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Are There European Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Suicide Problems?

England - Ireland - Scotland - Switzerland
France - Belgium - Yugoslavia - Slovenia - Denmark
Romania - - Norway- Sweden- Germany- Italy - Hungary
Austria - - Information Request

See "Attempted Suicide" Results For Homosexually Oriented and Transgender  Males & Females: More Than 140 Studies!

See Below: "Attempted Suicide" Results For European Homosexually Oriented Males & Females and Trangender Europeans.

Lack of Lesbian, Gay, Transgender Rights in Europe Still Dramatic (2009).

Resolution 1608 (2008): Child and teenage suicide in Europe: a serious public health issue.
10. The Assembly is obviously concerned that suicide rates among young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are significantly higher than among young people as a whole.
It notes that this heightened risk is not a function of their sexual orientation or gender identity, but of the stigmatisation, marginalisation and discrimination
which they experience as a result. As such, this heightened risk has a significant human rights dimension.

Note: - The First GLB Suicide Web Page for an Individual European Country Became Available in August, 2000 - Norway's Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Suicide Problems.

Alert!  Three papers demonstrate that European mainstream suicidologists have been dedicated to ignoring youth and adult homosexuality related issues in suicide research and suicide intervention and prevention:

Wasserman D, Rihmer Z, Rujescu D, Sarchiapone M, Sokolowski M, Titelman D, Zalsman G, Zemishlany Z, Carli V; European Psychiatric Association (2012). The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention. European Psychiatry, 27(2): 129-141. Abstract. Full Text. Homosexuality related issues - sexual orientation - is almost non-existent, except for: "Unsolved relationship problems, family violence, particularly childhood physical and sexual abuse, insecure sexual orientation, especially in adolescence and young adults, increase the risk of attempted suicide and suicide in those with vulnerable personalities." References are not given for sexual orientation issues.

Wasserman C, Hoven C, Wasserman D, Carli V, Al-Halabi S, Apter A, Bobes J, Balazs J, Cosman D, Farkas L, Feldman D, Fischer G, Graber N, Haring C, Herta D, Iosue M, Kahn JP, Keeley H, Klug K, McCarthy J, Varnik A, Varnik P, Tubiana A, Ziberna J, Sarchiapone M, Postuvan V (2012). Suicide prevention for youth - a mental health awareness program: lessons learned from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) intervention study. BMC Public Health, 12(1): 776. Abstract. Full Text. Homosexuality related issues - sexual orientation - completely ignored, except for: "Additionally, a wish to address other topics was expressed by the coordinators, such as: sexual behavior (Slovenia), sexual orientation (France), influence of emotions and thoughts on behavior (Romania), practice with behavioral techniques about how to talk to peers in distress (Hungary).|

Wasserman D, Carli V, Wasserman C, Apter A, Balazs J, Bobes J, Bracale R, Brunner R, Bursztein-Lipsicas C, Corcoran P, Cosman D, Durkee T, Feldman D, Gadoros J, Guillemin F, Haring C, Kahn JP, Kaess M, Keeley H, Marusic D, Nemes B, Postuvan V, Reiter-Theil S, Resch F, Sáiz P, Sarchiapone M, Sisask M, Varnik A, Hoven CW (2010). Saving and empowering young lives in Europe (SEYLE): a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 10: 192. Abstract. Full Text. Full Text. Homosexuality related issues - sexual orientation - completely ignored.
Related Website: "Welcome to SEYLE. Promoting health through the prevention of risk-taking and self-destructive behaviours. SEYLE is a health promoting program for adolescents implemented in European schools. Its main objectives are to lead adolescents to better health through decreased risk-taking and suicidal behaviours, to evaluate outcomes of different preventive programs and to recommend effective culturally adjusted models for promoting health of adolescents in different European countries. The SEYLE website disseminates the knowledge gathered in the study and also promotes (mental) health among youth. The SEYLE project is supported through Theme Health of the European Community's FP7, Grant agreement number HEALTH-F2-2009-223091." Two papers are published in German.
Let's Not Get It Twisted: Bullying is the Result, Not the Problem (2011)
By Dionne Bates, Annals of the American Psychotherapy, 14(1), 82-83.


"Given the statistics and loss of so many youth last fall, I would like to suggest that bullying and suicide is not the problem. The problem lies in the issue of intolerance and non-affirming attitudes of difference. Moreover, the magnitude of this problem demonstrates that attitudes pertaining to sexual orientation are more problematic than many want to admit and, in the silence, such attitudes have run amok. Bullying and suicide, therefore, have become the results of a larger problem."

Fear, isolation and discrimination common in Europe’s LGBT community (2013, Press Release):  26% of LGBT people who answered the survey had been attacked or threatened with violence in the last five years. 66% of respondents across all EU Member States were scared of holding hands in public with a same-sex partner. For gay and bisexual men respondents it was about 75%. - EU LGBT survey: European Union lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender survey: Results at a glance (2013).

Takacs J (2006). Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe. ILGA-Europe. PDF Download. PDF Download. "Our survey shows that it is the school environment where LGBT youth experience most prejudice and/or discrimination; indeed, 61% of respondents referred to negative personal experiences at school related to their LGBT status. In relation to the school context, we asked two additional, more specific questions: 1) about the curriculum, we asked whether respondents ever found anything in the school curriculum that expressed prejudice or discriminative elements targeting LGBT people, and 2) we asked whether they had experienced bullying or other forms of (verbal and/or physical) violence in school. 53% of the respondents reported bullying, while 43% found prejudice or discriminative elements in the school curriculum (See TABLE II.). 

Homosexuelle Schüler leiden in der Schule [Homosexual Students Suffer In Schools] (2007, Translation).

Hohes Suizidrisiko bei jungen Homosexuellen (2009, Translation): Junge Homosexuelle weisen ein höheres Suizidrisiko auf als gleichaltrige Heterosexuelle, da sie oft unter Schikanen und fehlender Unterstützung zu leiden haben. Dies zeigt eine Schweizer Studie. Eine Tagung in Zürich befasst sich mit diesem Thema.

General and Austria specific information in Martin Plöderl's 2010 conference presentation: "Suicide Risk in LGB Individuals." PPT Download.

Austria specific information in Martin Plöderl's 2008 conference presentation: "The Contribution of Schools to the Feeling of Acceptance and the Risk of Suicide Attempts among Austrian Gay and Bisexual Males." PDF Download.

Du bist wichtig in meinem Leben“ (2012, Translation): "Der 10. September ist Welt-Suizid-Präventionstag. Allein in Deutschland nehmen sich jedes Jahr rund 10.000 Menschen das Leben. Schwule sind besonders gefährdet. Über Gründe und Gegenmaßnahmen hat Kriss Rudolph mit Ulrich Biechele gesprochen, Mitglied im Vorstand des Verbands Lesbischer Psychologinnen und schwuler Psychologen (VLSP) und Geschäftsführer der Psychologischen Lesben- und Schwulenberatung Rhein-Neckar (plus-mannheim.de): Herr Biechele, im Jahr 2000 sorgte eine Berliner Studie unter schwulen Jugendlichen für Aufsehen: 18 % hatten mindestens einen Suizidversuch hinter sich, über die Hälfte hatte schon mal an Suizid gedacht. Hat sich seitdem etwas gebessert? Leider nicht. Laut einer Studie des österreichischen Psychologen Martin Plöderl aus dem Jahr 2009 sind Suizidalität und Depression bei Schwulen und Bisexuellen 1,9 bis 8,2 Mal so häufig wie bei heterosexuellen Männern, und nach wie vor sind junge Schwule stärker gefährdet als gleichaltrige Heterosexuelle...  Und was kann man in Sachen Prävention tun, etwa in den Schulen? Bei der Suizidprävention wird immer noch zu wenig auf die sexuelle Orientierung geachtet. Dabei besteht nach wie vor für Heranwachsende aufgrund ihres Coming-outs eine große seelische Belastung – von einer Normalisierung sind wir weit entfernt."

Suicides de jeunes gays: une lecture trop simpliste? (2012, Translation): Clayton Cook, un professeur de psychologie de l'éducation à l'Université de Washington, plaide pour une approche plus large de ces cas. Il estime que seule la prévention des problèmes de santé mentale est susceptible de réduire les conséquences du harcèlement en milieu scolaire. «Si l'on consulte la littérature scientifique, explique-t-il, on s'aperçoit que les programmes de prévention du bullying se sont avérés peu efficaces. Ils combattent le symptôme et non la cause.» Pour le chercheur, les enseignants devraient d'abord éduquer les enfants à se préoccuper du bien-être de leurs camarades et à gérer leurs émotions.

Council of Europe: Resolution 1608 (2008): Child and teenage suicide in Europe: a serious public health issue. Full Text.

9. It reaffirms the importance it attaches to respecting political, economic, social, cultural, sexual and physical differences. It therefore strongly condemns all forms of religious, ethnic and sexual discrimination and reasserts its commitment to combating racism, homophobia and the stigma attached to all sexual behaviours, including transexualism.

10. The Assembly is obviously concerned that suicide rates among young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are significantly higher than among young people as a whole. It notes that this heightened risk is not a function of their sexual orientation or gender identity, but of the stigmatisation, marginalisation and discrimination which they experience as a result. As such, this heightened risk has a significant human rights dimension.

Combating Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity: Council of Europe standards. [French edition: Combattre la discrimination fondée sur l’orientation sexuelle ou l’identité de genre] - 2011 - PDF Download.

VI. Education

31. The right to education is expressed in Article 2 of the Protocol to the Convention. The health and development of young people are heavily influenced by the environment in which they live, and school has a crucial place in that, especially in view of the fact that discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity among young people is a factor contributing to isolation, underachievement and malaise and may even lead to suicide attempts. .. States should therefore safeguard the right of children and youth to education in a safe environment, free from violence, bullying, social exclusion or other forms of discriminatory and degrading treatment related to sexual orientation or gender identity. They should also take the appropriate measures to ensure that head teachers and teaching staff are able to detect, analyse and effectively respond to and combat any form of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity at school, and that discipline is enforced in educational institutions in a manner compatible with human dignity, without any such discrimination. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender pupils or students who suffer exclusion or violence should not be set apart or isolated for reasons of protection: their best interests should be determined and respected on a participatory basis and measures to remedy such situations should rather primarily be directed against the perpetrators.

Resolution 1728 (2010) of the Parliamentary Assembly – Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity (Adopted by the Assembly on 29 April 2010):

8. Homophobia and transphobia have particularly serious consequences for young LGBT people. They face widespread bullying, sometimes unhelpful or hostile teachers and curricula which either ignore LGBT issues or perpetuate homophobic or transphobic attitudes. A combination of discriminatory attitudes in society and rejection by the family can be very damaging for the mental health of young LGBT people, as evidenced by suicide rates which are much higher than those in the wider youth population.



A Brief History of the Homosexual Male Suicide Problem in Europe

Relevant information about Germany and England is located in the first paragraph of The History of the Suicide Problem in Gay Communities (Alternate Link), a section of the 1995 paper The Homosexuality Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem (Alternate Link). This is a shortened version of the information presented in A General History of the Gay and Lesbian Suicide Problem, a chapter in  The Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Factor in the Youth Suicide Problem. Although variations in responses to homosexuality have existed in Europe, the historical response has generally been negative and deemed to be criminal until the 1960s when Canada also decriminalized homosexual behavior between adults. The American decriminalization of homosexual behavior between adults began in 1962 but about 20 states have not yet changed their laws in this respect.

Internet Resources: -  Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association - Europe. -  - LGBT rights in Europe. - Global Gays: Articles Indexed by European Countries 



A Search for European GLB Suicide Problem Information.

A 1999 search of the most extensive medical index in the world - Medline - via PubMed produced few results for research papers indexed with the term "homosexuality" (which is added to the listing if the paper addresses this subject) and using the word "suicide" along with the name of a European country in the SEARCH function. To date, it appears like the concept of "homosexuality" as a factor in youth suicide problems has been ignored in European mainstream suicidology, much like the situation has existed in Australia, North America, and in other countries. Even with "indicator" information available in England (noted below), British suicidologists have also continued to ignore the issue. Since then, some changes have occurred, with an increasing number of studies reporting that sexual minority individuals have been st risk for suicidality.

At the web page Child and adolescent suicide and parasuicide in Europe, information is given on 1995 - 1997 major British project funded by the European Commission, the Department of Health, and several UK trusts and foundations. Homosexuality issues are not mentioned, and they may not have been addressed. It was nonetheless noted that, in Britain "in the decade to 1990, suicide among males between 14 and 24 years rose by almost 80 per cent." 

A similar silence about homosexuality issues may also occur in the 1998 Child and Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe initiative funded by The European Commission Daphne Initiative. By November 8, 1998, I completed the form at http://www.ncb.org.uk/shquest.htm to advise them of the information available on these web pages. I have also requested all information collected or produced on The Homosexuality Factor in European Youth Suicide Problems. References noted below indicate that gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues are not being addressed by mainstream organizations nor mainstream researchers addressing self-harm and suicide issues in the child and youth population. NOTE: This was written in 2000 and, since then, a number of studies have indicated that GLBT people are at risk for suicidality and suicide. With respect to the latter, for example:

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does NOT mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(2):111-7. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Results: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married." PDF Download.

For European GLBT Suicidality Research Results (Non-Random & Random Studies), see tabulation at the end of this web page.

2007 Conference Presentations of Sexual Minority Suicidality Related Studies in Some European Countries (Word Download N/A).


Adolescence, Homosexualité et Violence - Projet Daphné
Bruxelles 10 et 11 novembre 1998. - The Daphne Intiative Questionnaire. NOTE: Most of the European homosexuality related information from this project seems to have disappeared from the Internet. 

European homosexuality Related Information by countries (In French) (To 2000).

Takács, Judit (2006). Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe. PDF Download. PDF Download. 

Warner, Nigel (2007). Suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: Report by ILGA-Europe to the Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Word Download. Download Page.

Warner, Nigel (2007). Il suicidio tra i giovani gay, lesbiche, bisessuali e transgender. Relazione di ILGA-Europe per la Commissione degli Affari Sociali, Sanità e Famiglia dell’ Assemblea Parlamentare del Consiglio d’Europa. PDF Download. Download Page.



A New Web Page For GLB Suicide Problems in England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Contents:

A 1989 British GLB Youth Suicide Problem Summary of Studies.

Some Recent Commentaries / Reports: GLB Individuals at High Risk for Suicide Problems. - Suicide Problems as Result of Anti-Gay Bullying. - In Prisons. - Homophobia and Mental Health. - Suicide Problems Ongoing?

Suicide Problems Experienced by GLB Adolescent and Other Adolescents Abused in Schools and Elsewhere Because They are Known or Believed to be Homosexual. A Collection of Related Information.

What is the "ABUSE" situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people in in smaller cities and towns in the UK? Excerpts from an Investigative Report by ABC on the Autralian Situation. Would the situation not be quite similar in the UK? Why have such investigative reports not been done in UK?

GLB Suicide Problems Likely In Ireland.

GLB Suicide Problems In Scotland?


Switzerland / La Suisse / Schweiz

Hohes Suizidrisiko bei jungen Homosexuellen (2009, Translation): Junge Homosexuelle weisen ein höheres Suizidrisiko auf als gleichaltrige Heterosexuelle, da sie oft unter Schikanen und fehlender Unterstützung zu leiden haben. Dies zeigt eine Schweizer Studie. Eine Tagung in Zürich befasst sich mit diesem Thema. - Les adolescents homosexuels et le risque de suicide (2009, Translation). - Etre gay peut peser trop lourd (2010, Translation): Découvrir son homosexualité à un âge où l’on met son identité en question est parfois trop difficile.Au point de conduire au suicide. Pour éviter cette solution définitive, une clé: la parole.

A 12 ans, j’avais l’impression d’être un monstre (2012
, Translation): Ces dernières années, le regard de la société suisse face à l’homosexualité est devenu beaucoup plus tolérant. Mais malgré cela, découvrir et accepter son homosexualité reste un chemin parsemé d’embûches pour la majeure partie des jeunes. L’un d’entre eux témoigne... «J’ai un caractère fort et je n’en ai pas tant souffert. Mais tout le monde n’est pas comme moi. Le problème, ce ne sont pas tant les agressions physiques ou verbales, mais le fait d’intérioriser cette homophobie. A force de s’entendre répéter «sale pédé», on commence véritablement à croire en être un. Ce n’est pas un hasard si un suicide sur quatre chez les jeunes est lié à l’homosexualité.» ... «Aujourd’hui en Suisse, on affirme souvent que l’homophobie n’est pas un problème, que l’homosexualité est facile à vivre. Mais c’est en vérité l’inverse qui prévaut. Essayez simplement une fois de tenir la main d’un ami lorsque vous marchez dans la rue. Vous sentirez alors les regards sur vous…»

Mon enfant est homo (2010, Video, Translation): Temps Présent a rencontré trois familles romandes dont un des enfants a fait son coming out. Ces parents d'homosexuels/-lles sont consternés par les difficultés que rencontrent leur adolescent, de la réalisation à l'acceptation de soi, dans une société encore parfois très homophobe... Ils essaient aussi de soutenir leur enfant du mieux qu'ils le peuvent. En Suisse, un jeune homo sur quatre ferait une tentative de suicide.

Des cours pour « guérir » l’homosexualité (2012
, Translation): « Ces « thérapies » peuvent, dans certains cas, pousser jusqu’au suicide. Elles n’ont surtout rien de médical ou de scientifique. On profite de la vulnérabilité des participants. » Des dérapages importants – jusqu’à des viols – ont été dénoncés aux Etats-Unis. Rien de tel en France ou en Suisse. Après plusieurs tentatives, Le Temps a fini par obtenir des réponses de la coordinatrice de Torrents de vie Suisse, dont les premiers cours remontent à 1997.

Blues-out
, Translation: Le Suicide et les Gays, Translation: Ce n'est pas l'homosexualité qui conduit au suicide mais le sentiment d'inadéquation, source d'anxiété et de dépression, l'isolement social et les difficultés réelles ou imaginaires à s'accepter et à être accepté, en particulier à l'adolescence. Entre le moment où un jeune gay se rend compte qu'il est attiré par une personne du même sexe (en moyenne à 12 ans) et le moment où il peut en parler à au moins une personne de son entourage, il s'écoule en moyenne 10 ans. Ce sont ces années de solitude, vécues avec une forte anxiété et dans un secret absolu qui sont les plus fragiles et les plus à risque de dépression et de suicide pour les jeunes homosexuels... 75% des hommes gais qui ont fait une tentative de suicide à Genève l'ont fait pour la première fois avant l'âge de 25 ans. Toutefois, le suicide est un thème important pour les homosexuels de tout âge et prend de l'importance de nouveau à partir de l'âge de 50 ans, comme chez tous les hommes. L'isolement social, la solitude non choisie, le fait d'avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide, la dépression et la consommation abusive d'alcool ou de drogue sont des facteurs de risque pour le suicide.

Témoignage: Mon homosexualité et mon enfance, deux choses liées (2011
, Translation): J'ai 17 ans, je vis en Suisse et je suis gay. Je n'ai plus honte de le cacher maintenant, sauf à mes parents à cause de la religion... Puis, au début de cette année 2010, je l'ai confié à une fille de ma classe qui se demandait pourquoi je n'allais pas bien (j'étais en dépression). Cette fille était musulmane, comme moi et donc ma famille, j'avais un peu peur de le lui confier mais je l'ai quand même fait. Cette fois-ci, ce fut une bonne idée, elle l'a très bien pris et m'a réellement aidé. J'avais trouvé quelqu'un avec qui en parler et ça m'avait vraiment aidé. Cependant, la peur de l'annoncer à mes parents a été trop grande et en avril, j'ai fait une tentative de suicide. Lors de ma tentative, ma seule envie était vraiment d'en finir, ce n'était pas un appel au secours pour moi. Je n'en pouvais plus de ne pouvoir me confier à personne et surtout de me sentir si isolé, si perdu. J'en avais certes parlé à cette amie mais cela n'allait jamais très loin, c'était surtout du soutien qu'elle m'apportait mais pas réellement de réponses à mes questions. Je suis donc arrivé à l'hôpital et je vous avoue que j'avais vraiment très très peur, non pas de mourir mais tout simplement des questions qu'on allait me poser et je me disais que mes parents allaient être au courant pour moi et tout serait pire qu'avant. Mais ce ne fut pas le cas, les médecins ne m'ont posé que le strict minimum et ne m'obligeaient pas à répondre à toutes leurs questions si celles-ci me gênaient. Ils ont été vraiment gentils avec moi. Puis, le lendemain, un psychologue accompagné d'une infirmière (ils travaillent en binôme) sont venus discuter avec moi. J'étais vraiment mal à l'aise au début, mais petit à petit j'ai repris confiance et j'ai pu leur dire ce qui n'allait pas. Leur parler de mon homosexualité a vraiment été un pas immense pour moi, ils m'ont redonné confiance et cela m'a permis d'en parler le lendemain à mes deux meilleurs amis et à ma sœur.

Wang J, Häusermann M, Wydler H, Mohler-Kuo M, Weiss MG (2012). Suicidality and sexual orientation among men in Switzerland: Findings from 3 probability surveys. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(8): 980-6. Abstract. Full Text. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, significantly more homo/bisexual men reported 12-month suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts (OR = 2.09-2.26) and lifetime suicidal ideation (OR = 2.15) and suicide attempts (OR = 4.68-5.36).

Wang J, Häusermann M, Ajdacic-Gross V, Aggleton P, Weiss MG (2007). High prevalence of mental disorders and comorbidity in the Geneva Gay Men's Health Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,  42(5): 414-20. Abstract. Full Text.

Cochand P and Bovet P (1998).
  HIV infection and suicide risk: an epidemiological inquiry among male homosexuals in Switzerland. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33(5), 230-4. PubMed Abstract.
From the abstract: "A high rate of suicide attempts was found among homosexuals, both HIV- and HIV+."  The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the sample of 144 gay and bisexual males is about 23%. Research Highlights. - Note: In 1998, an Australian study also reported elevated lifetime "suicide attempt" rates (21% - 29%) for a similar sample of gay and bisexual males. See "Australia" page.

Cochand P, Moret P, Singy P (2000). Incidence du développement de l’identité sexuelle sur les risques de contamination par le VIH chez les homosexuels et bisexuels de 25 ans et moins en Suisse romande. Lausanne, Suisse. Internet: http://www.lambda-education.ch/content/menus/doc/etude.html (Translation). - Le questionnaire ciblait explicitement des jeunes hommes de 16 à 25 ans... Durant ces 6 derniers mois, avez-vous eu des idées de suicide? non, jamais: 68.3%; oui, rarement: 16.3%; oui, parfois: 9.8%; oui, souvent: 5.7%... Avez-vous par le passé tenté de vous suicider? Oui: 24.4%; Non: 74.4%; ne répond pas: 1.6%. Echantillion: n = 102 jeune hommes homosexuels et bisexuels. - Un jeune gay sur quatre a tenté de se suicider (Translation): "Selon une étude suisse, les garçons âgés entre 13 et 17 ans qui aiment les garçons traversent une crise profonde. Le psychiatre lausannois Pierre Cochand propose d'aborder le sujet dans les écoles. Il note que plus on parle des comportements homosexuels, plus leur fréquence diminue..."

Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s. (Must Scroll. Translation) - Parler d'homosexualité à l'école? La question gay déchire leRoyaume-Uni. (Et la situation en Suisse?) (Translation) - En Suisse, des ateliers luttent contre l'homophobie: Si le sujet de l'homosexualité reste souvent tabou dans les classes, divers projets de formation des enseignants sont en cours (2000, Translation). -   Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel (Translation).

Bonvin-Mullor, Nuria (2002). Devenir des homosexuels ayant commis un tentamen. Thèse,  Faculté de Médecine, l'Université de Lausanne. Reference. Résumé (PDF. Translation): Notre collectif compte 37 hommes homosexuels et bisexuels [2] ayant eu dans leur histoire un geste suicidaire et 126 hommes homosexuels et bisexuels [7] n'en ayant pas eu. Les données récoltées, grâce à un questionnaire anonyme et structuré, explorées puis comparées sont de nature socio-démographiques générales (situation professionnelle, habitudes relationnelles, addiction et alcool, état dépressif et risque suicidaire) et spécifiques (habitudes sexuelles, acceptation de l'homosexualité, séropositivité et Sida, risque suicidaire).

