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Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Theuninck AC (2000). The Traumatic Impact of Minority Stressors on Males Self-Identified as Homosexual or Bisexual. Master's Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Study Summaries and Thesis Download at - http://www.q.co.za/news/2000/11/001123-gaystress.htm. (Archive Link)

Highlights: "In the present S.A.community sample of gay/bisexual men, 16.5% have made suicide attempts because of their sexuality... Of the South African gay/bi adolescents, 38.7% have attempted to commit suicide because of their sexuality."

"The sample consists of 329 males from across South Africa... The majority of the sample were from 15 to 34 years of age (87.5%)... The majority were white (73.8%), with 16.7% being black and the rest (9.5%) either Indian, Coloured, or unspecified."

"When considering the influence of stressors and trauma on suicidal tendencies in gay/bi men, it was found that internalised homonegativity had the strongest influence. This is perhaps not surprising since loathing oneself because of one's sexuality, and seeing that sexuality as perverse, would be expected to be closely related to a severe self-hate that could lead to suicide. 

Having witnessed people being victimised for being gay was the next strongest factor related to suicidal tendencies. Witnessing others being harassed or bashed for being gay, places the gay/bi person in a catch 22 position..."


Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Wells H, Polders l (2004). Levels of Empowerment among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender [LGBT] People in Gauteng, South Africa. Research initiative of the Joint Working Group conducted by OUT LGBT Well-being in collaboration with the UNISA Centre for Applied Psychology. PDF Download. PDF Download. "Suicide attempts: 17% of the sample (n=347) had made a past suicide attempt or attempts. Of those who had attempted suicide 24% had made multiple attempts. The youngest age at which suicide was attempted was 13 years. No significant differences were found between age groups for attempted suicide. Suicide attempts showed similar rates for men and women. Interestingly, although black individuals reported the highest frequency of “always” or “often” thinking about suicide, white respondents had a higher rate of attempts (22%) than black (16%) or Indian (12%) respondents."


Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Pretorius HW (1992). A study of cases of suicide attempters admitted to the H F Verwoerd Hospital. M.D. Thesis, University of Pretoria, Afrikaans text, DAI, Vol. 53-11B, p. 5638.

Abstract: Suicide attempt cases pose major challenges to health care workers. The behaviour of the victim is an indication of psychological disturbance which often leads to repeated suicide attempts and eventual successful suicide. A literature study was conducted with regard to this phenomenon.

All cases of attempted suicide referred to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria were studied over a period of a year. This investigation included a psychiatric evaluation and a study of details relating to each case of suicidal behaviour. In addition, suicide intent and risk were measured. The patient's stressors were also recorded.

A total of 307 patients, 86 of whom were male and 221 female, were evaluated. After 5 years as many respondents of the initial investigation as possible were traced, with the main object of obtaining information about subsequent suicidal behaviour. 205 respondents were traced, 59 of whom were male and 205 female.

Acute risk factors for repeated suicide attempts for men were: never married, unemployed and the loss of a job. Many were not living with someone with whom they had an intimate relationship. The most common chronic conditions were Alcohol- and Drug-related as well as Homosexuality and Epilepsy. The most commonly observed personality traits were Antisocial, Dependent and Inadequate traits.

Most of the women were married and belonged to a higher socio-economic class than the males, and many were housewives. Female students and adolescents were also well represented. Chronic conditions found were Alcohol- and Drug-related, as was the case with the males. Mood disorders, including Recurrent Brief Depression and Epilepsy, were prominent in the females. Histrionic, Dependent and Inadequate personality traits were frequently
observed.

Suggestions for future research mainly concerned epidemiological investigations aimed at homogeneous groups as far as suicidal behaviour is concerned. Primary prevention of this problem entails identification and counselling of high-risk groups and the provision of resources to them. It is also necessary to counsel health care workers and the public with regard to the problem of attempted suicide. Secondary prevention calls for adequate treatment of these patients.

Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...20% Of South African Gay Students Raped (2006, Alternate Link): Focusing on young people in the municipalities of Pietermaritzburg and Durban researchers found that 20 percent of gay and bisexual teenage males and 19% of lesbian and bisexual female teens had been raped or sexually assaulted. They also found that one third of all LGBT students had been physically assaulted at school because of their sexuality. The study was conducted for Out LGBT Well-being and the Durban Lesbian and Gay Health and Community and Health Center. The researchers found that black and Indian students were more likely to be victimized because of their sexuality than were white students... "More alarming is the victimization by teachers and principals," said Pietermaritzburg Gay & Lesbian Network convener Anthony Waldhausen... The situation in the province is so severe the researchers said in their report that almost one in five LGBT students said they had attempted suicide. - Gay teens' ordeal (2006): One in five gay and lesbian schoolchildren in Pietermaritzburg and Durban are raped or sexually abused at school.... One in three was physically assaulted in school because of their sexual orientation. Gay men reported a far higher rate (68%) of victimisation at school than lesbian women (42%), with blacks and Indians experiencing more victimisation than whites. Most of this victimisation in school was perpetrated by other pupils (65%), followed by teachers (22%), school principals (9%) and other staff. ..  The fear of victimisation led to a decrease in self esteem and an increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost one in five surveyed had attempted suicide, according to the report.

Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Graham T, Kiguwa S (2005). Experiences of Black LGBTI Youth In Peri-Urban Communities in South Africa. PDF. For LGBTI Radio Drama Being Produced by Community Media for Development/CMFD Productions and The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA). This research study was commissioned to uncover and explore the central issues facing the black lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) communities in townships and semi-urban areas around Johannesburg. The results of this research will be used to create relevant and appropriate storylines for a 13 part, youth focused radio drama produced by The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) and Community Media for Development/ CMFD Productions and aired on community, and possibly mainstream radio stations... 2.2.4 Suicide: There was some evidence from the respondents that suicide is a problem in the LGBTI community, due to the amount of stress they face. One respondent said: “you know, eish, people they commit suicide, gay people they commit suicide, especially blacks, they kill themselves because of these things.” ‘These things’ being discrimination, violence, lack of respect and understanding, etc., essentially all of the themes previously discussed. This theme was explored in detail in the OUT LGBT Well-being study, discussed in section 3.0... 3.3 Suicide: The study by OUT LGBT Well-being found that 31% of South African LGBTI people had thought about committing suicide and 21% had actually attempted it (OUT 2004). The study found positive correlations between thoughts of suicide and the following: fear and/or experience of victimization in any sector of daily life and alcohol abuse. The study also mentioned that youth may be more at risk for suicide attempts due to  their lack of resources, lack of support, as well as the stress of being different from the norm at a time developmentally when fitting in is seen as extremely important. Thoughts of suicide were highest among white males (9.5%), followed by black females, black males and with white females thinking about suicide the least (5.6%).These figures are for people who think about suicide often or always. 

Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Taking Gay Pride to SA's townships (BBC, 2005, Alternate Link): "Tradition, ritual, family is paramount in any African culture out there, so as a young black man I would need to be looking for a wife, making babies, and because I am not fulfilling those roles, society does not know how to deal with me. "You risk not being part of the community, not being part of the family, not being part of society." Africa Melane has seen two responses - friends becoming introverted, denying it to themselves, and some even committing suicide because of the pressure. Others go to the other extreme as transvestites or transsexuals.    

Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Can we Talk about Suicide in Africa? (2011): This morning, while reading an article from Behind the Mask about the suicide of a young South African LGBTI activist, Sabelo Zondo, I wondered how many lost lives were due to suicide in the queer communities in Africa. The practice of autopsies after a sudden death is not a systematic medical practice in Africa, except for some legal reasons. People do take their own life and we need to talk about depression and suicide in the society in general and in the LGBTQI communities in particular. In addition to dealing with the stressful transition from childhood to adulthood, LGBTQI youth face many other challenges in Africa. Among other issues, the lack of supportive, positive social structures that allow different gender expression contribute to make LGBTQI youth very vulnerable to depression and suicide attempts. But it does not have to be this way. Can we start by talking about suicide. We should not be ashamed to admit that we are going through depression. We should train and enable queer youth to assist their peers who are dealing with traumatic experiences...

Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...General Resources


Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems...Highlights African LGBTI Conference (2011): In South Africa, it was noticed that despite all legal changes promoting LGB equality, there are still issues to be addressed, such as the unequal age of consent regarding heterosexual and homosexual interactions. More importantly, there is a huge gap between what has been accomplished legally and the social situation. While the law hardly discriminates based on sexual orientation, socially same-sex sexuality is only marginally accepted. - South Africa's gay betrayal (2007): South Africa is one of the world's most liberal democracies. So why is it failing to support gay rights in international forums? - Gender inequality and corrective rape of women who have sex with women (2009). - Being Straight and Being Gay: Identity or Multiple Desire. The Case of South Africa (2010, Alternate Link). - Transgender Inclusion in the Namibian and South African LGBT Movements (2007): I examine the implications for few activists claiming transgender as a personal identity and the Namibian and South African movement’s embrace of transgender as an inclusive political strategy as activists participate in creating an African LGBT movement.

