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Male and Female Bisexuality: Part 3 of 3: Dissertation Abstracts
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Bibiography: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Papers, articles, and books.
Abstracts: Ph.D and Master's Theses

ABSTRACTS: Ph.D. & Master's Theses

Abutt JA (1992). Counselling bisexuals: a look at therapists' attitudes towards bisexuality and application in clinical practices. M.SC. Thesis, University of Guelph, MAI, Vol. 31-03, p. 1376, 143 pages.

Abstract by author: Research that has been conducted on therapists working with gay and lesbian clients demonstrates that therapists' attitudes can adversely influence their clinical practices. No such studies exist for therapists with bisexual clients however. A questionnaire was mailed to 350 randomly selected members of the Ontario Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. It assessed both the therapists' attitudes towards bisexuality and their clinical practices with clients presenting with sexual orientation issues. Results indicate that therapists who had completed a Sexual Attitudes Reassessment (SAR) workshop demonstrated significantly more favourable attitudes and practices than therapists who had not. Educational background, recency of training and the therapist's theoretical orientation were all found to mediate attitudes and practices. The therapist's sexual orientation as well as the presence or absence of children in the therapist's family were also found to be mediating variables. Implications and recommendations indicate the need for clinical education programs to include training that promotes sensitivity to and awareness of the issues of bisexual clients.

Publication No.  MM75595

Alley GR (1996). Biphobia in social work education: social work students' knowledge of and attitudes toward working with bisexual clients. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI Vol. 34:06, p. 2234, 79 pages.

Abstract by author: This study examined the relationship between level of social work education and students' level of knowledge about bisexuality, the respondents' level of biphobia, and their attitudes toward working with male and female bisexual clients. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 134 junior, senior, new Master of Social Work (MSW), and advanced MSW students. The instrument was a modified version of one developed by Evans in 1994. It consisted of three scales: a Knowledge Scale, an Index of Biphobia, and an Attitude Scale. Findings suggest that sexual orientation and religion were significant variables in determining the students' knowledge of bisexuality. However, findings also suggest that these were not correlated to levels of biphobia. The results indicate a need to include bisexuality as a topic of study within the social work curriculum. The importance of education in preparing future social workers to effectively work with bisexual clients is recognized.

Publication No.  1380171

Ault AL (1995). Science, sex, and subjectivity.  Ph.D Thesis, The Ohio State University, DAI Vol. 56:04A, p. 1550, 180 pages.

Abstract by author: This research theorizes the emergence and institutionalization of a politicized bisexual identity category among women in the United States within the context of broader historical and social processes, and explores figure of the bisexual as a site of social contestation.  The study examines the relationship between the institutionalization of modern science and the scientific construction of the body, sex, and sexual identity, and the congruence of these understandings with European masculinist and imperialist interests. The dissertation argues that the bifurcated homosexual/heterosexual categorization system associated with modern scientific discourse foreclosed on the emergence of a bisexual identity category until the destabilization of both gender and science in the late 20th Century. Substantively, the dissertation explores negative constructions of bisexual women in lesbian feminist discourse, demonstrating how the discourse of the dominant system is rearticulated in an oppositional community endeavoring to legitimize itself against a marginalized 'Other.' Bisexual women's own constructions of bisexuality and bisexual politics are examined to evaluate bi activists' claims that bisexual identity disrupts the dualistic sex/gender/sexuality system. This work, which relies on data collected from interviews and electronic (e-mail) questionnaires, extends social research on the constructed nature of the sex/gender/sexuality system, the mechanisms through which identity categories are controlled in relationships between social structure and subjective experience, and the relationships between identity and identity-based social movements. Because the dissertation uses both classic and postmodern sociological theoretical frameworks, the research delineates the continuity between these two broad theoretical approaches often described in oppositional terms. This strategy results in the identification of insights unique to both approaches as they address issues of categorization, marginalization, and social control. The direct focus of this study is the creation of a social identity category that violates the dichotomous structures of the sex/gender/sexuality system and its implications within that system; however, the dissertation holds relevance for other areas of study. The insights from this research should prove useful, for example, in research on other stratification systems based on identity categories, such as the racial stratification system in the United States.

Publication No.  9525988

Baltar JF (1998). The baltar sexual identity inventory – female form: a multidimensional measure of sexual identity. Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola University Of Chicago, DAI Vol. 58:12B, p. 6799, 198 pages.