Lutter contre le suicide des jeunes homosexuels (2003, Translation). - Résultats de l'enquête Dialogai Homophobie (PDF Download, 2005, Translation). - Projet Santé Gaie- Les premiers résultats de l'enquete sur la santé des hommes gais de Genève (2003, PDF Download).

Switzerland gays and lesbians are second-class citizens. - En octobre 1998, le magazine 360° (New URL) publie une enquête sur l'homosexualité dans le milieu scolaire en Suisse Romande et aux Etats-Unis (Article Listing - Translation). - La loi du silence (Translation): Enquête dans les écoles de Suisse Romande. Témoignages de jeunes gays et lesbiennes, d'enseignants homos et de directeurs d'établissements secondaires. - "J'ai refusé de porter un masque" (Translation). Interview de Jean-Pierre Sigrist, premier enseignant ouvertement gay à Genève dans les années 1980, fondateur de l'OSEEH, co-fondateur du GLHOG et de Dialogai. - Education sexuelle. (Translation) Ce qu'on ose dire aux élèves. Un tour d'horizon auprès des animateurs en éducation sexuelle en Suisse Romande. NOTE: These article were at http://www.lambda-education.ch/ and then disappeared. They also are not present a the New URL.

Programme de LAMBDA Education (2005, Translation):  "Organisation suisse, Lambda Education dénonce la loi du silence et propose des outils et ressources pédagogiques, des formations susceptibles de faire évoluer les mentalités par la connaissance. "Que l’on soit élève ou prof, il ne fait pas bon être gay ou lesbienne à l’école. L’homosexualité reste le sujet tabou par excellence dans les établissements scolaires de Suisse Romande." - La double discrimination dont souffrent les lesbiennes en Suisse (2006, Translation).

Thorens-Gaud. Elisabeth (2009). Adolescents homosexuels: - Des préjugés à l'acceptation. Amazon. Un livre, un site pour aider les parents, les enseignant-e-s (Author Interview): Le témoignage de Mathieu, car son père l’a complètement rejeté et même menacé de le tuer. Son histoire m’a bouleversée. Je ne comprends pas comment un parent peut se comporter de la sorte. Ce jeune a pensé au suicide. Tragiquement, son cas n’est pas isolé. Pendant la période de promotion du livre cet automne, plusieurs filles et garçons m’ont rapporté des histoires similaires. Parlez-nous de l’association Mosaic-info. J’ai créé l’association Mosaic-info en janvier 2009 avec un groupe d’enseignant-e-s et de professionnelle-s de la santé afin d’aider à lutter contre les préjugés et de prévenir le suicide en : • informant les parents, les enseignant-e-s, les professionnelle-s de la santé et les jeunes sur des sujets de société sensibles liés à toute forme de discrimination, y compris l’homophobie ; • sensibilisant les parents, les enseignant-e-s, les professionnel-le-s de la santé et les jeunes au respect de la différence ; • préparant des outils d’information pour les parents, les enseignant-e-s, les professionnel-le-s de la santé et les adolescent-e-s...

Ris, Kevin (2011). The Big Silence in Bernese Public Schools. PDF Download. Download Page. A qualitative study conducted by Gfeller (2006) in the canton of Bern indicates that Switzerland is not an exception. Some adolescents accepted their homosexuality but report not coming out in Bernese public schools because they feared discrimination (Gfeller 2006: p21). Others did not come out because despite knowing that they were “different,” they could not yet imagine they were homosexual... As we have seen, by silencing sexual diversity in Bernese public schools, the right on sexual education for queer students is not guaranteed. Thus, they are places which reproduce heteronormative society from which adolescents identifying themselves as queer. It is not only a concern for “homosexual students” but it has also a lot to do with how bi-, homo-, and heterosexual think of their own sexual orientation. From this point of view, the right of every student (may she or he be bi-, homo-, or heterosexual) is violated.

Mariethoz, Alain (2011). Lutter contre l’homophobie à l’égard des jeunes : de la théorie à la pratique. Le cas de l'association PREOS en Suisse romande. Mémoire – Orientation professionnalisante Présenté à l’Unit d’Enseignement et de Recherche en Droits de l’enfant de l’Institut Universitaire Kurt Bösch pour l’obtention du grade de Master of Arts Interdisciplinaire en droits de l’enfant. PDF Download. Résumé: Malgré une évolution des représentations de l’homosexualité au cours de ces dernières années, les jeunes gays et lesbiennes sont encore fortement discriminés au sein de notre société. En effet, différentes enquêtes romandes mettent en lumière un pourcentage élevé de propos verbaux et/ou agressions physiques dont les gays et les lesbiennes sont victimes. Plusieurs études montrent également que le taux de suicide chez ces jeunes est fortement supérieur par rapport à celui que l’on estime dans la jeunesse hétérosexuelle...

Sept siècles d'histoire de l'homosexualité en Suisse (Translation). - Premier partenariat d'un couple homosexuel en Suisse. - Suicide risk higher among young gay people.

Perception du système de soins par les jeunes hommes homosexuels (Article de P. Cochand G. Dennler O. Weber): "Les difficultés des jeunes homosexuels à accepter leur orientation sexuelle, les problèmes psychologiques qu’ils présentent et l’absence fréquente de soutien du milieu familial dans le moment de crise que peut être la prise de conscience de sa différence identitaire conduisent un certain nombre d’entre eux à chercher dialogue et compréhension auprès du corps médical. L’attitude des soignants face au questionnement identitaire de ces adolescents et plus généralement face à l’homosexualité est dès lors décisive pour l’épanouissement de ces jeunes patients. Trois vignettes cliniques illustrent les difficultés tant des jeunes homosexuels que des soignants à aborder sereinement cette problématique..."

Fachtagung Sexuelle Orientierung & Schule 2010 (Conference, Translation): Rückblick & Downloads (Translation)

ABQ (Translation): ABQ geht im Kanton Bern auf Schulbesuch und ermöglicht den Schülerinnen und Schülern eine direkte Begegnung mit schwulen und lesbischen Menschen. Lesben, Schwule und Bisexuelle erzählen ihre Coming Out Geschichten und diskutieren mit den Jugendlichen übers Anderssein. In den andern Kantonen der Schweiz gibt es das Schulprojekt GLL , ein ähnliches Angebot wie ABQ. - Wissenschaft (Translation, Many related documents & Papers can be downloaded, one in English).

Pink Cross: About: The umbrella association of gay organizations in Switzerland. It has 47 local associations, 34 shops and 2200 individual members. Overall, Pink Cross represents approximately 8,000 homosexuals from the four linguistic regions of the country. - GLL - das andere Schulprojekt (Translation): Bei unseren Schulbesuchen sind Dreierteams im Einsatz: eine lesbische/bisexuelle Frau, ein schwuler/bisexueller Mann und ein Vater oder eine Mutter eines homo-/bisexuellen Kindes. Sie erzählen aus ihrem Leben, vermitteln Informationen, diskutieren übers Anderssein und stellen sich den Fragen der Klasse. Zentral ist, dass sich die Jugendlichen in der direkten Begegnung mit uns selber ein Bild machen können und Antworten auf ihre Fragen erhalten.

Leu, Christian (2008). Orientation sexuelle et comportements suicidaires: Une enquête sur les résultats de la recherche internationale et nationale sur les facteurs de risque et de protection pour les adolescents homosexuels et bisexuels. Berne, La Suisse / Switzerland: Le collectif Formation de PINK CROSS, LOS et fels. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.

Leu, Christian (2008). Sexuelle Orientierung und Suizidalität: Eine Untersuchung der internationalen und nationalen Forschungs-ergebnisse der Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren für adoleszente Homo- und Bisexuelle. Bern, Switzerland: PINK CROSS, LOS und fels. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.

Resources: - Lamda Education. - gayromandie.ch - dialogai.org - swissgay.ch - lesbian.ch - vogay.ch - le magazine 360° - SOS Schweiz. - Mosaic-info: Plateforme d’information pour les jeunes, les intervenant-e-s en milieu scolaire et les parents. Fournit des outils pour lutter contre les préjugés liés à l’orientation sexuelle et l'identité de genre.

Stop Suicide (Pour la prévention du suicide des jeunes dans la région romande): Documents, minorités sexuelles. Documents, sexual minorities. - LGBT rights in Switzerland.

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


France / La France

Un tiers des jeunes homosexuels a déjà tenté de se suicider (2009, Translation). - Le suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels (2006, Translation). - Le suicide chez les jeunes gays: Le rejet social comme origine du suicide (2009, Translation). - Mon Choix N/A: Le suicide chez les jeune: Le nombre de suicide est trés important chez les homosexuels, principalement chez les jeunes gays (Translation). - Tentatives de suicide en hausse chez les homosexuels, quelques clefs pour comprendre la situation (2007, Translation). - Suicide : Ne vois t-on vraiment pas le moment venir ? (2007, Translation) - Un jeune arlésien gay se suicide en prison (2008, Translation). - Maltraité en prison, un détenu homosexuel se suicide (2008, Translation). - Un quart des suicides de jeunes garçons liés à l'homosexualité (2008, Translation). - Journée mondiale de prévention du suicide : l'homosexualité en cause chez 1/4 des garçons de 15 à 24 ans (2008, Translation). - La haine envers les homosexuels reste bien vivace en France (2007, Translation). - «L'homosexualité n'est pas un facteur de risque de suicide. L'homophobie, oui» (2012, Translation).

Suicide chez les adolescents qui découvrent leur homosexualité... (2006, Translation): Ces actes et tentatives de suicides chez les ados, naissent d'un sentiment profond de désarroi, de solitude, ceux-ci sont  liés le plus souvent à  l'incompréhension et au rejet de l'entourage. Tout cela par rapport à des stéréotypes dits « classiques ». Membre de la Commission « Education-Santé-Jeunesse », je me suis rendue compte, avec la charge d'une partie des recherches documentaires, des inhibitions et ignorances, encore nombreuses, de mon voisinage professionnel en ce domaine, malgré des avancées non négligeables... n jeune homme qui semblait souffrir atrocement, se confie à elle : « Je suis homosexuel, je crains  la réaction de mon entourage »... Julie m'avoue alors que sa mère, déroutée, n'a pas su comment lui répondre, totalement démunie de formation psychologique et le jeune garçon demeura dans sa détresse... Quelques jours après, la directrice apprit avec effroi, le suicide de l'ado et elle fut immédiatement prise de remords, de culpabilité et de tristesse, pour n'avoir pas  décelé les indices et signes avant-coureurs de sa dépression et l'aider sérieusement... - Suicide des homosexuel-le-s et violence des jeunes : une ambitieuse politique deprévention de l'homophobie s'impose (2007, Translation).

Le sida fait des ravages chez les jeunes (2007, Translation): L’homophobie est toujours aussi présente : en France, le taux de suicide des jeunes LGBT (lesbiennes, gays, bi et trans) est six à douze fois plus élevé que celui des jeunes hétéros. On pourrait multiplier les constats et les chiffres alarmants. Est-ce nécessaire ? La jeunesse ne serait-elle plus l’avenir de la France, mais celui de l’épidémie ? Désormais, c’est à notre génération, séroneg ou séropo, inconsciente, blasée, rejetée et silencieuse, qu’il faut désormais s’adresser. - Santé mentale, suicide et homosexualité (2007, Translation). - VIH, Sida, homosexualité et suicide (2009, Translation). - Suicide chez les jeunes gays (2009, Translation). - Suicide des jeunes homosexuels (2009, Translation). - Le suicide et l'homosexualité vus par France Inter (2008, Translation). - « Mon fils a fait des tentatives de suicide pendant 10 ans » (2011, Translation): Il y a 13 fois plus de suicides chez les ados homosexuels que chez les hétéros », précise Nadine Favoriti, présidente de l’association Rainbow à Chalon-sur-Saône.- Le Refuge (Translation): Tu as entre 16 et 25 ans et tu te sens isolé(e)? Ta famille et tes proches ne sont pas vraiment là pour t'aider? tu te poses des questions sur ton orientation sexuelle? Contacte-nous...

Santé des jeunes et suicide des jeunes homosexuels : on avance, mais encore un effort, madame la Ministre (2008, Translation): Citant le baromètre santé 2005 de l'INPES, le ministère avance que « La prévalence des pensées suicidaires dans l'année est de 12,9% chez les homo et bisexuels versus 6,4% chez les hétérosexuels. La prévalence des tentatives de suicide au moins une fois dans la vie est de 7,5% chez les homo et bisexuels versus 2,5% chez les hétérosexuels masculins. » Le ministère cite aussi le rapport issu des travaux préparatoires à l’élaboration du plan Violence et Santé : « 25 % des garçons accueillis pour suicide évoquent leur homosexualité pour la première fois après la tentative. De plus la synthèse de plusieurs études récentes permet de constater que si, chez les 12-25 ans, les sujets homo, bi ou transsexuels représentent 6 % de la population générale masculine, ils constituent 50 % de l’ensemble des garçons décédés par suicide pour la même tranche d’âge ». Glaçant.

Quand santé LGBT rime avec bien-être à Orléans et dans le Loiret (2007, Translation): La réflexion sur ces actions passées montre qu’elles ont un objectif commun : lutter contre le mal-être de certaines personnes, ce mal-être étant directement lié à la difficulté à vivre leur homosexualité. En effet, solitude, isolement, précarité affective, du fait des orientations sexuelles, du statut sérologique ou de l’âge, engendrent – de récentes études l’ont prouvé – les addictions, les prises de risques, souvent le suicide … Des situations très (trop) souvent rencontrées sur le terrain, où le GAGL mène ses actions tout au long de l’année, depuis huit ans. Le GAGL a donc décidé de regrouper toutes ses forces dans une démarche visant à œuvrer pour un thème plus général de « santé gaie »...

Programme national d’actions contre le suicide (2011-2014) (Translation) (PDF) (Translation): Action 9 : Diffuser et promouvoir un outil pédagogique visant à prévenir les attitudes et comportements homophobes et leurs conséquences sur les jeunes de 11 à 20 ans... 1. Contexte: La lutte contre la souffrance psychique et la prévention du suicide chez les jeunes sont des actions prioritaires du plan santé des jeunes 2008. La stigmatisation culturelle des jeunes homosexuels peut constituer un facteur supplémentaire de souffrance. Un ouvrage sur cette question a été édité par l’INPES en 2010. Il propose à la fois une synthèse de la littérature scientifique et des pistes d’actions. C’est dans ce cadre qu’en octobre 2008, l’INPES et le ministère chargé de la santé ont lancé un concours de scénarios sur le thème de la prise de conscience de son homosexualité ou de sa bisexualité. Ce concours visait à faire évoluer les représentations sociales sur l’homosexualité, à favoriser le dialogue mais aussi à susciter une réflexion sur les conséquences graves de l’homophobie. A l’issue du concours 5 courts métrages ont été réalisés. Afin de prolonger cette action, un DVD des courts métrages sera édité et accompagné d’un livret, support de séances d’animation sur le thème de l’homosexualité et l’homophobie. Cet outil s’adresse aux professionnels de la prévention, de l’éducation et de l’animation... 2. Contenu de l’action: Diffusion du DVD en 2010 aux associations et aux mouvements de l’éducation populaire, ainsi qu’aux médecins et conseillers techniques académiques départementaux et aux inspecteursd’académie et directeurs des services départementaux. En 2011 et 2012, l’outil sera promu selon les dispositifs habituels de l’INPES (santé de l’homme, site internet, lettre Equilibre, communication lors de colloques…). Une consultation des partenaires sera réalisée pour étudier les besoins en formation.

Velter A (2007). Enquête Presse Gay 2004. Agence nationale de recherche sur le cida (anRs). Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS). PDF DownloadDownload Page. Translation: Note that the entire document is too large for Google to translate. However, the given sections will likely translate. - Le « mal’être » des homosexuels (2007, Translation).

Velter A, Bouyssou-Michel A (2007). Tentatives de suicide parmi les homosexuels en France : résultats de l’enquête Presse Gay 2004. Session plénière "Groupes vulnérables." Journées de veille sanitaire – Institut de veille sanitaire, Cité des sciences et de l’industrie, Centre des congrès de la Villette, Paris. Part 1. Translation. Part 2. Translation.  Download Page. Translation.

Shelly M, Moreau D, Tubert-Bitter P (2005). Soufrance Psychique et Conduites à Risque. PPT Presentation. PDF Download. Translation. PDF Download. Translation.

Shelly M, Moreau D, Yang L, Gendre C, Mailloux M, Segouin C, Bertrand D (2002). Evaluation de l’effet éventuel de la sursuicidalité sur les comportements sexuels à risque chez les jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux. Conséquences sur la pratique du dépistage du VIH. Presented at: Prévention du suicide et pratiques de réseaux-congrès international-Liège, Novembre, 2002. Internet: PDF Download. Translation. Alternate Link. Translation.

Ministère de la Santé, de la Jeunesse, des Sports et de la Vie Associative (2008)«Jeune et homo sous le regard des autres» : Un concours de scénarios pour lutter contre l’homophobie et ses conséquences: Dossier de presse. France: Ministère de la Santé, de la Jeunesse, des Sports et de la Vie Associative. PDF Download.

Les résultats des enquêtes françaises : Deux enquêtes portant sur des échantillons représentatifs fournissent aujourd’hui une estimation de la prévalence des tentatives de suicide dans la population « Lesbienne, Gay et Bisexuelle » (LGB) en France. L’enquête nationale sur la violence envers les femmes2 portant sur 6970 femmes âgées de 20 à 59 ans fait ressortir que la prévalence d’une tentative de suicide au cours de la vie est de : - 25% chez les femmes qui ont eu des rapports homosexuels,  13,9% chez les femmes qui se déclarent attirées par les femmes sans avoir eu de rapport homosexuel,  6,4% parmi les femmes exclusivement hétérosexuelles. Si l’on considère des caractéristiques sociodémographiques comparables (sexe, âge, niveau d’étude, statut matrimonial, taille d’agglomération), un nombre deviolences physiques ou sexuelles subies au cours de la vie et une consommation de drogue équivalents, les femmes ayant eu des rapports homosexuels, aussi bien que les femmes hétérosexuelles attirées par les femmes, ont respectivement 2,5 et 1,7 fois plus de risques de faire une tentative de suicide que les femmes exclusivement hétérosexuelles. L’enquête Baromètre santé 2005 de l’INPES portant sur 16 883 personnes âgées de 15 à 75 ans indique une prévalence des tentatives de suicide chez les homo/bisexuels de l’ordre de :  10 % chez les hommes (contre 3 % des hétérosexuels exclusifs à classe d’âge, niveau de diplôme, statut relationnel - en couple ou non - et statut parental équivalents), - 10,5 % chez les femmes (contre 5,9 % des hétérosexuelles exclusives à classe d’âge, niveau de diplôme, statut relationnel - en couple ou non - et statut parental équivalents). Les lesbiennes, gays et bisexuels (femmes et hommes confondus) ont trois fois plus de risque d’avoir fait une tentative de suicide que les hétérosexuels exclusifs. Les données issues du rapport de Lhomond portant sur un échantillon de 849 jeunes lesbiennes, gays et bisexuels âgés de 15 à 25 ans indiquent un taux de tentative de suicide sur la vie entière de 17% pour les hommes et de 25% pour les femmes. Rappelons à titre de comparaison que les prévalences des tentatives de suicide (vie entière) des 15-25 ans dans l’enquête Baromètre santé 2005 sont de 1,9 % pour les hommes et de 6,8 % pour les femmes. L’enquête Presse Gay 2004 portant sur plus de 6 000 homo/bisexuels masculins âgés en moyenne de 37 ans indique une prévalence de tentative de suicide au cours de la vie de 18,9%. Les jeunes de moins de 20 ans ont un taux de tentatives de suicide significativement plus élevé que la moyenne de leurs aînés puisqu’ils sont 32 % à déclarer avoir fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie.


Ministère de la Santé, de la Jeunesse et des Sports (2008). Présentation du Plan « Santé des jeunes »: Dossier de presse. 27 février 2008. France: Ministère de la Santé, de la Jeunesse et des Sports. PDF Download. Translation
... un dispositif de repérage et la prévention de la crise suicidaire et de la souffrance psychique chez les jeunes, plus particulièrement chez les jeunes homosexuels, sera mis en place ; le cinéaste André Téchiné, participera à l’élaboration d’une campagne d’information qui sera lancée dès cette année... 6. Lutter contre la souffrance psychique liée à l’homosexualité. a) Contexte et enjeux - Si l’affirmation de soi ne va pas sans difficulté pour la plupart des jeunes, cette démarche peut prendre pour les jeunes homosexuels, une dimension plus «dramatique» en raison de la stigmatisation culturelle : repli sur soi, crainte de l’hostilité de l’entourage, isolement, peuvent entraîner des troubles de comportement et une mise en danger sociale et sanitaire. Le mal être des jeunes lié à la découverte de leur homosexualité, de leur difficulté à l’accepter ou à l’assumer peut conduire à des pensées suicidaires : - La plupart des études sur la suicidalité chez les homosexuels et bisexuels trouve que celleci est supérieure à celle des hétérosexuels. Si la littérature internationale est concordante sur le risque suicidaire accru pour les personnes homosexuelles, en France on ne dispose pas d’étude complète sur ce problème... Cependant, traiter le sujet du suicide de manière directe, via notamment le canal des médias, peut se révéler contreproductif car pouvant favoriser le passage à l’acte. C’est pourquoi il est proposé d’aborder la prévention du suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels à travers le prisme de la découverte de la sexualité et de l’homosexualité et de favoriser le dialogue autour de ces sujets parmi les jeunes afin de lever les tabous et de renforcer l’acceptabilité des différents comportements. En sensibilisant les institutions concernées par les jeunes, en développant information et dialogue, on contribue à développer les conditions d’une meilleure prise en compte des problèmes spécifiques des jeunes homosexuels et à améliorer de ce fait leur état de santé. Cette analyse fonde la conduite d’action de prévention et d’éducation à la santé spécifique en direction des jeunes homosexuels, ainsi qu’une politique gouvernementale vigoureuse de lutte contre l’homophobie...

Beck F, Firdion JM., Legleye S, Schiltz MA (2010). Les minorités sexuelles face au risque suicidaire. Acquis des sciences sociales et perspectives. Saint-Denis : Inpes, coll. Santé en action, 2010 : 112 p. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.

Depuis dix ans, le lien entre suicide et orientation sexuelle est au coeur de préoccupations et de recherches portant sur les discriminations. Les personnes homosexuelles et bisexuelles apparaissent en effet plus concernées que les autres par le risque de suicide. Bien sûr, pour ces personnes – comme pour toute personne, quelles que soient les orientations sexuelles et le mode de vie – les raisons du suicide peuvent être liées à bien d’autres causes : maladies graves ou invalidantes (en particulier certains troubles mentaux), histoire familiale, événements traumatiques durant l’enfance, situation de stress économique, de misère, consommations de produits psychoactifs… Toutefois, le harcèlement et la discrimination dont elles sont souvent spécifiquement victimes peuvent venir aggraver ou se substituer aux causes précédentes, et expliquer la sursuicidalité observée...  Deux Facteurs de Risque Identifiés : L'Homophobie et al Non-Conformité de Genre: ...
Pugnière, Jean-Michel (2011). L'orientation sexuelle, facteur de suicide et de conduites à risque chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes ? : l'influence de l'homophobie et de la victimation homophobe en milieu scolaire.  PhD Dissertation - These de Doctorat en Psychologie, Comportement, Langage, Education, Socialisation, Cognition (CLESCO), Université Toulouse le Mirail. PDF Download. Download Page. Translation. PDF Download. Download Page. Translation.
Abstract: Several studies (mostly North-American) put into light a significant link between sexual orientation and suicidal behaviors among teenagers and/or young adults. Homophobia to which the young homosexuals are exposed is considered the most serious hypothesis to explain this link. However quantitative studies have never been conducted on this hypothesis in France. We took it into account while carrying out a survey based on a self-questionnaire built up from scales from "Adolescent Risk Inventory" (Lescano & al., 2007), Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire - revised" (Linehan, 1989), and Homophobia Scale" (Wright, Adams & Bernat, 1999). Said survey was answered by 475 young women, and 426 young men aged 18-24. Results confirmed oversuicidality among young homo/bisexuals. However, in the analysis conducted on male participants only, sexual orientation ceases to appear a significant predictor of suicide attempts or risk behavior in explanatory models in which variables " Homophobic Verbal Bullying in school " and " Bullying based on Gender nonconformity " are introduced. Said variables turn out to be the strongest predictors of suicidal behaviors among male adolescents and young adults. Young men have mean scores on the homophobia/lesbophobia scale that are significantly higher than young women's, and homophobic verbal bullying seems a lot more common than lesbophobic verbal bullying. Besides, lesbophobic verbal bullying does not have a significant effect on suicidal attempts and risk behaviors among young women. However, internalized lesbophobia has a significant effect on suicidal behaviors of the sub-sample of young women sexually attracted to same-sex individuals or wondering (ASMSQ), whereas internalized homophobia has no effect on ASMSQ young men. This last result is based on a lower population, and should be confirmed by subsequent studies, whereas analysis on all participants highlight the extent of homophobic bullying in school, and its impact on male teenagers and young adults.