Joburg Pride statement on arrest of gays and lesbians in Vosloorus (2010): "We do not expect special privileges from the police, but we certainly expect them to respect the sexual orientation of gays and lesbians and their basic human rights. The police must be better instructed to understand and protect the dignity and rights of all South Africans as enshrined in our constitution," she said. -  South Africa: Police Harassment Continues After Gay Pride (2010). - Lesbienne en Afrique (2006, Translation): L’Afrique du sud fait figure de paradis pour les homosexuels en Afrique : la Constitution interdit toute discrimination. Mais la réalité n’est pas toujours aussi rose... Mais dans les townships et les régions rurales, la situation vécue par les homosexuels reste très difficile...- Mr. Gay South Africa wins Mr. Gay World 2011 (2011). - Mr Gay World 2012 to give hope to African LGBTI community (2011). - In The Pink: Gay radio in South Africa (2007). - “What's Identity Got To Do With It?” Rethinking Intimacy and Homosociality in Contemporary South Africa  (2009): The article looks at girls' relationships as spaces in which homosociality, same-sex intimacy, and erotic practices can join together; however, the latter is increasingly joined by homophobia. I argue that the “closet” violently jars with some same-sex relationships, such as “mummy-baby” relationships, because they have never been closeted as such..

South Africa's high court approves gay marriage (2005): Decision paves way for homosexual unions, a first for the continent. - Awaiting a Full Embrace of Same-Sex Weddings (2010): More than 3,000 same-sex couples have been married in South Africa, with about half of those couples including at least one foreigner, the government says...  Anthony Manion, director of Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action, said the law had largely failed to benefit blacks living in the impoverished townships that stretch for miles outside cities like Cape Town and Johannesburg. In them, gay men and lesbians often face unabashed discrimination and violence; advocates say that a growing number of lesbians have become victims of so-called corrective rapes aimed at ridding them of their sexual orientation. “The vast majority of gay people in South Africa are still shut off from marrying the partner of their choice because of the deep economic inequality, social isolation and cultural exclusion,” Mr. Manion said.  He and others complain that the focus on wedding cakes and floral arrangements distracts attention from far more serious challenges. Melanie Judge, an author of “To Have & To Hold: the Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa,” was far more blunt, accusing white middle-class South Africans of ignoring their black brethren in their rush to the altar. “Marriage is a commodity that’s been branded and packaged,” she said. “The law hasn’t gotten to the depths of prejudice if gay marriage ignores our collective trauma in favor of clothes, makeup and honeymoons.” - Working Class and Gay in South Africa (2010, Video, CNN): If you’re working class–and South Africa is a very social conservative country, with the working classes holding some objectionable views too–and gay, then you condemned to a more precarious life. - Constitutional Authority and its Limitations: The Politics of Sexuality in South Africa (2007). - Beyond the law, homophobia remains pervasive (2010).

Homophobia Trumps Racism in South Africa (2010): We are all aware of the fact that most of our government's policies are covered in a veil of hypocrisy and facade. Our rights, though proudly displayed in our constitution for all to marvel at, are sometimes not worth the paper they are written on. As a gay men in this country you are perceived to be an anomalous being that needs to be tolerated for the sake of the “rainbow nation” farce. Our president is quick to call you derogatory names and the ANC Youth League's leaders would not miss a beat in following suit as he too has shared his disapproving sentiments on the issue... Gay South African especially BLACK gay South Africans should look at what is happening to the white community of this nation and brace themselves for the possibility that they might face the same future. We all know that when it comes to the hierarchy of human existence we are at the bottom... I am black and love this country dearly BUT I am also gay and love my life. We only have to look at our fellow African brothers across the diaspora to see that when the politicians are done destroying the economy of their countries they turn to the minority groups to divert attention from their acts. Atrocities are committed daily against the gay community in Africa and nobody bats an eye except the world's gay community. Sadly we live in a continent that is easily swayed by rants of megalomaniacs and we quickly forget that they are the enemy not two people who want nothing more than to love each other and live in peace.

Stephens, Angeline V (2010). An exploration of Hate Crime and Homophobia in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: The Gay and Lesbian Network. PDF Download. This report presents key findings of a research study commissioned by the Gay and Lesbian Network (GLN) in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The GLN is a non-profit organisation that was established in 2003 in response to the lack of psycho-social support services for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI)1 community in Pietermaritzburg... This study signals a response to events that have occurred in national and local contexts: i). It is in response to incidents of hate crime that have been reported in South Africa over the last decade. These mainly include xenophobic and homophobic acts. In particular, a number of homophobic incidents, primarily targeting black lesbian women, received significant media coverage and lobbying from various non-government organisations (NGOs) that highlighted the insidious reality of this crime. In particular, the abhorrent murders of Zoliswa Nkonyana in 2006, of Sizakele Sigasa, Salome Massoa and Thokozane Qwabe in 2007 and that of Banyana Banyana captain, Eudy Simelane in 2008 resulted in significant advocacy and campaigning under the auspices of the Joint Working Group2 (JWG) that sought to draw attention to homophobia in South Africa and to bring about justice and legislative reform...

