"While interventions aimed at addressing
suicide risk factors for all youth are being
implemented and many have proven effective in the
general population, no evidence- based intervention
currently exists to reduce suicide risk within [the
LGBT] population." Marshall A (2016).
Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual &
Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need. Yale
Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89: 205-213.
A World First! - - Jacobs R, Morris S (2016). National LGBTI Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Strategy: A New Strategy for Inclusion and Change: An Australian Government initiative. Related Article. Document PDF Download.
See "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 150 Studies!
Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)
Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.
Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010).
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
Will these GB adolescent males also be ignored as it was done by HIV/AIDS Prevention Researchers?
To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011)
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).
Suicide Prevention among LGBT Youth:
A Workshop for Professionals Who Serve Youth (2014)
Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Why should LGBTQ students have to wait for it to get better? We have the power to make it better now.
School should not be about survival. PDF. Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Anti-gay bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide (2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
Make It Better Project (2011). - Does it ever really get better? (2011)
Negative gay community description, with the white racism missing.
The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!
Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.
Help Lines -- IT GETS BETTER Project
The Internet Resource on Bisexual / Gay
/ Queer Male Suicide Problems.
Resources on Bisexual / Gay Male Youth Suicidality.
Countries or Group of Countries where Bisexual/Gay Male and/or Lesbian / Bisexual Female and/or Queer and/or Transgender Youth are (may be) at Greater Risk for Suicidality.
Suicides & Attempted Suicides by Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Youth: On-Site Reports.
Suicides & Attempted Suicides by Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Youth: Off/On-Site Reports.
The Public School Situation for Bisexual / Gay Males and/or Lesbian/Bisexual Females and/or Queer and/or Transgender Youth.
Bisexual/Gay Male and/or Lesbian / Bisexual Female and/or Queer and/or Transgender Youth of Color: At Risk?
The American Indian / First Nations / Aboriginal Two Spirited Information Pages.
Recent Papers / Studies Related to GLBTQ Suicidality.
Most Recent Review Papers on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth Suicide Problems.
Study Contributions Related to Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality by Pierre Tremblay1, Chris Bagley1, and/or Richard Ramsay1.
GLB Male Suicidality & General GLBT Info - Index for Full-Text Papers / Reports Available on the Internet.
Bisexual/Gay/Queer Male Youth Suicidality: Related Information.
California School of Professional Psychology
The LGBT Mental Health Syllabus
By Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry: GAP, 2007.
Conference Presentations by P. Temblay & R. Ramsay
2004 Conference Presentation
2007 Conference Alert
The Homosexuality Factor in Suicidality: Heterosexual Identified Individuals.
In addition to the above, the high risk status of other adolescent males must be considered under the concept of "The Homosexuality Factor in Youth Suicide Problems" (Tremblay, 1995). Many other male adolescents are harassed and/or abused in schools and elsewhere (includes being threatened and/or hurt) because they are "presumed to be homosexual." These males, as a group, are not only "at risk" for suicide problems, but their relative risk increases for the more serious suicide behaviors (Oregon 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey results). Bette Greene (1994, Alternate Link) in "America's Designated Victims: Our Creative Young" describes the boys most at risk:
Although much of this force is generated by the fear of homosexuality, it isn't at all necessary to be homosexual to be persecuted as one of America's "designated victims." A designated victim is a boy, usually slender, usually thoughtful, who would prefer creating beauty to crushing bones. Because they might enjoy gymnastics, fencing, acting, writing, or band practice rather than football practice, these boys are called "faggots" and that's just for openers... Ted Fabiano, a young English teacher from Kansas City, flatly stated that homophobia affected everyone in his school. He broke it down: "most obviously are those 'designated victims,' some gay, most not..."Generally, homosexually oriented youth have been at risk for amost all factors known to be associated with suicidality (Colorado Paper, 1997), including lifetime and current drug use (Orenstein, 2001). However, recent studies have suggested that self-identified bisexual males may be most at risk for experiencing a number of problems, including suicidality, compared to self-identified homosexual (moderate risk, relatively) or heterosexual (lowest risk) males. A part of this "Higher Risk" status may be associated with the recently socially constructed binary (heterosexual/homosexual) perception of sexual orientation (Tremblay & Ramsay, 2000) that positions bisexuality in "No-Man's-Land." (See 2003 PowerPoint Presentation)
status has also been used to describe biracial / multiracial
people in 'race'-obsessed America. Research presently being
carried out is indicating that biracial / multiracial
adolescent males are at greater risk for suicidality than
mono-racial adolescents males of color who, in turn, are
generally at greater risk for suicidality than white
adolescent males. (See 2003 PowerPoint Presentation). The present
unknown is how homosexuality would factor into the suicidality
problems of male youth of color in North America.
Better support needed for Suicide Surfers. - Online suicide support needed:
"Dr Harris said his study involved more than 1000 people from 40 countries, aged from 18 to 74 years. Many had symptoms of depression. The group at the greatest risk of suicide was young gay or bisexual men, because they were in the group least likely to seek face-to-face help from doctors or support services. It led to calls from Dr Harris for support service workers dealing with suicidal people to take a different approach when talking to gay, lesbian and bisexual people..."
King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Online, Aug 18. 8:70.
Conclusion of Meta-Analysis: LGB people are at higher risk of mental disorder, suicidal ideation, substance misuse, and deliberate self harm than heterosexual people... lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt was especially high in gay and bisexual men (RR 4.28, CI 2.32, 7.88).
Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.
M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität
als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei
Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF
Saewyc EM, Skay CL, Hynds P, Pettingell S, Bearinger LH, Resnick MD, Reis E (2007). Suicidal ideation and Attempts in North American School-Based Surveys: Are Bisexual Youth at Increasing Risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2): 25-36. PDF Download.Plöderl M, Sauer J, Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract.
Related Alert: The Paul et al (2002) results (Full Text) (Full Text) - random sampling of American homosexually oriented males in 5 cities - indicates that Aboriginal GB males are 3-times more at risk for having attempted suicide than other GB males. They are therefore maybe 12 times more at risk for having attempted suicide compared to white heterosexual males.
See... Related WebSite!
British Columbia's 2008 Adolescent Health Survey (PDF Download, 6 megs): "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” ... Those at greater risk of having attempted suicide: ... Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% non-Aboriginal), lesbian, gay and bisexual youth (28% vs. 4% heterosexual: 7-times the risk), obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%).
Gay students more likely to consider suicide: study. Survey shows D.C. gay youth face bullying, harassment (2008). DC 2007 High School YRBS: Baseline Findings for GLBQ Items (PDF Download). "30.6 percent of gay teens considered suicide in the previous year, 28.9 percent made a plan to commit suicide and 32.6 percent attempted suicide. That compares to 13.8 percent, 12.1 percent and 8.6 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts.
Massachusetts' 2007 YRBS Results: "29.1 percent attempted suicide and 12.1 percent attempted suicide that required medical attention. That compares to 6.4 percent and 2.2 percent respectively in those same categories for their straight counterparts.
2007 Vermont Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, 26% of gay/lesbian students, 29% of bisexual students and 10% of those 'not sure' of their sexual orientation had attempted suicide, compared to 4% of heterosexual students.
2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data: "16% of students who self identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual are homeless, compared to 4% of their straight peers. 15% of homeless students self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
2005 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey: In the past 12 months, 33.3% of gay/lesbian students and 35.0% of bisexual students had made a suicide plan, compared to 9.7% of heterosexual students. 27.3% of gay/lesbian students and 33.3% of bisexual students had attempted suicide, compared to 7.5% of heterosexual students.
Closeted Married Men Who Have Sex With Men: Suicide Risk
(The Advocate, May 4, 2007)
Young R, Sweeting H, West P (2006). Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ, 6;332(7549): 1058-61. Epub 2006 Apr 13. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Commentaries: "Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Conclusion relates only to small sample." - "Self harm in Goth youth subculture: Study merely reinforces popular stereotypes." - Other Responses. - Goth subculture may protect vulnerable children. - Related Comments: "While I was never a self-harmer, I was definitely suicidal as a teenager, and have had suicidal tendencies throughout my whole life up until today... While I guess being goth reflected my depression, it didn't abate or help it after becoming goth, as the study suggests it did for self-harmers."
"What is Goth? ...the goth scene has a large proportion of gays/bisexuals, and followers of non-mainstream religions and views..." - GayGothBoys.Tribe.Net: "
Pinhey TK, Millman SR (2004).
Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam.
American Journal of Public Health, 94(7): 1204-1206. (Abstract)
Full Text: PDF Download.
GB Adolescents Males About 5 Times More At Risk
For Attempting Suicide In The Past year.
O'Donnell L, O'Donnell C, Wardlaw DM, Stueve A (2004).
Risk and resiliency factors influencing suicidality among urban African American and Latino youth.
American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(1-2): 37-49. (Abstract)
At Risk = "engaging in same-gender sex"
2003: Research into the needs of young people in Northern Ireland who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgender (LGBT)
N = 362, 14 (4%) = Transsexual/Transgender, 52 (14%) = Bisexual
Lifetime Suicide Attempt Incidence:
Males (28%, N = 232) - Females (30%, N = 130) - TS/TV (64%, N = 14)
Report Download (Word): 1, 2. Download Page.
Warner J, McKeown E, et al. (2004: Related Article, Summary).
Rates and predictors of mental illness in gay men, lesbians and bisexual men and women: Results from a survey based in England and Wales (Pub Med Abstract): "Of the 1285 [GLB] respondents who took part, 556 (43%) had mental disorder.... 361 (31%) had attempted suicide. This was associated with markers of discrimination such as recent physical attack (OR=1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.3) and school bullying (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-2.0)..."
Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2004)
."...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]".Note: This is a First-Time Research Result!
See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009).
Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a
national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal
of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract.
Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. [Epub ahead of print]. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."Frisch M, Simonsen J (2013). Marriage, cohabitation and mortality in Denmark: national cohort study of 6.5 million persons followed for up to three decades (1982-2011). International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(2): 559-578. Abstract. "Results: HRs for overall mortality changed markedly over time, most notably for persons in same-sex marriage. In 2000-2011, opposite-sex married persons (reference, HR = 1) had consistently lower mortality than persons in other marital status categories in women (HRs 1.37-1.89) and men (HRs 1.37-1.66). Mortality was particularly high for same-sex married women (HR = 1.89), notably from suicide (HR = 6.40) and cancer (HR = 1.62), whereas rates for same-sex married men (HR = 1.38) were equal to or lower than those for unmarried, divorced and widowed men. Prior marriages (whether opposite-sex or same-sex) were associated with increased mortality in both women and men (HR = 1.16-1.45 per additional prior marriage)... Of note, mortality among same-sex married men has declined markedly since the mid-1990s and is now at or below that of unmarried, divorced and widowed men, whereas same-sex married women emerge as the group of women with highest and, in recent years, even further increasing mortality.
Suicidio en la población homosexual costarricense (Translation).
55 GBT Males. 40% had been suicidal. 22% had attempted suicide.
45 LB Females. 18% had been suicidal. 11% had attemptd suicide.
Estudio alerta sobre intentos de suicidio por discriminación gay según encuesta
exploratoria en población costarricense (Translation):
Una investigación en población homosexual costarricense lanzó una campanada de alerta
sobre intentos suicidas por causa de la discriminación y rechazo por su orientación sexual.
Investigación en 200 homosexuales halló hasta un 27% de intentos suicidas.
Rechazo familiar y social, problemas de pareja y soledad son principales causas.
|Gabriel Rotello N/A (Alternate
Link) (The Advocate,
January 16, 01): "In
speaking to PFLAG chapters over the years, I have
met several parents of gay kids who committed
suicide, and their refrain is always sadly similar:
'If only we had known. Why didn’t we send the right
signals to our children, telling them we would have
loved them no matter what?'"
Mr. Svend Robinson (Burnaby—Douglas, NDP - Government of Canada):"It's no wonder so many gay and lesbian youths attempt suicide, and in some cases are successful, like the young man who jumped off the Pattullo Bridge. He was a young Surrey man. Chuck Cadman will recall the case. His name was Hamed Nastoh. He wasn't gay, but he was tormented by other students in his school, to the point where he couldn't take it anymore. So literature that tells people that they are less than human and that they deserve to be killed is what is targeted by this provision." - Antihate laws must shield gays.
Seventeen and Gay N/A: "Growing up isn't always a bowl of cherries for straight people, so it`s not exactly a 24-hour party when you're a 'bender', a 'queer' or a 'faggot'. The downward cycle of depression and loneliness is familiar to many kids: at the very bottom is suicide, and no matter what people say, too many gay teenagers have reached that point.
Rickey Williams: Rickey committed suicide. He jumped off the Golden Gate Bridge and plunged 220 feet to his death. He was 28 years old... Rickey understood the tragedy of black men who were and are dying in our communities. Just last summer, after visiting New York for the Black Gay Research Summit and the annual Pride In The City weekend, he signed onto an open letter to black gay men asking them, us to do something, anything about the AIDS epidemic in our midst. Forty-six percent of black men who have sex with men in some cities may be HIV positive. But who gives a damn, the letter asked... I know too many black men who are depressed and lonely, too many black men who have contemplated killing themselves, and too many black men who have actually attempted suicide. It's not easy being a black man. It's not easy being a black man who loves black men... From Comments: "My first boyfriend committed suicide and thats such an awful feeling to be that close to someone and not know the turmoil inside."
Suicide Prevention Australia's Position Statement (2009, PDF Download): Suicide and self-harm among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender communities.
- Winter 2004/05: Better dead than queer:
Youth suicide and discrimination in a heterosexual world.
Suicidality & Homosexualities: Are we part of the problem or solution? (PDF Download)
*YRBS: Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - High School
Fuglei, dies in apparent suicide
Students Demand Gay-Rights Policy
A greatly feared "gay issue"
came into his life.
1, 2, 3, 4.
age 17 N/A: Advocate Article.
Eminem Fan Commits Suicide (2001).Eminem lié à son suicide.
by Gabi Clayton (Bill's mother)
for our Son:
Robbie Kirkland 1982 -1997
Gay Teen Activist
Almost About me
"I can't ever let anyone find out that I'm not straight. It would be humiliating. My friends would hate me. I just know it. They might even want to beat me up. And my family? I've overheard them lots of times talking about gay people. They've said they hate gays, and even God hates gays, too. Gays are bad, and God sends bad people to hell. It's really hell. It really scares me now, when I hear my family talk that way, because now, they are talking about me. I guess I'm no good to anyone ... not even God. Life is so cruel, and unfair. Sometimes I feel like disappearing from the face of this earth." Four years after writing this entry, he committed suicide."
bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide
(2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old. It is
unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did
not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1,
Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january, How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist, What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Rutgers Suicide (2010): When Rutgers freshman Tyler Clementi jumped to his death last week from the George Washington Bridge, he may have been reacting to a constellation of factors related to sexuality, public bullying and humiliation that put adolescents and young adults at a particularly high risk for suicide, mental health experts said.- Gay Suicides (2010). - Suicides Put Light on Pressures of Gay Teenagers (2010).
Ellen DeGeneres 'Devastated' over Rutgers Student Suicide (2010): Noting the three other deaths that have been reported with gay teens this month, DeGeneres says, "Something must be done." An Important Message - From Ellen DeGeneres (Gay Suicide, Video, 2010).
Seth Walsh, a 13-year-old boy from Tehachapi, California, has committed suicide after being bullied by classmates over his sexual orientation (2010). - The Bullying of Seth Walsh: Requiem for a Small-Town Boy (2010). Seth Walsh, California Teen Who Endured Gay Taunts, Commits Suicide (2010).
Asher Brown Suicide: Parents Say Gay 8th Grader Was Bullied to Death While School Did Nothing (2010). - Gay Texas 13-Year-Old Asher Brown Shoots Himself In The Head After Horrific School Torment (2010).
Teen Boy Commits Suicide in Greensburg, Indiana After School Bullying (2010): Billy Lucas, 15, hung himself in the family’s barn in Greensburg, Indiana Thursday, Sept. 2, according to the local Fox News station. Apparently students at Greensburg High School bullied him for being gay, though he had not come out. Billy’s mother found her son. “People would call him ‘fag’ and stuff like that, just make fun of him because he’s different basically,” student Dillen Swango told Fox. “They said stuff like ‘you’re like a piece of crap’ and ‘you don’t deserve to live.’ Different things like that. Talked about how he was gay or whatever.”
Special Report: Growing Up Gay (2010): Pullium's church hosted a candlelight vigil for all victims of bullying, on October 11th... National Coming Out Day. "After the service a girl came up to me in tears and said, 'thank you for having this, my two best friends growing up killed themselves, and she made it through- but there's lots of gay and lesbian youth who don't make it through, who cave under pressure."
Coming Out Story - Tim L: "I've always known I am gay. I found more inteterest in my sisters toys than the army men and tanks. I never acted on my feelings because I was unbelievably afraid until I was around 21 years old... Before I could come out of the closet my brother beat me to it. Telling my parents and myself. I was so angry at him, i thought, "what are mom and dad going to do? they can't have two gay sons??" But I was cracking. My drinking was getting worse. I was looking for sex all the time but thankfully too afraid to follow through. I hated myself, despised my emotions and felt I never would experience love. Once I confronted my demons I said, "I'm gay" three weeks later I attempted suicide. I became intoxicated and felt unloved. So I drove my car on a major highway and wrecked. I still can't believe I wasn't hurt, nor anyone else. I even drove home that night only to confess to my brother and family later of my attempt. The worse part is I did it on Christmas day 1997."
Coming Out Story, Part 2 - by Lissa Valerian: "Today seems so far removed from that day more than 10 years ago... After being released from the hospital, I started my freshman year at college, leaving my troubled past behind. In the months and years following my suicide attempt, I tried to block out any recollection of the events that led up to my brush with death... Two years ago I moved to Fort Lauderdale, returning to school for my second degree. It was at this time that I began attending the weekly meetings of Lambda United, the Gay/Straight Alliance of Florida Atlantic University... As an officer of Lambda United, I helped create a website, and developed and maintain an e-mail discussion list, an on-line "safe place" for members to discuss coming-out issues. Why have I done all this? I could have followed the advice of one unenlightened FAU student who suggested that "gays need to just shut up and be gay." But, I didn't, and I won't. Recent reports claim that "suicide is the leading cause of death among GLBT youth," while another states that "homosexually-active adolescents are 8 times more likely to have attempted suicide than their heterosexual peers." Other studies indicate that 25% to 40% of young lesbians and gays have attempted suicide at least once. Rattling off a bunch of numbers from a journal full of odd terms and lots of statistics really doesn't mean much, until you actually put a face with those numbers. How can I look at those numbers without remembering my own experiences? I am one of the many faces behind those numbers."
Gay Suicides: "Each one of us can vividly remember the moment we found out. I was sitting in front of a computer and chatting on AOL Instant Messenger. "Remember that guy Scott," a friend wrote me. A short pause, and then he said, "Well, I heard he killed himself over winter break." And that's how I found out about Scott a year ago -- no official e-mail, no counselor there to console me, just a dark room all by myself. To me Scott wasn't a forgotten acquaintance. He was the first guy I had ever kissed."