Abstract by author: In 1991, this author developed a multi-faceted and quantifiable measure for sexual identity in males. A need was assessed for such an instrument given the inconsistent and often contradictory use of terminology in the study of sexual identity as well as a lack of awareness and/or attention to the complexity and multi-dimensionality of human sexuality. Research and theory has indicated that sexual identity should be examined on a continuum rather than in a dichotomous framework (homosexual or heterosexual). Further, it has been suggested that sexual identity can be viewed as multidimensional. The need for an adequate assessment tool has been identified. To date, instruments other than the BSII are either limited to components of sexual orientation, limited to one item per dimension which precludes an examination of the nuances which comprise the dimension, or are not quantifiable.  This study attempts to construct a quantifiable instrument which will measure female sexual identity in terms of its dimensions using a series of items hypothesized to correspond to a specified construct.  It additionally explores personality variables that are commonly associated with sexual identity such as self-esteem, feelings of guilt associated with sexuality, substance use, and fear of negative evaluation. The study resulted in the construction of the Baltar Sexual Identity Inventory - Female Form (BSII-F). The resulting measure consists of 10 dimensions totalling 102 items. The items comprising the measure have been arrived at through expert ratings and statistical analysis. This has resulted in very high inter-item correlations adding evidence to the content and construct validity of the BSII-F. Convergent and discriminant validity are indicated. The following dimensions were assessed by the BSII-F: (1) Current Lifestyle and Relationship Status; (2) Self-Perceived Sexual Orientation/Attraction; (3) Discomfort with Sexual Orientation; (4) Gender Identity; (5) Sex-Role Identity; (6) Emotional Attraction; (7) Sexual Behavior; (8) Alcohol/Drug Use; (9) Social Behavior and Attitude; and (10) Bisexuality. Other established measures used to assess sex-guilt, fear of negative evaluation, and self-esteem.  Participants consisted of 118 female volunteers obtained from the undergraduate human subjects pool of a large, urban, Mid-western university and its surrounding community. The subjects represented a wide demographic range, including age, race/ethnicity, marital/relationship and socio-economic status, education, and religious affiliation. This study has resulted in a measure which seems to be valid and more comprehensive than other available measures assessing sexual identity. The findings lend support to Troiden's (1984) model of sexual identity acquisition in which he addresses the complexity of sexual identification. More specifically, he targets the issue of self-esteem and self-concept in relation to sexual identification, viewing one's internal awareness and acceptance of self-identification in relation to societal, or external, acceptance and support. The less the discrepancy between an individual's present identification and 'ideal' identification, the less guilt, fear of negative evaluation, and subsequent discomfort should be experienced, regardless of sexual identification.

Publication No.  9819591

Bradford M (1997). The bisexual experience: living in a dichotomous culture. PH.D. Thesis, The Fielding Institute. DAI, Vol. 58-03B, p. 1520, 262 pages.

Abstract by author: This is a study of the experience of being bisexual. It examines how bisexually-identified individuals experience cultural attitudes toward bisexuality, how they establish a sense of community for themselves, and how their experience has affected their self-concept. Twenty people self-identified as bisexual - 10 each women and men, ranging in age from 22 to 54 - were interviewed for this descriptive study, based on the model of naturalistic inquiry. The research method was qualitative, using open-ended-question interviews and a content/thematic approach to analyzing the data. Participants collaborated in evaluating the findings; their feedback was incorporated into the final results. The data indicate that cultural attitudes toward bisexuality affected the participants' sexual identity development, self-definition, visibility, and relationships. Three steps in establishing a sense of community emerged from the data: perception of outsider status, location of bisexual individuals and community, and formation of new community. The effects on self- concept of forming and maintaining a bisexual identity included enhanced self-reliance, openness, and enrichment. Both gender and cultural minority status had an impact on their experiences of bisexuality. The findings suggest that bisexual identity inVolves a process of questioning one's own reality, inventing one's own identity, and maintaining that identity through encounters with cultural bias, denial, and personal invalidation, which carry constant threats of isolation and invisibility. For those women and men who manage to achieve a positive bisexual identity despite these challenges the experience is character- strengthening, and some transform the adversity of their experience into social action, becoming leaders in the formation of bisexual community and role models for others.

Publication No.  9724081

Butt JA (1992). Counselling bisexuals: a look at therapists' attitudes towards bisexuality and application in clinical practices. M.Sc. Thesis, University Of Guelph, MAI Vol. 31:03, p. 1376, 143 pages, ISBN: 0-315-75595-4.

Abstract by author: Research that has been conducted on therapists working with gay and lesbian clients demonstrates that therapists' attitudes can adversely influence their clinical practices. No such studies exist for therapists with bisexual clients however. A questionnaire was mailed to 350 randomly selected members of the Ontario Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. It assessed both the therapists' attitudes towards bisexuality and their clinical practices with clients presenting with sexual orientation issues. Results indicate that therapists who had completed a Sexual Attitudes Reassessment (SAR) workshop demonstrated significantly more favourable attitudes and practices than therapists who had not. Educational background, recency of training and the therapist's theoretical orientation were all found to mediate attitudes and practices. The therapist's sexual orientation as well as the presence or absence of children in the therapist's family were also found to be mediating variables. Implications and recommendations indicate the need for clinical education programs to include training that promotes sensitivity to and awareness of the issues of bisexual clients.