SA gay activists say government rats on constitution (2011): South African supporters of gay rights claim their government has broken the country's constitution by failing to support a United Nations motion condemning violence against homosexuals. - South Africa’s gay human rights disgrace (2008): South Africa didn’t sign the UN decleration on equal rights of LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, intersexed and questioning) people. - South Africa betrays principles on gay rights (2009). - Homophobia Faces Off Against Racism in South Africa (2010): Matjila seems to be suggesting that people who face discrimination for their skin color deserve protection more than those who face discrimination for their sexual orientation. Why does protecting one group of people from discrimination equate to any sort of insult to another group of people?... Matjila’s view on protecting LGBT people from discrimination is both archaic and homophobic. His attitude - and lack of support for UN efforts to protect LGBT people - has no place at the Human Rights Council. - South Africa : Lack of bisexual, transgender and intersex people causes an imbalance in representation (2011, Alternate Link): Director of the Pietermaritzburg Gay and Lesbian Network in KwaZulu-Natal, Anthony Waldehausen admitted that that there is lack of bisexual, transgender and intersex programming among LGBTI organisations.

Teaching About Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa (2011): This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexismand homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who taught the module. - Exploring homophobic victimisation in Gauteng, South Africa: Issues, impacts and responses (2008, PDF Download. Download Page). - South Africa welcomes gay tourists while homophobic violence persists (2009). - Pink Tourism Fact Sheet: Gauteng has a vibrant, diverse gay culture supported by strong community structures, great places to meet and hang out and lots to do. South Africa has one of the most progressive Constitutions in the world, enshrining gay, lesbian, bi and trans‐sexual rights – from same sex marriage to alternative lifestyles – and creating an environment where people can be themselves to enjoy everything fantastic Gauteng has to offer. - Engaging the KwaZulu-Natal Gay and Lesbian Tourism Market: Tourism KwaZulu-Natal's Initial Gay and Lesbian Tourism Strategy.

SA lesbian killing 'hate crime' (2011): The brutal killing of a South African lesbian activist has been condemned as a hate crime by Human Rights Watch. The US-based group has urged the police to do more to find those responsible for the recent murder and rape of Noxolo Nogwaza. She was stoned and stabbed on 24 April after a row in a bar in KwaThema township, east of Johannesburg. Activists say gay South African women are targeted for what some call "corrective rape". Unlike in many African countries, homosexual acts are legal in South Africa and the constitution outlaws discrimination based on sexual orientation.But activists say gay and lesbian people are often attacked in townships. - HRW: Epidemic of hate crimes against gays (2009): The murder of a lesbian activist who was stoned and stabbed to death is part of an "epidemic" of hate crimes against gays in South Africa, Human Rights Watch said on Tuesday.. - Remembering Eudy, KwaThema’s brightest, killed on its darkest night (2009). - Experiences of Black LGBTI Youth In Peri-Urban Communities in South Africa (2005, PDF Download). - South Africa team to tackle gay and lesbian hate crimes (2011): South Africa is to set up a team to tackle hate crimes against gay people, the justice ministry says. The decision comes after 170,000 activists from around the world demanded action to help lesbians targeted for "corrective rape"...

Lesbian health: more than screening for breast cancer and mental health (2008): Lesbians are often regarded as being at relatively low risk for HIV and do not have many health issues. However, given the reality that lesbian women can straddle a range of sexual identities, it is important to consider their health needs broadly. A lesbian woman should have access to the range of health services that serve in the continuum or basket of women’s health services. This would include, for example, services for cervical cancer screening, testing for STIs including HIV and AIDS, and information about planning a pregnancy. Lesbians’ sexual and reproductive intentions are neglected and I imagine that there is very limited space for health workers to talk with lesbians who are planning to have a family. Lesbians are vulnerable to corrective rape and gender-based violence from men and men they are in relationships with. They are not immune to violence in women to women relationships and may need access to post-exposure prophylaxis as well as the same services that straight women may need in terms of obtaining an interdict, etc. A recent study conducted by OUT LGBT shows, however, that nine per cent of lesbians self reported that they were HIVpositive. Some 55 per cent said health workers asked questions which insinuate that heterosexuality is the only normal way to be.

LGBTI radio show hits the airwaves. - Gay newspaper launched in CT (2007, Alternate Link): Independent Newspapers in Cape Town launched a monthly niche publication aimed at Cape Town's gay and lesbian readership this week called "The Pink Tongue". - Homosexual Discrimination Against Heterosexuals and Women “Necessary” for Democracy (2006): It’s okay for guest houses catering to a homosexual clientele to discriminate against heterosexual couples, women, and lesbians, the Commission on Gender Equality ruled recently, saying it is a “necessity in our democratic society.” - Black gays the target of hate crimes (2006). - Gayness ‘worse than divorce and euthanasia’ – study (2007). - Homo-Fascism in South Africa. - Freeing South Africa: The "Modernization" of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto (1998). - Queer Jihad. A View from South Africa (PDF Download. PDF Download)