Patricia Nicolari - Coming Out as a Lesbian Teacher: "Many more students approached me to confide that they too had a relative who is gay. I also had many colleagues approach me with similiar stories about gay relatives. One teacher had tears in her eyes when sharing with me the story of her son's friend who committed suicide when he told his parents he was gay. He was a student at Yale University who had finally had the courage to share this with his parents; unfortunately, his parents could not deal with this.
One in a million - What the statistics don't say about depression among glbt youth: "Several weeks ago, a youth from rural Ottawa committed suicide. We'll call him Chris, though that isn't his real name. Chris had identified as gay and had made contact, at least sporadically, with the gay community, including the Pink Triangle Services. But it is both figuratively and literally a long bus ride from small-town to downtown Ottawa glbt youth support groups. "We didn't get to know him, so we don't know what the last straw was," says Nathan Hauch. "But he said he felt too much pressure about his sexuality." After tentative forays into the world as a gay youth, Chris chose death over the alienation and rejection he was experiencing."
Student who died under train told family he was gay (Feburary, 2002): "A gifted Cambridge University student [Frederick Hodder] was killed under a Tube train hours after revealing his homosexuality to his parents, an inquest was told yesterday."
Mother wants BC teachers fired: "A British Columbia teacher has been suspended for suggesting that a dead young boy was gay. Shortly after Surrey high school student Hamed Nastoh (called a “faggot” by classmates) killed himself by jumping off a bridge, James Chamberlain wrote a letter to the editor of a small newspaper called the Peace Arch News. It spoke of hearing about a student who committed suicide, a student who was “struggling to come to terms with his gender identity within a hostile secondary school atmosphere and non-supportive family environment.” That angered the Nastoh family. Mother Nasima Nastoh claims that Chamberlain and another teacher “defamed” her son’s reputation by suggesting he was gay." - Suicide highlights dangers of homophobia.
U. Oregon student's suicide spurs LGBT support (May, 2003): "And the recent suicide of University student Kyle Dalton Richmond, who community members say was suffering from depression and was questioning his sexual orientation, has generated concern about the campus atmosphere for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students. Richmond, a resident of Junction City, Ore., committed suicide May 15, and a memorial service was held for him Thursday. According to his mother, Richmond was severely depressed at least as far back as March and had previously attempted to commit suicide. He had also gone to the University Health Center and was prescribed anti-depressants. Related controversy: With malice Aforethought (PDF Download).
Bad Days For Gay Teenagers: "Someone I know committed suicide this past Father's Day. His dad had kicked him out of the house because he was gay. He was just a kid, a teenage boy, on the way to becoming a young man. He liked horror and action movies. He moved around and lived with friends. He worked various low-income jobs to get by. On Father's Day, he decided there was no place for him in this world, so he killed himself."
The Gay Straight Alliance at Petaluma High School: "This GSA has been dedicated in memory of Robin Reed a 15 year old student at Petaluma High School who committed suicide by jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge in 1995. Robin was gay and he felt isolated and rejected just for who he was born to be.
Community forum [in Massachusetts] addresses youth suicide issues: "The panel included a gay-straight alliance advisor, 2 gay youth (one of whom had attempted suicide), a clinician, and a parent of a lesbian youth who had committed suicide."
Homosexuality: A Growing Orange County Group is Trying to Overcome the Gay Taboo in Vietnamese-American Families: "Pham, who is not gay, said he started the group after his gay brother, a Catholic who could not accept his sexuality, committed suicide at age 28, and after his Vietnamese girlfriend came out as lesbian."
Gay & Orthodox Jews (Alternate Link): "While there are no statistics available on the community's suicide rate, every gay Orthodox person interviewed for this article told me she or he knew of at least one Orthodox homosexual who had attempted or committed suicide. Experts say the suicide rate among gay Orthodox Jews is likely to be even higher than for the gay community at large, owing to the more restrictive and tight-knit atmosphere of Orthodox communities. And that isolation can have other repercussions as well."
Gays and lesbians in the Muslim community are quietly shattering one of the final taboos of Islam (Alternate Link) (Globe & Mail, 2003): [He] attempted suicide twice before he turned 18. Growing up in Lahore, Pakistan, the eldest son of devout Muslim parents, he could never come to terms with, let alone explore, his attraction to other men. His best attempts to fake interest in girls failed to impress his peers, who began to bully the self-described "effeminate" man. "It was easy for other kids to practise kick-boxing on me," recalls Mr. Malik, now 25. In 1992, he tried to hang himself from the ceiling fan in his room. If it was a cry for help, it fell on hostile ears since suicide is a haram -- religious wrong -- in Islamic law. "My dad's reaction was really bad -- he beat me. I was frustrated with my own life. I had no one to talk to, not even my own parents. In 1997, after a disastrous infatuation with a high-school friend - who later committed suicide after being forced into an arranged marriage -- Mr. Malik tried to take his life one more time. Again, he faced the wrath of his parents, who didn't understand the reason for his depression."
Group calls for 'Muslim' Gay pride: Naveed Merchant told me he had attempted suicide before eventually making contact with al-Fatiha Foundation through the Internet. At first his family recommended electric shock treatment, before reluctantly coming to terms with his lifestyle. But he says most gay Muslims feel they either have to give up the family or they give up their sexuality. "I decided that I wasn't going to give up either. I really believe that Allah made me this way," he said.
World of China Doll: "One day, I met a friend who was my age. At that time I was 17. He had some family problems, but he seemed not to express himself. I always had a feeling that he was Gay and he knew I was completely Gay, but we seemed to keep that very low key. I went to a night club with another friend of mine one night and discovered my troubled friend was in that club dancing as a stripper, and for the first time I met his lover. They were a young couple living together in a small apartment. They were both runaways. (In Texas you can emanicipate at the age of 17 in the court of law.) They were both from a very wealthy family. I learned a lot from them both. After graduating from high school and going to college for 2 years, I began to fall back into the club scene and began to discover myself again. I went back to the club to look for my two lost friends who I dearly loved. It took me awhile. When I found one of them on a corner, he told me that his lover had committed suicide, due to the fact that his parents had found out that he was Gay. I was very upset that a young man like him with a high education would end his life in tragedy. I stayed in contact with his lover for awhile to find out more about his death and decided to go out into the community and be a public speaker."
Life and Death in Queer Korea: "I consider myself lucky, though. Between 1997 and 1999, three of my gay friends in South Korea committed suicide. In May 1998, Oh disclosed his homosexuality to his family. They immediately rejected him and expelled him from their home. After living and suffering on the streets for months, and at one point sleeping in an office, Oh killed himself. The other two went to Seoul National University, which is South Korea's Harvard or Yale. One was in Law School; the other was a graduate student in biology. Their success in society was "guaranteed." However, when they came to the age of marriage, they both faced a brutal dilemma. Neither wanted to marry. But they also didn't want to disown their families and disappoint their parents. So, they chose to kill themselves. One in 1997, the other in 1999. No funerals were held for these three young men: their families considered them "bad" sons."
Oh! To Be In Love and To Say So [Express India]: "Madhu, however, feels it is important to consider the aspirations of gay and lesbian people, of being able to couple with people they love and have their relationship approved by family and friends. ‘‘There were three couples who reportedly committed suicide between Ocober and November last year,’’ she informs. ‘‘The level of emotional trauma that some of these young couples have undergone is reflected in the suicide note of one couple in which they asked the parents not to separate them in death at least.’’"
Society of Lesbian and Gay Anthropologists: "Our folk history also records the stunned silence of the audience. Although Stonewall had occurred a year before, active discrimination against lesbian and gay anthropologists kept the vast majority of lesbigay anthros securely in the professional closet. Indeed, many of the founders of ARGOH/SOLGA never secured full time, academic jobs. One was fired for coming out and took to lawyering instead; another committed suicide. Many paid a real and dear price for their involvement in this political and intellectual movement, and we have lost all too many colleagues to AIDS. For these reasons, it has taken 20 years for SOLGA to "come out" within the AAA."
After a Suicide - Trying to Make Sense of the Senseless: "Recently a close gay male friend committed suicide. He was HIV-positive for almost 10 years and on medication. Everyone I have spoken to about his death thinks it was because he was HIV-positive, but I don't. I think it was something else. He had just turned 40 years old, which he hated. He had been a partygoer since he was in his late teens, and continued doing the club scene weekly, although he complained a lot about it. He had always used alcohol and drugs on the weekends but began to take large doses of crystal meth and got hooked. He made attempts at rehab, but was unsuccessful..."
Board, Public back Gay Student group [Michigan, December, 2000]: "Betty Desbiens, a former teacher and valedictorian in 1938, said it was about time the high school had such a club. Desbiens said she knew of a star basketball player at the high school who committed suicide 40 years ago because he was gay and didn't have anyone to talk to about it."
Petaluma Educators Get Lesson in Gay Awareness : ""On Jan. 24 of this year, on an incoming tide and facing San Francisco, our son Robin was seen leaping from the Golden Gate Bridge," says Cotati parent Stephanie Reed, recalling the suicide of her gay 15-year-old son, a Petaluma High School student who'd endured prolonged harassment, homophobia, and isolation."
