed to be either naive or unconcerned about the life and death factors surrounding AIDS. Most seemed to be driven by the illusion of easy money, while at the same time, caught up in the problems of drug dependency and mental psychopathology.
Implications for the organization of community services to this population were suggested.
Galligar FB (1994). Filipino adolescents exposed to prostitution: an investigation of their lives and the concept of commodification. PH.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, DAI vol. 55-04A, p. 889, 187 pages.
Abstract by author: In this study, the lives of Filipino adolescent subjects, who have been exposed to the lifestyle of prostitution, either actively or indirectly, were examined as a way to look into the concept of the objectification of a human life to a point of impairing or corrupting psychosocial well-being (i.e. the concept of commodification). For purposes of this research, the concept of commodification was explored in relation to the Philippine situation of juvenile prostitution.
Commodification was characterized by children selling their bodies to feed themselves and/or their families. Participants in this investigation consisted of four female prostitutes, four male prostitutes, four female non-prostitutes, and a male non-prostitute who were raised by poor families and resided close to a 'red light district' in Metropolitan Manila where this study was conducted.
All subjects volunteered as participants in a dream workshop facilitated by the investigator. Another aspect of this research was an exploration of the value of dream reports as a tool in gathering information. The dream reports were dream recollections related by the subjects. The subjects' comments or interpretations about their dream statements were noted. Additional research tools included the use of projective tests, interview questionnaires, and observations gathered by the author and the project assistants.
An ethnographic approach which utilized a content analysis of the psychosocial variables that emerged in this research was employed. The most common themes that emerged from the data included the family structure (intact, disintegrated, harmonious, and/or disharmonious), presence of parental marital infidelity, parenting style of father and mother (authoritarian, authoritative or permissive), quality of parental care of father and mother (caring, adequate, neglectful, or abusive), school involvement, educational goal (stay out of school, stay in school, earn degree beyond high school, earn a college degree), sexual attitudes of the subjects' and their social environment, self-concept, and feelings of hostility and depression. The subjects' feelings and perceptions about prostitution were also noted.
Kamel GWL (1983). Downtown street hustlers: the role of dramaturgical imaging practices in the social construction of male prostitution. PH.D. Thesis, DAI vol. 45-04B, p. 1320, 348 pages.
Abstract by author: This is a study of the dramaturgical imaging practices used by male street prostitutes to accomplish successful prostitution encounters. Imaging practices are courtship strategies that entice customers with a particular presentation of self. They are based on Erving Goffman's "defensive practices" discussed in The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959). Male prostitution has a long tradition, but systematic data has only been collected over the last 40 years. I gathered data for this report during 30 months of field observations, participant-observation, and conversational interviewing with street hustlers in downtown San Diego, California.
The socio-cultural context in which hustling occurs is one of greater sexual awareness, a new acceptance of gay people, and economic hard times. The physical settings are the downtown "beats;" certain sidewalk areas where hustlers stage popular homoerotic images of maleness. Seven distinct images are identified. These images are categorized as "trade," "jocks," and "chicken," and are analysed as a social accomplishment involving interaction between the hustler on the street and the client in his car. Prostitution images neutralize the disruptive features of redevelopment construction, overlapping communities of others, and special audiences such as the police. The capacity to image is acquired in phases of discovering prostitution, learning popular images, image selection, and fitting into an image.
Images are based on the erotic components of age, sexual orientation, gender-related mannerisms, and sexual role preference. Each image is analysed as a case study based largely on the experiences of one or two hustlers, then rounded out with data from others. This method insures anonymity and enhances representativeness.
Twenty-nine informants are represented in 7 analyses entitled, "Chuck the Sadist," "Straight James," "Brad the Suburbanite," "Mike the Urban Cowboy," "Butch the Gay Clone," "Dave and Len: Partners," and "Bobby the Handsome Fem." As the last intrusion of age encroaches on these images, image disassembly and later life problems may occur.