Publication No.  MM75595

Casserly JE (1998). The internet and social support: a study of bisexual women. M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, MAI Vol. 37:01, p. 124, 93 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of this study was to explore the Internet as a source of social support for bisexual women and as a possible alternative to traditional support groups. An on-line bulletin board for bisexual women was used to solicit participants for this study. Thirty-two bulletin board participants returned questionnaires addressing demographic and bulletin board participation information. In-depth interviews addressing family, social, and sexual history, as well as bulletin board participation were conducted with 10 of the original respondents. The results of this study indicated that: (1) participation in the Internet group was a factor in helping respondents reach their current level of comfort with their sexuality and sexual orientation; (2) the factors respondents cited as beneficial in this group are consistent with those cited in the literature on positive group experiences; (3) participation in this group had a positive effect on all respondents.

Publication No.  1391599

Cervantes-Gutierrez JJ. (1981). Sexual attitudes and behaviors of the Latino gay male. PH.D. Thesis, The Wright Institute, DAI, Vol. 42-03B, p. 1164, 105 pages.

Abstract by author: The primary goal of this study has been to generate descriptive data of the Latino gay male's sexual attitudes and behaviors. Also included, by way of comparison, is a Latino heterosexual sample. Given the paucity of published materials regarding sexuality and Latinos, especially in the area of homosexuality, the data, through the use of a standardized sex questionnaire yielded some new information. Latino homosexual males viewed their sexual activities in a more positive way than the heterosexual Latino group. Also, the gay Latino males enjoyed a wider range of sexual activities, including coitus. This relationship to women is discussed and the concept of machismo is considered in a new light with an attempt at redefinition. The role of religion in the sexual lives of Latino gay and heterosexual males is examined and the importance of historical context is emphasized. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis stated that there would be no differences in incidence and kind of early affectional experiences, as measured by the Prescott Somatosensory Index of Affection, and the subjects' gay or heterosexual orientation. This hypothesis was not supported and the results indicate a need for further study in this area. It is important to note, however, that a number of early affectional experiences indicated no significant difference between Latino gay males and Latino heterosexual males. The author goes on to discuss causal factors determining sexual orientation and supports the position of multifactorial origins. The second hypothesis was that gay Latino males would score higher on the androgyny scale of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory than would the heterosexual Latinos; and that the heterosexual males would score low on the feminine scale while through high masculine scores would endorse masculine sex-typed behaviors. The data supported this hypothesis and minimal exceptions are discussed. The author ends with a brief discussion on the urgent need for extensive research in the two areas of Latino sexual behaviors and attitudes, and the area of homosexuality and homophobia.

Publication No.  8119411

Charnet JM (1992). A psychoanalytic exploration of formerly married women in lesbian  relationships. Ph.D. Thesis, DAI Vol. 53:08B, p. 4367, 136 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of the Project Demonstrating Excellence was to explore material derived in a psychoanalytic treatment from three women who had originally married, maintained a heterosexual relationship for a period of time and who subsequently divorced and made a homosexual object choice in their love relationships. A history was described for each of the women and information was discussed from each of their analyses. Their relationships to their mothers and fathers were studied and connections were made to their later love relationships with men and women and to the switch in object choice. The transference of each of the women and the analyst's countertransference reactions were used to confirm this information. During the initial phases of the study it was not yet evident what dynamics were at work that explained why these married women divorced and then chose to enter a love relationship with a woman. Differences in their backgrounds, interests and in the specifics of their histories served to camouflage what was occurring.  As the material was reviewed, as the analyst continued to study her countertransference reactions and as different theories about sexual choice were applied, a common dynamic emerged. It was difficult to substantiate the classical Freudian theory about penis envy and the Oedipal triangle. Lebe's (1982) theory which stresses psychosocial factors and learning experiences and suggests women separate from their mothers in adulthood, not childhood also seemed a poor fit.  Lachmann's (1982) theory of the pre-oedipal determinants to female development found better application. In each case, the women related to their father's power and thought better of their father. This occurred even in the case of one patient who had been repeatedly molested. In contrast, there was a distrust toward mother and an inability to relate to her. This distance between mother and daughter at the pre-oedipal stage interfered with the separation and identification necessary for a more prosaic resolution of the Oedipal conflict. The power of the father remained a dominant theme. Each of the women identified with it and recreated this type of relationship with women in their lives, after an unsuccessful period of heterosexual marriage. The one woman who perceived her mother as also having some power reflected a division in her object choice through bisexuality. More needs to be done in charting the preoedipal experience of women who are in lesbian relationships.

Publication No.  9300083

Cohen-Kaplan N (1989). Modern theoretical perspectives on the bisexual potential: achieving cross-sex identifications through relationships. PH.D. Thesis, The Institute for Advanced Psychological Studies, DAI, Vol. 51-03B, p. 1489, 281 pages.