Bad days for gay teenagers: "Someone I know committed suicide this past Father's Day. His dad had kicked him out of the house because he was gay. He was just a kid, a teenage boy, on the way to becoming a young man. He liked horror and action movies. He moved around and lived with friends. He worked various low-income jobs to get by. On Father's Day, he decided there was no place for him in this world, so he killed himself... Make no mistake: he killed himself. No social group or club killed him. His family did not kill him -- I cannot even imagine the torment they are going through. But still, all of the messages, all of the attitudes, all of the rebuffs added up to something. They were all factors that influenced his choice, limited his choice, made him think he had no other choice...My friend is dead, but there a lot of other gay teens out there who are still alive. Until each of us makes a choice against prejudice, until we recognize that bigotry and homophobia are the diseases in our society, until we say that being gay is OK, they'll all be in danger."
Simpson Advocates Tolerance, Gay Rights: "In a conversation Wednesday, Simpson recalled the beginning of his concern about gay issues. He said a fellow student was harassed and called "queer" at Cody High School in the 1940s. "I can't imagine, in the forties when I was a freshman and a senior in high school, the pain that he must have gone through, and he later committed suicide," Simpson said. "I remember how they picked on him, I remember his face.""
Australia: Australia has one of the highest rates of male youth suicide in the industrialised world. Studies here show that young gay men are up to three times more likely to contemplate and attempt suicide than their heterosexual peers. Sometimes the worst kind of violence visited on gays can end up being the violence they do to themselves.Even high school children are at risk when they face uncontrolled homophobia from their fellow pupils..." - Anti-homophobia plan may curb suicide rate.
Homophobia Kills (Australia): The Role of Secondary Schools in the Prevention of Suicide Among Queer Youth - by Alastair Lawrie, Team Health (PDF Download). "From personal experience, I know of the detrimental impact of homophobic experiences at secondary school. As stated above (see Background), this was a major reason why I considered/attempted taking my own life. Overall, this report makes clear that homophobia in secondary schools contributes to the high rate of suicide among queer youth.
Tasmanian Gay Law Reform: "A year after homosexuality was de-criminalised in Tasmania the gay activist Rodney Croom, his mother Beverley and Kaye Donovan, the mother of a young gay Tasmanian who committed suicide talk about the pressures on young gay people in Tasmania. Rodney and Beverley discuss how he told them he was gay and how they dealt with his public activism."
A Quebec study (by Michel Dorais) of 24 gay males who attempted suicide. At the time of their suicide attempt(s), others knew or suspected that they were gay and many experienced homophobic abuses, sometimes associated with their suicide attempt(s).
A Quebec Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM. Montreal Cohort) (Translation) reported that 36.1% of these males had attempted suicide in their lifetimes. 21.4% = One Suicide Attempt, 11.0% = 2-5 Suicide Attempts, and 3.7% = More than 5 Suicide Attempts. Thoughts about suicide having occurred at least one was reported by 71.2% of male studied. Suicide and coming out among Montreals gays and bisexuals. Is there a link? "On the Quebec scale, the data provided by health and social services inquest 1992 - 1993 indicates that 4.5% of men between the ages of 15 and 24 years and 3.5% of men between 25 and 44 years had experienced serious suicidal ideations (with or without suicide attempt) at least once in their lives. The preliminary data originating from the 629 OMEGA participants having completed their fourth interview offers a more somber portrait."
B.C. Study Shows Gay Youth Face High Suicide Risk (1999). - Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.
A Calgary study of 750 young adult males reported that 62.5% of males who had ever made a serious attempt at killing themselves were homosexually oriented: Either self-described as homosexual or bisexual and/or being currently homosexually active: having related sexually with another male in the past 6 months.
Issues of Transgendered Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Although TCHP data is limited in that its cohort resides in the City and County of San Francisco and its purpose was to assess HIV risk specifically, transgendered AAPIs are everywhere, often building visible communities in metropolitan areas across the U.S... Of the total sample of transgendered respondents (MTF% / FTM %): ... 32% / 32% have attempted suicide... According to the Comprehensive HIV Prevention Plan for San Francisco, transgendered respondents persons are at increased risk for HIV infection due to a combination of biological, economic, psychological, behavioral, social/situational and access-related cofactors. Primary among these are a much higher incidence of commercial sex work, substance abuse, poverty, lack of access to HIV/AIDS and medical services, and discrimination by AIDS service organizations as well as employers. In particular, commercial sex work, largely a result of employment discrimination and poverty is closely associated with: increased rates of injection drug use as well as substance abuse, increased STD rates, increased rates of rape and coerced unprotected sex, increased trauma to tissues during sex, history of child sexual abuse and abusive relationships, as well as dramatically increased numbers of sexual encounters and numbers of sexual partners of higher risk. - HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention: "We recruited transgender persons through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals; 392 male-to-female and 123 female-to-male transgender persons were interviewed and tested for HIV... Sixty-two percent of the male-to-female and 55% of the female-to-male transgender persons were depressed; 32% of each population had attempted suicide.
A 2001 South African Study reported that 38.7% of gay/bi adolescent males "have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality."
A 2000 New Zealand Study rreports on the main reasons for suicide attempts by sexual minority youth.
Southampton, England: Many people coming to terms with a sexual preference regarded as outside of the 'norm' can experience rejection not only from their peers but also from members of their family. Because of these pressures they may choose to conceal or reject their sexuality which in turn can have damaging effects on their psychological health. The consequences of this often result in excessive substance misuse or other forms of self harm - including suicide. Over 20% of the 248 young people registering with the local Lesbian and Gay youth project, Breakout, have attempted (3 successfully) suicide. Others record experiences of eating disorders or have been diagnosed as having schizophrenia. - A Hopeless Future?
What is the extent of the GLB suicide problem in Britain? Does anyone care? Is anyone doing related research work? From another city in England, the following was reported on July 25, 2001 (reprinted by permission): "I am just suffering the pain of a member of my GLB youth group killing herself (last Sunday, she was 20!!) I've known other LGBs kill themselves; in fact in the area where I live I know of three (an older gay man and an older lesbian, and now Louise) within the 18 months. I once set up something called Esteem in the early 90's to try and get funding to conduct research in Britain; we applied to the lottery but were not successful, then my funding ran out and also a member of the group (a retired psychiatrist) killed himself. I found it all a bit too much and the group collapsed."
Pride Prince proud that he’s ‘coming out’ (Northern Ireland, 2000): "Vulnerability, isolation, being bullied and feeling less valued as a person are among the problems faced by young gay people. According to a 1999 survey carried out by the male gay health organisation, the Rainbow Project, 64% of gay men who faced bullying in school considered suicide."
The 1995 Seattle Schools YRBS Study. "The Homosexuality Factor" is associated with almost 40% of the more serious suicide attempts. Lethal Homophobia Effect ?
1999 Oregon YRBS Study: Greater Suicide Problem
Risk For Student Harassed on the Basis of Assumed Homosexual
Orientation. The Situation is Worse For Males.
“I Thought People Like That Killed Themselves” Lesbians, Gay Men and Suicide by Eric Rofes (1983).
English Translation of Abstract for the 2000 Québec Study "Mort Ou Fif": Excerpts (Translation)
The book begins with the story of two Quebec boys who committed suicide.
It is available in English: "Dead Boys Can't Dance:
Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Suicide" par Michel Dorais (2004) Google Books.
See also: "Homosexualité & suicide" par E. Verdier et J.M. Firdion (2001) - - Book Review 1 (Translation). 2 (Translation).
Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes à orientation sexuelle non conventionnelle
par Jean-Marie Firdion, Eric Verdier (2003). PDF Download (Translation).
Plus: Death by Denial: Studies of Suicide in Gay and Lesbian Teenagers. Review.
Edited by Gary Remafedi (1994) - Introduction. Review.
"Sexuelle Orientierung, Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit" - 2005 - von Martin Plöderl (Google books).
Cultural Diversity and Suicide: Ethnic, Religious, Gender
And Sexual Orientation Perspectives - 2006 - by Mark M Leach (Contents) (Google Books) (Review).
Être homo aujourd’hui en France: Enquête Le Refuge auprès de 500 jeunes gais et lesbiennes,
Michel Dorais en collaboration avec Isabelle Chollet, H&O Essai, 2012. Summary (Translation).
30% of the study sample - mean age: 28.5 years, 76% urban - reported having attempted suicide.
Interview avec Michel Dorais (Translation).
Cover, Rob (2012). Queer Youth Suicide, Culture and Identity. Introduction. News Item: Same-sex marriage not the answer: expert (2012)...
Same-sex marriage and anti-bullying
policies will not prevent the high rate of suicide
among young gay people, according to a researcher
at The University of Western Australia...
"Same-sex marriage can increase the distinctions
between queer people, making some feel more
alienated and unable to aspire to happiness,"
Associate Professor Cover said. "It is not where
resources for improving the lives of queer youth
ought to be directed - more needs to be done
around bullying and representation." Associate
Professor Cover's research points out that
marriage and relationships are not the primary
concerns of the small but important minority of
gay youth struggling with intolerable emotional
pain, bullying, identity issues or pressures
leading to mental health concerns... "Young queer
people are coming out much earlier and there is
broader family and community acceptance." Yet
while life is significantly better for many gay
adults, Associate Professor Cover argues that
young gay people still seek suicide as an escape
from unbearable or unliveable lives. See Also: WA Prof
queries role of legalising gay marriage in
reducing gay suicide (2012). Is
same-sex marriage an adequate response to queer
youth suicide? (2012).
McDermott, Katrina Roen (2016). Reframing
Queer Youth Suicide and Self-Harm.
Download, Chapter 1: Reframing
Queer Youth Suicide and Self-Harm.