This study contributes to Goffman's constructionist perspective in contemporary social psychology. It is evident from this study that hustlers ought to be given official sanction to operate in a safe and legitimate environment. An appendix and afterword presents and critiques the major methodological features of this study.
Mc Gabe, Ian (2005). Male street prostitution in Dublin and San Francisco: A psychocultural analysis. PsyD Thesis, California Institute of Integral Studies. Word Abstract. Word Full Text.
Abstract by Author: This
study was designed to assess the role of culture in male street
prostitution (MSP) by comparing 11 MSPs in San Francisco with 12 MSPs
in Dublin, Ireland. The methodology included locating the participants
through a nonrandom direct approach and the snowball sampling
technique. In addition to a semistructured interview, each
participant completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Scale for
Suicidal Ideation, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Instrument, the Drug
Assessment, and the CAGE for indications of alcohol dependency.
The Dublin group scored
higher in depression and lower in self-esteem, but there were no
significant differences in suicidal ideation or alcohol or other drug
dependencies. There were several obvious cultural differences;
these related to religious influences, age of first usage of heroin,
admission of sexual orientation, families of origin, and contact with
social services. Most of the Dublin participants were on methadone
maintenance programs and drew weekly assistance from welfare agencies,
whereas none of the San Francisco participants were on methadone and
only one received welfare. Contrary to expectations, none of the
participants were gay adolescents who had been forced from their homes
and engaged in prostitution in order to survive. The prime reason
for entering and remaining in prostitution was heroin dependence.
The results favored the proposition that childhood sexual abuse, early
school leaving, and addiction to heroin were predisposing factors that
lead these participants into MSP. Recommendations are offered for new
services and, ideally, for service providers who come from the ranks of
Mannino JV (1989). The relationship of child abuse and other characteristics among young adult male prostitutes. ED.D. Thesis, University of San Francisco, DAI vol. 50-12B, p. 5927, 144 pages.
Abstract by author: There has been little research devoted to the etiology of male prostitution. This is especially noteworthy in light of the fact that substantial research has been done regarding female prostitution. The relationship between physical and sexual abuse and female prostitution is well documented.
The current study examined the relationship of child abuse (sexual, physical, emotional and neglect), and other characteristics as predisposing factors of entry into young adult male prostitution. An eight part questionnaire with 101 questions and 375 items was developed and administered to 20 young adult male prostitute volunteers. Survey interview techniques were utilized.
Nine areas were examined: demographic characteristics, family constellation, religious characteristics, criminal background, abuse characteristics (emotional abuse and neglect, sexual abuse, domestic violence, and physical abuse), substance abuse, male prostitute behavioral profile, AIDS awareness levels, and mental health characteristics.
The findings demonstrated strong relationships between child abuse histories and entry into male prostitution. The research supported similar findings among female prostitutes. Mental health issues were significant and substance abuse substantial. Though AIDS awareness levels were high; there was little behavioral change to safer sexual practices by male prostitutes in the study. The nine areas examined had significant interplay and several of these were indicated as predisposing factors for entry into the male prostitute lifestyle among the study's participants.
Mathews RF (1986). Mirror to the night; a psycho-social study of adolescent prostitution. PH.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, DAI vol. 47-10B, p. 4342.
Abstract by author: The conventional view sees involvement in prostitution as a symptom of personal maladjustment. This study examines the phenomenon of adolescent involvement in prostitution as an economic activity occurring in a social context.
Radical social theory is used as a meta-theory to conceptualize entrance into and maintenance in prostitution, the social service agency/prostitute relationship, and the society/prostitute relationship, along 4 fundamental dimensions - employment need, material need, personal resources, and social power. Entrance into and entrenchment in prostitution is described in terms of 5 interrelated categories (needs, skills, values, models, subculture) external to the individual and evolving out of social relations and broader cultural values.