Abstract by author: This study explored the theoretical eVolution of the concept of a human bisexual potential from Freudian theory through modern feminist reformulations founded on object relations theory and self psychology. The transcendence of sex role stereotypes in adult life through a process of identification with the cross-sex characteristics of one's spouse was defined as constituting at least one aspect of achieving the bisexual potential. Intrapsychic adjustment in terms of object relations together with interpersonal experiences of friendship with the opposite sex were hypothesized to be positively associated with the attainment of cross- sex identifications within the marital relationship. Subjects were 60 married couples, predominantly white middle to upper middle class, obtained through networking. Questionnaires, administered by mail, included a demographic survey, the Bell Object Relations Inventory, the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Spence and Helmreich Personal Attributes Questionnaire of sex role self-concept given twice for real and ideal self-concept, and a friendship questionnaire designed for this study to survey cross-sex friendships in early adolescence, late adolescence, and young adulthood prior to marriage. Correlational analyses were done between variables. Findings were discussed in light of the unexpected gender differences found. For women, the centrality of relationships to their psychological development was supported. Results suggested men preferred rigid sex role boundaries while women were more likely to pursue the bisexual potential through relationships. Erikson's eight stage theory of development was supported for men in terms of identity achievement preceding attainment of the capacity for intimacy. Also discussed were the developmental implications of choosing opposite versus same sex friends for males versus females, and the value of transcending societally mandated sex roles with reference to sociology, feminist psychology and existential thought. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were presented.

Publication No.  9019037

Derr LS (1992). Leaving the lesbian label behind: women who change their sexual orientation identity.  PSY.D. Thesis. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, DAI Vol. 54:04B, p. 2271, 376 pages.

Abstract by author: This exploratory study examines the experiences of ten white women over 30 who had identified as lesbian, who no longer did so exclusively, and who were currently in relationships with men.  Through analyzing detailed interviews, the factors that motivated their sexual orientation change and their evolving self concepts are described. The many areas covered include the politics of sexuality, the maintenance of a stigmatized sexual orientation identity, the etiology of female sexual orientation, and the effect of gender on sexual relationships, while the primary focus is on how the subjects' experiences both illuminate and were influenced by the social construction of gender and sexuality. The subjects' use of essentialist or constructionist accounts to explain their past lesbianism and current heterosexual behavior revealed that what most of them perceived to be personal experiences were deeply embedded in their sociohistorical contexts. The findings indicate that the subjects' essentialist thinking, especially their use of the concepts of 'true self' and 'natural sexual desire,' contributed to their lack of awareness of the profound influences of social forces on their behavior and thus upheld the system that privileges heterosexuality. The findings also indicate that the present construction of gender supports the institution of heterosexuality through gendered patterns of interpersonal and sexual behavior, through the relational construction of female eroticism, and through the meaning of the word woman which implies 'heterosexual mother.' It is concluded that women whose sexual orientations are variable could contribute to transforming the dominant epistemology of scientific truth that creates a binary system of fixed, 'natural' genders and sexualities by identifying publicly as bisexual and thereby pointing the way towards a new pluralistic politics of sexuality and gender.

Publication No.  9323286

Fleishman MR (1992). Sexuality is not fixed: a study of thirty heterosexual women whose sexual orientation changed at mid life. Ph.D. Thesis, Saybrook Institute, DAI Vol. 54:01B, p. 519, 453 pages.

Abstract by author: Thirty women's experiences of evolving from a heterosexual orientation to an orientation involving romantic and sexual relationships with both men and women was examined. Educated, professional (90%), Caucasian women, aged 35-55, participated in a two to three-hour semi-structured interview covering: (a) their life histories, (b) the life issues created by their change, and (c) the role of mid-life in the alteration of sexual orientation. Data was analyzed using computerized theme analysis. Subjects varied on factors of religion, occupation, income, and relational status. They reported no early childhood experiences, attitudes, or predispositions that suggested latent homosexuality or otherwise accounted for their transitions; in fact, falling in love with another woman at mid-life took most of the subjects completely by surprise. Many women reported having difficulty making the choice to become sexually involved with women. Their personal struggle centered on the jarring experience of having perceived themselves as 'normal' one day and,  in the view of a homophobic society, 'abnormal' the next. Twelve women identified themselves as bisexual, 10 as homosexual, and eight declined to label themselves. Boredom, loneliness, and disappointment characterized their relationships with men. Most subjects were presently involved with women only; many reported that they maintained their attraction to men, but if forced to choose, said they would choose a woman. With women, they felt a deeper level of intimacy, more emotional support, and more acceptance for the physical changes of aging. Overall, they found emotional support and sexual satisfaction important in a relationship. Sex with women was more sensuous, less goal-directed and less focused on performance. However, there was remarkable unanimity in their response to the importance of emotional support. Although women reported having the most fulfilling relationships of their lives, unsupportive families, friends and societal proscriptions made, and continue to make, their choices difficult. These findings call for a re-evaluation of what constitutes normal sexuality at different stages of the life cycle and support the idea that sexual orientation is flexible rather than fixed. The biological and psychological changes experienced by the women in mid-life seem to be conducive to alternative sexual experiences. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Publication No.  9314965

Fox RC (1993). Coming out bisexual: identity, behavior, and sexual orientation self-disclosure. Ph.D. Thesis, DAI Vol. 55:12B, p. 5565, 222 pages.