Also by Jean-Michel Pugnière: " Etude de l’influence de l’orientation sexuelle et de son vécu sur les tentatives de suicide chez l’adolescent jeune adulte dans l’agglomération toulousaine ", Mémoire de Psychologie sous la direction de Sylvie Bourdet Loubère, Université de Toulouse le Mirail, Jean Michel Pugnière, 2005. - " Orientation sexuelle et comportement suicidaire chez des jeunes adultes de sexe masculin : Etude de l’influence de l’homophobie et de l’homophobie intériorisée ", Mémoire de master 2 sous la direction de Maria Teresa Munoz Sastre et Sylvie Bourdet Loubère, Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche en Psychopathologie, Université de Toulouse le Mirail, Jean Michel Pugnière, 2006.
Etre homo aujourd'hui en France : Enquête - 2012 - by Michel Dorais , Isabelle Chollet. - Etre homo aujourd’hui en France (2012, Translation): Le site Internet de l’association de luttte contre l’homophobie le Refuge* a permis de mener la 1re étude d’envergure sur les homosexuel(les) en France depuis près de 30 ans. Michel Dorais, professeur et chercheur en sciences sociales à Québec et Isabelle Chollet, psychologue et formatrice à Montpellier, intervenante au Refuge, viennent de publier les résultats de leur travail aux éditions H&O. « Etre homo aujourd’hui en France » nous livre les diffi cultés et les aspirations des gays et lesbiennes pour qui l’inclusion sociale est la priorité. Coming out, regard des autres, souffrance et soutien psychologique, vie de couple... : de la diffi culté d’être différent au droit à l’indifférence ! Plus de 500 gays et lesbiennes ont répondu aux 40 questions mises en ligne... 508 répondants, 72% hommes / 28% femmes. • 38% 15-24 ans, • 26% 25-34 ans, • 36% > 35 ans. Âge médian : 28,5 ans... 30% des répondants ont fait une tentative de suicide (12 fois + que les hétéros). - Entretien avec Michel Dorais et Nicolas Noguier (2012, Translation). - Sensibiliser aux réalités homosexuelles (2012, Translation):  La France est-elle vraiment très en retard dans ce domaine de l'éducation, de la formation et de la prévention de la violence ? Oui, il y a urgence. Ce livre, c'est un cri d'alarme. Les choses évoluent si lentement, il y a encore beaucoup de souffrances chez ces jeunes qui se sentent incompris, qui craignent d'être jetés à la rue, qui sont insultés dans leur milieu de vie, que ce soit la famille, l'école ou le travail. Par exemple, dans les cas de tentatives de suicide, il faut faire de la prévention. Il y a environ dix fois plus de tentatives de suicide que dans la population générale ! Les jeunes sont livrés à eux-mêmes, on ne parle pas de leurs réalités, même quand ils ont besoin d'aide et qu'ils sont dépressifs. Ils ne savent pas à qui s'adresser. Certains témoignages montrent que des jeunes n'ont pas été bien reçus par des psychologues, des professeurs. C'est pour cela qu'il faut être préparé. Je ne blâme pas et ne dis pas que tous les profs et psychologues sont mauvais, ont de mauvaises intentions ou sont homophones, mais ils ne savent pas quoi faire, parce que dans leur formation, on n'a jamais abordé ces réalités homosexuelles. Il faut les outiller. Plus généralement, c'est très important de donner un message social très fort pour montrer qu'on veut en finir avec l'homophobie. Il faut que cela soit soutenu par les dirigeants politiques, pour donner une légitimité à ce combat.

Prévention du suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels (2010, Translation):  En 2008, l’INPES et le Ministère de la santé avaient lancé un concours de scénario sur le thème de « la prise de conscience de son homosexualité ou de sa bisexualité ». Les courts métrages qui en ont découlé ont été diffusés sur les chaines du Groupe Canal+ ainsi que dans les cinémas Utopia. Ce mois-ci, l’INPES a décidé de lancer un outil d’aide à la prévention (Translation) du suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels. Il est composé de ces courts métrages ainsi que d’un livret d’accompagnement destiné aux professionnels de la prévention, de l’éducation et de l’animation. (outil en commande gratuite)... Jeune et homo sous le regard des autres : un outil de lutte contre l’homophobie et prévention du suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels (Videos, 2010, Translation). - Lutte contre l'homophobie dans les lycées (2010). - Lutte contre l'homophobie : nouvelle campagne de la FIDL (2010, Translation). - Une nouvelle association LGBT pourra intervenir en milieu scolaire (2010, Translation)

Présentation de nos interventions scolaire " lutte contre l'homophobie " (Translation): C'est dans la région Midi-Pyrénée que nos interventions ont concretement commencé de façon très structuré, en 2005. Elles s’inscrivent dans le cadre des circulaires ministérielles de 2001, 2003 et 2006, relatives à l’éducation à la vie affective et sexuelle... De plus en plus de recherches mettent en évidence que la difficulté à accepter son orientation sexuelle serait une des toutes premières causes de suicide des adolescents, concernant 30 à 50% des jeunes qui tentent de se suicider (sources ci-dessous, dans la partie "recherches"). L’homophobie intériorisée est aussi souvent à l’origine de difficultés diverses : consommation de drogues, mauvaise estime de soi, dépressions, conduites à risques, absentéisme scolaire… - Cas D'école L'homosexualité Chez Les Jeunes (2009, Video).  

Séminaire "Suicide et Orientations sexuelles" de 2005 N/A: Du 27 au 29 mars 2005, la fédération Moules Frites (association de jeunes et étudiants gays et lesbiennes) a organisé trois jours de rencontres et de débats sur "Suicides et jeunes LGBTQ" (Lesbiennes, gays, bis, Trans et personnes en questionnement de genres). Des psychologues sont intervenus et ont pu échanger avec les jeunes des associations LGBT présentes. - Non, le suicide n’est pas une solution (2009, Translation). - Le suicide chez les jeunes gays (2005, Translation): Adolescence et homosexualité : souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative.

Relation entre suicide et homosexualité (Lyon, 2006, Translation): Conférence-débat: L’intervention des 2 psychiatres avait pour objectif d’expliquer la construction et le développement de l’identité. L’exposé de Mme Saubin concernant « l’expérience de terrain » était complémentaire et nécessaire pour l’affirmation de la réalité des difficultés à assumer, puis à vivre son homosexualité. La partie « relation de foi » devait permettre aux personnes en questionnement et en état de culpabilité psychique de repartir rassurées et en accord avec elles-mêmes. Cette partie n’a peut être pas vraiment atteint son but, cependant des critiques positives et rassurantes ont été rapportées au-delà de certaines critiques négatives.

Stop aux suicides ! (2006, Translation) Plusieurs fois j’ai eu envie d’en finir avec mes jours, les doutes, la famille, l’impossibilité de vivre simplement avait raison de moi. Plus les jours passés plus l’envie me prenait. Je m’enfonçais. J’étais dans un état dépressif assez profond, mais je ne laissais rien paraître, pour moi la vie ne serait que questions de cauchemars, d’amour impossible et de non-sens. Les choses ont commencé à changer pour moi le jour de mon premier Coming-Out. Je ne voyais pas d’autre alternative. Le fait d’avoir une oreille à la quelle se confier m’a permis de me ressaisir quelques temps. Puis quelque jours plus tard (il y a maintenant un an) j’ai été confronté au suicide de plein fouet. Ce n’était plus un fait divers lu dans le journal. J’ai entendu de la bouche de ma cousine : "Jean il vient de se passer quelque chose d’horrible, ta sœur vient de se suicider"...

Suicide d’un homosexuel de l’agglomération nantaise après une garde à vue (2007, Translation):  Profondément choqué et humilié par le traitement qui lui avait été réservé lors de son interpellation et de sa garde à vue, l’homme en avait parlé à ses proches avant de se donner la mort cinq jours plus tard. A l’intention des policiers qui l’avaient arrêté, il avait également écrit une longue lettre, saisie par la Police Nationale pour les besoins de l’enquête... - La police mise en cause après le suicide d’un homosexuel (2007, Translation): «J’ai le sentiment que la police a fait son travail.» Yves Monard, directeur départemental de la sécurité publique en Loire-Atlantique (DDSP), ne comprend pas vraiment la polémique déclenchée ce mercredi par le Centre gay et lesbien de Nantes Atlantique (CGLNA) et un «collectif contre l’homophobie» de Montpellier (Hérault)... 

Suicide et dépression chez les adolescents homosexuels, l'urgence d'une action!!! (2004, Alternate Link, Translation): Un ensemble d'études et plusieurs enquêtes (voir plus loin) soulignent clairement les difficultés rencontrées de nos jours par les jeunes gais, lesbiennes, et bisexuel,le,s lors de la découverte de leur orientation sexuelle et affective différente. Cette révélation s'effectue en effet dans un univers largement "hétéronormatif" , qui demeure plus ou moins homophobe, même si les homosexuels ont conquis de nouveaux droits. Les jeunes homosexuels réagissent souvent par un déni de leurs désirs, un refus de leur orientation amoureuse ainsi que par des comportements dépressifs, d'humiliation, autodestructeurs ou suicidaires. La difficulté de rencontrer des références positives sur l'homosexualité, l'impossibilité de trouver des interlocuteurs valides, l'isolement et une homophobie ambiante plus ou moins rampante font perdurer ces difficultés subies par les "jeunes homos". - Le suicide qui n’ose pas dire son nom (2004, Translation): "Le livre Homosexualité & suicide, au travers d’études et de 13 témoignages, propose une explication du taux de suicide apparemment plus élevé chez les gays et lesbiennes et particulièrement les jeunes... Je cite un paragraphe du livre qui résume les principaux facteurs à risque pour le jeune gay : « on s’aperçoit que les risques suicidaires les plus élevés sont, soit associés à un vécu persécutif de la part de membres de la famille, de pairs, ou de professionnels référents ; soit à une difficulté extrême à traverser la prise de conscience et / ou la révélation de l’homosexualité ; soit enfin à une incapacité à vivre l’un de ses premiers amours, à un rejet de sa part ou à une rupture amoureuse.." - Tentatives de suicide à l’adolescence: souffrance singulière et mal-être social: "Les jeunes face à l’homophobie" par Eric Verdier, Coauteur de Homosexualité et suicide (p. 14-16. PDF Download, Translation).

Suicide Mortelle homophobie (2003, Translation): Entretien réalisé par Dany Stive: Éric Verdier et Jean-Marie Firdion, Homosexualités et Suicide:  30 % des jeunes homos font des tentatives de suicide. Un chiffre énorme. Pour Éric Verdier, psychologue et psychothérapeute, l’homophobie est le responsable. L’homosexualité semble mieux acceptée dans notre société, pourtant les jeunes homosexuels ont toujours sept fois plus de risque d’être confrontés au suicide. Pourquoi ? - Contribution d’Eric Verdier À L’amphi 2005 (Translation). - Une recherche action d’Éric Verdier: Préférence sexuelle, niveau social, origine ethnique : la discrimination conduit à la prise de risque (2006, Translation): L'homosexualité, un niveau social modeste combinés à une couleur de peau nourrissent les discriminations et conduisent les personnes à adopter des comportements à risque. Telle est la conclusion d'une " recherche action " menée par le psychologue Éric Verdier. Ce constat l'a amené à créer des espaces de parole pour " rendre la voix " à ceux qui cumulent les discriminations. Des formations de professionnels sont également organisées pour prévenir ces discriminations.

Le risque de suicide chez les jeunes a orientations sexuelles non conventionelles (lesbiennes, bisexuelles, gais) (PDF Download, Homosexualites et Socialism, Rapport, 2001, Translation). - Le rejet social comme origine du suicide (2003, Translation). - Avoir 16 ans et être homo (2004, Translation): "La vie est très difficile lorsqu'on se découvre gay au collège et au lycée. Un petit aperçu de mon histoire à moi et mes conseils... C'était également un moyen d'annoncer mon homosexualité aux gens qui m'entourent. Grave erreur. Dans le cercle de mes amis, je me suis découvert des ennemis suite à cette annonce. ça a été un calvaire cette dernière année. Insultes, sous-entendus mal placés, et même des crachas..." - Suicide et dépression (Translation): "Suicide et sexualité sont encore aujourd'hui en France des sujets relativement tabous. De nombreux experts estiment que les statistiques sur le suicide sont sous-évaluées. De plus, à la différence des États-Unis, du Canada et de l'Italie, aucune étude n'a été menée à ce jour sur les risques suicidaires dans la population des jeunes gais et lesbiennes et celles réalisées sur le suicide chez les jeunes n'interrogent, ni ne prennent en compte les difficultés liées à l'acceptation de l'homosexualité ou de pratiques homosexuelles...

Modes de consommation d’alcool et tentatives de suicide chez l’homme jeune (1997, Translation): "Population et méthodes: Il s’agit d’une population exclusivement masculine, représentative des 400 000 sujets sélectionnés tous les ans dans l’ensemble des 10 centres de sélection de métropole [Paris]. 9 758 sujets ont été tirés au sort. 9 270 réponses furent exploitables (taux de participation : 95 %). L’âge moyen est de 20 ans, les extrêmes se situant de 17 à 29 ans. Le taux de réponse aux 119 items de l’autoquestionnaire varie entre 88 % et 99 % selon les questions. L’enquête s’est déroulée entre novembre 1992 et février 1993... Conclusions: ...D’autres facteurs du risque suicidaire, non étudiés en détail, ont été relevés, tels l’usage de drogues illicites, de tabac et l’homosexualité. Parmi les sujets ayant fait un geste suicidaire, un sur deux présente deux facteurs de risque ou plus."

État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download. Translation. PDF Download. Translation.): "Depression, tentatives de suicide et trise de risque parmis les lecteurs de la presse gay francaise" (Philippe ADAM, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, France): "4753 questionnaires remplis par des hommes... Pour ce qui est des répondants masculins, l ’échantillon se caractérise par une forte représentation des personnes qui vivent en région parisienne (42%) et qui sont allés à l ’université (62%). L ’âge moyen est de 35 ans. La plupart (91%) des répondants se définissent comme gays. La moitié ont un partenaire stable. 12% des répondants sont séropositifs pour le VIH... Nous commencerons par dresser un état des lieux à partir des autodéclarations des répondants. Parmi eux, 17% déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie... Le graphique précédent montre que le taux de déclaration de tentatives de suicide est déjà à son maximum (27%) parmi les moins de 20 ans puis il décroît régulièrement avec l’âge pour se stabiliser autour de 15% après 35 ans."

Evaluation de l’effet éventuel de la sursuicidalité sur les comportements sexuels à risque chez les jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux. Conséquences sur la pratique du dépistage du VIH (2005, PDF Download. Translation.): "La sursuicidalité des jeunes hommes ayant des relations entre eux (HSH)... Cette étude exploratoire a été réalisée en 2001 en milieu ouvert (à l’occasion d’une manifestation festive) sur un échantillon (n=368; F=55%; âge médian: F=19 ans; [ET=6,7]; H=21 ans; [ET=8]), vivant principalement en région parisienne –sur-représenté en HSH (17%) – rapportant pour environ 12% au moins une tentative de suicide (TS) durant la vie. Les résultats obtenus confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30%; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels) strictement comparable aux données épidémiologiques disponibles..."

Suicide et tentative de suicide parmi les personnes à orientation homo-/bisexuel (Translation. Alternate Link, 2003, Translation): - Prévalence des tentatives de suicide (France) selon le sexe et l’orientation sexuelle... Hommes: 17%. 17%; Femmes: 25%. - Vos avis au sujet de l'homosexualité (2001, Translation): "Bonjour à tous.... je m'appelle Vanessa, je vais avoir 20 ans au mois de juin 2003. Je suis homosexuelle (lesbienne, gwenn, comme vous le désirez...). Je n'ai pas choisi d'être comme celà! Je me suis rendue compte malgré moi que j'aimais une femme! Autre chose, c'est grâce à des homophobes comme ceux-ci qu'à mes 17 ans, j'ai fait une tentative de suicide! ...Un jour il a tenté de se suicider mais sa mère est arrivé avant pour éviter la catastrophe. Ensuite il a dit à toutes les personnes qu'il connaissait qu'il était homo. Tout le monde l'a plus où moins accepté mais il est quand même retourné avec un fille à cause de la pression et des regards. Maintenant il vit avec une fille, mais il fait dépression sur dépression, tentative de suicide sur tentative de suicide, il est terriblement malheureux, il ne sort plus beaucoup à cause du regards des gens. En gros, il est en train de se détruire et de mourir tout ça à cause de ces crét... d'homophobes!"

En prison, être homosexuel, c’est la pire des choses (2002, Translation): "Mais le pire s’est produit récemment et au moment où vous lisez ce témoignage, mon ami est dans un service psychiatrique, suite à une tentative de suicide. J’ai effectivement appris récemment qu’il a été violé par trois détenus sous les douches quelques jours avant son transfert. Comme d’habitude en prison, ses cris n’ont pas été entendus. Les trois détenus et les surveillants ont probablement tous supposé qu’un homosexuel apprécierait de se faire enculer violemment par des inconnus. En 11 ans, mon ami aura donc subi deux viols en milieu carcéral. Première incarcération : premier viol : transmission du VIH. Deuxième incarcération : second viol : tentative de suicide..."

Les chiffres noirs du suicide (2001, Translation): "Selon les nouvelles données de l’Enquête presse gay 2000, que «Têtu» présente en exclusivité, un gay sur six a déjà fait une tentative de suicide. Et les liens entre dépression et prise de risques sexuels font froid dans le dos... Le premier mérite de cette enquête est qu’elle nous donne, enfin, des chiffres précis sur la dépression et les tentatives de suicide chez les gays. Malgré les informations alarmantes en provenance d’autres pays depuis quelques années, ces problématiques, bien documentées chez les hétérosexuels, étaient jusqu’à présent complètement ignorées en ce qui concerne les gays. Parmi les hommes ayant répondu à l’Enquête presse gay, 17 % déclarent avoir déjà fait une tentative de suicide au cours de leur vie, soit environ un homo sur six. Ces données sont similaires à celles de plusieurs enquêtes menées à l’étranger, notamment aux États-Unis..."

Le Refuge (Translation): L'Association nationale: Agir contre l'isolement des adolescents attirés par une personne du même sexe. - L'association dresse un constat troublant sur la situation des adolescents homosexuels en France. Face à cet état des lieux, il était urgent de réagir (2001, Translation).  Jeanne (Translation): "Mon fils s'est suicidé il y a de cela quatre ans, il avait 17 ans. Personne n'a compris ce geste à l'époque, même s'il présentait depuis quelques temps des signes de dépression. Pour moi ce fut un choc. En rangeant ses affaires, j'ai compris, il y a trois an de cela, son " secret ". Je pense que mon fils était homosexuel. J'ai retrouvé des revues érotiques masculines sous son lit et des lettres assez équivoques. Je comprends maintenant cette douleur qui le hantait." -  Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s (2002, Translation). - Et si votre enfant était homosexuel? (2003, Translation). - Le suicide, un mal homosexuel ? Nombre de jeunes gays français se donnent la mort (2010, Translation).

L'université euroméditerranéenne des homosexualités (2001, Translation): ..."Le ministère s'intéresse également à la santé des lesbiennes, cible du cancer du sein et peu touchée par les campagnes de prévention. Mais surtout, dans le cadre de la prévention du suicide chez les jeunes - l'une des premières causes de mortalité dans cette population -, la DGS mène des actions spécifiques pour prévenir les dégâts générés par l'homophobie. Robert Simon rappelait « il y a un lien très fort entre violation des droits de l'Homme et santé »." - La place de l'homosexualité dans l'éducation sexuelle en milieu scolaire: L'homosexualité à l'adolescence (2002, Translation). - Adolescence, Homosexualité et Violence - Projet Daphné (1998, Translation). - Adolescence et homosexualité: souffrance, tabou social et inertie éducative (2002, Translation): L’adolescence est une période difficile par nature... L’homophobie et l’absence de traitement de la condition homosexuelle durant la scolarité sont des facteurs de risque accru de suicide chez l’adolescent gay... - Autour du coming-out: Quand la sortie est mal acceptée par la famille. Réfléchir avant de sortir de son placard (Translation): Mais toutes les familles ne sont pas aussi tolérantes et compréhensives que celles de Jocelyn, d’Alex ou de Jean-François.

Le suicide du jeune gai, réalité ou mythe? (Translation) - Les adolescents homosexuels et le suicide (Translation): "Notre propos ne portera pas sur l'interprétation à donner aux articles de Gageure, mais il nous a semblé important de les évoquer afin de montrer à quel point la question peut être tabou tant chez les homos que chez les hétéros. Pour aborder le plus objectivement possible la question du suicide chez les adolescents homos ou bisexuels, il faut avant tout présenter ces statistiques que certains mettent en doute..." - Controverse sur l'existence d'un risque accru de suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels (2003, Translation): Face au scepticisme de certains spécialistes, des associations gays et lesbiennes dénoncent l'absence d'études sur ce thème à l'occasion des Journées nationales de prévention du suicide, du 3 au 7 février.

Colloque Jeunes & Homosexualité (1999, Translation): "Entre juin 1997 et juin 1998, la ligne a été sollicitée près de 25 000 fois. Un peu moins de 4 000 appels ont pu être traités aboutissant sur plus de 1 400 entretiens personnalisés (bien qu'anonymes) d'une durée moyenne de 20 minutes. Plus de 70 % des appelants expriment une difficulté à accepter leur différence sexuelle. Les problèmes de peur, de crainte, d'acceptation de soi, de solitude, d'isolement et de mal être reviennent le plus fréquemment durant les entretiens. Le mal être, lui, concerne 13 à 14 % des appelants dont certains n'hésitent pas à parler d'état dépressif, de pulsions suicidaires ou même de tentatives de suicide.

Le suicide révèle la souffrance singulière des jeunes homosexuels (2005, Translation): "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l’hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" ­ âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d’études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) ­, les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize." - Prévention du suicide et pratiques de réseaux-congrès international-Liège du 18 au22/11/2002 (Translation): " Les résultats obtenus : • confirment la sursuicidalité des HSH (30% ; p<0.05 ; 6 fois supérieure à celle des hommes hétérosexuels..." - Suicide des jeunes : premiers chiffres français (2003, Translation). - Péril suicidaire chez les jeunes homos (2005, Translation): Une enquête indépendante révèle qu’un homo ou bisexuel homme a treize fois plus de risques de faire une tentative de suicide qu’un hétérosexuel. Extrait de l’article paru dans liberation.fr.

A French politicians outs himself and states the following (N/A): "Je suis et resterai persuadé que plus de visibilité (de tous en général, mais des hommes et femmes publics en particulier) éviterait sans doute un certain nombre de suicides de jeunes (ou moins jeunes homosexuels)." - Les suicides (Translation): " En réfléchissant à cette première tentative des années plus tard, il est possible que cela soit le refoulement de mon homosexualité qui était encore endormie, je me souviens étant à l'internat à cette époque dans une école d'horticulture, dans le dortoir le thème homo avait été employé et d'ailleurs certains mecs étaient passé à la pratique pendant la nuit et que moi je ne savais pas ou j'en étais, le sexe, la masturbation était inconnue jusqu'à 20ans environ...  Pourtant de nouveau quelques années plus tard je fais ma deuxième tentative de suicide, juste environ 1an avant mon coming out, pourquoi cette nouvelle tentative de me supprimer, je ne le sais toujours pas, je sais que je suis quelqu'un de très différent des autres, plutôt fragile, c'est comme ça surtout que je suis en pleine période d'anorexie physique et mentale, je veux un suicide rapide et aussi un suicide morbide, j'ai décidé de ne plus manger et de me laisser mourir à petit feu..."