A triangulation of participant observation, field work, file study, surveying, and personal interviewing was used to elicit data from a wide range of information sources. Confidential interviews were conducted with 19 adolescent male and female prostitutes under the age of 19 years, 2 adult female prostitutes, 1 former adolescent female prostitute, 11 social workers, and 3 police officers. Confidential surveys were completed by 24 social workers. A file study was conducted on 88 male and female adolescents involved in prostitution in the city of Toronto.
Central to the investigation were the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of young people involved in prostitution concerning their work on the streets, and the social service delivery system. Their comments as conscious actors in a social setting when combined with social worker and police opinions and preliminary research, allowed the study's model to evolve in an ongoing dialogical manner. There is strong consensual validity in terms of the perceived aim of the study and the applicability and appropriateness of the model.
Data from interviews suggests that social work agencies, social workers, and police, and the schools have a role to play in the process of entrance into and entrenchment in prostitution. Their contribution to the process is seen in terms of intimidating and bureaucratic structures of practice, restrictive service mandates, inadequate professional preparation, and complicity with status quo notions of order and morality.
Implications for education and social work practice are discussed with recommendations for change in curriculum, the professional preparation of teachers and social workers, and the provision of social services to adolescents involved in prostitution.
Panajian AY (1983). A psychological study of male prostitutes. PH.D. Thesis, United States International University, DAI vol. 43-09B, p. 3017, 103 pages.
Abstract by author: The Problem. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between male prostitution and personality development.
Method. Twenty male prostitutes ranging in age from 19 years to 29 years were selected from the Hollywood area. Only those volunteering to be interviewed were used as subjects. A structured interview was constructed that allowed the investigator to study the personality development of each male prostitute. Some of the data obtained was easily coded. For example, age, years of schooling, years as male prostitute; other data was easily transformed into percentages. Clinical description of early parent-child relationships was obtained in most cases. The case descriptions were given to two psychiatric residents. They read each case description and then independently placed each into discrete categories. The categories were constructed to measure the degree to which the parent-child relationships were reported by the male prostitute.
Results. The results indicated that 19 fathers were in the categories of detached, absent, weak and inadequate, or unknown. One father was in the category of close- binding. On the other hand, 17 out of 20 mothers were in the categories of close-binding intimate or controlling- dominating. The other 3 mothers were all seen as detached.
The study also revealed the following results: 96 percent of the subjects reported having unhappy childhoods; 4 percent of the subjects described their childhood as satisfactory. A "lone wolf" pattern of childhood behavior was noted in 86 percent of the subjects. Seventy-eight percent of the subjects reported having had a good education during childhood. Ninety percent of the subjects reported no incidence of seduction in childhood. The mean income as a prostitute was $8,900 per year. The mean working hours was seventeen hours per week. Ninety percent of the subjects had never experienced full or part-time employment. None of the subjects had attempted suicide. Twenty percent of the subjects reported being addicted to LSD, heroin, or alcohol. Forty percent were involved in offenses such as robbery or violence. All subjects were involved in self- masturbation. Ninety percent of the subjects indicated discomfort in pursuing their current profession.
Peniston WA (1997). Pederasts and others: a social history of male homosexuals in the early years of the French Third Republic. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Rochester, DAI vol. 58-04A, p. 1414, 316 pages.
Abstract by author: This dissertation is about the male homosexual subculture of Paris in the 1870s. It was composed of a group of men, whose relationships with one another provided them with various means of financial and emotional support, and whose behavior defied cultural norms. It was not unique to Paris, nor was it new to the 1870s. It had existed in one form or another for quite some time, and it had much in common with other homosexual subcultures in other European cities. Through its contact with the police, the courts, the medical profession, and the intellectual elites, it had a profound, widespread, and lasting influence upon the development of modern sexual identities.
Based upon a ledger of arrests for public offenses against decency, which was kept by the Prefecture of the Police in Paris during the early years of the French Third Republic, this dissertation will first examine the methods and attitudes of the police, which led them to instigate a policy of surveillance and harassment against the male homosexual subculture of nineteenth- century Paris. I will then attempt to analyze the subculture in terms of its composition, its relationships, its behavior, and its geographical distribution.