Researching and working with boys in Southern Africa in the context of HIV/AIDS - a radical approach (2005, PDF Download): Other recent studies on boys and young men in South Africa. (see eg. Ratele et al 2005, and Salo, 2005) have also found how invested many boys seem to be in distancing themselves from other boys they construct as ‘moffies’ or boys who are perceived as effeminate and weak and not very heterosexual. Such characteristics are linked as features of boys who are seen not to be proper boys. The boys’ misogynistic and homophobic performances were intended as assertions of power, yet their effect, ironically, was to restrict what boys could do and say. Ratele et al, 2005, for example, found that boys who were seen to mix with girls as friends were liable to be denigrated as ‘moffies,’ and, in our study, as mentioned, the prospect of being labelled similarly restricted possibilities of boys developing close relations with other boys. I suggest that the idealisation of girls and women by many boys as carers, nurturers, advice givers, is, in part, produced by denying these as identities for (proper) boys. (See Frosh, Phoenix and Pattman, 2002, on the huge costs for boys in general – not just for boys constructed and vilified as gay – of British boys’ investments in homophobia.)... 

A gay lifestyle is okay, but being gay is not (2010, Alternate Link): Gay communities across Africa often run into the sharp end of prejudice against their sexual orientation, yet a transvestite fraternity in the South African coastal city of Cape Town has gained a level of acceptance that allows them to publicly practice their lifestyle with minimal fear of retribution... Marlow Valentine, deputy director of the Cape Town-based Triangle Project, a support group for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people, told IRIN that transvestites had been living openly in the city since the early 1960s. "The moffie subculture emerged in District Six in Cape Town during the 1940s and '50s, an inner-city area that truly reflected the idea of a 'rainbow nation', as it was home to people of different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs during the earlier days of apartheid," he said... "Even though homosexuality was a criminal offence at the time [during apartheid], men who cross-dressed and participated in drag shows were accepted. It seems gay men who retained a level of masculinity were not accepted, but effeminate men were, as their sexual orientation was not seen as threatening," Valentine said... Valentine believes the flamboyant drag queen personas taken on by many transvestites, and the perception that they are successful business owners, have been key to transgender people's ability to integrate more successfully than the general gay population."Transvestites are still known for putting on drag shows in their local communities, and many straight people go to these shows because of the entertainment value, as the shows provide a level of comic relief that is affordable," he said. "They also often run successful businesses, like hair salons and beauty parlours, which usually affords them a level of respect in their communities, because of the high unemployment that exists there. These factors have created a situation ... in which the so-called moffies, or transvestites, have become accepted rather than shunned.".

Camp David Raid (2001): "For the fourteen guys who were humiliated and thrown in jail after a massive police raid at Camp David in Pretoria there have been more than four months of court appearances, severe stress, uncertainty and anxiety about the future. The affects of this matter on their careers and unlawful exposure of their identity by a Pretoria newspaper, all ended in smiles when charges were withdrawn against them before they even pleaded to charges of public indecency. Patrons at Camp David nude bar were arrested on Friday the 17th of November last year during a raid on the club by a platoon of nearly 80 police. After being unlawful photographed in their naked state by police and members of the press, they were thrown into the back of a big police truck and taken to Brooklyn police station where they were kept until the next day before charges were laid due to demands by the lawyers of Camp David to either lay charges or set the men free. The owner of Camp David, Danie Hamman, was also arrested and charges of money laundering, organized crime, indecent behaviour, contravening the liquor act and sexual offences were laid against him... - Camp David club charges dropped N/A: When the police raided the club on November 17, they were met by men wearing only shoes. - Child porn probe at SA's 'Camp David' (2006). - Anti-Gay Hate Crimes: Need for police involvement to curb violence committed against gays (1995). - Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men: Relations With Gender, Race and Religion Among University Students (2006).

Gays fight homophobia in schools (2006). - Gay teens' ordeal (2006): One in five gay and lesbian school children in Pietermaritzburg and Durban are raped or sexually abused at school. This is according to shocking new statistics that show that victimisation of KwaZulu-Natal's gay scholars is widespread. In a 2005 survey, 20% of gay and bisexual men and 19% of lesbian and bisexual women reported having been raped or sexually assaulted when they were at school... The fear of victimisation led to a decrease in self esteem and an increase in suicidal thoughts. Almost one in five surveyed had attempted suicide, according to the report. - Reflections from University Students in a South African Gay and Lesbian Society (2005). - The homonormalisation of white heterosexual leisure spaces in Bloemfontein, South Africa (2008, PDF Download). - The Anti-Gay Politics of South Africa’s “Race War” (2010): The murder of South African white supremacist Eugene Terre’blanche has people wondering if the “rainbow nation” is headed toward another “race war.” Now Terre’blanche’s alleged killers are claiming he tried to rape them. The late leaders’ supporters, however, insist it was the “murderers” who tried to rape him. Any way you cut it, this case shows how homophobia and racism have come together...