Pas de mission sur le suicide pour Christine Boutin (communiqué Inter-LGBT - 26 mai 2003, Translation): "A l'unanimité, le Conseil de l'Interassociative lesbienne, gaie bi et trans, réuni ce samedi 24 mai, a voté une décision demandant à Jean-Pierre Raffarin de retirer la mission qu'il a confiée à Christine Boutin sur les taux de suicide en France (cf. décision ci-dessous). Constatant que "Christine Boutin s'est faite le relais d'une homophobie des plus violentes, et sans doute des plus destructrices auprès des jeunes en construction de leur identité", le Conseil de l'Inter-LGBT estime que "la mission confiée par le Premier Ministre à Christine Boutin est une provocation à l'égard des associations LGBT". Les associations font remarquer que la députée " a offert une tribune inédite à une haine homophobe qu'elle n'inscrira probablement pas dans son rapport comme une cause de suicide"." - Ex Aequo écrit à Christine Boutin sur le suicide des jeunes gays (2003, Translation). - Suicide, prévention : deviner le risque chez l'adolescent (2012, Translation). - Le suicide à l'adolescence (Translation). - Communiqué de Presse - Suicide des Jeunes N/A: "Suite à la publication du rapport 2001 de l'INSERM sur le suicide des jeunes, l'association DEGEL constate qu'une fois de plus le problème du suicide chez les jeunes gais et lesbiennes est totalement occulté. Or, des études Nord-Américaines réalisées au cours des dix dernières années révèlent que le risque d'attenter à sa vie pour un-e jeune homo est sept fois plus important que pour un jeune hétéro. En France aucune étude prise en charge par l’Etat n’a été faite à ce jour."

An early attack - from within one of France's gay communities - on the likelihood that gay male youth are at risk for suicide:

On the French QRD, the only document exploring the possibility of a gay and bisexual male suicide problems in France was published in Gageure, a publication by GAGE (Translation), the French lesbigay student association (l'association des Etudiant(e)s Gai(e)s) in Paris).

Issue No. 65 (1996) contains "DOSSIER SUICIDE" (The Suicide File) announced on the Index Page (Translation) with  "Dossier: Le suicide du jeune gai ... dossier" (File: The suicide of young gay males... file).  The "file" link leads to the file's index page (Translation) containing four highlighted title links, each representing a section of the "dossier".  The first line on the page is "Le suicide du jeune gai, réalité ou mythe?" (The suicide of young gay males, reality or myth?)

Generally, the concept presented is that there is really no validity to the idea - mostly stemming from North American studies - that gay males are more at risk for having suicide problems. Furthermore, as highlighted by Yves Roussel  (Translation) in the tile of his article, "Si fragile... si féminin, this "higher risk for suicide" makes gay males such as himself appear to be "so fragile... so feminine."

At least for some homosexual French males, the idea of belonging to a group at greater risk for suicide problems is odious apparently because it then makes them more feminine - as in therefore maybe not being real men - defined by being being anything "feminine." This concept, however, is rooted in extreme sexism also underlying homophobia according to Welzer-Lang [L'homophobie : La face cachée du masculin (Translation. Alternate Link. Translation.) (Homophia: the hidden face of masculinity)], and Welzer-Land, Dutey, et Dorais (1994) [La peur de l'autre en soi, du sexisme à l'homophobie] (Translation) who have studied and written on the subject from a "French" perspective. (Note: These items are available from "menprofeminist.org" site.)

The implications are that these masculine French homosexual males are homophobic - or self-hating - and one result of self-hatred may be to not only facilitate the deaths of individuals like oneself (the ones representing what exists within oneself but is denied), but to also deny the problem's existence. In the latter case, nothing will done to help the ones "at risk" and a maximum casualties will result for these males.

Finally, to make these [death facilitating] opinions look valid - and these same opinions have also been held by most mainstream suicidologists who have generally made it their life mission to ignore homosexuality-related issues in suicide prevention / intervention / and research work - the bibliography is deemed to be "recent." More important to establishing its reliability, however, is the fact that it was apparently compiled with the collaboration of the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago! However, the bibliography is lacking in many ways if it is compared to the works (the studies done before 1996 in North America) cited in the "gbsuicide0.htm" file.

Homosexual males who are fearful of being perceived "feminine" may be using well known methods to counter such insecurities in their psyche. They may, in fact, have bought into the "prison" {"la maison des hommes"] ideology rendered by Jean Genet: Men who fuck males are double males. But what about the "penetrated" males - the ones essentially made into women? Maybe, it was not an accident that Remafedi et al. (1991) reported that it was the more "feminine" adolescent males who were at the greatest risk for having attempted suicide. Could a part of the problem be that these boys acquired the same ideology manifested by "masculine" homosexuals (producing self-hatred for them), and that they also may have been subjected to whatever feminine-hating (sexist) "masculine" homosexual (bisexual, or heterosexual) males have had to offer?

Note: Understanding the above is imperative to understanding the high suicidality rates for male prisoner in France, America, Australia, and in other countries - a subject not yet significantly tackled in these web pages. It is possible that the "masculine" homosexuality many males have manifested in prisons is implicated in suicides - not of themselves but of other males sexually used and abused (even raped) by these ultra-"masculine" homosexuals. Relevant information is available from (1) Donaldson (1993) - A Million Jockers, Punks, and Queens: Sex among American Male Prisoners and its Implications for Concepts of Sexual Orientation.  (2) Donaldson (1990) - Prisons, Jails, and Reformatories. Donaldson (1981) - A Punk's Song: View from the Inside (3)  Welzer-Land, Mathieu, and Faure (1996) (See below).  (4) One in 4 Prisoners Sexually Assaulted (Australian Prisons). - Sexual assault rife in NSW jails N/A.

Is there a suicide problem in French prisons for males?  Yes, according to Welzer-Land, Mathieu, and Faure (1996) who note it to be "6 to 7 times" worse than for similar males in society. Is the problem even more serious for the youngest males in prison - the ones most often desired - and even raped - by "masculine" homosexuals? Is there a situation in France similar to the one proposed by Donaldson (1990) with respect to the suicide-producing effect of "masculine" homosexuality on other less masculine males in American prisons? Why, however, has the phenomenon been generally ignored in studies by mainstream suicidologists in France or in America? Additional information is available in The Homosexuality Factor in Prison Violence.

For more information about prisons as a more pure form of "la maison des hommes" ["men's hut or lodge" - an important anthropology concept related to the making of men which generally means purging (repressing?) anything "feminine" in them] ideology rooted in extreme sexism, see Welzer-Land, Mathieu, and Faure (1996) "Sexualités et violences en prison (Extraits): Ces abus qu’on dit sexuels." (Also see other "homophobia references listed above.) This learned sexism (reflecting a hatred for women) also results in a hatred (gender-based homophobia) for males deemed to be "like women": the stereotypical "feminine" homosexual.

Struckman-Johnson C, Struckman-Johnson D (2006). A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(12): 1591-1615. PDF Download. Abstract: Comparisons were made between self-reports from 382 men and 51 women who had experienced sexual coercion while incarcerated. Victim data were obtained from a sample of 1,788 male inmates and 263 female inmates who responded to an anonymous written survey distributed in 10 midwestern prisons. Men reported that their perpetrators in worst-case incidents were inmates (72%), staff (8%), or inmates and staff collaborating (12%). Women reported that their perpetrators were inmates (47%) and staff (41%). Greater percentages of men (70%) than women (29%) reported that their incident resulted in oral, vaginal, or anal sex. More men (54%) than women (28%) reported an incident that was classified as rape. Men and women were similar in feeling depression; however, more men (37%) than women (11%) reported suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts (19% for men, 4% for women). Implications of results for prevention of sexual coercion in prison are discussed. Note: The "unknown" is the number of suicides associated with rape victims in prisons.

Prison Rape and Suicide (JAMA, 1989): To the Editor. --  In reading the article entitled "Suicide Mortality in the Maryland State Prison System, 1979 Through 1987," by Salive et al,1 I was surprised to discover that the characteristics of inmates who committed suicide did not address the major issue of whether any of them had been subject to homosexual rape. All of the features characteristic of heterosexual rape, which is justly condemned, apply to homosexual rape, with the addition that in the prison environment the man who is raped by homosexual attack has no way to escape further rapes by the same gang. This must have an influence on the incidence of suicide; it is unfortunate that the study was done without addressing this major issue. Note: The 'rule' has been for suicidologists to ignore suicide as related to rape in male prisons. - Prison Rape and the Government (2011).

ResourcesL'association L'Hêtre (Translation):  est née en avril 2010 pour une activité sur l'ensemble de la Région Alsace. L'association L'Hêtre propose une écoute et un accompagnement aux gays, aux lesbiennes, aux trans, à leurs parents ainsi qu'à toutes les personnes qui se posent des questions sur l'orientation sexuelle ou l'identité de genre. L'Association L'Hêtre propose aussi un hébergement temporaire aux jeunes personnes homosexuelles, transgenres et transsexuelles en difficultés avec leur parents en lien à leur orientation sexuelle ou à leur genre.

Act Up Paris (Translation). - Stop homophobie (Translation): Tutorials (Translation). - LGBT rights in France.

Stop Suicide (Pour la prévention du suicide des jeunes dans la région romande): Documents, minorités sexuelles. Documents, sexual minorities

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Belgium / Belgique: 1998 Study Indicates That Belgium's Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Youth Have Elevated Suicidality Rates.

Two September 1998 articles, one published in Brussels and one by Reuters, report that "up to five times as many young lesbians and gay men in Flanders have attempted suicide [compared to] their heterosexual counterparts." Sample Age: 15- to 25-years old.

Suicidality Data:

Lesbian Bisexual Females vs Heterosexual Females: 25% (approx.) vs 5.4% attempted suicide at least once, and 45% vs 24.3% reported having contemplated suicide.

Gay Bisexual Males vs Heterosexual Males: 12.5% (approx) vs 5.9% attempted suicide at least once, and 24.3% vs 16.0% reported having contemplated suicide.

Note: This study is the one referenced on the Unit for Suicide Research's Current Research Page N/A. Study Title: Controlled cross-sectional study of suicidal thoughts, impulses, and behaviour among homosexual adolescents.

Relevant Information: "Controlled cross-sectional study of suicidal thoughts, impulses, and behaviour among homosexual adolescents. Anecdotal reports indicate a substantially increased risk of suicidal behaviour among homosexual adolescents. This study aims at the assessment of suicidal thoughts, impulses, and behaviour among homosexual adolescents by comparing them with heterosexual adolescents. This study is conducted in cooperation with the Dept of Sociology, University Gent (Prof. Dr. J. Vincke)."

The paper was presented at the 7th European Symposium on Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour held from September 9-12 in Gent, Belgium. The symposium's program and abstracts may be downloaded from a Symposium web page.

Published as: van Heeringen C, Vincke J (2000). Suicidal acts and ideation in homosexual and bisexual young people: a study of prevalence and risk factors. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35: 494-99.  (A PubMed "abstract") Full text N/A available online.

Le taux des tentatives de suicide est plus élevé chez les jeunes homosexuels (6 octobre 1998, Must Scroll, Translation): "Une étude menée en Flandres par l'université de Gand montre que les jeunes homosexuels de 15 à 25 ans ont 2 à 5 fois plus de risque de tenter un suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. 25% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 13% des hommes homosexuels avaient tenté un suicide, contre 5.4% des femmes et 5.9% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. 45% des femmes bisexuelles ou lesbiennes et 33% des hommes homosexuels avaient envisagé un suicide, contre 24% des femmes et 16% des hommes hétérosexuel-le-s. L'étude a été conduite par le sociologue John Vincke et le psychologue Kees van Heeringen auprès de 404 jeunes, homosexuels pour la moitié et présentée au 7ème Symposium Européen « The Suicidal Process: Challenges for Treatment and Prevention » du 9 au 12 septembre.

État de la question et pistes de prévention: Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001 (PDF Download).

NOTE: A search of the "Suicide Symposium" document revealed an absence of information related to Professor Vincke's research. A search of European gay/lesbian web sites also produced no relevant information, including the general absence of information indicating a possible elevated risk for suicide problems in the European GLB youth population. Are Europe's GLB children and youth being ignored to death, like the situation has existed in mainstream suicidology in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries?

A communication with the study researchers, Dr. Vincke and Dr. van Heeringen, revealed that the presentation of the very important study results at the Suicide Symposium was a "last minute" decision based on the unexpected early tabulation of the study data. It is therefore possible that this study will mark the beginning of the end to the neglect of "homosexuality" issues by Europe's mainstream suicidologists. This was an early hope, but, unfortunately, it seems that this study marked the end of sexual minority suicide research in Belgium, at least for the years making up the upcoming decade.

Reference to the Study in: van Heeringen, Kees (2003). Unit for Suicide Research, University of Gent, Belgium. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183: 260-261. PDF Download. "Second, the occurrence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and behaviour in homosexual and bisexual young people was studied, showing increased risks particularly among female homosexual or bisexual youngsters (Van Heeringen & Vincke, 2000)."

Plus d’un jeune sur cinq pense au suicide (2004, Translation): Autre projet : une étude, réalisée par l’ASBL Magenta, à la demande de la FAGL (fédération des associations gay et lesbiennes) sur la promotion de la santé concernant les jeunes d’orientation sexuelle minoritaire. Les chiffres le démontrent : le suicide concerne davantage les jeunes homosexuels (deux fois plus d’idées suicidaires et quatre fois plus de comportements suicidaires que chez les jeunes hétéros). Mais comme le rappelle le président de la FAGL, Michel Thomé, ce n’est pas l’homosexualité qui mène au suicide mais l’homophobie. Les représentations à l’égard des homosexuels, bisexuels ou transgenres sont encore fortement connotées négativement, explique Rosine Horincq, coordinatrice du projet. Lorsqu’un jeune prend conscience de ses attirances sexuelles, il est confronté à d’énormes pressions. Des pressions de deux ordres : l’homophobie, c’est-à-dire le rejet agressif des homosexuels et de toute personne dont l’apparence et le comportement déroge aux standards de féminité et de masculinité pré-établis. Et l’hétéronormativité, plus insidieuse qui est en réalité la promotion de la supériorité de l’hétérosexualité comme modèle relationnel. S’attaquer à l’homophobie et l’hétéronormativité, est la clé pour permettre aux jeunes homosexuels de se sentir mieux. Reste que ce changement de mentalité n’est pas facile à engendrer : il devra passer notamment par la formation adéquate des intervenants chargés des animations concernant la vie affective et sexuelle en milieu scolaire. Des intervenants qui aujourd’hui sont bien souvent démunis,

Le taux de suicide en Belgique, le plus élevé en Europe! Le prince Philippe inquiet des suicides (2010, Translation): Le taux de suicide chez les jeunes homosexuels est également une problématique sur laquelle les invités à la table ronde se sont penchés. Selon plusieurs études, les jeunes homosexuels présenteraient un risque de tentative de suicide plus important que les hétérosexuels. Un taux de 2 à 7 fois plus élevé chez les garçons homo- ou bisexuels et 1,4 à 2,5 fois chez les filles. Des tentations qui surviennent souvent suite aux discriminations et stigmatisations qu’ils subissent. L’objectif est donc de mettre un plan de prévention en place pour éviter que ces jeunes ne passent à l’acte.

Mgr Léonard peut pousser les jeunes homos au suicide (2010, Translation): Les déclarations de l'archevêque André-Joseph Léonard blessent les homo- et bisexuels et peuvent avoir une influence sur le nombre de suicides chez les jeunes qui sont en conflit avec leur sexualité dans les écoles catholiques. C'est l'avis de Cavaria, la coupole regroupant les associations lesbigays en Flandre. - Pas facile d'afficher son homosexualité dans certains quartiers de Bruxelles (2012).

Martens, Vladimir (2005-06). Modes de vie et comportements des gays face au sida : rapport de l’enquête 2004 pour l’association Ex æquo. Bruxelles: Observatoire du Sida et des sexualités (FUSL). PDF Download. Translation. Download Page. Translation. N = 922. Lifetime Attempted Suicide Incidence: 22%. Lifetime Attempted Suicide Incidence, Age 16-25 Years, N = 156: 22%.  Lifetime Attempted Suicide Incidence, Age > 25 Years, N = 768: 17%.

Resources: Arc-en-Ciel Wallonie:  la Fédération wallonne des associations LGBT (lesbiennes, gays, bis et transgenres). Son objectif est d’offrir un lieu d’échanges entre toutes les associations de notre région. - LGBT rights in Belgium. - Association réformatrice des homosexuel(le)s et de leurs amis N/A (Archive: 2000-2002).

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Romania

Police Abuses Against Suspected Homosexuals in Maia Mare and Iasi, Romania (1996): a report on a fact-finding mission conducted by ACCEPT. - Out Of Darkness - minor change in Romania's sodomy law (2000).  - Romanian MPs vote to decriminalise homosexuality (2000). 

"In the course of his inquest, numerous people have been threatened and terrorized; one claims to have been beaten; another was driven to two successive suicide attempts... Kalman K., Gheorghe's closest friends, was taken in by the police in April. Around 10:00 PM that night, after he was released from his interrogation, Kalman came to Gheorghe - who was still recovering from his suicide attempts - saying that the next morning Ivan would come to pick up Gheorghe, and to put the two face-to-face to
recognise that they were a homosexual couple. .. Gabi tried to commit suicide by jumping from a fourth-floor window after this event, because Serban asked him for a 100,000 lei (25$) fine, far more than his pathetically limited resources. This was his second suicide attempt: the other, a year before, was due to unrelated problems.

Looking For Acceptance (1996): "The conference heard testimonies from older participants who had attempted suicide or been subjected to blackmail; almost without exception, most had chosen to live a clandestine life, either with a partner or more likely alone, to escape the attention of a state which in the Ceausescu era, gaoled homosexuals and subjected them to electric shock treatment."

Provocative findings from the LGBT Health Study (Budapest, July 19-20, 2006: Powerpoint Download) by Brian Griffin: “Over 56% of those surveyed in Macedonia [Hungary] report having suicidal thoughts.  In the other countries the proportion ranges on the lower end from 18% in Macedonia and 24% in BiH to just over 42% and 43% in Moldova and Romania respectively.  In terms of those with suicide thoughts going on to attempt suicide, we see that this happens in 50% of the cases in Moldvoa, in almost 45% of the cases in Romania.  The percentages drop considerably in the remaining countries and range from 0% in Macedonia to 18.3% in Hungary.  In Moldova it was noted that of those who reported having suicidal thought, women had a slight majority at 55.6%.  When it comes to a gender breakdown of those reported having attempted suicide, that majority goes up to 60%. “It is significant to note that in three of the countries surveyed, in the region of 60% of respondents felt that these experiences related to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.” (22-23)  Report asks why these numbers are lower than those in international studies. Instead it should ask if they are higher than suicide rates among non-LGBT youth in country.

Gay Romania News & Reports 1999-2008: - Romanian MPs vote to decriminalise homosexuality: "Coman, while unable to give any data or numbers on gays and lesbians in Romania, said human rights watchdogs estimated that thousands of homosexuals had been put in jail, thrown out of their jobs and houses, committed suicide or fled the country since 1989." -  Roamnia: Country Report on the Status of LGBT People: "the mental and emotional status, self-acceptance and personal development of the LGBT may become (at least) unbalanced, and it may result in the internalisation of negative feelings that, in the end, may lead to self-hatred, depression, exclusion from society’s public life and, sometimes, even suicide."    

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Slovenia

Homoseksualni najstniki živijo v strahu (2012, Translation): Avtorji na temelju raziskave o homofobičnem nasilju v Sloveniji ugotavljajo, da geji in lezbijke v vsakdanjem življenju uporabljajo pet strategij. Prva je samocenzura. Ta je lahko prisilna (dogovorni molk po razkritju) ali prostovoljna (povezana z delovnim mestom ali v odnosu do prijateljev po razkritju, da ne bi bili dotiki ali izjave razumljeni napačno). Druga strategija je senzibilizacija – sodelujoči v raziskavi namreč menijo, da predsodki do istospolno usmerjenih izvirajo iz (ne)informiranosti in nevednosti. Naslednja je resignacija – umik iz situacij (zaradi lastne zaščite), ki so jih sodelujoči doživljali kot homofobne; izpostavili so homofobične razprave v zvezi z družinskim zakonikom. Sledi akomodacija, ki pomeni različne načine upravljanja spolne usmerjenosti posameznikov v različnih situacijah, denimo, neizpostavljanje v javnih prostorih. Peta strategija pa je kompenzacija; večina gejev in lezbijk meni, da morajo biti bistveno uspešnejši v vseh segmentih življenja, če hočejo doseči enake cilje kot heteroseksualci. Kljub nižji stopnji homofobije v Sloveniji – danes »samo« 35 odstotkov Slovencev za soseda ne bi imelo homoseksualca, medtem ko je v 90. letih tako odgovorilo 60 odstotkov vprašanih – moramo biti še vedno kritični do sedanjega stanja. To potrjujejo tudi razprave o družinskem zakoniku, ugotavlja Kuhar, ki meni, da je v Sloveniji še dovolj prostora za še večjo vključenost različnih družbenih skupin. - Homoseksualni najstniki občutno bolj samomorilni (2012, Translation).

"Mama, lezbijka sem": Zavrnitev otroka, ki prizna istospolno usmerjenost, lahko vodi tudi v samomor (2012, Translation): Največjo napako lahko starši naredijo, če otroku obrnejo hrbet in mu dajo vedeti, da se jim zdi zaradi spolne usmerjenosti manj vreden in ga manj sprejemajo ali imajo manj radi. "Na tem mestu resno opozarjam: odklonitev in groba zavrnitev otroka lahko privede tudi do samomora. Ob tem vsem staršem polagam na srce: imejte radi svoje otroke, bodite jim v oporo, tudi kadar jih ne razumete in jih težko sprejemate," opozarja Bajčeva in dodaja: "Razumljivo je, da nekateri starši to težko sprejmejo, a dovolj je odkritost, na primer: 'Težko to sprejmem, težko si predstavljam, kako je v tvoji koži, a te imam rad kot vedno!"

Pomagajte prosim! (2010
, Translation):  Vprašanje: Sem 24-letni fant, všeč so mi fantje, živim pa še doma s starši. Mojim staršem tega ne upam povedati, ker vem, kaj si o tem mislijo, vedno me sprašujejo, kdaj bom pripeljal domov punco, so zelo strogi, verni in tradicionalni. Zaradi tega imam hude psihične težave, pogosto razmišljam, da je samomor edini izhod, saj vse skupaj čedalje teže prenašam. Kaj naj naredim? Bi se moral s starši soočiti in jim povedati resnico? Sem pa finančno zelo slabo preskrbljen (nimam redne zaposlitve) in se še ne morem odseliti od doma, partnerja tudi še nisem imel, zaljubljen pa sem že bil, a prvega koraka si nisem upal narediti.

Težko je biti ženska (2012
, Translation): Salome je kmalu po operaciji spoznala, da je resnično življenje ženske vse kaj drugega, kot si je takrat predstavljala...  »Zakaj je bog ravno pri meni storil napako?« Neštetokrat si je zastavila to vprašanje, vendar odgovora ni nikoli dobila. In potem se je odločila: 24. marec 2009 je bil za Salome največja prelomnica v življenju, kajti spremenila je spol. Vse stiske ženske, dolga leta ujete v moško telo, je izpovedala v knjigi Novo rojstvo avtorja Tomaža Miheliča. Prepričana je bila, da se bo po operaciji, s katero so ji odstranili še zadnji znak moškosti, vendarle lahko uresničila v vsej svoji ženstvenosti. Toda kmalu je spoznala, da je resnično življenje ženske vse kaj drugega, kot si je takrat predstavljala... Spopadli ste se tudi s hudo depresijo. Bila sem zelo depresivna, ko pa sem začela jemati progesteron, so se črne misli začele umikati in spet sem dobila voljo do življenja. Saj veste, to sem povedala tudi v svoji knjigi Novo rojstvo, pred operacijo sem v najstniških letih kar dvakrat poskusila narediti samomor. Tudi v tretje sem pomislila nanj, saj nisem več videla izhoda. Potem pa je prevladal moj optimizem, ki me žene naprej, in sem si rekla, da ne bom tega naredila. Mislim, da sem dosegla neko zrelost, zavedla sem se, da je življenje eno in edino, vredno ga je živeti, pa naj bo še tako težko. Na tem svetu je še vedno dovolj dobrih ljudi in tudi zaradi njih je vredno živeti.