Abstract by author: A volunteer sample of 835 self-identified bisexual women and men was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire in order to investigate the factors involved in the formation of bisexual identities. Significant gender and age cohort group differences were found for developmental milestone events in four areas: awareness of homosexuality and bisexuality; sexual attractions, fantasies, behavior, and relationships; sexual orientation self-identification; and sexual orientation self-disclosure. Several results stand out. For most women, homosexual attractions and behavior took place after their first heterosexual attractions and behavior. In contrast, a greater proportion of men than women experienced their first homosexual attractions and behavior before their first heterosexual behavior. Although men first questioned their sexual orientation earlier than women, both women and men first self-identified as bisexual at about the same ages. While many respondents moved to a bisexual identity from a heterosexual identity, about one-third first self-identified as lesbian or gay, suggesting that sexual identity is not as immutable for all individuals as many theorists and researchers have assumed. Greater proportions of both men and women had disclosed their bisexuality to friends and relationship partners than to family members, helping professionals, or to people at work or school. Significant age cohort group differences were found for all milestone events, suggesting that the process of coming out bisexual is occurring earlier for younger bisexual women and men than was the case for older individuals. The results confirm both similarities and differences in bisexual and homosexual identity development.  Bisexual men and women resemble lesbians and gay men in their need to acknowledge and receive support for their homosexual attractions and behavior. Bisexual women and men, however, need to acknowledge and gain support for their homosexual and heterosexual attractions, whether or not they actualize either or both in terms of sexual behavior or relationships during any particular period of time. The results of this research establish a more comprehensive base of information about the factors involved in the formation of bisexual identities that can serve as a resource for further examination and understanding of bisexuality and bisexual identity development.

Publication No.  9511406

Little DR (1989). Contemporary female bisexuality: a psychosocial phenomenon. PH.D. Thesis, The Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities, DAI, Vol. 50-11B, p. 5379, 194 pages.

Abstract by author: This study strives to describe, identify, and define female bisexuality as it ranges across the experiential continuum of omnisexuality. Descriptions which lead toward a comprehensive identity, and ultimately a composite of definitions, include an extensive assessment of special characteristics. How the bisexually oriented woman manifests her unique sexuality, personality features which allow her to be different, her sometimes multi-partnered and sometimes monogamous life-style, along with a myriad of other indigenous traits, are all encompassed within this investigation. Prior to performing quantitative evaluations on the bisexually oriented female, a qualitative methodology is first necessary to understand the inherent differences which distinguish her from her heterosexual sisters, and her homosexual/lesbian counterparts. This work is in response to a perceived need or qualifying compilations in the area of bisexuality, and ultimately may serve as a steppingstone to a more analytical model of investigation. The research design has been phenomenological in structure. It has utilized a methodological triangulation, and has consisted of following a three- phase holistic-inductive paradigm: naturalistic inquiry, the collection of raw qualitative data, and the performance of content analysis. This has been a two-year research program. Fieldwork which surveyed 60 women has yielded revealing anecdotal commentary and important observations. In-depth interviewing was accomplished with 35 of the women. In addition, an extensive review of the literature was undertaken. One of the primary results of this bisexual life-style inspection, is the provision of an initial recognition of manifold expressions which have been organized into thirteen categories of authentic bisexual behavior. Out of these nuclear concepts, reoccurring patterns of activity emerge which begin to offer validation of the female bisexual and her heretofore unacknowledged community.

Publication No.  9010767

Lysne KA (1995). Bisexual self-identification: cognitive and social factors. PH.D. Thesis, California Institute for Integral Research, DAI, Vol. 56-05B, p. 2874, 79 pages.