America's Designated Victims: Our Creative Young (The Alan Review, 20(2), 1994): "Although much of this force is generated by the fear of homosexuality, it isn't at all necessary to be homosexual to be persecuted as one of America's "designated victims." A designated victim is a boy, usually slender, usually thoughtful, who would prefer creating beauty to crushing bones. Because they might enjoy gymnastics, fencing, acting, writing, or band practice rather than football practice, these boys are called "faggots" and that's just for openers... Ted Fabiano, a young English teacher from Kansas City, flatly stated that homophobia affected everyone in his school. He broke it down: most obviously are those "designated victims," some gay, most not..." by Bette Greene ( Alternate Link), author of The Drowning of Stephan Jones.
Doing the Math - What the Numbers Say About Harassment of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Students. Physical and/or Verbal Threats Faced by LGBT Youth. Faculty and Staff Attitudes Toward LGBT Students. Effects of Homophobia on the Behavior of LGBT Youth.
“To hear gay jokes and the words faggot and dyke - that’s a common thing in the halls of every school, but it’s completely ignored by the teachers. . . . I mean these are people in authority—it just kind of reinforces that this is okay. And for those kids not out of the closet, who may not even recognize what it is, that’s going to reinforce their self-hatred once they realize who they are. —Elsie, African American lesbian and public high school student” (Herr, K. (1999). Institutional violence in the everyday practices of school: The narrative of a young lesbian. Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 5(3), 242-255, p. 247). This citation marks the beginning of the Lugg (2003) paper.
“Nobody like a sissy. That includes dykes, faggots, and feminists of both sexes.” Vito Russo. The Celluloid Closet (p. 2). This citation marks the beginning of the Davis (2002) paper.
Robbie Kirkland: "At an early age Robbie was teased and harassed because he was noticeably different from the other boys. Robbie was soft spoken, gentle, creative, and disliked sports. Robbie made many efforts to fit in with the other boys such as participating in sports and pretending to have crushes on girls. It wasn't enough. He was still perceived as gay and encountered teasing and harassment, usually out of the teacher's view. Over a period of time, the effects of homophobia, he encountered at school, left him feeling ashamed, isolated, and insecure. He was not happy to be gay, knowing how much his Catholic schoolmates, society, and the Catholic doctrine rejected homosexuality."
“People have tried to kill me since I was a child.” - This statement by a "transgender violence survey respondent" marks the beginning of the Tarynn and Eyler (1999) paper.
British Columbia: "That week the newsstands hit with the story that rocked many out of their complacency. Hamed Nostoh, a 14-year-old Surrey teen committed suicide. He was teased to the point of suicide because many of his peers thought he was gay." (speak out: An activist's life - Andrew Carroll, Special To The Peak).
ACLU Warns Arkansas School to Stop Persecuting Gay Student [Oklahoma, March, 2003]: Now that McLaughlin has become more open about his sexual orientation, the school has made numerous attempts to punish and silence him for being out at school: One teacher called a conference with McLaughlin’s parents and the principal because she objected to his being open about being gay. During the meeting, the principal concurred that she was opposed to McLaughlin talking at school about being gay. A different teacher ordered McLaughlin not to discuss his sexual orientation, saying that she found it “sickening,” and later called his mother to complain about his homosexuality. School officials preached their religious views on homosexuality and forced him to read aloud from the Bible in clear violation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment. This was done as punishment after McLaughlin, who is himself a Christian, disagreed with a teacher for calling him “abnormal” and “unnatural.”
Petaluma Educators Get Lesson in Gay Awareness :Reed's testimony underscored her son's suffering. "Because he was different, Robin was sexually harassed by mean-spirited peers who called him 'fag,' 'sissy,' 'queer,' 'gay blower,' and other sexually derogatory terms," an anguished Reed told the school board. "Robin did not commit suicide because he was gay. He committed suicide because he was in pain. The time bomb had exploded. The anti-gay messages struck at his core."
Bad Days For Gay Teenagers: "There's school. This is the place where kids are teased and taunted for being "sissies" or "wusses" or worse, where being effete means getting beaten up. This is the place where teachers are prohibited from even discussing sexual orientation, much less being supportive of a kid in crisis about his."
An Ian River (2001) Study (Educational and Child Psychology) of a non-random sample of 92 gay/bi males and 27 lesbian/bisexual females in UK: 30% reported having attempted self-harm / suicide - 53% reported having contemplated self-harm / suicide in association with bullying at school.
Commentary: Schools as social institutions are places where the word "gay" and synonymous words such as "fag," "faggot," and "poof" / "poofter" commonly used in Britain and Australia, are not concepts / words invented by children or adolescents. These words are given / taught to them by their society and young males in western countries have also used these words in highly predictable ways (Plummer, 1999, 2001), almost like all these boys had gone to the same school of homophobic abuse. Goldstein (1999) outlines the current American definition of the word "gay" in reference to the Columbine High School murder / suicide event:
"The word 'faggot' has never merely meant homosexual. It has always carried the extrasexual connotation of being unmanly [being like a female]. But these days, the implications of that insult have expanded. To say that a certain behavior is 'so gay' can apply to anything stupid, clumsy, or outré. It's probably the most effective way to call a guy a loser, and in this age of sexual candor, when high school students know that some of their peers may actually be gay, the accusation has an even more fearsome ring."A similar meaning for the word "gay" was noted in the study "Hatred in the Hallways":
"One young gay youth who had dropped out of an honors program angrily protested, 'Just because I am gay doesn't mean I am stupid,' as he told of hearing 'that's so gay' meaning 'that's so stupid,' not just from other students but from teachers in his school."
Worst days of their lives (Australia): "School is usually a nightmare for gay and lesbian pupils, writes Greg Callaghan. "FAGGOT! Pooftah! Fairy!" They kept yelling it at me, as I left the school yard. When some stones flew in my direction, one hit my head... Three years after his ordeal at Claremont College a state school in the outer suburbs of Hobart Chris Jones, 21, still smarts from the pain and humiliation. For Jones the harassment began after he confessed to his gay sexual persuasion... That black cloud of prejudice may soon be at least partly lifted after last week's launch of a rural youth network Outlink for gay and lesbian youth, including support services and a new anti-homophobia education kit for teachers, due to be released next month. Boys talk: Diverse masculinities (Please note these are real quotes from real boys and their language may offend). Boys talk: The effects of Homophobia - "I get called names. The traditional one is 'spastic', but I also get called 'gay' and 'faggot'. It's a macho male thing to hate homosexuals. I get called gay because I've got cerebral palsy and my right hand and wrist hangs limp, which is an easy target for that sort of comment. I'm called 'soft' because I don't play football, I don't do drugs, I don't drink 24 hours a day. It's a social status thing … they think I'm different because I've got cerebral palsy and they think I'm different because I don't play sport and they think I'm different because I'm not drinking and I'm not doing drugs. … Being disabled has probably made me more aware of, more sensitive to, people's feelings. If someone's homosexual, that doesn't bother me in the slightest. If someone's black, it doesn't bother me either but I know people who would line them up and shoot them all."
A Recipe for Suicide? “The realization that he was gay had come as something of a shock to Devon, who had felt very isolated in his self-questioning. What made it more complicated was that he himself had the residue of a lot of the homophobic attitudes that young men grow up with: ‘I know I was homophobic when I was 14 … I was thinking that no, it’s completely unnatural. I really did think I was the only person in the world who had that problem, because I’d heard about someone being gay, but I never actually thought there were people out there, who were like that. So I thought that gay was just an expression. I didn’t think they existed at that age and I was just like, NO! NO WAY! NO WAY! I thought it was like a disease you – not a disease, but like a – a thing that you shouldn’t be thinking. A thing that should be got rid of.’[ (P. 273: Data from “the Respect study, a multi-method which project involved over 1,700 young people aged 11-16 in schools in various UK locations (including Northern Ireland), and from marginal groups including gay and lesbian group.” (Sharpe, 2002: 263).
Mike, age 14, had reported feeling suicidal and he had also written a suicide note (USA). A little later, when asked about what could have made things less negative for him, he replied: "If there were more supportive messages around you, such as "if you need someone to talk to.." or "if ever you are feeling lonely or depressed...", it is somewhat easier to get through each day... Obviously, in my situation or one similar, a way of knowing that there are other gay people around might have helped. The worst thing about learning your gay at a young age is the fact that it is lonesome knowledge. The worst thing in teen's minds is being different, and a different sexuality ranks high in the difference meter. You feel as if your the only gay person around, though you keep hoping your not. But that hope often times leads to heartbreak, such as learning that someone you may have liked isn't gay. This realization can hurt a lot. If, perhaps, there were more gay support-type influences around teen's school, life as a gay teen would be more the norm as opposed to being a curse." (Email to Website Author: June, 2003)
Coming out: la galère des ados. (Translation) - "Depuis que la visibilité a gagné la rue et que la tolérance vis-à-vis des homos a grimpé dans les sondages, une croyance tenace a aussi envahi les esprits: celle qui consiste à penser qu’il est beaucoup plus facile pour les jeunes, aujourd’hui, de faire leur coming out. Il n’en est rien. Si l’on découvre effectivement son identité sexuelle de plus en plus tôt, il n’est pas forcément évident, quand on a 15 ou 16 ans, de le dire et de l’assumer. D’autant qu’à l’école et même au sein du milieu gay et lesbien, bien peu de structures sont mises en place pour les aider à trouver leurs repères. On ne sait pas où rencontrer ses semblables, ni même s’ils existent. Souvent, on ne peut même pas encore mettre un nom sur ce que l’on ressent. Aux clichés véhiculés sur une «jeunesse gay libérée et démonstrative» dans une «société sans tabous», la réalité quotidienne montre un tout autre visage... "Sylvain évoque sans sourciller la longue liste de brimades dont il a été victime, sa solitude, ses résultats scolaires toujours plus catastrophiques, son sentiment horrible de ne pouvoir parler à personne de ce qu’il ressentait. Et de sa tentative de suicide: «Je voulais attirer l’attention. Je rêvais que quelqu’un vienne vers moi et me dise: je te comprends. Mais personne n’est venu.» Même pas ceux qui lui ressemblaient: «Je savais que d’autres jeunes de mon école se sentaient homos, mais en voyant ce qu’on m’infligeait, cela ne les encourageait pas à en parler.»"