HRC intervenes on hate crimes (2007): In a groundbreaking meeting with members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) and other parties concerned, the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC) revealed intervention plans regarding the case of Sizakele Sigasa and Salome Masooa killed weeks ago in Soweto. The meeting’s aim was to look at how the human rights sector and other interested groups can deal with the murder of the two lesbian activists, Sigasa and Masooa, and come up with a programme of action... - Police promise justice on murder of soweto lesbians (2007). - South Africa: Murder Highlights Violence Against Lesbians: Culture of Fear Undermines Constitutional Protections (2006). - Queer activists in South Africa (2007). - Gay and Muslim in South Africa (2008): Homosexuality remains a taboo in much of the vast Islamic world. Most Muslim clerics condemn homosexuality outright, citing several verses of the holy Qur'an. But one South African imam thinks that they are wrong.

S Africa approves same-sex unions (2006). - L'Afrique du Sud légalise le mariage homosexuel (2006). - South Africa Gay Marriage Bill Becomes Law (2006). - S. Africa's Top Court Blesses Gay Marriage (2005). - Hundreds protest against same-sex marriages (2006). - South Africa fallout from gay marriage ruling relatively light (2005). - Africa's gay haven N/A: As more gay people "come out" in African countries, they are forced to flee and seek asylum in foreign countries because many states condemn homosexuality. The majority of homosexuals tend to use South Africa as a gateway to their liberty as the country is gay-friendly... - Same-sex marriages 'will destroy the zulus' (2007). - Are HIV positive women who have sex with women (WSW) an unrecognized and neglected HIV risk group in South Africa? (2011).

Gay Cultures in Capetown, South Africa. - Gay and Lesbian oppression. - Lesbian and Gay Equality Project welcomes Law Commission report on Same Sex Marriage (2003). - Abstract: Homosexuality and the law: a gay revolution in South Africa, Journal of African Law, 1997. - Activism bursts from townships (2000). - Forging A Representative Gay Liberation Movement In South Africa (2001). (Alternate Link: PDF Download). - Cape Of Good Hope On Screen / The new, queer South Africa (1999). -  Out and very about (2001): Five years after the new constitution recognised the equality of gay people, Gillian Anstey and photographer Elizabeth Sejake went to find out what's really changed. -  The annual Johannesburg Pride Festival - Africa’s largest Gay & Lesbian Pride event, 2003. - Taking Gay Pride to SA's townships (2005). - Johannesburg Gay Pride 2006 "Be Proud.... Speak Out." - Joburg Pride. - Cape Town Pride. - Africa's oldest lesbian and gay event celebrates 20th Anniversary (2009): Africa's oldest lesbian and gay event celebrates its 20th anniversary this week. The 2009 Joburg Pride Day and Parade... - Putting the ‘T’ into South African Human Rights: Transsexuality in the Post-Apartheid Order (2009).

Coelho, Tony (2009). When the Global and the Local Collide: Gay Identity in Brazil and South Africa According to Parker and Reid. Amsterdam Social Science, 1(2): 6-23. PDF Download. PDF Download.- Summary &  Download Page: This article examines the works of Richard Parker and Graeme Reid who both set out to explore the emerging gay communities in non-western societies. In an era of globalisation, western conceptions of a gay identity are spread throughout the world creating what some might refer to as a global gay identity (Altman 2001). However, Parker, whose research is based in Brazil, and Reid, South Africa, reveal the importance of the local in interpreting samesex behaviour. The local and the global intermingle in these societies creating a gay community of its own, while undermining the notion of a global gay identity. The following key themes presented in both these works are compared in order to understand the complex interplay between the local and global in interpreting what it means to be gay cross-culturally: (1) The economic and political developments that have allowed for the influx of modern ideas from abroad and the growth of gay communities, (2) The categorisation of men who have sex with men through unique terminology and their meanings, (3) The gay spaces which have permitted sexual expression, and (4) The assertion of a modern gay identity by local advocacy groups.

Ntuli, Praisegod Mduduzi. (2009). IsiNgqumo : exploring origins, growth and sociolinguistics of an Nguni urban-township homosexual subculture. Master's Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. Abstract. The emergence of gay subcultures in Africa can be attributed to the colonial entrenchment of homophobia and homophobic laws. This emergence of gay subcultures alongside the merciless homophobia necessitated the creation of secretive forms of linguistic communication amongst the sub cultured gays. Among the Nguni people of South Africa, isiNgqumo emerged as the lingua franca within the Nguni gay subculture. This study focuses on the Nguni gay subculture in Durban and the employment of isiNgqumo by township and city/urban Nguni gay men termed skesanas. 36 young Nguni homosexual men and one older Nguni man were the participants who were interviewed. The methodology that was used in this study was ethnography. The study also relied on a snowballing technique to access numerous of the 36 young Nguni homosexual men. The study found that the Nguni gay subculture of Durban is stratified throughout several places within Durban, it is not one geographical location. Two gay clubs and two gay salons were visited as they are some of the locations where the Nguni gay subculture is located.