Abstract by author: The present study investigated the relationship between bisexual self-identification and the variables tolerance of ambiguity, need for social approval, desire for group inclusion, and demographic factors. The sample consisted entirely of participants who reported being physically and/or emotionally attracted to both men and women. Fifty percent of the subjects (37 females and 13 males) considered themselves bisexual. The other half of the sample consisted of 26 females and 10 males who considered themselves homosexual, and 11 females and 3 males who considered themselves heterosexual. For most analyses the sample was divided into equal groups of bisexual and nonbisexual identified participants. Results indicated that subjects with high scores on the Tolerance of Ambiguity scale (Budner, 1962) were more likely to self-identify as bisexual. Similar results were found regarding desire for Openness, a subscale of the Element B (Schutz, 1992). Need for Social Approval, measured by the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale, varied according to self-identification. Those who considered themselves homosexual exhibited the highest need for social approval, followed by those who considered themselves bisexual. The heterosexual- identified group exhibited the least need for social approval. Neither Desire for Group Inclusion nor demographic factors were predictors of self- identification. Information was also gathered on different aspects of sexual attraction. Results showed that Attraction was a strong predictor of self- identification, and the scores on this variable distinguished three subsamples. One subsample consisted of those who described their attraction to others as being exclusively heterosexual or homosexual, and those who saw their attraction change over time from one exclusive orientation to the other. No members of this subsample identified themselves as bisexual, despite their initial acknowledgment that they were physically and/or emotionally attracted to both men and women. A second subsample consisted of those who reported equal attraction to men and women, either sequentially or concurrently. All subjects in this subsample identified as bisexual. The subgroup which was mixed in self- identification (both bisexual and nonbisexual) reported a predominant attraction to one sex, with occasional desires toward the other. This subgroup warrants further research to determine what factors influence their self- identification.

Publication No.  9530507

Michaels SK (1997). Queer counts: the sociological construction of homosexuality via survey research. Ph.D. Thesis, The University Of Chicago, DAI Vol. 58:07A, p. 2855, 194 pages.

Abstract by author: The goal of this work is to help advance a sociological understanding of homosexuality. It is based on the data from the most comprehensive national probability survey of U.S. adults on sexual behavior ever completed, the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). The NHSLS, fielded in 1992, consisted of 3,432 ninety minute, face-to-face, interviews about sexual partners and practices over the life course with an area-probability sample of English speaking adults, 18 to 59 years old, living in households.  Homosexuality has been studied in various ways via surveys from the Kinsey studies published in 1948 and 1953 to sociological studies in the 1970s that drew samples from participants in increasingly prominent gay communities to the AIDS-related surveys of the 1980s and 1990s. Each set of studies has brought different questions and different methods to bear on the topic. Two chapters of this dissertation are devoted to an analytic review of the history of this research and its methods leading up to the present project. The remainder of this work focuses on the analysis of pertinent data from the NHSLS. The analysis presented here draws on these very different traditions by developing a multi-dimensional approach to homosexuality, independently measuring behavior, desire, and self-identification. Analysis of the prevalence, interrelationships, and relationship to socio-demographic variables of these three dimensions of homosexuality/heterosexuality are presented and discussed. A more detailed investigation of 'bisexuality,' the relative mixtures of same and other gender sexual experience, desire, and identity is then presented. The analysis concludes with some comparisons of sexual practices between more or less homosexual groupings within the population. These results confirm the importance of a more multi-dimensional approach to conceptualizing and measuring homosexuality.

Publication No.  9800628

Morse CR (1989). Exploring the bisexual alternative: a view from another closet. M.A. Thesis, The university of Arizona, MAI, Vol. 28-02, p. 320, 94 pages.

Abstract by author: Research on bisexuality has been relatively nonexistent. In the recent past bisexuality has been viewed as pathological or as a means of denying either homosexuality or heterosexuality. Sexuality is looked at and studied as a dichotomy, polarizing the sexual experience as either "gay" or "straight". Where is the gray area accounted for in this continuum? In this study, 16 female respondents completed questions pertaining to sexual behavior, fantasy and emotional experience. They were also given the Bem Sex Role Inventory to ascertain the relationship between gender identity and sexual orientation. Other issues addressed concerned demographics, AIDS, counseling, and self- esteem.

Publication No.  1337972

Oattes CA (1995). Crossing the lines: bisexuality and the generation of possibilities. M.SC. Thesis, University of Guelph, MAI, Vol. 34-03, p. 1057, 109 pages.

Abstract by author: This qualitative research was a single case study. The perceptions of a married heterosexual woman and bisexual man, and three of their male, intimate partners were investigated. Two of the non-spousal partners were sexually and affectionally connected with the man. The third non-spousal partner was intimate with the woman. Identity was the theoretical focus of the inquiry. The four research questions addressed the construction of bisexual identity, the link between bisexual identity and bisexual behaviour, the construction of the spousal couple's identity, and the contributions by the outside partners to the spousal couple's individual and couple identities. Transcripts of the in-depth interviews were analyzed for emergent themes. The thematic analysis showed that the spousal pair was actively engaged in the ongoing creation of their individual and spousal identities as they interacted with each other, their other partners, and other persons. Their identities were reciprocally connected. There was much overlap in the five respondents' meaning making.