Candace Gingrich Talks Diversity with Student Activist Jonathan Perry: "Jonathan Perry is a 26-year-old, third year student at Johnson C. Smith University, a historically black college in Charlotte, N.C. Concerned about the lack of support for openly gay students, Perry organized two forums on sexual orientation and race, and founded the school's first official gay, lesbian bisexual and transgender (GLBT) organization. In an interview with HRC National Coming Out Project Manager Candace Gingrich, Perry talks about being an African-American gay male coming out in church and on campus...One of my first actions was to put together a forum on diversity and sexual minorities, a first for Johnson C. Smith. The forum was based on what I had witnessed and heard about the needs on the campus. There were so many people on the down low [someone who is not open about being gay, lesbian or bisexual]. I had heard stories of attempted suicide because of difficultly coming out. Under the circumstances, I would have been happy had a dozen people shown up. What I got was nearly a hundred!"
Gay Trinidad - Voices: -Gay In A Straight World - "...It's being taught
to hate yourself knowing that you cannot change, knowing you
can never share that wonderful feeling of being in love with
your family and most of your friends... I am 17 and I HAVE NO
CHOICE BUT to LIVE MY "SO-CALLED LIFE" LIKE THIS. One day I
WILL try to change this, I PROMISE." - My Lowest Point -
"...Sometimes I have to ask myself how can life be so happy at
one point in time and then plummet to the deepest depths of
despair.... I needed to be able to distance myself from
reality. I did to a point. I had that happy place in my mind
that I would retreat to whenever everything was bad. However
everytime I retreated into it, it grew smaller until there was
nothing left... Its horrible being gay and your parents not
knowing and not accepting. I hurt inside everytime my father
makes a derogatory comment. And he does it alot." - Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two
interrelated destructive forces in our society. An open
letter to the people of Trinidad and Tobago.
Sell RL, and Becker JB (2001). Sexual
orientation data collection and progress toward
Healthy People 2010. American Journal of Public
Health, 91(6): 876-82. Abstract.
[Youth Risk Behavior Survey Surveillance] data from
the localities that measure sexual orientation show
that whatever the dimension of sexual orientation
measured (sexual orientation identity, sexual
behavior, or sexual attraction), sexual minority
youths have higher rates of suicide attempts,
victimization in school violence, drug and alcohol
abuse, early onset of sexual behavior, eating
disorders, and teenage pregnancy that other youths.
As surveys of adolescents in Connecticut, Wisconsin,
Oregon, and Seattle have demonstrated, even a
measure of sexual orientation as indirect as
perceived homosexual sexual orientation elicits
disturbing correlations with deleterious health
outcomes." (p. 878) When adolescents are assumed to
be homosexual by other adolescents, they are treated
accordingly. Click this link to see the results
for the Oregon 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
These youth are harassed on the basis of "presumed
homosexual orientation," and they are at the
greatest risk for the more serious suicide
Results from a major analysis of Youth Risk
Behavior Surveys that solicited sexual
orientation information: Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T,
Kinchen S, Chyen D, Harris WA, Wechsler H; Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011).
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and
Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12:
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites,
United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release
2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w.
Goldstein, Richard (1999). The ‘Faggot’ Factor: The chickens came home to roost at Columbine High. OC Weekly, May 21-27. Full Text.
Lugg, Catherine A (2003). Sissies, Faggots, Lezzies, and Dykes: Gender, Sexual Orientation, and a New Politics of Education? Educational Administration Quarterly, 39(1): 95-134. Abstract. Commentary.
Plummer, David (2001). The quest for modern manhood: masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 15-33. PDF Download, PDF Download. PDF Download.
Plummer, David (1999). One of the boys: masculinity, homophobia, and modern manhood. New York: Haworth Press (Google Books) (Amazon).
Sharpe, Sue (2002). ‘It’s just really hard to come to terms with’ young people’s views on homosexuality. Sex Education, 2(3): 263-77. Excerpt.
Eyler, A Evan (1999). Hate Crimes and Violence
Against the Transgendered. Peace Review, 11(3): 461-8. Excerpt.
The Additional Problems of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth of Colour is a chapter from: The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem (1993-94).
Racism in Predominantly White Gay and Lesbian Communities.
Institutionalized Racism Slowing Progress of GLBT Movement
15th Annual Creating Change Conference Takes Place Nov. 6-10.
The 2002 NGLTF Conference Theme is 'Building an Anti-Racist Movement'.
"Never in the history of our movement has such a large, multi-racial GLBT gathering focused on
the impact of racism and the building of an anti-racist movement," said National Gay and
Lesbian Task Force Executive Director Lorri L. Jean. "Institutionalized racism is one of the most significant
factors hindering our success as a movement and if we were unified as a community,
we could better pursue and achieve our goals."
Ethic / Sexual Minority Youth. Excerpts from "Gay Male and Lesbian Suicide," by Paul Gibson (1989). Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide Volume 3, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Full Text. PDF Download.
Ethnic minority youth (i.e. Black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) comprise a substantial number of youth who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transsexual. Ruth Hughes, Coordinator of Gay Youth Services at the Center for Special Problems in San Francisco, reports that these youth face more severe social and cultural oppression than other gay youth and far more serious problems than other adolescents (29). .. Davis notes a dramatic increase in suicides among young blacks over the past two decades that has brought their suicide rate nearly equal to that of white youths (30). Hendin, in his book Black Suicide, offers an explanation: "It does not seem surprising that suicide becomes a problem at such a relatively early age for the black person. A sense of despair, a feeling that life will never be satisfying, confronts many blacks at a far younger age than it does most whites" (31).
Ethnic minority gay youth additionally face racial discrimination from white homosexuals that is a reflection of their treatment by the majority culture. Dutton writes that the gay liberation movement has often failed to consider the needs of ethnic minorities while ignoring their issues and concerns (32). Jones adds that: "Little has been written about Third World sexual minorities, and when generalities were made about our lifestyles, attitudes, and behaviors, they were often made in reference to white cultures - white cultures being the basis for Third World cultures to deviate from or strive for" (33). Finally, ethnic minority gay youth must contend with discrimination and special problems from their own ethnic group because of their sexual orientation. Hughes believes that ostracism and separation from their own ethnic group is particularly painful and difficult for these youth to cope with: "They expect acceptance by those like themselves who understand and have experienced oppression. Too often, blacks don't want to face the issue and see homosexuality as a struggle for white gay males. Ethnic minority gay youth are seen as an "embarrassment" to their cultural group. There is more concern for daily survival issues than an increased understanding of homosexuality" (29).
Jones adds that: "Lesbians and gays growing up in Third World communities experience just as much, if not more, oppression as heterosexual minority youth do in non-Third World communities. Unfortunately, most of the negative attitudes and oppressions bestowed upon lesbians and gays in Third World cultures are reactions to the influence that mainstream white culture has on it" (33). Two issues that strongly effect ethnic minority gay youth are religion and the family. Ethnic minority cultures have historically believed that homosexuality is a sin according to the faiths to which they predominantly belong. Parents frequently use religion as the standard to evaluate homosexuality. A homosexual orientation in their son or daughter becomes incompatible with religious beliefs. Ethnic minority gay youth often internalize these religious values, and feel guilty for having homosexual feelings and experiences, fearing they are condemned to hell.
The family also plays a central role in the lives of these youth with strong expectations that they will fulfill social roles and perpetuate the extended family. A homosexual orientation is sometimes seen as a sign of disrespect to the family by the youth and a threat to the family's survival. Ethnic minority gay youth have tremendous fears of losing their extended family and being alone in the world. This fear is made greater by the isolation they already face in our society as people of color. These ethnic minority gay youth who are rejected by families are at risk of suicide because of the tremendous pressures they face being gay and a person of color in a white homophobic society.
Lesbians of Color
May be at Higher Risk for Suicidality Than White Lesbians.
|Lifetime Serious Suicide Attempts &
White, Black & Latino/a Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adults in New York City
|All, N = 388
|Male, n = 193
|Female, n = 195
|White, n = 132
|Black, n = 128
|Latino/a, n = 128
|Lesbian/Gay, n = 318
|Bisexual, n = 70
|18 - 29 Years, n = 172
|30 - 44 Years, n = 171
|45 - 59 Years, n = 45
Data Source: Meyer et al. (2008) - * Lifetime Incidences (Percent: %) for All Categories
Information to determine "mental disorders" & "serious suicide attempts" was obtained via the computer- assisted personal interview (Version 19) of the WHO World Mental Health Survey: the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
Meyer IH, Dietrich J, Schwartz S (2008). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders and suicide attempts in diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6): 1004-6. Abstract. PDF Download. (Download Page)
- Aboriginal GBTT-s Males Are More At Risk For Suicidality Than Other Aboriginal Males & White GBT Males.
- Information Excerpts on Terms Such as "Two Spirit" - "Two Spirited" - "Berdache" - "Winkte" - "Nadleeh" - etc.
- Aboriginal & Sexual Minority Over-Representation In Street Youth Population. Higher Suicidality Risk For Street Youth. Highest Suicidality Risk for Sexual Minority Street Youth.