Vsakdanje življenje gejev in lezbijk: Ko si fant in fant obljubita zvestobo (2004, Translation): Kot pravi, je pri štirinajstih letih, nekako v času, ko se prebudi seksualnost, v njem izbruhnila kriza. "Vedel sem, da sem drugačen, da sem istospolno usmerjen, vendar družba od mene tega ni pričakovala - zato se zatečete v skrivanje, skrivanje z vsemi močni, dokler se človek ne zlomi. Tudi to je zame nasilje. Pred samomorom sem se raje odločil oditi k psihiatru in mu vse povedal. Psihiater mi je dejal, da moram sprejeti sebe. Potem pričnete proces sprejemanja samega sebe. Toda družba okoli vas še vedno deluje po starih tirnicah. Od vas pričakuje, da ste heteroseksualec, zato morate vseskozi razlagati, da niste, da imate fanta itn." "Za heteroseksualni par," preskoči iz preteklosti v sedanjost, "je sprehajati se po ulici z roko v roki nekaj lepega. Ko pa grem jaz z Vikijem po Čopovi, moram najprej premagati sebe, preden ga lahko primem za roko. Ker vem, da bo družba na to dejanje gledala z gnusom. Tudi to je zame nasilje in pritisk. In to, da moraš vse življenje od različnih ljudi poslušati, kaj si, koliko si oziroma nisi normalen, katere pravice ti pripadajo in katere ne. Tako se zelo težko živi." Tudi Vikija Kerna je soočenje z lastno istospolno usmerjenostjo na neki točki njegovega odraščanja privedlo na rob samomora. "Strah pred razkritjem, da ste homoseksualec, je nepopisen. Tudi mene je pripeljal do misli na samomor. Imel sem občutek, da me bo konec, če bo kdo izvedel ali če se pri kom pojavi samo sum, da sem istospolno usmerjen. Da se bo zgodilo ne vem kaj. Še danes ne vem, kaj naj bi se bilo zgodilo, a strah je bil tak, kot da se bo zdaj zdaj porušil ves svet."

"Tednik" also conducted an interview with gay leader Sandi Perdih at the largest cemetery in Ljubljana, the capital, as Perdihpaid his respects to gays who were driven to suicide by homophobia N/A. 

A Campaign against intolerance towards gays and lesbians: "...one third of Slovenia's population wouldn't want to have a gay person for a co-worker or a neighbour." A 1995 Public opinion Poll.

Global Gayz - Gay Slovenia: Gay Slovenia News & Reports 2000-05 & Gay Slovenia News & Reports 2006-2010.

Internet Resources for Slovenia: - Slovenian Queer Resources Directory (Translation) (Old Website) - Global Gayz: Slovenia. - LGBT rights in Slovenia. - 


Yugoslavia / Serbia

Serbian Film Promotes Tolerance Of Gays. Will It Fly With Fellow Slavs In Russia? (2012): The first third of Srdzhan Dragoevich’s new film, The Parade, will bring a smile to even the gloomiest of faces. It’s a silly, rude comedy that is meant to be fun for the viewers. It is also very much a film with a message about tolerance for homosexuals, as well as for those from different ethnic and religious backgrounds. Just released in Russia, it had a successful run in the countries of the former Yugoslavia, surprising many with its largely warm receptions in places not often known for tolerance of the 'other.' In particular, the movie is a call for all Slavs - which includes both Serbians and Russians - to be more accepting of gays. It is a particularly steep climb in Russia, where homosexuality was a crime until 1993 and was considered a mental illness until 1999. Today, 62 percent of the population still considers being gay immoral, and local governments have banned gay pride parades and enacted stringent rules against “homosexual propaganda.”

Gay pride march banned in Serbia (2012): Serbia's police on Wednesday banned a Gay Pride march in Belgrade, citing security concerns but also complying with a request from Serbia's Christian Orthodox church... Last year's gay pride march also was banned by authorities... Amnesty International said the ban puts Serbia in breach of its own laws. "Serbia's government is effectively going against its own legal and constitutional protections for basic rights such as freedom of expression and freedom of assembly to all lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people in Serbia," said John Dalhuisen, the group's director for Europe and Central Asia. Serbian Prime Minister Ivica Dacic said in addition to banning the Gay Pride march, the government was barring a gathering of right-wing groups that planned to attack the event. It also canceled several national league soccer matches in Belgrade on Saturday because they often are attended by hooligans aligned with the extremists... eanwhile, some 2,000 riot policemen were deployed Wednesday in front of an art exhibit in Belgrade organized by gay activists that the extremists had threatened to disrupt. The reason? They claimed the photographs by a Swedish artist desecrated the image of Jesus Christ.

Arkadija - An organization described in Yahoo and in other resources but not on line anymore. Description:  "First ever lesbian & gay organization established in Serbia. It was founded in 1990 by several enthusiasts as an attempt to beat the despair of personal isolation and constant humiliation." This is a social context which would lead one to predict the existence of a GLB suicide Problem  in Serbia but this potential problem is not mentioned at the web sight, nor in the section Lesbians in Yugoslavia. Is there a GLBT suicide problem in Serbia? 

Gay Serbians find acceptance is a casualty of war (1999): "Maljkovic felt the crackdown even harder than his colleagues, for he was weeks away from cohosting the first gay radio show, GAYTO! In a culture where doctors still urge electroshock therapy to "cure" homosexuality and where celebrities and intellectuals alike openly disdain gays and lesbians, Maljkovic hoped GAYTO! would change some minds." "'All our efforts to change the opinion of the Serbian population toward accepting homosexuality as a normal aspect of sexuality are now destroyed. I want to go,' he said."

People who don't fight back (1994): "This is one of the numerous situations in which our state has expressed its homophobic attitude. Police raids and gay bashing by the state employees is not an unusual occurrence. In July, 1994, Serbia withdrew its law
prohibiting male homosexuality.  Still, police violence against gay men continues unabated, and young men feel free to bash gay people at random, knowing well that gay men cannot turn to the police for help."

From the -  At-Home with Joan - site: At-Home with Lepa Mladjenovic - looks at male aggression, violence and war as well as the situations of women and queers in  FR Yugoslavia and the Balkans, and discusses the current struggle for democracy in FR Yugoslavia.

Global Gayz: Gay Yugoslavia/Serbia News & Reports 1997-08.

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Information Request

Please forward any information related to European GLB Youth having suicide problems to  pierre@youth-suicide.com . The information may be in the form of mainstream articles (as in the Irish article noted above), or anecdotal. For example, an individual may have encountered sufficient cases of GLB individuals who have attempted suicide to strongly suspect the existence of a significant problem. Any relevant articles in local GLB magazines would be appreciated, including parts of articles.

Norway

Note: - The First GLB Suicide Web Page for an Individual European Country is Now Available (August, 2000) - Norway's Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Suicide Problems. The page contains all the information located here and additional information on the Hegna et al. (1999) study of Norwegian Gay and Lesbian Individuals. Plus more recently published study results. See tabulated suicidality results below.


The possible GLB suicide problem in Norway was addressed (maybe for the first time in 1997) via the paper The need for developing strategies for suicide prevention among young lesbian women and gay men: empirical and theoretical rationales written on the subject. The paper's abstract is available online (Alternate Link)- via the Internet Journal of Health Promotion.
Authors: Asle Offerdal (Studenenes psykiske helsetjeneste, Universitetet i..Bergen, Hans Tanksgate 11 N-5028 BERGEN, and Norman Anderssen (Research Center for Health Promotion, University of ' Bergen, Oisteinsgt.3, N-5007 BERGEN. The Paper was presented at the Conference on the Status of Nordic Health Promotion Research: Progress during the Decade after the Ottawa Charter.

Homosexuality by Marte Nathalie: "A statistic bureau in Norway recently released a study on the life-quality amongst young people that love someone from the same sex. The results are shocking. One out of four had tried to commit suicide! Half of the people asked didn't dare to tell even their closest friends that they were gay. Many had gone through tough times with their families, some had even been thrown out on the streets when they told they were gay."

Against Nature? - an exhibition on animal homosexuality.

A Possible Cause for GLBT Suicidality Proposed by Tone Hellesund.
Related Paper: Hellesund, Tone (2007). Deadly identities? : Homosexuality, adolescence and parasuicide. Ethnologia scandinavica, 37: 35-46. Reference. - Related News Article: Warns against 'queer looks’ and suicide statistics (2007): The shocking suicide figures among homosexuals are often used in the fight for equal treatment, but warnings are now being sounded about giving too much support to such a depressing depiction of the situation. At the same time, a new study shows that is it often the cumulative effect of the small everyday episodes that make the feeling of being different too hard to bear... In Ms Hellesund’s opinion, emphasising homosexuality as an orientation one is born with and cannot do anything about contributes to producing and reproducing homosexuality as a negative deviation. It becomes a special identity to be either ashamed or proud of. “I believe that slogans such as “Gay and proud of it” also show that shame is lurking just beneath the surface. Identity politics can be an effective way of achieving rights, but they derive their power from a collective pain. If one chose the opposite path and played down the categories, this could reduce many gay people’s feeling of not belonging,” says Ms Hellesund, who also believes that sexuality should not be regarded primarily as fixed categories, but rather as culturally changeable and unstable.

Also See: "Møtet med ”den andre” – unge homofile og selvmord" & "En kommentar til forskning om selvmord og homofili", Suicidologi, 11(2): 20-22 & 23. PDF Download. No Google Translation. Full Text. Translation.
Related Book: Hellesund, Tone (2009). Identitet på liv og død: marginalitet, homoseksualitet og selvmord av. Reference. Translation.
Concept Summary From an Interview With Tone Hellesund (Full Text):
In the project I have been doing on homosexuality and suicide narratives, I have interviewed young people who have tried to commit suicide because of their homosexuality, and they tell stories about being marginalized. From a very young age they recognized that homosexuality was seen as something, not only different from the lives their parents, families, friends and communities lived, but as something fundamentally different; something that really belonged to a different reality or universe; something that went on in a different place, between different people, and definitely not here in our family, at our school or in our village.

The stories I have heard are told by young people between the ages of 14 and 18 that live in very heterosexual environments, where they hear very few positive stories about homosexuality, yet they constantly hear that “the good life” is supposed to be heterosexual. These stories also speak of how if they were to become homosexuals, they would have to leave aside the life they had lived until then and become different persons in the eyes of their families, friends and maybe even in their own eyes.

Homosexuality is still seen as the truth about a human being. In Norwegian, we use the word legning; we speak of homofil legning, a homosexual inclination, which I see as a very essentialist framing of sexuality. That is a term that is very much used in the public debate and in every day conversations amongst general people. It is assumed that if you are a homosexual, you have this inborn inclination; your core is that you were born a homosexual, and there is nothing you can do about it. This is a very strong story in the Norwegian context...

The suicide narrative is strong in Norway and when that is the narrative about homosexuality that young people hear, they can also put their own suffering, and their own struggle into it, and connect to it in a way that could be potentially dangerous. All the people I have interviewed want to be normal, and want to have normal lives, and for them homosexuality was not something that could be integrated or combined with a normal life. The feeling of having to be someone different, of living a different life and being someone extraordinary, when all they want to be is ordinary people, is really strong in the stories I heard. I am sure that there are a lot of other stories about homosexuality and suicide too, but the ones I heard were the classic homosexual script, which is very easy to combine with the suicide script.
Concept Explored: Røthinga Å, Svendsenb SHB (2010). Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values. Journal of LGBT Youth, 7(2): 147-166. Abstract. Full Text.
Abstract: In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research and prevention programs. Recent studies concerning LGBT youth in Norway do indicate, however, that young Norwegians in general find it difficult to imagine themselves living a nonheterosexual life. Suicide is still considered a “reasonable” reaction to having to face a future as a homosexual. How can this be understood? Our analyses of teaching and textbooks in Norwegian schools points to three approaches to understanding young peoples’ reluctance to imagining themselves as nonheterosexual: the double message of homotolerance, the self-evidence of heterosexuality, and the absence of nonheterosexual futurescapes.

Excerpt: Both teaching and textbooks in Norwegian schools reflect the assumption that all students are heterosexually oriented and will lead a heterosexual life, with the exception of homosexual students, who are addressed in special sections. Generally, heterosexuality appears to be self-evident and normative also in teaching that explicitly aims to create positive attitudes. This is reflected in statements like “We have to accept homosexuals and be kind to them. They are ordinary people with feelings, just like us,” and in this conclusion to a group discussion: “Our group agrees that we do not have anything against homosexuals.” Such an approach implies a privileged heterosexual “we” who have the opportunity to tolerate “the homosexuals” as “the others” and who can decide what is tolerated and what is not tolerated. This creates an image of “the others” as inherently “different.” In the action of tolerance the difference is also produced, as “the others” are placed elsewhere, outside the classroom (Røthing, 2008; see also Brown, 2006; Gressg°ard & Jacobsen, 2008). Speaking of tolerance in this way produces otherness and marginalization of all nonheterosexuals. At the same time, heterosexuality and the privileges that come with a heterosexual lifestyle are not brought up or problematized. Heterosexuality is not presented as a topic for discussion. That way, it is portrayed as self-evident in its invisibility and verbal nonexistence (Foucault, 1980/1995). Heterosexuality is thus (re)produced as normative and privileged...

Conclusion: As mentioned in the introduction, Tone Hellesund argues that identities, when they appear to be absolute, stable, and predetermined, can be dangerous, even lethal, and she shows how this particular concept of “identity” tends to produce an experience of fundamental difference. The combination of an absolute and immersive identity and images of the future where this particular identity does not fit in or is absent may create a feeling of total hopelessness that makes suicide seem like a reasonable solution. Our analyses of teaching and textbooks pointed at three approaches to understanding young peoples’ reluctance to and fear of imagining themselves as nonheterosexual: (a) the double message of homotolerance, (b) the self-evidence of heterosexuality, and (c) the absence of nonheterosexual futurescapes. This teaching rests on an understanding of sexuality as binary and fixed, similar to the one reflected in the narratives of Hellesund’s informants. This understanding of sexuality is continuously presented in Norwegian schooling on sexuality, in classrooms, and in textbooks. Heterosexuality and homosexuality are presented as two sexual orientations that are mutually exclusive. Sexuality is depicted as something that is stable and set, something a person has and is, and he or she is expected to be either heterosexual or homosexual. This binary approach to sexuality both reproduces heterosexuality as the most desirable sexual practice and future and homosexuality by implication acceptable but not really wanted or desirable (Røthing & Svendsen, 2008a). Our studies have not found any evidence of textbooks or education that tries to fundamentally challenge the privileged position of heterosexuality in Norwegian society. The changes that teachers and textbooks seem to promote are primarily in relation to the majority’s (presumed) negative ideas of and attitudes to nonheterosexuals as “the others” (Røthing, 2008; Røthing & Svendsen, 2009b).

A Similar Proposition was Advanced by Tremblay and Ramsay (2000, 2004). See: "The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide Problems." Contents Page. Contents Page. The concept will become apparent after reading the first two short sections, i.e., reading to "Male Homosexuality: From Common to a Rarity."

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Sweden

Is there a GLB youth suicide problem in Sweden? ... A New Web Page!

Although information related to a potential suicide problem for GLB youth seems to be non-existent, the reasons for predicting such a problem - as done for Norway - would be the same. In fact the socio-psychological situation described for GLB youth in Sweden  is remarkable the same as the North American situation where GLB youth are reported to be at greater risk for suicidality. A summary is given in Lesbian and Gay the Swedish Way N/A (A RSFL Pamphlet, Alternate Link, Alternate Link) in the subsection Young Lesbians and Gays N/A:

The teenage years are the time when you seriously begin to discover feelings that deal with love, relationships and sex. You talk with your friends about whom you're interested in and how to meet him or her. But friends usually assume that everyone's interested in the opposite sex. And frequently the attitude towards homosexuality is openly negative, especially among young men.

Many homosexuals are worried that their friends will discover their real feelings. Sometimes they then choose to avoid their friends. Others try to "prove" their heterosexuality by having many affairs or sexual contacts with the opposite sex. Younger homosexuals claim that the lack of role models and the total invisibility of homosexuality make it difficult for them to come out when young.

For young men there's only "dirty old men" or "nelly queens" to compare themselves with. They can't recognize themselves in either of these images. Young lesbians experience total silence - lesbians, or "dykes", don't seem to exist. In school when feelings are discussed in sex education or health classes, homosexual youth become even more invisible.

In most cases the teaching focuses on heterosexual youths' feelings and sexuality. At worst, homosexual feelings are written off as "something that goes away" when you get older.

Martinez M, Schröttle M, et al (2006). State of European research on the prevalence of interpersonal violence and its impact on health and human rights. Co-ordination Action on Human Rights Violations (CAHRV). Internet: http://www.cahrv.uni-osnabrueck.de/reddot/CAHRVreportPrevalence(1).pdf .

Excerpt (Sweden):
In Sweden three prevalence studies on violence against homosexuals and bisexuals have been conducted in 1981, 1996, and 2004. The two most recent studies are discussed here.

Study in 1996 In the study carried out in 1996, 25% of the 2000 participants stated that they had been a victim of different types of hate crimes due to sexual orientation. Men (28%) were more often victims compared to women (20%). From those victimized 20% had also been exposed to harassment in the work place.

Study in 2004 In the new study carried out in 2004, with 2000 participants, the rate of victimization was 52%. The situation has changed in relation to the study of 1996. The number of male victims is 51% and of females 53%. Young persons were most often victims of this type of crime. Seventy-seven percent of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons (LGBT) under 20 years of age stated that they had been victims of some sort of hate crime. Of participants between 20 and 30 years of age, 64% said so; of middle aged persons 40-50%; and of 60 to 70 year old participants about 10%. Twelve percent claimed they had been victims of crimes of violence, and 11% of sex crimes. Perpetrators were relatives, neighbors, pupils, students, craftsmen, storekeepers, colleagues and authorities. Slander, insult and verbal harassment are the most common types of offences. Thus, hate crimes against LGBT persons in Sweden have doubled since 1996. This is the conclusion of the new study by criminologist Eva Tiby at Stockholm University.

See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Germany

 German government 'ignoring gay youths' needs,' says Green MP (2010): The ministry's response denied any knowledge of suicide statistics for homosexual youths, which Gehring called "implausible" as the document itself made multiple references to a 1999 study that placed suicide attempts among homosexuals at 18 percent - four times the rate of heterosexual youths. Schroeder, who was not available for comment, did show some awareness of young gays' struggles in her response, said Gehring, but no intention of doing anything about them. Gehring called Schroeder's stance "utterly shameful, because we know that 'gay pig' remains one of the most popular insults on school playgrounds, that bullying and violence are still widespread."

Selbstmord: Schwule Männer nur zwei Schritte vor dem Abgrund? Gesellschaftliches Tabuthema: Suizid bei Homosexuellen (2011, Translation):  In der Venloer Straße 561 ist eine Klingel ohne Namensschild: Denn vor einigen Wochen hat sich Villa Anders-Bewohner Dietmar Gehre das Leben genommen. Als überzeugter Anhänger des schwul-lesbischen Wohnprojekts hatte er noch kurz zuvor ein Interview gegeben. Die Überschrift: “Allein unter Freunden”. Allein fühlen sich viele Schwule. Laut einer Studie des Berliner Senats sind sie etwa vier Mal so suizidanfällig wie ihre heterosexuellen Altersgenossen. FLASH wollte wissen, was Menschen zu diesem Schritt bewegt und wie ihnen geholfen werden kann... Der 35-jährige Oliver (Name geändert) erinnert sich: “Als ich Anfang bis Mitte 20 war, war mein Leben eine wahre Achterbahnfahrt. Jede beendete Affäre schien mir das Ende der Welt zu sein. An vielen Tagen wollte ich nicht mehr weiterleben. Wenn ich Auto gefahren bin, schien mich jeder Betonpfeiler am Straßenrand einladen zu wollen. Das Einzige was mich damals davon abhielt Selbstmord zu begehen, war der Gedanke, wie ich damit andere Menschen traumatisieren könnte. Inzwischen wohne ich sehr glücklich in Köln und kann darüber sogar lachen”. Wie brutal gerade für schwule Jugendliche der Selbstfindungsprozess sein kann, zeigt auch der Fall von Kevin. Der aus Winterberg im Sauerland stammende, inzwischen aber in Köln lebende 23-Jährige sprach letztes Jahr mit dem Spiegel über sein schwieriges Coming out. Als Messdiener, Jungschützenkönig und Mitglied im Gemeindepfarrat schien er fest verwurzelt zu sein. Bis sich das Gerücht verbreitete, er sei schwul. “Damals hatte ich oft Angstzustände”, erzählte Kevin den Spiegel-Redakteuren. Heute steht er offen zu seiner Homosexualität, hat an Selbstbewusstsein gewonnen, traut sich sogar mit blau-weißem Schal unter FC-Anhänger. Andere halten den Druck nicht aus und scheiden freiwillig aus dem Leben, meistens total überraschend für ihr soziales Umfeld. “Oft sind Menschen mit Suizidgedanken verzweifelt und fühlen sich hoffnungslos in eine Ecke gedrängt. Sie entwickeln eine Depression, die von äußeren Einflüssen positiv oder negativ verändert oder sogar entschieden wird. Man kann also keinesfalls davon ausgehen, dass Menschen, die sich selbst das Leben nehmen wollen, von Anfang an psychisch krank sind. Oftmals ist es so, dass der Suizid nur der letzte Ausweg aus ihrer Verzweiflung ist, weil sie keine anderen Alternativen sehen”, erklärt die Neusser Diplom-Psychiaterin Dr. Barbara Kraus im Gespräch mit der FLASH. Und auch der offen schwule Kölner Psychotherapeut Frank Hichert wurde bereits mit solchen Fällen konfrontiert. Der von seiner Stiftung ins Leben gerufene Jugendliteraturpreis JULIT:))) soll das Selbstbewusstsein junger Lesben und Schwule fördern...

A study summary from - Statistiques relatives aux tentatives de suicide commises par les adolescents homosexuel(le)s (Translation): 217 GLB individuals aged 15 - 27 years. 18% have attempted suicide at least once, 50% responded to negatively in their families, and 66% were abuse verbally and/or physically in their families. Reference cited:"Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude berlinoise sur la situation psychosociale des adolescents homosexuels (217 personnes entre 15 et 27 ans), Administration du Sénat, Berlin, 1999 (www.sensjs.berlin.de). Study Summary: 18% des adolescents homosexuel(le)s affirment avoir tenté au moins une fois de mettre fin à leur jours. A l'annonce de leur homosexualité, plus de 50% des adolescents reçoivent une réaction négative de la part de leur environnement familial. 66% affirment subir des violences verbales, voire physiques au sein de leur famille. Plus de 50% des adolescents interrogés affirment (ab)user de substances nocives (tabac, alcool, drogues) pour amenuiser leur mal-être. "Sie liebt sie. Er liebt er." Etude berlinoise sur la situation psychosociale des adolescents homosexuels (217 personnes entre 15 et 27 ans), Administration du Sénat, Berlin, 1999 (www.sensjs.berlin.de). 
Study Reference from: Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek R, Fartacek C (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN, 7, 28-37. PDF Download... 35. Berliner Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Jugend und Sport. Sie liebt sie. Er liebt ihn. Eine Studie zur psychosozialen Lage junger Lesben, Schwuler und Bisexueller in Berlin. 1998.