Publication No.  MM04122

Rust-Rodriguez PC (1989). When does the unity of a "common oppression" break down? Reciprocal attitudes between lesbian and bisexual women. PH.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan, DAI, Vol. 50-08A, p. 2668, 461 pages.

Abstract by author: While much attention has been paid to the attitudes of dominant and subordinate group members toward each other, few studies have focused on interpersonal attitudes across the less visible divisions which occur within minorities. This study explores the attitudes of lesbian and bisexual women toward each other as an example of intergroup intraminority relations. Central questions addressed are the effect of intraminority context on intergroup relations, the content of lesbian and bisexual women's reciprocal attitudes, and the relationship of lesbians' perception of themselves to their attitudes toward bisexuals. Data were collected with self-administered mail-back questionnaires distributed through gay, lesbian, and women's conferences and organizations, friendship networks, and newsletter advertisements. 406 questionnaires were returned by self-identified lesbian and bisexual women. Attitudes measured include cognitions, affect, social distance, and political trust. Self-perceptions include identity history, sexual- romantic behavior, sexual feelings, and the salience and social and political meaning attributed to sexual orientation identity. Results indicated that among lesbians, popular beliefs about bisexual women are that they experience less oppression and have different interests than lesbians, that they are really lesbians or pre-lesbians, lack personal and political commitment, are more able and willing to pass as heterosexual, and share with lesbians a lack of intergroup understanding. Lesbians express strong preferences for avoiding social and political interaction with bisexuals. Lesbians' self-perceptions are related to these attitudes. Some lesbians' identity histories include bisexual identification, most lesbians express some heterosexual feelings, and the majority have had heterosexual relationships. Lesbians differ in the salience and meaning attributed to lesbian identity. In general, the perception of ambisexuality within oneself is associated with less stereotypical views of bisexuals and greater willingness to interact with them, while the attribution of salience or social and political meaning to lesbian identity is associated with the reverse. Bisexuals tend to agree with lesbians regarding the nature and direction of differences which exist between them, although they may minimize their magnitude. Bisexuals generally lack in-group preferences for interaction with other bisexuals. The possibility that bisexual women will develop a bisexual ideology and eventually break from the lesbian movement is an area for future research.

Publication No. 9001704

Twining A (1983). Bisexual women: identity in adult development. ED.D. Thesis, Boston University School of Education, DAI, Vol. 44-05A, p. 1340, 262 pages.

Abstract by author: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the experience of adopting a bisexual identity and to determine if a model of bisexual identity formation could be developed for women. The design of the study employed a qualitative methodology of personal interviews (Bogdan and Taylor, 1975), combining open- ended questions with more specific probe questions. Sensitizing concepts (Blumer, 1969) were provided as initial definitions and hypothetical explanations to be further clarified. Ten self selected subjects between the ages of 33 and 44 years were interviewed. The population sample was homogeneous in most respects except for careers. Demographic data was compiled as well as thematic material. A thematic analysis reveals that adopting a bisexual identity inVolves the tasks of achieving self-acceptance, resolving societal homophobia, self-disclosing to family, friends, and coping with professional concerns. The results suggest that adopting a bisexual identity is a continuous, non- linear process (Blumstein and Schwartz, 1974). The impact of lack of external support and the absence of organized communities and institutions resulted in the emphasis on cognitive processes which assisted in the process of differentiation such as cognitive transformation, recasting the past (deMonteflores and Schultz, 1978); utilizing ideologies; developing a positive self-concept independent of social norms (Galland, 1975); valuing emotional attachments to women; and valuing the secret. Establishing a bisexual identity is related to the formation of adult identity (Erikson, 1963, 1968) and includes all aspects of identity such as self concept, family, social relations, and work.

Publication No.  8319944

Van Wyk PH (1982). Developmental factors associated with heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual outcomes. Ph.D. Thesis, Illinois Institute of Technology, DAI Vol. 43:04B, p. 1033, 120 pages.

Abstract by author: Relationships between K (homosexual proportion of overt sociosexual behavior) and precursor variables are evaluated. Early sexual experiences are most closely related to adult K, followed in order by gender-related and familial variables. A developmental model emphasizing social learning is presented. Subjects were 7669 American whites interviewed between 1938 and 1963. For reported r and R, p < .00005. For males, r of years of education with K was -.18, indicating some sample bias. Behavioral bisexuality (.33 < K < .67) was rare (.7% of females; 1.2% of males). Females' (r = .54) subjective preference was less congruent with adult K than was males' (r = .83). Elevated adult K was found for females who: (1) had few girl companions at age 10, and few male companions at 16 (R = .10). (2) learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a female (R = .17). (3) had intense prepubertal heterosexual play (R = .11). (4) had intense, arousing prepubertal sexual contact with adult males (R = .12). (5) found thinking of or seeing females, but not males, arousing by age 18 (R = .37). (6) had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K scores at age 17, and higher first-year homosexual frequencies (R = .54), and by males who: (1) reported poorer relationships with their fathers in teenage (R = .18). (2) had more girl companions at age 10, fewer male companions at ages 10 and 16, and avoided sports (R = .41).  (3) learned early of homosexuality by experience (R = .25). (4) learned to masturbate by being masturbated by a male (R = .27).  (5) had intense prepubertal homosexual play (R = .22). (6) had arousing, intense prepubertal homosexual contact with an adult friend or relative, and responded positively (R = .12). (7) had neither heterosexual contact nor petting to orgasm by age 18 (R = .18). (8) found thinking of or seeing males, but not females, arousing by age 18 (R = .55). (9) had homosexual contact by age 18, higher K scores at ages 16 and 17, and higher first-year homosexual frequencies (R = .70). Behavioral bisexuals reported more arousal to heterosexual stimuli than did exclusive heterosexuals. Sequential order of experiences seemed more important than did ages at first experience.