Update: - "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented Males & Females: More Than 150 Studies!
Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz RM, Sanchez J (2009). Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123(1): 346-52. PubMed Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.
Mayock P, Bryan A, Carr N, Kitching K (2009). Supporting LGBT Lives: A Study of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people. Dublin: National Office of Suicide Prevention. Full Text. Full Text. Full Text. Download Page.
Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download.
Beyond Blue (2009). Depression and anxiety in gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex people (GLBTI). Asutralia. PDF Download.
King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Full Text. Full Text. Abstract. Related Document.
Meyer IH, Dietrich J, Schwartz, S (2008). Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6): 1004-1006. PDF Download.
Saewyc EM, Skay CL, Hynds P, Pettingell S, Bearinger LH, Resnick MD, Reis E (2007). Suicidal ideation and Attempts in North American School-Based Surveys: Are Bisexual Youth at Increasing Risk? Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(2): 25-36. PDF Download.
Meads C, Buckley E, Sanderson P (2007). Ten years of lesbian health survey research in the UK West Midlands. BMC Public Health, 19(7): 251. Full Text. Abstract.
Hegna K (2007). Homo? Betydningen av seksuell erfaring, tiltrekning og identitet for selvmordsforsøk og rusmiddelbruk blant ungdom. En sosiologisk studie [Gay? The importance of sexual experience, attraction, and identity for suicide attempts and substance use among teenagers in Norway. A sociological study.] Doctoral thesis, the Institute of Sociology and Social Geography at University of Oslo. Download Page: http://www.nova.no/index.gan?id=12803&subid=0 - PDF Download: http://www.nova.no/asset/2542/1/2542_1.pdf .
Hegna K, Wichstrøm L (2007). Suicide Attempts among Norwegian Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youths General and Specific Risk Factors. Acta Sociologica, 50(1): 21-37. Abstract. The paper is located at the end of the Hegna (2007) thesis.
ILGA-Europe (2007). Suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth. Report by ILGA-Europe to the Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Word Download. Il suicidio tra i giovani gay, lesbiche, bisessuali e transgender. Download Page. Word Download.
Friedman MS, Koeske GF, Silvestre AJ, Korr WS, Sites EW (2006). The impact of gender-role nonconforming behavior, bullying, and social support on suicidality among gay male youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(5): 621-3. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.
Cull M, Platzer H, Balloch S (2006). Out On My Own: Understanding the Experiences and Needs of Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. Brighton & Hove, England: Health and Social Policy Research Centre, Faculty of Health, School of Applied Social Science, University of Brighton. Internet: Full Text. Research Summary: http://www.brighton.ac.uk/sass/research/reports/LGBT_summary.pdf N/A. - (Alternate Link).
Sandfort TG, Bakker F, Schellevis FG, Vanwesenbeeck I (2006). Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6): 1119-25. Full Text. Abstract.
Hidaka Y, Operario D (2006). Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the Internet. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(11): 962-7. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.
Kenagy GP (2005). Transgender Health: Findings from Two Needs Assessment Studies in Philadelphia. Health and Social Work, 30(1): 19-26. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.
Ramsay R, Tremblay P (2004). The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide problems. Poster Presentation: 2004 CASP (Canadian Association For Suicide Prevention) Conference held in Edmonton, Alberta in October.
The result of a Norwegian study (Longitudinal Sample) is published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1): 144-51 (February, 2003): "Sexual orientation and suicide attempt: a longitudinal study of the general Norwegian adolescent population." by Wichstrom L, Hegna K. (PubMed Abstract). "When homosexual attraction, homosexual identity,and same-sex sexual behavior were entered to predict suicide attempt, only same-sex sexual behavior was significantly predictive.
"Non-consensual sex experienced by men who have sex with men: prevalence and association with mental health." Patient Education and Counseling, 49(1): 67-74. (PubMed Abstract): "Almost 1 in 10 of the men (n = 358, non-random, 19-35 years of age) had engaged in juvenile prostitution, 14% were forced into sexual activity before 14 years of age, and 14% were sexually victimized after the age of 14. Those exposed to non-consensual sex were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.8-4.7) times more likely to abuse alcohol than those free of victimization. Those who reported childhood sexual abuse were 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) times more likely to have attempted suicide. Juvenile prostitution was associated with current depression (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.8-14.9)."
May, 2002 - New Australian study: "A community survey of 4824 adults was carried out in Canberra, Australia... Conclusions: The bisexual group had the worst mental health, although homosexual participants also tended to report more distress. British Journal of Psychiatry. Full Text.
August, 2002 - Paul JP, Catania J, Pollack L, Moskowitz J, Canchola J, Mills T, Binson D, Stall R (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American Journal of Public Health, 92(8): 1338-45. PubMed Abstract. Full Text. Related Article: Gay men much more likely to attempt suicide.
A 2002 Re-Evaluation of Massachusetts 1995/97 & Vermont 1995/97 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: Bisexually Active Adolescents Most At Risk. See related information in 2003 PowerPoint Presentation by Pierre Tremblay & Richard Ramsay.
Remafedi, Gary (2002). "Suicidality in a venue-based sample of young men who have sex with men." Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(4): 305-10. PubMed Abstract: "One-third of all respondents reported at least one suicide attempt, and 4.7% attempted suicide in the past year. Although suicide attempts were more prevalent among African-Americans and urban residents; only school enrollment was significantly associated with attempts in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio = .55, 95% confidence interval = .31,.97)." PDF Download.
Homosexuality and Suicide: A Case Report (Annals of Medical Sciences 2001;10:41-44): "In this case report, we presented a young gay patient who attempted suicide and discussed the major causes of this attempt, primarily sexual prejudice of the society and possible therapeutic approaches."
Etude et statistiques sur les jeunes gays en Suisse romande (Translation): For the young gay identified males studies, 31.7% reported suicide ideation occuring in the past 6 months, and 24.4% reported having attempted suicide in their lifetime. Also noted: A 1999 German study of 217 homosexual idividuals (age = 15-27) reported that 18% had attempted suicide.
Special Issue on "Sexual Orientation" in "Vis-à-vie" by the Quebec Association of Suicidology is available. La revue le Vis-à-vie, vol. 10 nº 2, 2000: Le thème de ce numéro est « Suicide et orientations sexuelles » (Translation) - Un double tabou. (Translation) - Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. (Translation) - La honte d'être. (Translation) - Mort ou fif, différence assassinée. (Translation) - Événements suicidaires chez les hommes gais. (Translation) - Gai écoute, 20 ans d'espoir. - Suicide-Action Montréal et Gai écoute : un projet conjoint de formation et de sensibilisation. (Translation) - L'intervention dans Chaudière-Appalaches. (Translation) - Histoire de vie. (Translation) Note: The English version of "Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problèmes suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions" by Pierre Tremblay and Richard Ramsay is available as "Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals.
Master's Thesis Study (2000), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Study Summaries and Thesis Download at - http://www.q.co.za/news/2000/11/001123-gaystress.htm N/A. (Archive Link)
Highlights: "In the present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality."
"The sample consists of 329 males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified."
"When considering the influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide.
Having witnessed people being victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."
Questions: "Are you... Bisexual, Gay,
Fa’afaine, Heterosexual, Queer, Takataapui,
Transgender, Transexual, Homosexual, Straight,
and/or other (please indicate)?
Some Examples of Qualitative Categories for Main Reasons for Suicide Attempts
"Loneliness and/or Social Isolation: I was lonely, my flat mates were all against me and I felt really depressed. It was also mid-year exam time. I also felt that my life was going no-where."
"Hopelessness: Felt as if there was nothing in the world there for me. No people, no life, no jobs-nothing. I felt like a burden on my mum and thought the world would be better off without me in it."
"Depression: The sense of isolation, depression, stress. Compounded by my emerging gay identity. This attempt was triggered by fighting with my brother."
"Fear of rejection and/or lack of support from family: Family were drifting from me, and I felt alone, friends had moved on with their lives, I had no relationship which I wished for at the time."
"Societal heterosexism:Being told that being queer was unnatural and people like that don't deserve to live!"
"Low self-esteem, self-confidence and/or self-acceptance"
"Miscellaneous:I thought if I took the problem away by trying suicide, it would solve itself." - "Attention I think." - "Felt there were no other options."
I'm Going Home: A personal Journey
"I can understand why some queer youth may decide to end their lives. I realised I was sexually attracted to men at the age of 12. By the time I had my driver's licence, I had suicidal thoughts daily. Everyday, on my way to secondary school I would drive a rural road with a 50-metre cliff off to one side. Each time I breached the top of the hill I would decide whether or not it was worth continuing on my way to school, or if I should have an 'accident' and kill myself." (From the Preface, by John Fenaughty)
Study Available Via University of Auckland Library
An Ian River (2001) Study (Educational
and Child Psychology) of a non-random sample of
92 gay/bi males and 27 lesbian/bi females in UK: 30% reported
having attempted self-harm / suicide - 53% reported having
contemplated self-harm / suicide in association with bullying
Suicide Research (Scotland): (Download
Page) - Introduction. - Methodology. -
Findings: information on respondents. - Suicidal thoughts,
feelings and behaviours. - Summary of main findings. -
Conclusions. - Recommendations. "Live To Tell" Study.
highlights: 95 Gay/Bi Males aged 15-26 (Average age = 20.8
years). 28% of respondents had at some point deliberately
injured themselves with no suicidal intent. This compares to
2% of men in the general population.. 54% of respondents had
seriously considered taking their own life, compared to 13% of
men in the general population who have ever considered
suicide. 51% of respondents who had previously considered
suicide now no longer felt suicidal. However, 15% of
respondents still seriously considered suicide at least once a
month. 27% of young gay/bisexual men have attempted suicide
compared to 4% of the general population. Suicide attempts
were most common in those young gay/bisexual men aged 14 to
20. 58% of those who had attempted suicide made only one
attempt. 35% had made three or more attempts. 23% made five or
more attempts. 54% of respondents who had attempted suicide
had at some point deliberately injured themselves without
wanting to take their own life.
and "gay" as a new invention: From Common to a Rarity - How
many Males Know 'it' but don't like word "gay" or
"bisexual"? More than many would believe!