I will demonstrate that, despite the activities of the police, which went beyond their charge of simply enforcing the law, the subculture managed to establish its own particular way of life. Most of the men involved in the subculture were in their twenties and thirties, working in unskilled, skilled, clerical, or service positions, having immigrated from the provinces. They were struggling to make a living and to form friendships and relationships in a difficult urban environment. Sometimes they resorted to prostitution and thievery in order to support themselves, but at other times they were just pursuing their own sexual pleasures.
Rocke MJ (1990). Male homosexuality and its regulation in Late Medieval Florence. (Volumes I and II) PH.D. Thesis, State University of New York at Binghamton, DAI vol. 50-10A, p. 3330, 720 pages.
Abstract by author: This is a study of the social significance of male homosexuality and its control in the republic of Florence. Based on records of a special fifteenth- century magistracy that prosecuted sodomy, plus other judicial, legislative, demographic, and narrative sources, this dissertation offers new evidence and perspectives on the regulation of sex, sexuality, gender, and male bonding and sociability in late medieval urban society.
The policing of sodomy, which generally meant male homosexual acts, was an abiding public concern in Florence. Its forms varied considerably, however, a reflection of the problematic place of sodomy in local life. The most telling shift occurred in the fifteenth century when authorities moved from punishing only sodomitic rape or child-abuse cases with exemplary penalties, to penalizing widespread non-violent homosexual acts with low fines under the administration of an apposite magistracy. This pragmatic strategy allowed the state to extend its effective controls over sodomy. From 1432 to 1502, this office prosecuted some 12,000 individuals implicated in homosexuality and convicted well over 2,000, impressive proof that homosexual behavior flourished in Florence.
This study also seeks to comprehend how homosexuality functioned and what roles it played in the lives of ordinary Florentines. It finds that life stages, marital status, and notions of gender had determining influences on homosexual experience, and that homosexuality was rarely exclusive. Sexual relations normally involved an adult "active" partner with a "passive" adolescent.
This pattern reflected and reinforced gender expectations, for receptive boys were castigated as females, while the act of sexually dominating boys helped define masculinity. It also fostered sexual violence, abuse of dependent boys, and teenage prostitution. Adults who engaged in sodomy were mostly unmarried youths or older bachelors, so same-sex relations may have served as alternatives to marriage.
This study also finds that rather than creating an autonomous subculture, homosexual relations implicated other social networks and bonds such as family, neighborhood, work, youth groups, friendship and patronage, making homosexuality an integral part of Florentine male culture.
Saniel OP (1996). Prevalence of HIV and correlates of condom use among commercial sex workers in metro Manila, Philippines. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, DAI vol. 57-06B, p. 3686, 300 pages.
Abstract by author: Street prostitutes are at high-risk of HIV infection. In the Philippines, they are probably one of the most difficult-to-teach group of sex workers for purposes of HIV surveillance activities. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection and the prevalence of high-risk behaviors among a sample of street prostitutes in Metro Manila. A total of 322 male and 316 female street prostitutes were recruited between February and April 1994 to participate in this study.
The prevalence of HIV infection was determined using saliva testing for HIV antibodies. Information on socio- demographic characteristics, sexual practices, condom use, drug and alcohol use, knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention, and perception of HIV/AIDS risk were elicited from the subjects using a structured interview schedule. No subject tested positive on the saliva test probably because of technical problems with the laboratory testing.
The characteristics and prevalence of high-risk behaviors were compared between the male and female sex workers. Logistic regression analysis was performed to describe the correlates of condom use among these subgroups of sex workers, namely, male prostitutes who serve both male and female clients; male sex workers who serve male clients only; and female prostitutes who serve primarily male clients. The prevalence of 'often' use of condoms among these subgroups of sex workers was 38%, 22%, and 63%, respectively.