Studie "Schwule Jugendliche" (2001) (Translation): Unsere Untersuchung zur Lebenssituation schwuler Jugendlicher wurde von Juni 1998 bis Juni 1999 des niedersächsischen Staatsministeriums für Jugend und Familie durchgeführt. Dabei erhielten wir 353 verwertbare Fragebögen aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum. Das Alter der Befragten reicht von 15 bis 25 Jahren, davon 36,5 % zwischen 15 und 20, das Durchschnittsalter beträgt 21,3 Jahre...  Die wichtigste Frage am Anfang ist: Wem kann ich es erzählen ? Noch einmal anderthalb Jahre nach der Gewißheit, mit 18,2 Jahren, teilt der junge Schwule der ersten Person sein Schwulsein mit. Die erste Person, die ins Vertrauen gezogen wird, kommt in den meisten Fällen aus der privaten Peergroup. Bei 32,3 % ist es der Freund und bei 25,8 % eine Freundin. Insgesamt 21,2 % nennen ein Familienmitglied. Davon entfallen auf die Mutter 8,5 % auf den Vater 0,6 %, Bruder 2,5 %, Schwester 3,7 %, sowie sonstige Familienangehörige 5,9 %.  Study References from: Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek R, Fartacek C (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN, 7, 28-37. PDF Download... 33. Biechele U. Schwule Jugendliche: Lebenssituation und psychosozialer Hilfebedarf. In: Beratung von Lesben und Schwulen. Dokumentation der VII Fachtagung des Verbandes lesbischer Psychologinnen und schwuler Psychologen in Deutschland. Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe, Berlin, 2001. 34. Biechele U. Identitätsentwicklung schwuler Jugendlicher. Eine Befragung deutschsprachiger junger Schwuler in der schwulen Szene sowie im Internet. Dissertation. Universität Basel, 2004.
 
Forschung und Fakten (Translation): Diese Seite liefert denjenigen die Ergebnisse aktueller Studien und Befragungen mit Daten und Zahlen zu queeren Lebensweisen, die sich tiefergehend und wissenschaftlich mit dem Thema auseinandersetzen möchten.


See Below: Suicidality Study Results.


Italy

  Enquête Italienne (Translation): (2000, Must Scroll, Alternate Link,, Translation) "L'Associazione gay e lesbica de Florence a mis en place une enquête sur internet à laquelle 800 gais et lesbiennes du monde entier ont répondu (les deux tiers des réponses provenaient d'Europe). Cette enquête fait suite à une série de suicides de jeunes gais en Sardaigne, en Sicile (immolation par le feu) et en Lombardie ainsi qu'à la mise à mort publique d'un jeune homosexuel par son père à Foggia dans les Pouilles. Les résultats de l'enquête internet sont frappants. Si 65 % des gais et 61 % des lesbiennes avouent avoir pensé au suicide, 22 % des hommes et 21 % des femmes ont effectivement un jour tenté de mettre fin à leur jour. 28 % des répondants ont effectué un traitement psychologique ou psychiatrique (11 % contre leur volonté). Enfin la moitié environ des ques­tionnaires fait état de violences subies en raison de l'orientation sexuelle, ces violences pouvant être physiques (le plus souvent les parents et les camarades d'école), psychologiques ou sexuelles."

Translation: 800 Italian gay and lesbian individuals surveyed. 65% of gay males and 61% of lesbians report having thought about suicide. Suicide attempt(s) reported by 22% and 21%, respectively. 28% report having received psychiatric treatment, 11% against their will.

Situation of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member states (Doc. 8755, 6 June 2000, Report by Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights): Rapporteur: Mr Csaba Tabajdi, Hungary, Socialist Group: "In Italy, for example, in a study within the framework of the EU funded Daphne programme 40 % of respondents had contemplated suicide and 13% had attempted suicide. The age in which thoughts about suicide were most prevalent was between 14 and 16, whereas the suicide attempts tended to take place in the following two years." Cited Reference: "UK:Mason, A. and Palmer, A. (1996) - "Queer Bashing -- a national survey of hate crimes against lesbians and gay men". London: Stonewall.Bertozzo, G. (1998): "From Internet: The Voices of 'Quella Ragazza, Quel Ragazzo' (That Girl, That Boy). Finisterrae, nº 1, October, Firenze (Italy)." - Situation des lesbiennes et des gays dans les États membres du Conseil de l'Europe (2000, Translation):  "En Italie, par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le cadre du programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 % des personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 % avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des 14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18 ans." - Le suicide de jeunes homosexuel/le/s (2002, Translation): "En Italie, par exemple, selon une enquête réalisée dans le cadre du programme Daphné financé par l'Union européenne, 40 % des personnes interrogées avaient envisagé le suicide, et 13 % avaient tenté de se suicider. C'est dans la tranche d'âge des 14-16 ans que prévalaient les idées de suicide, tandis que les tentatives de suicide avaient généralement lieu entre 16 et 18 ans."

Italy has been rocked by the suicide of a teenager who was subjected to anti-gay taunts at school N/A (2007, Alternate Link):  According to Italy's Gay Help Line, more than one third of the calls it gets are from students distressed by taunting and bullying at school. On Friday homophobic graffiti was sprayed across the front of a well-known gay and lesbian bookshop in Milan. Also on Friday, the Rome chapter of Arcigay claimed that local priests were pressuring mothers to have their gay children exorcised. Arcigay also complained about RAI state TV broadcaster news reports implying that the dead boy was picked on not because he was gay but because he was seen as a 'swot'..." - Sedicenne suicida, dicevano che era gay. La madre: "Perché lo hanno trattato così?" (2007, Translation).

Turin: Suicide d'un «étudiant modèle» (2007, Translation): "L'Italie est sous le choc après le suicide de Matteo, un adolescent de 16 ans. Dans une lettre qu'il a laissé à ses proches, il disait être la victime d'humiliations constantes de la part de ses camarades, qui le traitaient de «pédé».
- Gay sedicenne suicida a Torino (2007, Translation). - Bullismo: archiviato suicidio di Matteo (2007, Translation). - «Sei Gay!» Si Uccide (2007, Translation).

Ormando, il gay suicida in Vaticano (2010, Translation): Il 13 gennaio del 1998 Alfredo Ormando, poeta omosessuale, si diede fuoco a piazza San Pietro. Morì dieci giorni più tardi, all’ospedale Sant’Eugenio, per le ustioni. Ormando protestava contro la Chiesa cattolica che “demonizza l’omosessualità”, come scrisse lui stesso. Da quel giorno, ogni 13 gennaio la comunità gay di Roma si ritrova di fronte alla basilica-simbolo della cristianità per gettare dei fiori verso il luogo dove avvenne il suicidio.

Tenta il suicidio in ospedale. Era già stato accoltellato perché gay (2012, Translation): Attualmente è in rianimazione, sempre ad Andria, a rischio paralisi. Tra le possibili cause del gesto vi sarebbe la difficoltà a far accettare la propria diversità sessuale. Infatti proprio lo scorso agosto fu vittima di 19 coltellate frutto di un litigio tra fratelli, in presenza di altri familiari, causato dalle tensioni generate dalla dichiarata omosessualità del ragazzo. Alcuni giorni dopo l’episodio dell’accoltellamento questo giornale pubblicò le parole del giovane tratte dal suo profilo Facebook. Quelle parole, in cui giaceva nascosta la trama di una vita difficile, fecero il giro della provincia: «Sono una trans, e la prima volta che ho un compiuter non sono tanto pratica sono stantissima sfortunata nella vita ma mi affido a Dio tanto spero che qualcuno/a mi capisca, mi sento sola sono sola. e tradita e sffrutata al massimo sono bravissima amabile sicerissima spero diavverere amicizia ma anche un amoroso». Tra le righe sfortuna, solitudine, sfruttamento e tanto altro. - Accoltellamento a Cerignola. Sviluppi del caso (2011, Translation).

Tentato suicidio di giovane gay di Vicenza: il dramma di molti giovani nell’indifferenza della politica e dell’incapacità delle famiglie ad affrontare un tema considerato ancora tabù (in Italia) (2012, Translation): La notizia che un ragazzo di 20 anni, a Vicenza, ha ieri tentato il suicidio  perché i genitori non hanno accettato la sua omosessualità, appena dichiarata, dovrebbe far riflettere la classe politica  e tutto quell’esercito di ipocriti taleban-clericali che continuano a negare diritti, informazione, e assistenza sempre più necessaria nel nostro paese alle persone Lgbt(e). Recarsi su un cavalcavia e tentare di gettarsi sulle automobili sottostanti, con l’aiuto dello stordimento dell’alcool, offre bene l’idea di come in Italia un giovane di 20 anni vive la sua condizione di omosessuale, la sua colpa è stata quella di fare ‘coming out’ (non ‘outing') con i genitori che lo hanno subito rifiutato. Occorre anche ricordare che tra gli adolescenti una delle cause maggiori di suicidio è proprio determinata dalla scoperta dell’essere omosessuali e di vivere tale condizione in piena solitudine. -  Confessa ai genitori: «Io gay» Non compreso tenta il suicidio
(2012, Translation): Un giovane, sconvolto, ha cercato di buttarsi da un cavalcavia fra le automobili della strada del Melaro. Il ventenne aveva rivelato ai suoi di essere omosessuale, ma non l'avevano presa bene: è stato salvato dall'arrivo dei carabinieri

Pietrantoni L (1999). Adolescenza, Tentato Suicidio E Orientamento Sessuale: Uno Studio Sui Correlati Psicosociali. Minerva Psichiatrica, 40: 75-80. Full Text (Translation).  Metodi: 64 soggetti che si autodefinivano omosessuali con età compresa tra 14 e 22 anni sono stati sottoposti ad una intervista strutturata e ad un questionario che rilevava il ruolo sociale di genere, l’omosessualità egodistonica, la depressione e altri aspetti sociali e familiari. Risultati: Un quarto circa dei soggetti ha riportato almeno un tentato suicidio in passato e le motivazioni riportate erano sia correlate che non correlate con la loro omosessualità. I soggetti con tentato suicidio erano quelli con una maggiore deviazione del ruolo di genere, con un più precoce riconoscimento dei propri desideri omoerotici, un maggiore uso di stupefacenti e una più problematica situazione familiare. Conclusioni: Lo studio sottolinea la necessità di comprendere la condotta suicidaria all’interno del più vasto contesto socio-culturale. L’identificazione dei fattori sociali e di personalità che rendono gli adolescenti più vulnerabili a breakdown evolutivi e più predisposti a comportamenti autodistruttivi consentirà di strutturare più efficacemente i programmi di prevenzione del disagio adolescenziale.

Buffoli A, Colucci E (2007). Self-harm and suicidal behaviour among young Italian lesbians, gays and bisexuals. Paper presented at the 2007 International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP) Conference, Killarney, Ireland. Abstract (Word Download N/A, Abstract. Abstract.) : International epidemiological studies demonstrate that gay and bisexual people are more likely to attempt suicide than their heterosexual counterparts. This study reflects the paucity of reserch about self-harm and suicidal behaviour in young Italian homosexuals. Method: 720 Italian participants (605 M and 115 F), 18-24 years old, who identified themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual answered to an on-line survey hosted on an internet website. Results: Data collected through the semi-structured questionnaire are compared for gender, geographical provenance and sexual orientation. More than 80% of the sample reported to have thought about suicide and 20% reported one or more suicide attempts. Participants living in rural areas in South Italy were at greater risk of suicide. Related Article/Interview: Suicidio: 8 gay italiani su 10 ci hanno pensato (2007, Translation): .Buffoli, allora com'è andata la ricerca dopo la pubblicazione del nostro primo articolo? Benissimo, basti dire che solo nella settimana successiva ho ricevuto più di 1000 questionari compilati. Al termine della fase di raccolta dati, i questionari validi, ovvero quelli compilati da gay lesbiche e bisessuali nati e residenti in Italia, nella sola fascia d'età tra i 18 e i 24 anni, erano 720, dei quali 605 maschi e 115 femmine. Solo su questo gruppo, per il momento, sono state condotte le analisi... Quali sono i dati più significativi emersi? Che l'82.5% dei maschi e il 84.3% delle femmine ha pensato almeno una volta di suicidarsi e che il 17.7% dei maschi e il 32.2% delle femmine ha tentato il suicidio. Calcolando una scala di rischio suicidario dalle domande epidemiologiche per ogni soggetto e valutandoli in relazione alla provenienza geografica (nord centro sud Italia) e le dimensioni del centro abitato, è emerso un maggior rischio suicidario per coloro che vivono al sud in centri piccoli, inferiori a 10.000 abitanti. Possiamo solo ipotizzare che questo sia dovuto al fatto che il Sud è l'area più tradizionalista del Paese e che l'omosessualità sia meno accettata che nel resto d'Italia.

Warner, Nigel (2007). Il suicidio tra i giovani gay, lesbiche, bisessuali e transgender. Relazione di ILGA-Europe per la Commissione degli Affari Sociali, Sanità e Famiglia dell’ Assemblea Parlamentare del Consiglio d’Europa. PDF Download. Download Page. - Warner, Nigel (2007). Suicidality among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth: Report by ILGA-Europe to the Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Word Download. Download Page. - Il suicidio tra i giovani gay, lesbiche, bisessuali e transgender (2008, Translation).

See Below: Suicidality Study Results

Hungary

Homophobia In Hungary On The Wane (2011): A recent survey by the gay society Háttér Társaság a Melegekért and the Sociology Research Institute interviewed over 1,600 homosexuals and bisexuals. The largest number of respondents, 37%, said they had experienced discrimination or harassment in public due to their sexual orientation. In addition, 29% encountered homophobia in bars and restaurants, 19% in schools and 18% within their own family. Most, 59%, said they harbour thoughts of depression and suicide, and 33% said they had attempted suicide."

A father wrote, that his son was gay
. His wife, the sons mother, couldn't accept it and attacked her son. He committed suicide. She couldn't cope with that and she also committed suicide."

Provocative findings from the LGBT Health Study (Budapest, July 19-20, 2006: Powerpoint Download) by Brian Griffin: “Over 56% of those surveyed in Macedonia [Hungary] report having suicidal thoughts.  In the other countries the proportion ranges on the lower end from 18% in Macedonia and 24% in BiH to just over 42% and 43% in Moldova and Romania respectively.  In terms of those with suicide thoughts going on to attempt suicide, we see that this happens in 50% of the cases in Moldvoa, in almost 45% of the cases in Romania.  The percentages drop considerably in the remaining countries and range from 0% in Macedonia to 18.3% in Hungary.  In Moldova it was noted that of those who reported having suicidal thought, women had a slight majority at 55.6%.  When it comes to a gender breakdown of those reported having attempted suicide, that majority goes up to 60%. “It is significant to note that in three of the countries surveyed, in the region of 60% of respondents felt that these experiences related to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.” (22-23)  Report asks why these numbers are lower than those in international studies. Instead it should ask if they are higher than suicide rates among non-LGBT youth in country. (Download Page: Project Workshop, July 2006, Budapest). The Report: Quinn S (2006). Accessing Health: the Context and the Challenges for LGBT People in Central and Eastern Europe. ILGA-Europe. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Takács J, Mocsonaki L, Tóth TP (2008). Social Exclusion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People in Hungary. Institute of Sociology Hungarian Academy of Sciences In cooperation with the Háttér Support Society for LGBT People in Hungary and the Labrisz Lesbian Association Budapest. PDF Download.

Resources: Háttér Társaság a Melegekért (Translation). - Labrisz Leszbikus Egyesület (Translation).
 
See Below: Suicidality Study Results.  

Denmark

Gransell L, Hansen H (2009). Equal and unequal? The living conditions and wellbeing of gay and lesbian people, bisexuals and trangenders in Denmark. Copenhagen: CASA. PDF Download. Danish Version of Report: PDF Download. Download Page.
A Major GLBT Related Problem in Denmark as Reported in This Study Report: "In 2008 the National Association for Gay and Lesbian People in Denmark (LBL) contacted CASA with the intention of conducting a survey on the living conditions of gay and lesbian people, bisexuals and transgenders (LGBT) in Denmark. The idea was to conduct a representative survey on the wellbeing and living conditions of this group. A representative study of the Danish LGBT community and the conditions under which they live has, until now, not been undertaken. CASA is very pleased to be able to contribute to this innovatory knowledge in such an important field. Clarifying the financial side of the project has been a long and difficult process. LBL, World Outgames and CASA have put much effort into this side of the project in the form of applications. Numerous funds, ministries and local authorities have been contacted. In doing so we have discovered that a survey with regard to sexual minorities and gender identity, is not a subject many are interested in supporting. As a result it has, unfortunately, not been possible to raise enough money for a thorough analysis. We have chosen, therefore, to present a descriptive report. Of course the possibility exists that other researchers, at a later date, will be able to use this collected data for a closer analysis via the Danish Data Archives." ... In 2005 and 2007 Statens Institute for Folkesundhedsvidenskab (The State Institute for Public Health Science) conducted a SUSY survey in which a few questions dealt with sexuality. However, this survey can only be used as a basis for how gay and lesbian people and bisexuals fare when it comes to health. Also, results concerning sexual orientation from these two surveys have as yet to be published.
Selvmord ses langt oftere blandt homoseksuelle [Suicide is seen more often among gay] (2009, Translation): Hele fire gange så mange homo- trans- og biseksuelle som heteroseksuelle har forsøgt at begå selvmord. Det er især de unge, der har selvmordstanker, og børn helt ned til 4-6-års-alderen har prøvet at tage deres eget liv, viser undersøgelse [The whole four times as many homo-trans and bisexuals as heterosexual have attempted suicide. It is especially the young people who have suicidal thoughts, and children as young as 4-6-year-old tried to take their own life, shows study]... [It is mostly women who are trying to take their own lives, and as much as 30 percent of the young women in the age group of 16-29-years have had suicidal thoughts during the last year. It comes on the back of Mette Søgaard, who is head of department on telephone advice 'Lifeline'. "The inquiries we get is actually mainly from young men who are gay. But nothing of what is true for both sexes, is that it's hard not to be able to live up to some of the ideals that are in our normal society. The idea of ​​the right and the happy life includes father, mother and children, and it can not meet, "she says. Many of the inquiries they receive the Lifeline are from young people with a different ethnic background than Danish.]

Homoseksuelle begår oftere selvmord [Gay commit suicide more often] (2012, Translation): - Der er en kæmpe overrepræsentation af selvmord blandt LGBT-personer i Danmark. Det er utroligt vigtigt at få afhjulpet nogle af de omstændigheder, som åbenbart gør sig gældende for den gruppe, siger LGBT-koordinator i AIDS-Fondet Ole Møller Markussen [- There is a huge over-representation of suicide among LGBT people in Denmark. It is incredibly important to correct some of the circumstances that obviously applies to the group, says LGBT coordinator AIDS Foundation Ole Møller Markussen.].

Gays face "worrying" level of discrimination in Denmark (2009): The latest data from the National Police shows that approximately 3,400 people were subjected to homophobic attacks in 2008. According to the City Council"s office for integration, at least 64 percent of hate crimes take place in public areas, and of these, the majority of complaints list sexual orientation as the basis for attacks. However, attacks are not just limited to individuals and a number of businesses within the gay community have been targeted as well. Politiken newspaper reports that Copenhagen"s oldest gay bar, Centralhjørnet, has seen rocks thrown through its windows on six occasions during the last year, while eggs have also been thrown in the door at patrons. "In my experience, the stupid antics have been more frequent in the last two to three years," said bar owner Torben Rasmussen.

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]".
Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does NOT mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(2):111-7. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. Results: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married." PDF Download

Austria / Österreich

Homo- und besonders Bisexuelle leiden bis heute unter mangelnder gesellschaftlicher Akzeptanz und haben ein deutlich erhöhtes Suizidrisiko und mehr psychische Probleme als Heteros (2011, p. 3, Translation for sections): Bei Homo- und Bisexuellen im deutschsprachigen Raum sei die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines Suizidversuchs etwa fünfmal so hoch wie bei Heterosexuellen, so Dr.Martin Plöderl, Klinischer Psychologe im Forschungsprogramm Suizidprävention an der Paracelsus Privatmedizinischen Universität Salzburg und an der Christian Doppler Klinik. Etwa 30 Prozent dieser Gruppe sollen laut Prof. Dr.Armin Schmidtke bereits einen „ernsthaften Suizidversuch“ unternommen haben. Homosexuelle mit muslimischem Migrationshintergrund seien besonders gefährdet... Ärzte und Therapeuten sollten sich zu dem Thema umfassend informieren, und vor allem sollten sie den Homound Bisexuellen gegenüberWertschätzung ausdrücken, fordert Plöderl.Auch das Verhalten von Eltern, Lehrern und Erziehern sei wichtig: „Sie sollten Kindern gegenüber, die sich nicht geschlechtsrollenkonform verhalten, Toleranz zeigen.“ Die Schule sei ein idealer Ort für Prävention. Ein frühes Coming- Out an der Schule könne jedoch riskant sein: „Gerade dort ist dieHomophobie heute allgegenwärtig, und anders als im Erwachsenenalter ist man weniger frei, die Schule zu wechseln, als denArbeitsplatz.“ - In Österreich fast jeder dritte Suizidversuch von Homosexuellen (2011, Translation). - Homosexuelle Schüler leiden in der Schule (2007, Translation).

Kurzfilm “Uncertain” – mit Studiendaten zu Suizidraten, Homophobie und Interview mit Filmemacher
(2012, Translation): Lesbische und schwule Jugendliche haben eine vier- bis siebenmal höhere Suizidrate: So ist es wenig verwunderlich, dass die Suizidrate unter homosexuellen Jugendlichen deutlich höher ist, als unter heterosexuellen Jugendlichen. In einer Studie von Martin Plöderl im Rahmen seiner Dissertation hat dieser 358 schwule, lesbische und bisexuelle Personen befragt. 17 % der Lesben und 12 % der Schwulen haben bereits einmal versucht, sich das Leben zu nehmen. Bei einer vorsichtigen Schätzung, dass ca 6 % der Bevölkerung sich zum gleichen Geschlecht hingezogen fühlt (die Zahlen variieren von 5 bis 15 %), würden ca 30 % aller Suizidversuche in Österreich von homosexuellen Personen begangen werden. Das würde bedeuten, dass bei homosexuellen Menschen das Suizidrisiko bis zu sieben Mal höher ist, als bei der heterosexuellen Bevölkerung. Wie gefährlich das Fehlen sozialer Unterstützung ist, wurde in dieser Studie als Ursachea angeführt: ...

In Österreich fast jeder dritte Suizidversuch von Homosexuellen (2011
, Translation): Auch eine umfangreiche Untersuchung aus dem Jahr 2004 im deutschsprachigen Raum, bei der 358 schwule, lesbische und bisexuelle ÖsterreicherInnen von Dr. Martin Plöderl von der Universität Salzburg im Rahmen seiner Dissertation befragt wurden - der größte Teil davon in Salzburg, Oberösterreich und der Steiermark - sieht als Hauptursache für Suizidversuche homosexueller Jugendlicher die geringe soziale Unterstützung - vor allem auch durch die eigenen Eltern. Dabei zeigte sich auch, dass homosexuelle Jugendliche eklatant häufiger depressiv sind, an Selbstmord denken, einen solchen planen oder eben auch versuchen. Demnach haben 17 Prozent der Lesben und zwölf Prozent der Schwulen bereits einmal versucht, sich das Leben zu nehmen. Fast jeder dritte Suizidversuch in Österreich wird von homosexuell orientierten Menschen begangen. Bei der sehr vorsichtigen Schätzung, dass sechs Prozent der Bevölkerung gleichgeschlechtlich veranlagt sind (die Angaben reichen von fünf bis 15 Prozent), würden 30 Prozent der Suizidversuche auf das Konto dieser Gruppe gehen, so damals der Studienautor Plöderl. Das heißt, das Selbstmordrisiko sei etwa sieben Mal so hoch wie bei Heterosexuellen... Was sind nun die Gründe? Es sind deutlich mehr Risikofaktoren für Homo- und Bisexuelle festzustellen, ergab die Studie Plöderls. Sie hätten eine geringere soziale Unterstützung, vor allem durch die eigenen Eltern: 30 Prozent der Väter und 20 Prozent der Mütter seien zum Zeitpunkt der Befragung noch immer sehr negativ oder negativ zur Homosexualität ihres Kindes eingestellt gewesen. Dazu kämen die schwierige persönliche Einstellung zur eigenen Homosexualität, Hoffnungslosigkeit, ein geringeres Selbstwertgefühl und relativ häufige Suizidversuche im Bekanntenkreis als weitere Risikofaktoren...

Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R, Plöderl M (2012). Religion and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Austrians. Journal of religion and Health. Oct 9. [Epub ahead of print].
Abstract. Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Yazdi K, Fartacek R (2011). A closer look at self-reported suicide attempts: false positives and false negatives. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(1): 1-5. Abstract. Full Text. The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing false positives decreased the rate of suicide attempters from 4.3% to 2.7%. Probing questions also revealed 0.8% false negatives. We recommend using probing questions with both those who report a suicide attempt and those who do not report a suicide attempt to increase the validity of self-reported suicide-related information.