Not all SA's gays enjoy greater freedom (2004): "South Africa's gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks." - "Gay Apartheid" in South Africa N/A (2003): "She also said that many bars ask blacks for their "membership cards." When they can't produce these non-existent ID's, they are denied entrance. "There is still a lot of racism against blacks from whites," she says. "Black and white gays live in two different worlds. It's almost as if there is gay apartheid." Even white gay and lesbian activists acknowledge the divide. Evert Knoesen of the Gay and Lesbian Equality Project concedes that integrating whites and blacks in the community "remains a big issue."" - Gay community still facing many challenges (2004, Alternate Link): "Gays are enjoying a new era of freedom in cities 10 years after the end of apartheid, but black and coloured homosexuals in townships and villages are still victims of discrimination and hate attacks..." - 'Gay hate' website sparks fury (2004, Alternate Link): "South Africa's oldest lesbian and gay service organisation, the Triangle Project, on Friday reacted with outrage at a website that called for the "reclaiming of Cape Town from the homosexual plague"..."

The highest court in South Africa has overturned apartheid-era laws criminalizing homosexuality (Oct. 1998). - Adult gay sex is not a crime, court rules (1997). - A short history of South African Pride (1997). - South African Court Grants Same Sex Spousal Rights (2002). - Court Hears Challenge To South Africa Gay Marriage Ban (2004). - South Africa Anti-Gay Adoption Law Unconstitutional (2002). - South African Gays Gain Adoption Rights (Alternate Link). - L'adoption permise pour les homosexuels en Afrique du Sud (2002, Translation). - South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations (2000). - Gays tell of mutilation by South African Military (2010). - South Africa OKs gays in its military N/A (Related Information: The Effect of Sodomy Laws on Lifting the Ban of Homosexual Personnel: 3 Case Studies) - A Gay Woman's Experience During her Career in the Department of Defence: Fleet of Hope: A Social Science Commentary - Part 2. (2003).

Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education (2003). - South African LGBT youth (2005). - South Africa: LGBT issues (2005). - South African Gay and Lesbian Youth Coming Out to Their Families: Analysing Various Decision-Making Pathways and Outcomes (2005). - The use of defence mechanisms as precursors to coming out in post-apartheid South Africa: a gay and lesbian youth perspective (2008). - IsiNgqumo - Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety (2008).

South African gays take centre stage (1999): "Conservative Christians have threatened to disrupt the Miss Gay South Africa beauty pageant which is scheduled to take place on Saturday." - Gays Reap Rewards Slowly in Post-Apartheid South Africa. - Gays neglected in HIV/AIDS campaigns (2004, Alternate Link). - Engendering gay and lesbian rights: the equality cluase in the South African Constitution (2003, PDF Download). - Lesbians targets of rape war: Lesbians are being raped, assaulted and victimised "every day" in the townships, in an attempt to force a change in their sexual orientation. Since January this year, 33 black lesbians have come forward with their stories of rape, assault, sexual assault and verbal abuse to organisations fighting hate crimes in Johannesburg townships.

Behind closed Doors: Gay and Married (2001). -  School boys: the player queen. (2001, Links to 7 other stories at the end of story) - Moffies, Artists, and Queens: Race and the Production of South African Gay Male Drag (2002 Draft; 2004, Published: Abstract). - South African lesbians fear rise of crime against them (2004). - Le mal de vivre des lesbiennes noires (2003, Translation): Les homosexuelles noires habitant dans les townships subissent de graves traumatismes, liés aux agressions verbales et physiques dont elles sont victimes quotidiennement. C’est ce qui ressort d’une étude de deux chercheuses sud-africaines. La première du genre à donner la parole à cette communauté humiliée. - Rape New Weapon Against South African Lesbians (2004).

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2004): A Religious Opinion on Same Sex Marriage. - For Same-sex Marriage. - Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective Violence Against Women: "No woman can determine the direction of her own life without the ability to determine her sexuality. Sexuality is an integral, deeply ingrained part of every human being’s life and should not be subject to debate or coercion. Anyone who is truly committed to human rights must recognise that every woman has the right to determine her sexuality free of discrimination." - Unmasking our struggle: "When black lesbians and gay men turn to the lesbian and gay community, they are often met with racism from their white counterparts. They may be met with white lesbians and gay men who do not understand their cultural background, find them sexually "exotic", cannot be bothered to spell their names properly and have no understanding of how racism has affected their lives. In extreme cases, they are not made to feel welcome at cultural or political gatherings..."