Male prostitutes who used condoms were younger, had higher income and had exclusively-male clientele compared to male sex workers who never or seldom used condoms. Condom use was more likely among female prostitutes who had more clients, had foreign clients, had higher income and had been in prostitution work for a longer time.
The findings of the study demonstrate that the potential for rapid spread of HIV infection among street prostitutes in the Philippines exists because of the low levels of condom use, the connection between heterosexual and homosexual populations through male prostitutes who serve both males and females, and the high prevalence of illicit drug use among this high-risk group.
Simon PM (1990). Barriers to prevention of HIV infection among male prostitutes. PH.D. Thesis, Tulane University, DAI vol. 52-03A, p. 1099, 148 pages.
Abstract by author: A sample of 211 male street prostitutes were interviewed and tested for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Based on the constructs of the Health Belief Model, subjects' perceptions of susceptibility to HIV infection, severity of HIV infection, benefit to engagement in preventive health behavior to avoid infection, and barriers to the reduction of HIV-related risk behaviors were examined.
Serological data from the study confirms an HIV point prevalence rate of (175 per 1,000) among the sample. Sexual behaviors associated with increased risk of HIV infection were, engagement in anal sex and oral-genital sex, history of syphilis, and a self-defined sexual orientation of homosexual.
Based on previous research and the theoretical framework suggested by the Health Belief Model, it was expected that increased HIV-related risk behavior among the male street prostitutes would be inversely related to perceived severity of HIV infection, perceived susceptibility to HIV infection and perceived benefit to prevention of HIV infection and positively related to an increased perception of barriers to preventive health behavior. The findings partially support this model.
Increases in perceived susceptibility and benefit to HIV prevention were significantly related to reduced risk. However, prostitutes' level of perceived severity of HIV infection was not significantly associated with risk behavior. Three lifestyle factors were found to function as barriers to engaging in risk reduction behavior.
Subjects who were more economically dependent on prostitution, perceived less control over the hustling encounter and reported increased pleasure from sexual activity with their customers were more likely to engage in HIV-related risk behaviors. The data suggest that male prostitutes engage in numerous unprotected sexual acts placing them at high risk for not only the acquisition of HIV infection but the transmission of HIV to other partners.
Further research focusing on HIV- related risk behaviors of both male prostitutes and their customers is recommended. Utilization of the findings from this study in the design and implementation of future HIV-related preventive health education programs is discussed.
Simpson AE (1984). Masculinity and control: the persecution of sex offenses in eighteenth-century London. PH.D. Thesis, New York University, DAI vol. 45-02A, p. 653, 935 pages.
Abstract by author: The subject of this study is the nature of attitudes toward sexuality and gender relations in society, in the criminal law, and in the criminal courts in London during the 18th and early 19th centuries. A short analysis of the unusual situation of migrants to the Metropolis early in the period is used to support the application of the principal explanatory construct used here: This is the notion of the emergence of an 'ethos of masculinity' as a cultural value based within the lower classes. Masculinity, as so defined, is used to provide some explanation for increasing conflict between the sexes, denigration of the role of women, and antagonism toward homosexuals, as embodiments of a strong prohibition against male effeminacy.
Justification of the existence of these attitudes, and their forms of expression, is provided through data from contemporary sources which include newspapers and other periodicals, novels and personal memoirs. It is, however, the law which is the major social institution studied. Documentation of attitudes is provided through an examination of the statue- and case-law affecting three particular areas of the law. In addition, patterns of prosecution for each have been studied. The three areas include rape, sodomy and blackmail. The sources consulted include legal treatises, commentaries, and collections of reported cases.
Prosecution patterns have been analyzed through an examination of all cases heard in the Old Bailey between 1730 and 1830, and all heard by the City of London Quarter Sessions between 1740 and 1830. Court records examined include the Old Bailey Proceedings, and the City of London Quarter Sessions Minute-Books and Sessions Files for the entire period.