Plöderl M, Faistauer G, Fartacek R (2010)
. The contribution of school to the feeling of acceptance and the risk of suicide attempts among Austrian gay and bisexual males. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(7): 819-41. Abstract: School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of 468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported that hard times at school related to one's homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt. Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in school-based suicide prevention programs. Related 2008 Conference Presentation (34th Annual Meet ing of the International Academy of Sex Research): "The Contribution of Schools to the Feeling of Acceptance and the Risk of Suicide Attempts among Austrian Gay and Bisexual Males." PDF Download.

Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek R (2010). The relation between sexual orientation and suicide attempts in Austria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(6): 1403-1414.
Abstract: Previous studies indicate that homosexual or bisexual individuals are at a higher risk of attempting suicide compared to heterosexuals. To overcome biases in these studies, more rigorous definitions of "suicide attempts" and the assessment of multiple dimensions of sexual orientation are needed. In addition, studies from the German speaking region are sparse, especially those not recruiting participants from the gay or lesbian communities. We solicited self-reported suicide attempts among 1,382 Austrian adults recruited through structured snowball sampling from students' social networks. Suicide attempts were more frequently reported by those participants with homosexual or bisexual fantasies, partner preference, behavior, and self-identification, compared to their heterosexually classified counterparts. This was true for any dimension of sexual orientation and for suicide attempts with intent to die or suicide attempts that required medical treatment. Our Austrian study confirmed existing evidence that homosexual and bisexual individuals are at an increased risk for attempting suicide. This should be considered in suicide preventive efforts.

Plöderl M, Fartacek R (2009). Childhood gender nonconformity and harassment as predictors of suicidality among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Austrians. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(3): 400-410.
Abstract: The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.

Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek R, Fartacek C (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN, 7, 28-37. Related Summary: Homo- und Bisexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern (Translation). PDF Download.

Plöderl M, Kurosh Y, Kralovec K, Fartacek R (2007). Geschlechtsrollennonkonformität in der Kindheit als Suizidrisikofaktor am Beispiel von homo- und bisexuellen Personen. Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 3(3): 81-85. Abstract. Deviance from stereotypical gender roles (gender role nonconformity) is associated with negative social reactions from childhood onwards. Our article explores how childhood gender nonconformity correlates with psychological distress and even suicidality in adulthood. Compared to heterosexuals, homosexual individuals report more childhood gender nonconformity and a substantially increased suicide risk in adolescence and adulthood. Therefore, studies on homosexual individuals are especially valuable for investigating long-term consequences of early gender role nonconformity. An overview of related empirical studies supports the hypothesis that childhood gender nonconformity increases suicide risk enduringly. This is true at least for homosexual, but probably for heterosexual individuals as well. The problematic effect of gender nonconformity is well explained by negative social consequences that also might be internalized. This should be considered in the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic practice.

Book Review (2007): Suizidalität bei Homosexuellen: Gezielte Prävention gefordert. [Suicidality among homosexuals: Targeted prevention required] (Translation) Book: Martin Plöderl: Sexuelle Orientierung, Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit. (Google Books) Beltz, Weinheim, 2005, 279 Seiten, broschiert, 64,90 €.
 
Plöderl M, Fartacek R (2005). Suicidality and associated risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual compared to heterosexual Austrian adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(6):661-670.
Abstract: This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%), including higher incidences for most suicidality-related risk factors. Increased psychosocial stress and vulnerability is indicated, especially with respect to a lack of family support. Controlling for risk factors in multivariate analysis diminished the association of sexual orientation with current suicide ideation.

Plöderl,
Martin (2004). Sexuelle Orientierung, Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit. Eine österreichische Erstuntersuchung. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereichs Psychologie der Universität Salzburg. Zip File Download. Related Article: Selbstmordgefahr bei Homosexuellen viel häufiger (2005, Translation). 
.



European Sexual Minority Suicidality Studies


"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Europe
(Not Including United Kingdom, Ireland & France)
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Hegna et al.
(1999)

2,988 (MF*)
None (M)
16% (M)
Age Range: 16 to 60+ Years, Norway
Additional Results: By Age Groupings
None (F)
20% (F)
Hanner
(2002)

419 (M)
None
23.5%
Volunteer Sample, Sweden
Pencil & Paper Questionnaire
Age: 16 to 24 years
Homosexual / Bisexual:
84.2% of Females, 90.0% of Males
Additional Results
838 (M)
None
36.8%
Cochand
& Bovet
(1998)
164 (M)
Homosexual
or Bisexual
Identified
None
22.7%
HIV+: 18%
HIV -: 26%
Lifetime
French Part of Switzerland
Snowball Sampling: Volunteers
Mean Age: 36.4 Years,
Age Range: 22 to 66 Years
Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
Cochand
et al.
(2000)

103 (M)
Mostly Gay
Identified
None
24.4%
(25 / 103)
Volunteers: Switzerland
French Speaking
Age Range: 16 to 25 Years
Bonvin-Mullor
(2002)
163 (M)
Homosexual
or Bisexual
Identified

None
37 / 163
22.7%
Note: Appears to be same study sample reported on by
Cochand & Bovet (1998)
Häusermann
& Wang
(2003)
561 (M)
Mostly Gay
Identified?
None
19%
Swiss Volunteers: Gay Venues
Age Range: 15 to 84+ Years
67%: 25 to 44 Years
For Mental Disorder  Results, see: Wang et al. (2007)
Senate
Administration
(1999)

227 (MF)
Homosexual
Bisexual?
Identified
None
18%
Likely Volunteers: Berlin, Germany
Age Range: 15 to 27 Years
Study Results Given by
Cochand et al. (2000)
Pietrantoni
(1999)
64 (M)
Homosexual
Identified
None
26%
Italy: Volunteer Sample
Age Range: 14 to 22 Years
Buffoli & Colucci
 (2007)
.
720 (MF)
605 (M)
115 (f)
None
20% (MF)
17.7% (M)
32.2% (F)
Italy: Internet Sample
Age Range: 18 to 24 years
More than 80% - 82.5% (M), 84.3% (F) - had thought about suicide. Participants in southern Italy's rural areas are most at risk for attempting suicide.
van
Heeringen &Vincke
 (2000)
137 (M)
Homosexual
/ Bisexual
71 (M)
Heterosexual
11.5% ?
(16 / 139 ?) vs.
6.0% (4 / 67)
Belgium: Homo/Bi Participants:
Attending a Homo/Bi Youth Camp
Heterosexual Participants: Schools
Males: OR = 2.5 (0.8, 7.8) ns
Females: OR =
6.2 (2.3, 16.6)
Mean Age: 20.4 (SD: 2.3) Years
Age Range: 15 to 27 Years
82 (F)
Homosexual
/ Bisexual

114 (F)
Heterosexual
25%
(20 / 80)
vs. 5.4%
(6 / 110)
Martens
(2005)
922 (M)
All Ages
None
18%
2004 Male Volunteer Sample, Homosexually Oriented,
Belgium: 533 Pencil & Paper,
409 via Internet.
Ages: 15 to 51+
Mean Age: 35 Years
156 (M)
16-25
Years
None
22%
768 (M)
26 +
Years
None
17%
Quinn
(2006)

100 to 392
per
Sample
None
0.0% to
21%
Average =
10.7%
GLBT Volunteer Samples from: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova. 62.5% to 86% in the samples are 30 Years-Old or Younger.
See Table Below For Sample Results.
Gransell & Hanson
(2009)
Denmark: Suicidality results of an LGBT survey (N = 27,323) compared to results of a Heterosexual control survey (N = 1,334). Includes results from another LGBT survey. Data / Results Tables given.
Results Summary: "LGBT people have four times as large a portion of attempted suicide in comparison to the rest of the population. Bisexual women have the largest portion. The banner study shows that it is bisexuals between the ages of 16-29 and transgenders of 30 years or more who have the largest portion of attempted suicide. All three surveys show that the largest portion of attempted suicides have taken place between the ages of 13-19. Notable is, both the survey and the banner study show that 6-9 % of attempted suicides took place between the ages of 4-12. The heterosexual control survey shows that no attempted suicides have taken place at such an early age."
Baetens
et al.
(2011)

SSI = 53
37.25% with worries about sexual identity
No SSI or NSSI = ??
% ?? Having
worries about sexual identity
OR for SSI having worries about sexual identity ??
Internet Sample: N = 1,417 Flemish
adolescents aged 12 to 18.
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: NSSI,
N = 183
Suicidal Self-Injury: SSI, N = 53

The gender rates were higher for females than males for NSSI (15.00% vs. 6.98%) and for SSI (4.30% vs. 1.99%). The only significant difference was on educational level, X2 (3, N = 238) = 11.72, p<.01, with SSI adolescents being overrepresented within technical or vocational
education tracks.

NSSI = 183
13.89
% with worries about sexual identity
No NSSI or SSI = ??
% ?? Having
worries about sexual identity
OR for NSSI having worries about sexual identity ??
van Bergen
(2013)
168 (F)
Lesbian /
Bisexual
None
26 / 168
15.5%
Lifetime
Volunteer Gay / Lesbian / Bisexual Multi-Site Sample
Netherlands. Mean Age = 17, approximately.
National Lifetime Male / Female Attempted Suicide incidence: 2.2%. Study Sample, Male / Female Combined: 12.8%
Independent Predictors Given
106 (M)
Gay /
Bisexual
None
9 / 106
8.5%
Lifetime
* M = Males - F = Females



GLBT Suicidality: Central & Eastern Europe
Category /
Country
N
%
Males
%
GLB
Suicidal
Thoughts,
Ever
Attempted
Suicide,
Ever
Bosnia &
Herzegovina
182
61.7%
69.4%
24%
3.8%
Macedonia*
100
65.0%
90.0%
18%
0.0%
Hungary
146
62.5%
96.5%
56.2%
10.2%
Romania
392
81.4%
93.6%
43.4%
19.3%
Moldova
147
69.5%
95.2%
42.2%
21.0%
Data Source: Quinn (2006)
* Macedonia has anomalous "Attempted Suicide" results. Homosexual males there have also been reported to have an anomalous homo-sexuality generally different than that in the western "gay" communities. See Lambevski (1999): "This article pays special attention to the nationalist imperatives that order Macedonian and Albanian ‘gay’ men to use each other’s penises and orifices as weapons and targets of torture."





The Norway Study of 2,988 Gays & Lesbians
Attempted Suicide Incidences
Categories
15-25*
Years
16-24 **
Years
25-34
Years
35-49
Years
+ 50
Years
All
One Suicide Attempt
(Males)

20%
12%
9%
11%
11%
Two or More Suicide Attempts (Males)

7%
5%
5%
2%
5%
Totals
25.8%
27%
17%
14%
13%
16%
One Suicide Attempt
(Females)

14%
13%
14%
15%
13%
Two of More Suicide Attempts (Females)

11%
6%
7%
3%
7%
Totals
26.3%
25%
19%
21%
18%
20%
Data Source: Hegna et al. (1999)
* Data Source: Hegna and Wichstrom (2007a), full suicality analysis, n = 407 youth.
** 72 males and 149 females: Information given by Hanner (2002)



Attempting Suicide by Same-Sex Attracted Youth in Sweden*
Categories
Males, n = 417
%
Females, n = 828
%
Never attempted Suicide
76.5%
63.2%
 One Suicide Attempt
16.5%
20.3%
More Than One Suicide Attempt
7.0%
16.5%
Attempted Suicide
23.5%
36.8%
Thought about Attempting Suicide, Past Year
46.7%
55.1%
Data Source: Hanner (2002)
* Same Sex Attracted Youth: 38.8 percent of girls (n = 846) and 71.9 percent of boys (n = 437) described themselves as "homosexual" or "gay with some heterosexual element"; 45.4 percent of girls and 18.1 percent estimates of the boys as "bisexual"; 8.3 percent of girls and 4.6 percent of the boys as "heterosexual with some homosexual elements"; with 7.6 percent of girls and 5.5 percent of the boys being unsure of their orientation.




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: France
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Shelly (2002)
17% MSM
of ???? (M)
Heterosexual (M)
30%
VS.
5%???
Lifetime
Risk of MSM males for having attempted suicide said to be 6-times greater than for heterosexual males in the sample.
Shelly et al.
(2005)

11.7% MSM of 933 (M*)
[n = 109]**
88.3% of 933 (M)
[n = 824]**
Heterosexual
"1 in 3" %
33% ??
vs.
3.2  %??
Lifetime
France, Sample = 993 males, age = 16 to 39 Years - Note 3.
Attempted Suicide:
Homosexual vs
Heterosexual Males:
OR =  4.0<13.1<42.2
With Control Variables Used
Adam
(2001)

4,753 (M)
None
21%
to
16%
Lifetime
L’Enquête presse gay: 2000, France: % Lifetime Attempters, by Age Category:
< 25 Years-Old: 21%
25+ Years-Old: 16%
Mean Age = 35, Range = 14 to 60+ Years
Velter (2007a)
Velter &
Bouyssou-Michel
(2007b)
6,048 (M)
89.5%
Homosexual
Identified
None
18.9%
1,140 /
6,048
Lifetime
L’Enquête presse gay (Internet & Gay Press): 2004, France: % Lifetime Attempters
by Age Category
<20 (32.0%),  20-24 (22.6%), 25-29 (17.5%), 30-34 (20.3%). 35-44 (18.3%), >44 (14.3%)
Mean Age = 36.6 Years
For Highest Risk Factors, See Below.
Pugnière
(2011)
Volunteer
Sample
Age =
18 to 24
Years
Males
n = 68
Males
n = 358
16.2% vs.
8.7%
p = .057
Some same-sex attraction vs. only opposite sex attraction.
Lifetime
Females
n = 114
Females
n = 361
19.3% vs.
11.9%
p = .045
Males
n = 55
Males
n = 371
18.2% vs.
8.6%
p = .027
Identification: Homosexual, Bisexual & Prefer Not to be Defined vs. Heterosexual.
Lifetime
Females
n = 57
Females
n = 418
24.6% vs.
12.2%
p = .011
Males
n = 55
Males
n = 330
18.2% vs.
9.1%
p = .041
Same-Sex Sex vs. Only
Opposite-Sex Sex.
Lifetime
Females
n = 41
Females
n = 367
24.4% vs.
13.4%
p = .057
Dorais &
Chollet
(2012)
508
(M, F)
None
30%
Lifetime
72% men / 28% women
38% between 15-24 years
26% between 25-34 years
36% > 35 years.
Mean Age: 28.5 Years
* M = Males - F = Females, ** - MSM: Males Who Have Sex With Males



L’Enquête presse gay (2004)
Velter (2007a) Velter & Bouyssou-Michel (2007b)
Variables Related to Highest Attempted Suicide Incidences
Variable
Yes
Attempters (n)
No
Attempters (n)
Attempted Suicide %:
Yes vs. No for Given Variable
University Degree
525
599
13.9% vs. 27.3%
Unemployed
150
963
30.4% vs. 17.7%
Year Earnings: < 1,000 Euros
316
782
30.5% vs. 16.4%
Anti-Homosexuality Parents
233
678
38.0% vs. 15.9%
Verbally Abused: Gay Related
511
607
30.5% vs. 14.1%
Physically Assaulted: Gay Related
167
938
44.7% vs. 17.0%
Abuses at Work: Gay Related
175
923
38.0% vs. 17.0%
No Friends
58
1,063
38.4% vs. 18.2%
Sexually Assaulted
327
797
35.5% vs. 15.7%
N = 6,048 Males - Mean Age = 35, Range = 14 to 60+ Years




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Austria
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Plöderl &
Fartacek
(2005)
Additional
Results
358 (MF*) 267 (MF)
Matched on
basis of sex,
age, and
education.
34 Attempters
(10%)
vs.
4 Attempters
(2%)
Austrian Volunteers from GLB Organizations & General Population Groups. Mean Age = 36.2 Years
OR = 6.9 (2.4, 19.6)
Criterion 2: True Attempts, Aborted Suicide Attempts Removed
Plöderl &
 Fartacek
(2009)
142 (MF)
148 (MF)
10.6% vs. 2.0%
Lifetime
Volunteers: 142 LGB and 148 Heterosexual participants, 51% women in LGB group and 49% in heterosexual group. Mean age: 35.87 years, men = 39.67 years,  women = 32.06 years. Results are reported for current (in the past year) and past suicidality. Lead author supplied "Lifetime" results.
OR:  1.7<5.7<18.8 – p = .003
For More Results: See Table.
Plöderl
et al.
(2008)
468 (M)
Gay /
Bisexual
None
18%
Lifetime
Austrian Volunteer Internet Sample
Age Range: 18 to 46 years.
Plöderl
et al.
(2010)
Men:
Varied Sex
Orientation
Definitions
Heterosexual
Varies
Odds Ratios: 3.8 to 9.1
More Detailed Results: Table Below.
Total N = 656
Women:
Varied Sex
Orientation
Definitions
Heterosexual
Varies
Odds Ratios: 2.7 to 6.4
More Detailed Results: Table Below.
Total N = 726
* M = Males - F = Females, **



"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Austria
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
n (%)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Plöderl &
Fartacek
(2005)

358 (MF*)
267 (MF)
Matched on
basis of Sex,
Age, and
Education
51 (14%) vs.
3 (1%)
Austrian Volunteers from GLB Organizations & General Population Groups. Mean Age = 36.2 Years
OR = 14.6 (4.5, 47.4)
All Reporting: Attempted Suicide
47 (13%) vs.
4 (2%)
OR = 9.9 (3.5, 27.9)
Criterion 1: Attempt Confirmed With
Follow-Up Questions. Includes
Aborted Suicide Attempts
34 (10%) vs.
4 (2%)
OR = 6.9 (2.4, 19.6)
Criterion 2: True Attempts, Aborted
Suicide Attempts Removed
11 (3%) vs.
1 (0.4%)
OR = 8.4 (1.1, 65.7)
Suicide Attempts Requiring
Medical Attention
* M = Males - F = Females




"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Austria
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adult
Plöderl & Fartacek (2009)
Categories
Males
Females
Homo- / Bi-
Sexual
N = 70
Hetero-
Sexual
N = 75
* OR
95% CI
p
Homo- / Bi-
Sexual
N = 72
Hetero-
Sexual
N = 73
* OR
95% CI
p
Lifetime Attempted
Suicide: To One Year
Before Survey
5 (7%)
0 (0%)
-
0.024 (F)
0.057 (Y)
0.029 (Y1)
9 (13%)
3 (4%)
3.3
(0.93, 11.9)
0.078 (F)
0.125 (Y)
0.063 (Y1)

Males & Females
Combined
1
Homosexual/Bisexual: 14 / 142 = 9.9% vs.
Heterosexual: 3 / 148 = 2.0%
* OR: 1.6<5.3<17.5 - p = 0.005 (F), 0.010 (Y),
0.005 (Y1)
Lifetime Aborted
Attempted Suicide: To
One Year Before Survey
7 (10%)
1 (1%)
8.2
(1.3, 52.3)
0.029 (F)
0.055 (Y)
0.027 (Y1)
13 (18%)
6 (8%)
2.5
(0.91, 6.7)
0.090 (F)
Males & Females
Combined
1
Homosexual/Bisexual: 20 / 142 = 14.1% vs.
Heterosexual: 7 / 148 = 4.7%
* OR: 1.4<3.3<7.9 - p = 0.008 (F)
Lifetime Attempted
Suicide
2
5 (7%) 0 (0%) -
0.024 (
F)
0.057 (Y)
0.029 (Y1)
10 (14%) 3 (4%) 3.8
(1.06, 13.2)
0.046 (F)
0.077 (Y)
0.038 (Y1)
Males & Females
Combined
1

Homosexual/Bisexual: 15 / 142 = 10.6% vs.
Heterosexual: 3/148 = 2.0%
*OR:  1.7<5.7<18.8 – p = .003 (F),
0.006 (Y), 0.003 (Y1)

Lifetime Aborted
Attempted Suicide
2
7 (10%) 1 (1%) 8.2
(1.3, 52.3)
0.029 (F)
0.055 (Y)
0.027 (Y1)
14 (19%) 7 (10%) 2.3
(0.88, 5.86)
0.104 (F)
Males & Females
Combined
1
Homosexual/Bisexual: 21 / 142 = 14.8% vs.
Heterosexual: 8 / 148 = 5.4 %
* OR:  1.3<3.0<6.7 – p = .010 (F)
Lifetime Significant
Suicidality: Attempted
Suicide & Aborted
Suicide Attempts
2
8 (11%) 1 (1%) 9.5
(1.5, 60.0)
0.015 (F)
0.030 (Y)
0.015 (Y1)
16 (22%) 7 (10%) 2.7
(1.06, 6.84)
0.043 (F)
Males & Females
Combined
1
Homosexual/Bisexual: 24 / 142 = 16.9% vs.
Heterosexual: 8 / 148 = 5.4%
* OR:  1.6<3.6<8.1 – p = .002 (F)
p : Fisher Exact (F) - Yates, Corrected, Two-tailed (Y) - Yates, Corrected, One-tailed (Y1):
Calculation by Webpage Author at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html - http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/contingency1.cfm
All ORs (Odd Ratios)
Calculated by Webpage Author at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
1. Additions & Calculation by Webpage Author
2. Counts not given in paper. Supplied by Dr. Martin Plöderl



Sexual Orientation Definition & Attempted Suicide Risk
Homosexually Oriented vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Austria: Pl
öderl et al. (2010)
Sexual Orientation
Definition Criteria 1
Men
Odds Ratios 2
Women
Odds Ratios
2
Sexual Fantasies
5.3 (2.2–12.2)*
2.7 (1.3–5.5)*
Preferred Sexual Partner
6.2 (2.4–14.9)*
3.1 (1.5–6.4)*
Identification
7.3 (2.8–17.8)*
3.3 (1.3–7.4)*
Sexual Behavior (past year)
9.1 (2.3–28.8)*
6.4 (1.7–19.3)*
Sexual Behavior (before past year)
3.8 (0.8–12.4)
5.4 (2.0–12.8)*

1.
Total Sample: N = 1,382.  Men = 656.  Women = 726.
-- Men, Heterosexual Categories: From n = 580 to n = 613. -- Women, Heterosexual Categories: From n = 471 to n = 661.
2. Odds Ratios: Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual. 95% Confidence Interval. Controlling for demographic factors.  * p < .01




Lifetime "Self Harm / Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random GLB Study Populations:
United Kingdom
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Self Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Comments
Rivers
(2000)
116 (MF*)
92 (M)
None
37.1% (43 / 116)
Self Harm /
Suicide Attempt(s)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Advertising in GLB Community Venues. Follow-up Questionnaire to 190 United Kingdom Participants in a Previous Study. Mean Age = 28 Years, 16 to 54 Years
Men: 16 to 54 years, Women: 16 to 44 Years
Age Range Information: Rivers (2004)
Cant
(2002)

85
(MF)
None
32%
Attempted Suicide
35%
Self-Harm
The Metro Centre in Greenwich that is accessed by some young lesbian, gay and bisexual people from Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham. Data collected on 85 youth registered there from October 2001 to April 2002: 85 young people.
Carragher
& Rivers (2002)
93 (M)
None
33.7% (29 / 86)
Self Harm /
Suicide Attempt(s)
Lifetime
Male Part of Rivers (2000) UK Sample.
Mean Age = 28 Years, SD: 9.0 Years
Age Range:
16 to 54 Years
Webb &
Wright (2001)
1145
(MF)
None
Attempted S.
18.3% (210 / 1145)
Lifetime
90% Living in Brighton & Hove. Women: significantly more likely than men to have self-harmed. No significant differences for attempting suicide. Serious thoughts of suicide, ever: declines from 53.1% to 21.6%, from age group 16-25, to age group 65+
Age = 16 - 65+

Self Harm: 10.6%
(121 / 1145)
Lifetime
Hutchison
et al.
(2003)
95 (M)
None
Self Harm: 28.4%
(27 / 95)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Gay Venues (Edinburgh, Scotland)
Age = 15 - 26 Years
Self Harm = No Intent To Die
42% of Suicide Attempters: Repeat Attempters
Compared to National Male Statistics:
Self Harm: 5.6 Times More likely
Attempted Suicide: 6.7 Times More Likely
Attempted S.
27.4% (26 / 95)
Lifetime
King
et al.
(2003)*
&
Warner
et al.
(2004)*
656 (M)
Gay
505 (M)
Hetero-
sexual
Self Harm**
25%
vs. 13.5%
Snowball Sampling (England, Wales): Gay / Lesbian Venues, Publications, Advertisements,
Followed by Recruitment: Friends, etc.
Mean Age = 36.4 Years
Self-Harm: Lifetime
84 (M)
Bisexual
505 (M)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
27%
vs. 13.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 35.5 Years
430 (F)
Lesbian
588 (F)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
31%
vs. 16.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 34.2 Years
111 (F)
Bisexual
588 (F)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
33%
vs. 16.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 29.8 Years
Cull et al.
(2006)

44
GLBT
Homeless
Youth
None
Attempted
Suicide:
> 66.7%
Lifetime
Volunteer: GLBT Presently/Past Homeless in Brighton and Hove, England - Age = 16 - 25 Years. 'Nearly all reported a history of mental health problems or substance misuse. Half reported alcohol or substance misuse. Over two thirds had a history of attempting suicide.'
Meads
et al.
(2007)

449 (F)
93.5%
LGB
Identified
None
31.3%
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime

Volunteer: Measure for Measure 1 Study (2002)
Commissioned by the West Midlands
South Strategic Health Authority
166 (F)
77%
LGB
Identified

None
20.0%
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime

Volunteer: Measure for Measure 2 Study (2005)
Commissioned by the West Midlands
South Strategic Health Authority
Hunt &
Fish
(2008)

5,053 (F)
81%
Lesbian
Identified
None
5.0%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
England: Volunteer Sample: Online & Pencil/Paper - 82% White British. Age Range: 14 to 84 Years. - Attempted Suicide Incidence Range, in the Past Year, in 10 Regions: 3.5% to 7.4%. See Table Below.
Self-Harm, With No Intention of Killing Self, in the Past Year: Incidence Range: 15.9% to 22.9%, in 10 Regions. See Table Below.
Results Similar for Wales:
See Table Below.
None
20.0%
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Hunt &
Fish
(2008a)
510 (F)
77.8%
Lesbian
Identified

None
4.8%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Scotland: Volunteer Sample: Online & Pencil/Paper - Age Range: 15 to 72 years.
Attempted Suicide Incidence Range, in the Past Year, in 10 Regions: 1.1% to 10.2%.
See Table Below.
Self-Harm, With No Intention of Killing Self, in the Past Year: Incidence Range: 14.6% to 39.1%, in 10 Regions. See Table Below.