Publication No.  8220268

Wolfe PF (1997). The midlife transition to lesbian: cultural influences on women's sexual preference change.  Ph.D. Thesis, The Union Institute, DAI Vol. 58:05A, p. 1797, 231 pages.

Abstract by author: This study focused on the transition of women who changed their sexual orientation during the midlife period. These midlife women, formerly embedded in the heterosexual/patriarchal systems, by changing their sexual identity to lesbian also changed cultural systems, from heterosexual to lesbian. To make this transition the women used a number of cognitive and cultural processes that helped them. One of the processes discovered was the use of a kind of 'cultural bitmap' during the transition. The map was created through various methods and included transitional markers' (behavioral, cognitive and sociocultural themes) that frequently appeared, usually prior to the actual transition. The markers were sometimes accompanied by a shift in, or enhancement of, support networks, an increase in use of symbolic icons such as various kinds of Feminist Archetypes, a realigning or shifting of previously held religious beliefs, a decrease in stigmatization of lesbian behavior and/or an increased interest in homosexual lifestyles. This map allowed the women to not only track sources for acquiring knowledge, but it helped them to assimilate the new behavioral codes, linguistic terms, symbolic structures, find support or extend their kinship systems. During the transition itself, some women experienced a kind of 'culture shock' when first exposed to the gay culture. They missed signals, misunderstood signals, and often did not understand some of the symbols or argot of the subculture.  Some women found guides, including lovers, to gain knowledge of the lesbian lifestyle. Some women eventually became bicultural in both lesbian and heterosexual cultures while others more strongly identified as lesbian. Data was collected over a two-year period from 22 women ranging in age from 47 to 63 who had 'come out' between the ages of 40 and 55. They lived in or near a large metropolitan area on the West Coast. Women were interviewed to collect both historical data and transitional information which was then examined to discover the women's individual social and cognitive patterns. These patterns were then compared to the other women to see if any of the patterns appeared across the sample.

Publication No.  9733518

Zinik GA (1983). The relationship between sexual orientation and eroticism, cognitive flexibility, and negative affect. PH.D. Thesis, Institution University of California, Santa Barbara, DAI, Vol. 45-08B, p. 2707, 147 pages.

Abstract by author: This empirical study was an anonymous mail-in survey investigating the relationship between sexual orientation and: cognitive flexibility, negative affect, erotic response patterns, emotional satisfaction from sex, and romantic love. Subjects were 64 heterosexual males, 103 heterosexual females, 61 homosexual males, 53 homosexual females, 74 bisexual males, and 64 bisexual females (total subject pool was 419). Subjects were grouped according to self-identity. The nature and psychology of bisexuality was of particular interest. Two models were presented that characterize bisexuality as: (1) a form of identity conflict or confusion; (2) a form of adaptive flexibility. The Sexual Identity Survey designed by the author was used to assess sexual history and erotic interests. The short-form of the Dogmatism Scale was used to assess cognitive flexibility. The Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL) was used to assess anxiety, depression, and hostility as measures of negative affect. A significant effect was found on cognitive flexibility due to gender, with females exhibiting greater cognitive flexibility than males; female bisexuals exhibited the highest levels of cognitive flexibility of all groups. There were no differences between sexual orientation groups on negative affect, though females scored significantly higher on the hostility subscale of the MAACL than males. Bisexuals exhibited erotic response patterns of sexual attractions, fantasies, and sexual experiences similar to heterosexuals for partners of the opposite sex and similar to homosexuals for partners of the same sex. Bisexuals also exhibited high levels of erotic excitement and emotional fulfillment with opposite-sex partners similar to heterosexuals and with same-sex partners similar to homosexuals. Bisexuals likewise reported falling in love with the opposite sex as often as heterosexuals do and bisexuals fall in love with the same sex as often as homosexuals do. The results on the whole support the flexibility model of bisexuality.

Publication No.  8425807

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