Most of the few surviving petty sessions records of the City have also been examined. These have been used to provide tentative support for conclusions relating to the attitudes of the courts and society toward prostitution, and to the commanding importance of the magistrate in a theoretically private system of prosecution.
Visano LA (1986). Staging a deviant career: the social organization of male street prostitution. PH.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, DAI vol. 49-03A, p. 625.
Abstract by author: This is a study of the social organization of a form of deviant work - male street prostitution. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the meaning of work as interpreted by the actor and on comparing occupational contingencies, stages and affiliations.
This study offers overwhelming support for the thesis that male prostitutes organize their street activities according to an occupational perspective. In general, they structure their experiences according to occupational perspectives and skills.
A major contention of this study is that the development of work does not occur independently of the context of social relations in which actors are embedded. Work is shaped by the larger contexts within which actors interpret their accomplishments.
Non-work influences are more salient in individualistic, autonomous, non-institutional work settings and develop and transform aspects of the larger culture in the career movement, commitment, and identity of actors. Secondly, occupational relations in non-institutional settings are problematic. In general, these work relations are short-term, instrumental, and fraught with conflict. Conflict characterizes the occupational relationships actors develop with colleagues, consumers of service, and official agents.
The above contributions depart from conventional schemes which depict relations at work as normative responses to organizational criteria. Moreover, traditional approaches understate the importance of negotiations, struggle, and change in understanding work and work relations.
Substantively, this study contributes to an understanding of a form of dirty work that is only beginning to be explored - homosexual prostitution. To date, there has been no systematic examination of boys involved in different stages of prostitution.
Additionally, little information exists which documents the informal interface between dirty work and formal agencies of intervention. Although exploratory, this study suggests the ways in which the concepts of deviance and occupation are directly implicated and highly integrated in dirty work. Qualitative methods are particularly well-suited to a sensitive appreciation of the meanings of work constructed by actors.
Thirty-three boys were studied through participant observation, group discussions, and case histories for a five month field period. Follow-up on twelve of these boys was conducted for another twelve months. Data were also collected from interviews with five police officers, three clients, and seven social service agency representatives......
Vitiello G (1994). Exemplary sodomites: male homosexuality in Late Ming fiction. PH.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, DAI vol. 56-05A, p. 1785, 216 pages.
Abstract by author: This thesis is a study of male homosexuality in late Ming fiction based primarily on three collections never previously the subject of scholarly investigation: Longyang yishi (The Forgotten Stories of Longyang), Bian er chai (Cap and Hairpins), and Yichun xiangzhi (Fragrant Stuff from the Court of Spring).
Before turning to a detailed analysis of these three works, in Chapter One I discuss the emergence of the pornographic genre in late Ming China, suggesting its connection with the contemporaneous philosophical reappraisal of feelings (qing) and desire (yu). Based on various erotic sources, I then attempt to provide a diagram of late Ming sexual culture, aiming to identify the position male homosexuality occupied in it. Having shown that the principle underlying such a diagram is the distinction between sexual activity and passivity, I discuss its moral implications.
Chapter Two is devoted to the collection Longyang yishi. The focus of this chapter is male prostitution in the late Ming and the connoisseurship that it involved. I describe the criteria of such connoisseurship by discussing the issues of a male prostitute's age and appearance, pointing out the related gender and sexual ambiguity.
The collection Bian er chai is the object of Chapter Three. I relate its discourse on homosexuality to the broader one on love and romantic morality in late Ming fiction. I then show how the romantic heroes that this collection presents are such by virtue of their fulfilling the standards of both male and female morality. I also show how the hybrid nature of such heroes is further confirmed by their mastering more than one moral system, namely the Confucian, the chivalric, and the romantic.
Chapter Four consists of a study of Yichun xiangzhi. I concentrate on the question of the ambivalent nature of passion (qing), susceptible of degenerating into dissipation (dangqing). In discussing the collection's final story, I focus on the thematic interrelation between dreams, journeys and the erotic experience, as well as on the notion of desire as an instrument of self- knowledge and of spiritual emancipation.
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