Bagley C, and Tremblay P (2000). Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. Crisis, 21(3): 111-17. PubMed Abstract. Online Draft.
Bagley C, and D'Augelli AR (2000). Suicidal behaviour in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. BMJ (British Medical Journal), 320(7250): 1617-8. (Editorial) Full Text.
Corboz J, Dowsett G et al (2008). Feeling queer and blue: a review of the literature on depression and related issues among gay, lesbian, bisexual and other homosexually active people. Melbourne: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society. Full Text.Dennert G (2006). Die psychische Gesundheit von Lesben und Schwulen - eine Übersicht europäischer Studien. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(3): 559-576.
Erwin K (1993). Interpreting the evidence: competing paradigms and the emergence of lesbian and gay suicide as a "social fact". International Journal of Health Services, 23(3): 437-53. PubMed Abstract.
Halpert, Stephen C (1999). Suicidal behavior among gay male youth: Fact or fiction? Ph.D. Thesis, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Abstract supplied by author on August 21, 2001. A paper related to this study is in press, Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy. (Link to Abstract)
Haas AP, Eliason M, Mays VM, Mathy RM, Cochran SD, D'Augelli AR, Silverman MM, Fisher PW, Hughes T, Rosario M, Russell ST, Malley E, Reed J, Litts DA, Haller E, Sell RL, Remafedi G, Bradford J, Beautrais AL, Brown GK, Diamond GM, Friedman MS, Garofalo R, Turner MS, Hollibaugh A, Clayton PJ (2011). Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1): 10-51. Abstract. Full Text: Open Access. Full Text.
Julien D, Chartrand (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon probabiliste sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 46(4): 235-250. Abstract. Summary / Extract (French). Translation.
Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, Kinchen S, Chyen D, Harris WA, Wechsler H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release 2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6007a1.htm. Results, problem and related issues are presented in another webpage. A major problem seems to exist when combining sexual minority Youth Risk Behavior Survey suicidality results from large cities and states.
King et al. (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.
Kulkin HS, Chauvin EA, Percle GA (2000). Suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and young adults: a review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(1): 1-29. (Review) PubMed Abstract.
Lebson M (2002). Suicide among homosexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(4): 107-17. PubMed Abstract.
Leu, Christian (2008). Orientation sexuelle et comportements suicidaires: Une enquête sur les résultats de la recherche internationale et nationale sur les facteurs de risque et de protection pour les adolescents homosexuels et bisexuels. Berne, La Suisse / Switzerland: Le collectif Formation de PINK CROSS, LOS et fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Translation N/A. Download Page N/A. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.
Leu, Christian (2008). Sexuelle Orientierung und Suizidalität: Eine Untersuchung der internationalen und nationalen Forschungs-ergebnisse der Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren für adoleszente Homo- und Bisexuelle. bern, Switzrland: PINK CROSS, LOS und fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Download Page N/A. Translation N/A. PDF Download N/A. Translation N/A. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.Lewis NM (2009). Mental health in sexual minorities: recent indicators, trends, and their relationships to place in North America and Europe. Health Place, 15(4): 1029-45. Abstract.McAndrew S, Warne T (2004). Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(4): 428-34. PubMed Abstract.
Lhomond B, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ (2009). Orientation sexuelle et santé mentale: une revue de la littérature [Sexual orientation and mental health: a review]. Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, 57(6): 437-50. Abstract. Dowload Page: In two Documents: Text & Tables. Download Page.
Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download. "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'
McDaniel JS, Purcell DW, D'Augelli AR (2001). The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: research findings and future directions for research and prevention.. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.): 84-105. (Review). PDF Download. PubMed Reference.
Meyer, IH (2003). Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674–697. Full Text. Summary.
Morrison LL, L'Heureux J (2001). Suicide and gay / lesbian / bisexual youth: implications for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 39-49. PubMed Abstract. Full Text: PDF Download. PDF Download.
Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.Plöderl M, Sauer J, Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract. Related Conference Presentation PDF. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.
Plŏderl M, Wagenmakers EJ, Tremblay P, Ramsay R, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2013). Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(5): 715-727. Includes a meta-analysis. Download Page for Paper Draft PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website. ResearchGate Full Text.
Online Additions to the Paper: "A Critical Examination of the Shaffer et al. (1995) & Renaud et al. (2010) Psychological Autopsy Studies of Adolescent Suicides" & "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide."
Remafedi G (1999). Sexual orientation and youth suicide. JAMA, 282(13): 1291-2. Full Text (Must Scroll): PDF Download. Full Text.
Russell ST (2003). Sexual minority youth and suicide risk. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1241-1257. Full Text: PDF Download.
Schlatter J, Irala J, Escamilla I (2005). Psicopatología asociada a la homosexualidad [Psychopathology related to homosexuality.]. Revista de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra, 49(3): 69-79. PDF Download. Translation.
Stone DM, Luo F, Ouyang L, Lippy C, Hertz MF, Crosby AE (2014). Sexual orientation and suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts: evidence from local youth risk behavior surveys, 2001-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 262-71. Abstract. Suicidality results for 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys used in large American cities generally with large Hispanic and African American populations: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Diego, San Francisco. The "more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors" often does not apply, also depending on the sexual minority group being described and the sex of individuals. For more on this issue see related webpage.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf. A Related Google Cache Document.
Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2000). Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problème suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. Le Vis-À-Vie, 10(2): 5-8. Internet English version of the paper: Internet English version of the paper: Full Text. Full Text (French). Translation.
Ramsay R, Tremblay P (2005). Suicidality & Homosexualities: Are we part of the problem or solution? CASP Newsletter, 14(2). PDF Download N/A PDF Download.
Suicidal Crisis and Depression and the Emergence of Homosexual Identity in Young Males. (STAND 2001 Article: PDF Download) by C. B. & P. T.
"Suicidal problems of youth with homosexual or bisexual orientations: research, problems, and proposals." (2000: English Version, published in French) by P.T. & R.R. --- Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeune presentatnt des problemes suicidaires: recherche, problematique et propositions. Vis-a-vie 10 (2), 5-8. Full Text.
Elevated Rates of Suicidal Behaviour in Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth. (2000, Review Paper published in Crisis: Full Text Draft, PubMed Abstract) by C.B & P.T.
The Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems (2000: Full Text of Paper Presented at Conferences in San Diego & Boulder: Full Text) by P.T. & R.R. Interim Updated paper (2002-2004). Related Information.
On the prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality, in a random community survey of 750 men aged 18 to 27. (1998: Draft Full Text, PubMed Abstract) by C.B & P.T.
"Gay and Bisexual Male Youth: Overrepresented in Suicide Problems and Associated Risk Factors." (1997: Full Text distributed at a Conference in Colorado) by P.T. & R.R.
Suicidal behaviors in homosexual and bisexual males. (1997: Book Version Full Text, PubMed Abstract) by C.B & P.T. (Addendum 2000)
"The Homosexuality Factor in The Youth Suicide Problem." (1995: Full Text, with Table of Contents) by P.T. with assistance from R.R. & C.B.
"The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem." - (1993-4: Related Information, Some Chapters, Excerpts) by P.T. (1996 Update)
Information: LGBT Psychology Doctoral Program
California School of Professional Psychology
Including the Most "at Risk" GLB Kids Generally Ignored by GLB Communities and their Leaders.
Some children are 'educated' so that, if they recognize homosexual desires in themselves, they will commit suicide.
= Suicide Problem?
A New Page
At risk for many problems, including survival prostitution and suicide.
Male Youth Prostitution Resources.
Street Youth & Suicidality.
Sexual Abuse of Boys,
Male Youth Gangs, and
Male Prisons: A History
Two Lesbian Youth Attempt
and Finally Commit Suicide
Only two students knew
that the boy was gay
and they kept the secret.
Bruce's Mother, Roz,
expresses her Feelings
A Photo History
The National Strategy for Preventing Suicide (2001) includes gay and lesbian individuals but...?
& The Binary
by Maxim Pogorely:
A Wealth of Information & Lesbian,
Gays and Suicide. Research Results Summaries by Jan Bridget - Publications - Research - Training - History
In Studies that have Solicited "Homosexuality" Information from
Male Adolescents / Youth.
(Expository Magazine, 1-3)
Kids Help Phone, Canada:
1-800-668-6868 - The
Youth Line is a phone line for youth in Ontario, Canada:
You are not alone! You can call the Lesbian Gay Bi Youth Line
at 1-800-268-YOUTH (1-800-268-9688) across
Ontario, or (416) 962-YOUTH (962-9688) in the
416/905 local calling area. The
Youth Line Website: http://www.youthline.ca/.
Gay Boys Support (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/):
Listing of International Resources (http://www.gayboysupport.nl/en/helplines.htm).
Transgender Help Lines
(NorthEast Indiana Transgender
Support Groups): http://www.neitsg.com/helplines.html.
These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.
Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - at which a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section is located.
Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist & Glenn Lynas, and Glenn also supplied other forms of assistance.
GLBTQ Education Index Page (Out of Frames)