None
20.8%
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Guasp
(2012a)


6,861
Gay /
Bisexual
Males
None
3% (Gay)
5% (Bisexual)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Britain: England, Scotland & Wales Internet Sample: 6,861 gay (92%) & Bisexual (8%) Males. Age Range: 16-85.
77% Between Ages 21-50.
95% Caucasian.
Other Attempted Suicide Rates, Past Year:
5%: Black & Ethnic Minorities
10%: Ages 16 to 19
5%: Ages 16 to 24

None
7%: Gay/Bi
11%: Bisexual
21%: GB, Ages 16 to 19
15%: GB, Ages 16-24
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Guasp
(2012b)


633
Gay /
Bisexual
Males

None
3% (Gay)
7% (Bisexual)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Results for Scotland: a part of above sample of 6,861 males. Internet Sample, 633 gay (91%) & Bisexual (9%) Males.
Males. Age Range: 16-84.
79% Between Ages 21-50.
99% Caucasian.

Other Attempted Suicide Rate, Past Year:
6%: Ages 16 to 19

None
6%: Gay/Bi
14%: GB, Ages 16 to 19
Self-Harm,
Past Year
** Described as "Self Harm" in 2003 Paper, but as "Attempted Suicide" in 2004 Paper.
* M = Males - F = Females




Attempted Suicide & Self-Harm: Lesbian & Bisexual Women in United Kingdom
"Prescription For Change" Studies by Hunt & Fish (2008 & 2008a)
Categories /
Strategic Health Authority (SHA)
N's
%
Lesbian *
% Bisexual
Women *
% Attempted
Suicide,
Past Year
% Self-Harm,
No Death Intent
Past year
All England
5,043
80.9%
15.7%
5.0%
20.0%
East of England
415
81.2%
17.6% 7.4%
22.2%
East Midlands
377
82.5%
14.9% 4.2%
17.3%
London
1,330
79.9%
15.7% 3.5%
18.1%
North East
224
79.9%
16.5% 6.4%
22.6%
North West
638
81.3%
15.4% 5.1%
22.0%
South Central
369
78.3%
17.9% 4.9%
23.5%
South East Coast
449
81.1%
15.1% 5.8%
19.0%
South West
376
82.4%
14.4% 5.6%
22.9%
West Midlands
425
81.6%
15.8% 5.2%
15.9%
Yorkshire & Humber
418
82.2%
14.2% 4.6%
19.7%
England (SHA unknown)
22
86.4%
13.6% 31.8%
45.5%
All Wales
267
81.3%
16.1% 6.4%
22.7%
South East (Wales)
135
80.7%
16.3% 4.5%
20.3%
Mid & West (Wales)
81
80.2%
17.3% 11.1%
24.7%
North Wales 51
84.3%
13.7% 3.9%
26.0%
Scotland
510
77.8%
18.2%
4.8%
20.6%
Greater Glasgow & Clyde
157
81.5%
15.9%
5.2%
14.6%
Lothian
149
73.8%
20.8%
3.4%
17.6%
Other Areas
204
74.0% to 81.8%
15.9% to 21.2%
1.1% to 10.2%
19.5% to 39.1%
* Those not Identifying as Lesbian or Bisexual are Classified as "Other".  Study Commentary: "One in five lesbian and bisexual women have  deliberately harmed themselves in the last year, compared to 0.4 per cent of the general population. Half of women under the age of 20 have self-harmed compared to one in fifteen of teenagers generally. Five per cent have attempted to take their life in the last year and sixteen per cent of women under the age of 20 have attempted to take their life. ChildLine estimatethat 0.12 per cent of people under 18 have attempted suicide."



Lifetime "Self Harm / Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random GLB Study Populations: Ireland
Study Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Self Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Comments
Carolan & Redmond
(2003)
362
232 (M)
130 (F
None
Self Harm
26.2%
(95 / 362)
Volunteers: Questionnaire promoted  through youth, community and gay organisations, and online.  Northern Ireland
Age = <= 25 Years
Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
Attempted S.
28.7%
(104 / 362)
McNamee
(2006)
190 (M)
93.4%
Gay
Bisexual
Identified
None
27.1%
Attempted
Suicide
30.7%
Self-Harmed
Volunteers: Northern Ireland
Mean Age: 20.6 Years, 15 to 25 Years
60% Live in Belfast or Derry/Londonderry.

Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
CCL
(2006)

107 (F)
85%
Lesbian
Identified
None
14.2%
Attempted
Suicide
23.8%
Self-Harmed
Volunteers: Cork Region,  Northern Ireland
Age: 8.5% (< 23 years),  45% (23-49 Years), 44% (. 49 Years)
Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
Mayock
et al.
(2009)

Internet
Sample

Age Range:
14-73 years
Mean Age:
30.5 Years
Ireland
Residents:
90%*
Male
n = 707
None 105 / 707
14.8%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
1.6% (n = 11), 1.0% (7), 0.42% (3), respectively
Female
n = 377
None 89 / 377
23.6%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
3.7% (n = 14), 2.4% (9), 0.79% (3), respectively
Other
n = 22
None 3 / 22
13.6%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
0.0% (n = 0), 0.0% (0), 0.0% (0). respectively
All
n = 1,110
None 197 / 1,110
17.7%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
2.3% (n = 25), 1.4% (16), 0.54 (6),  respectively
Trans-
gender
n = 46
None
12 / 46
26.1%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
6.5% (n = 3), 6.5% (3), 0.0% (9), respectively
Interview Sample
n = 22
None
13 / 22
59.1%
Qualitative Part of the Study.
For Above Qantitative Study: First suicide attempts were Very Much (12%), Very (35%) and Somewhat (25%) related to LGBT Identification
* Over 90% were residents in the Republic of Ireland. 4% were living in Northern Ireland.



"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Random Samples, Europe
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Youth/Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)
Additional
Results
6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
Random Survey: Longitudinal
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
Norlev
et al.
(2005)

Denmark National Random Sample. Ages: 16 to 35 Years. Numbers of homosexual / bisexual individuals said to be small. Nonetheless...
All Homo/Bi who had attempted suicide are reported to have current suicide ideation. In contrast, only a minority of Heterosexuals (maybe about 30 to 40 percent) who attempted suicide are in same category. Most do not have current suicide ideation, meaning that suicidality is not ongoing for most of them. The Odds Ratio (95% CI) for Homosexuals/ Bisexuals vs. Heterosexuals to be in 'having attempted suicide during lifetime and having current suicide ideation' category is: 5.4 (1.8–16.7), p < .05.
de Graaf
et al.
(2006)


82 (M)
Reporting
Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

2,796 (M)
Reporting
Only Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

14.6%
vs.
1.6%
** RR: 9.1
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 10.23 (5.2–20.2)
Control = Age
OR = 5.57 (2.6–12.0)
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
43 (F)
Reporting
Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

3,077 (F)
Reporting
Only Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

4.4%
vs.
3.1%
RR: 1.3 ns
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 1.52 (0.36–6.4) ns
Control = Age
OR = 0.96 (0.22–4.3) ns
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
Lhomond & Saurel-
Cubizolles
(2006)


78 (F*)
Reporting
Lifetime
Female
Sex Partner(s)


6,332 (F)
Reporting
Only Lifetime
Male
Sex Partner(s)


25.2%
vs.
6.6%
Lifetime
RR: 3.8
The Enveff (Enquête nationale sur la violence envers les femmes en France, National Survey on Violence  against Women in France) Survey. ORs From: 4.8 (2.8–8.1) to 2.2 (1.2–4.0) With Demographic Control Variable
to All Possible Controls Variables.
7.5% (7 / 78)
vs. 0.3%
(19 / 6,332)
Past Year
RR: 25.0
Attempted Suicide in the Past Year:
OR = 32.8 (13.4, 80.4)

Multiple Suicide Attempts, Lifetime:
OR = 5.9 (3.1, 11.4)

Note: Counts
Estimated From Given Percentages. ORs are Estimates. Non-responders Likely.
No Control Variables.

14.8% (11 / 78) vs. 2.7%
(171 / 6332)
Life, Multiple Attempts
RR: 5.5
Jouvin et al.
(2007)

L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results also
given in:
MSJSVA (2008)

2.9% (M)
1.5% Homo-Sex &
1.4 Bi-Sex
n = 245??
Yes
10.0%
vs.
3.0%
RR: 3.3
Lifetime
16,883 Men & Women,
Age Range = 15 to 75 Years
Elsewhere, total number said to be 30,514 for age range 12-75 years
(Site)
Note: It would be important to know the distribution of GLB individuals and suicide attempters over the age range. For example, what would be the results in the 15 to 40 years of age category?
GLB: determined on the basis of having been sexually active with at least one member of the same sex, in the past year.
GLB Demographic Summary.
The Questionnaire
1.4% (F)
0.6% Homo-Sex &
0.8% Bi-Sex
n = 118??
Yes
10.5%
vs 5.9%
RR: 1.8 ns
Lifetime
L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results
Unknown
For
Youth
Males
Yes
??

Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
15-25 Years: Les Jeunes: The Questionnaire. Some Reports are Done Separately For These Regions and are avaiable online:  Nord–Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Pays de la Loire, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine, Poitou-Charentes, and L'Ile-de-France. Maybe Others?
Data Sets could be grouped and the likely greater suicidality risks for homosexually oriented youth could likely be determined. Example: Westermann (2007), for Nord-Pas-de-Calais, N = 1,466, 5% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and 2% of females (n = approx 14). Blais et al. (2006), Pays de la Loire, N = 1,517, 4% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and  2% of females (n = approx. 15). A subsample of 100 is sufficient to so a suicidality analysis and more than 100 homo-sex males would be available if the data sets are integrated.
Females
Yes
??
Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
FHI
Rapport
(2005)

(M)
(M)
See Tabled Results: 2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden:
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality.
Results for Males & Females in Four Age Categories.
(F)
(F)
Ungdoms-
styrelsen (2010)

(M)
(M)
(M)
11% vs. 3%
2005 & 2008 National Public Health Surveys, Combined,
Sweden.
More Results in Table Below.

(F)
(F) (F)
26% vs. 8%
Hawton
et al.
(2002)

82 Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,973 Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
11.0%
vs.
3.0%
Representative Sample (N = 6,020): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in England.
Data Collected in 2000-01.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 2.0<4.0<8.3
OR, Girls: 1.6<2.7<4.3
No Contol Variables.
Not Significant in Multivariate Analysis
101 Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,590 Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
23.8%
vs.
10.5%
O'Connor
et al.
(2009)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm
Representative Sample (N = 2,008): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in Glasgow, Scotland.
Data Collected in 2006-07.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Multivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 1.5<3.8<9.5
OR, Girls: 1.3<2.6<5.2
Using about 9 Contol Variables.
Bivariate ORs: Not Given
Females:
Worries
about
SO ***

Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm


McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm:
Definition
Below
Cross-sectional study, 3881 adolescents in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. Equal genders, 53.1% of students were 16 years old.
Ages: 15 to 17 Years.
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
Males, Age Adjusted OR:
7.08 (4.10–12.23)
Females, Age Adjusted OR:
5.01 (3.46–7.25)

Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Below
Self-Harm
Definition in
McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
(2010b)
"[Participants reporting] self-harm were asked to describe, in their own words, the method(s) they had used to harm themselves. This description was later coded according to a standardized definition of deliberate self-harm : ‘An act with non-fatal outcome in which an individual deliberately did one or more of the following: initiated behaviour (for example, self cutting, jumping from a height), which they intended to cause self-harm ; ingested a substance in excess of the prescribed or generally recognizable therapeutic dose; ingested a recreational or illicit drug that was an act that the person regarded as self-harm; or ingested a non-ingestible substance or object ’ (Madge et al. 2008). Episodes of DSH were classified as a ‘yes’, ‘no’ or ‘no information given’ by three independent raters using the standardized definition above (Cohen’s k=0.77). When participants reported that they had harmed themselves in the past but did not describe the act, they were classified ‘no information given’ and were not included as a DSH case. The definition used allowed for a wide range of motives and levels of suicidal intent." (p. 1812-3)
McMahon
et al.
(2010b)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
School Bullying
History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
School Bullying
History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Cross-sectional study, 1870 boys in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. 53.3% of boys were 16 years old.
Study Sample Ages: 15 to 17.

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis: 5.59 (2.63-11.88)

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys not Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
4.70 (1.89-11.71)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
No
School Bullying History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
No School Bullying History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Non-Heterosexual
N = 659
Includes: All,
from "Mostly
Heterosexual" to "Entirely Homosexual" and "Other"
100% (Entirely)
Heterosexual

N = 6,811
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
8.9% vs. 5.3%
1.7<2.3<3.1
a
1.6<2.2<3.0 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Life Sexual Experiences:
All Same-Sex to Some Same-Sex.
N = 667
Life Sexual Experiences:
Only With Opposite Sex,
Never Same-Sex

N = 6,794
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
9.2% vs. 5.1%
1.4<1.9<2.6
a
1.3<1.8<2.5 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Those reporting no sexual partners in lifetime were removed from the analysis.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 64
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 2,903
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
14.1%
(5.6-22.6)
vs.
3.0% (2.4-3.6)
OR:
5.36
(2.57-11.2)

Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health (SMASH): 4044 males, in school, age: 16 to 20 years-old, random sampling in 2002. 72.5% only
heterosexual, 23.3% mostly heterosexual, 0.8% equally bisexual, 0.4% mostly homosexual, 0.4% only homosexual, and 2.6% nonresponse.
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 296
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 17,072
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
5.1%
(2.6-7.6)
vs.
1.3%
(1.1-1.5)
OR:
4.68
(3.06-7.15)
Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x): 22,191 males, mostly 20 years old, 50% selected for study & all completing questionnaire in 2002-03. 91.7% only heterosexual, 5.3% mostly
heterosexual, 0.9% equally bisexual, 0% mostly homosexual, 0.7%
only homosexual, and 1.2% non-response.
Note: The second Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x) drew its sample from new recruits of the Swiss army. Non-Swiss citizens (22% of the resident population) were excluded from the survey, as were Swiss men with health exemptions and those opting for civil service. A significant proportion of Swiss gay men avoid compulsory military service through those means.

* M = Males - F = Females
-- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant
*** Somewhat of a proxy for having a homosexual orientation. SO: Sexual Orientation.




Youth "Attempted Suicide" Risks: Norway
Homosexually Oriented Youth
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)



6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
20.9% (F)
8.6% (M)
Some Same
-Sex Sexual
Attraction
--
9.1%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
13.5% (F)
8.9% (M)
Some GLB
Identity
--
9.1%
vs.3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
7.0% (F)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever

93.0%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever

19.4%
vs. 4.2%
From T-2
to T-3 **
RR: 4.6
N = 1,327 Females
*** Predicting Suicide Attempt
from 1994 to 1999:
OR = 5.9 (3.2, 10.8)
, No Controls.
OR = 5.0 (2.3, 10.6), 3 Controls
* M = Males - F = Females
** Longitudinal Study, 3 Questionnaires from T-1 to T3: 1992 (T-1): 12,287 students, Grades 7 - 12. - 1994 (T-2): 9,679 students, Grade 9 - 12+. - 1999 (T-3): 2,924 Youth.. - Mean Ages: 14.9 years (SD: 1.7, T-1) to 16.5 years (SD: 1.9, T-2) to 22.1 years (SD: 1.9, T-3).
***
No Homo-Sex male suicide attempters from 1994 to 1999. Comparing the N's in both regression models reveals that there are only about 1,133 males (2460 - 1,327) available for analysis.
Responders to "Attempted Suicide" and "Same-Sex Sex" questions:  Males = 1,239; Females = 1,567: Total = 2,806, but the numbers are lower in regression analyses due to non-responses to other variables: 1,133 and 1,327 (Total = 2,460), respectively.
Is An Estimate of the Percentage of Suicide Attempters Who are Homo-Sex Males Possible?  Maybe not possible to calculate given the data supplied by the authors. Males & Females Reporting Homo-Sex, Ever: 2,806 X 6.5% = 182. For Females: 1,567 X 7.0% = 109.7 = 100. For Males: 1,239 X 5.7% = 70.6 = 71. Homo-Sex Males & Females Who Attempted Suicide: 182 X 15.4% = 28 Suicide Attempters. Homo-Sex Females Who Attempted Suicide from T-2 to T-3: 110 X 19.4% = 21 Suicide Attempters. This would mean that only a maximum of 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters could exist up to T-2, the number likely being less. Furthermore, it would seem that the great majority of Homo-Sex females who attempted suicide between T-2 and T-3 (All? Almost All?) are repeat suicide attempters. Assuming "All", this would mean that there are 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters, for an "Attempted Suicide" Incidence of 9.9% (7 / 71), all having occurred up to T-2. Unfortunately, the authors did not report any "Attempted Suicide" results specific to Homo-Sex males, other males, or all males up to T-2. The lifetime "Attempted Suicide" incidence for males is 2.2%; 1.6% for Non-Homo-Sex males from T-2 to T-3.




2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality

Categories
Attempted Suicide, Ever % - Suicidal Thoughts, Ever [%]
Transgender *
n = 374
Males **
Females **
Homo-Bi
Others
Homo/Bi
Others
16 - 29 Years
27%
n = ?
11% [47%]
n = ?
4% [14%]
n = ?
21% [53%]
n = ?
8% [21%]
n = ?
30 - 44 Years
28%
n = ?
3% [30%]
n = ?
3% [12%]
n = ?
8% [17%]
n = ?
5% [14%]
n = ?
45 - 54 Year
12%
n = ?
16% [21%]
n = ?
3% [9%]
n = ?
11% [25%]
n = ?
5% [13%]
n = ?
54 - 64 Years
21%
n = ?
11% [33%]
n = ?
4% [12%]
n = ?
12% [27%]
n = ?
6% [16%]
n = ?
* Web Survey Data: Reported in National Public Health Survey, 2005. - ** National Public Health Survey, 2005.
It 'appears" like 1,028 persons did not answer the "sexual orientation" question, and were removed from the analysis. The same applies for those "not sure" of their sexual oreintation. The final sample - 29,190 persons: '648 persons (2 percent) indicated that they were not exclusively heterosexual. The largest group among those who were not exclusively heterosexual were heterosexual with some homosexual elements (here called "hetero-homo") (304 persons) followed  bisexual (221 persons), homosexuals (99 persons) and homosexuals with some heterosexual elements (here called "homo hetero") (24 persons)'.




Transgender and Transsexual People in France
An Internet Sample, N = 90

Group
16 to 26 Years-Old
Attempted Suicide Incidence,  Lifetime
All
N = 90
34%
FTM
n = 60 Approximately
34%
MTF
n = 30 Approximately
32%
Data Source:
L’équipe Trans du MAG / La Commission Trans d’HES (2009)




Irish Transgender Study
An Internet Sample: N = 106

Frequency
Attempted Suicide, Lifetime
n = 85
Once
12%
Two to Five Times
22%
More Than Five Times
6%
One or More Times
40%
Data Source: TENI: Transgender Equality Network Ireland (2012)
Additional Suicidality & Self-Harm Data is Given



Transgender and Transsexual People in the United Kingdom
An Internet Sample, N = 872**
Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
14%
Twice
7%
Three or More Tmes
14%
One or More Times
34.4%
*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.
Note: Data was solicited on suicdality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. In Whittle et al. (2008), the incidence in this category was reported to be also 34%. ** Sample may include duplicates?
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2007)



Transgender and Transsexual People in Europe
An Internet Sample, N = 985 (UK = 322)**
Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
?
Twice
?
Three or More Tmes
?
One or More Times
29.9%
*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.
Note: Data was solicited on suicdality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. ** Duplicates Removed.
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2008)



Note 1

Study (France): Homosexual males are 13 times more likely to have attempted suicide, compared to heterosexual males. Result for the sample of 993 men - sampled in 3 locations - were generated by controlling for age, living area, education level, professional status, parental status, marital/partner status.

Homosexual/Heterosexual Male Study Results Reported by Chemin (2005) in Le Monde: "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l'hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" ­ - âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d'études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) ­-, les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize.

Les chiffres français ont été obtenus à partir d'un échantillon de 993 hommes âgés de 16 à 39 ans. Tous ont raconté leur trajectoire "socio-biographique" en remplissant un long questionnaire informatisé installé, de 2000 à 2004, sur trois sites : le festival de lutte contre le sida Solidays, qui a lieu tous les ans en région parisienne, le Centre d'information et de documentation pour la jeunesse (CIDJ), à Paris, et le centre de sélection des appelés du contingent de Blois, dans le Loir-et-Cher."

Preliminary Results for a subsample of the above study (Shelly et al. 2002): Homosexual males are 6 times more that risk for having attempted suicide than are heterosexual males. Suicide Attempt incidence for homosexual males: 30%.

The Same Study: Homosexual males more at risk for having been sexually abused as children. Internet Reference: http://www.thewarning.info/IMG/doc/aremedia_abus.pdf .

Summary of Study Status: "Menée entre 1998 et 2003 auprès de 933 hommes, âgés de 16 à 39 ans, l'étude réalisée par Marc Shelly (médecin en santé publique à l'hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal ) et David Moreau (ingénieur de recherche à l'association de prévention Aremedia) a été préparée et validée par Pascale Tubert-Bitter, directrice de recherche à l'Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) à l'unité biostatistique et épidémiologie. Les résultats de cette enquête menée en dehors des associations et chercheurs LGBT sont encore en cours d’étude, seuls les résultats sur les homos et les bisexuels masculins étant actuellement totalement traités. " Internet Reference:  http://v2.e-llico.com/article-retro.htm?articleID=4003&rubrique=actu&oldRubrique=actu .

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Wichstrom L, Hegna K (2003). Sexual orientation and suicide attempt: a longitudinal study of the general Norwegian adolescent population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1): 144-51. PubMed Abstract.

Site Index
Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.




More Information at: The Original Site on GB Male Suicide Problems