Stop prison rape in South Africa (2007): Abstract: South Africa has some of the highest rates of rape in the world. Activists have drawn attention to the devastating effect this has on women and children. However, insufficient attention has been paid to rape - predominantly of men - in prisons. This article aims to educate gender activists about the phenomenon of prison rape in the context of South Africa. It hopes to make the case that prison rape reflects and reinforces rape culture in South Africa (and elsewhere). In so doing, it aims to galvanise action to prevent prison rape and all forms of rape. - Prisons slammed over male rapes (2004): "Prison psychological services director Dr Lorinda Bergh testified she found it startling that no policy had been developed to protect homo- and transsexual men in jail... She was testifying on claims by former inmate Louis Karp, who claims to have been raped and abused while awaiting trial for car theft in the Pretoria local prison in 2001 and 2002... Earlier on Tuesday, prison doctor Kobeli Khomari admitted that measures to deal with rape among inmates were inadequate, even though the phenomenon was "very common".Khomari also conceded that rape claims very rarely reached court and said rape victims were not referred for psychological help as a matter of course... She agreed with Barlow that "trauma upon trauma" was heaped on Karp, and that this was largely a result of a lack of understanding of male rape..." - Rape in Prison: An intervention by Rape Crisis at Pollsmoor Prison (2002).

Boy, 15, 'sold' for jail rape (2008). - South Africa: Rape Incidents At Correctional Disturbing, Says Commissioner (2008). - Sexual Violence Plagues South African Prisons (2009). - Jail rape: The sordid facts (2005). - Behind the bars of South African prisons: Gendered roles and vulnerability of male inmates to forced sex (2005, Alternate Link). - Inquiry documents ill-treatment of SA gays in prison (2004). - MPs Demand Action on Prison Rapes, 'Marriages' (2010): Shocked MPs have demanded a plan of action on prison rapes and "marriages" following a report from a civil society organisation that nothing had been done in recent years to address the sexual violation of inmates. Members of Parliament's correctional services committee were reacting to a report from the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. The centre's Sasha Gear told them yesterday that it had been difficult to get the Department of Correctional Services to give the matter the attention it deserved.

Police-jail rapes of white SA men is a war crime pattern (2010): It’s a pattern: often white South African men are arrested on frivolous charges, dumped in holding cells with black criminals and raped – and then released without charges the next day… The writer of the following article, known only as Sybille*, says these race-targetted rapes are ‘war-crimes’ – ‘acts of aggression to humiliate and degrade members of the white conquered tribe’.. - Jail rape of white South African men a war crime (2010). - ‘Rape in jail’ ad too shocking for some (2010): The Civil Society Prison Reform Initiative has slammed an advertising campaign seeking to deter drunken-driving by warning male drivers they face the prospect of being raped in prison if arrested. - South African Lesbians Targeted for Rape and Violence (2011). - South African victory on lesbian rape (2011): Free Gender is a Black lesbian group from Khayelitsha in Cape Town.   The group organised a rally in protest against the lack of government and political  response to ” corrective rape”. - South Africans decry rapes of lesbians (2011): Rights activists are speaking out against rapes targeting lesbians in South Africa.

South African man charged with ‘correctional rape’ of lesbian (2010). - South Africa corrective rape (2009, Video). - Raped and killed for being a lesbian: South Africa ignores 'corrective' attacks (2009). - South Africa: 'Corrective Rape' Spreads To 'Fix' Lesbians (2009). - Lesbians subjected to "corrective rape" in South Africa  (2009): Lesbians living in South Africa are being subjected to "corrective rape" and severe violence by men trying to "cure" them of their sexual orientation, human rights groups have said.. - Female athletes often targets for rape (2010). - Tackling South Africa's rape epidemic (2009): The trial of three of the men accused of the rape and murder of one of South Africa's leading sportswomen, the openly gay football star Eudy Simelane, starts in South Africa on Wednesday. - Viols et meurtres de lesbiennes en Afrique du Sud : l’épidémie (2011, Translation). - Girl, 13, latest victim of ’corrective rape’ in South Africa (2011).

Perpetrators of corrective rape: Uncertainty and gender in the 21st century (2011): South Africa is “witnessing a backlash of crimes targeted specifically at lesbian women, who are perceived as representing a direct threat to a male dominated society” according to ActionAid, an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) backed by the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). The most notable of these crimes against lesbian women is corrective rape. Perpetrators of corrective rape desire to show lesbians “how to be real women.” They manifestly believe that forcing heterosexual intercourse onto lesbians will somehow reinstate a ‘traditional’ hetero-normative sexual identity in their victims. Using violence to attain their ‘goal’ indicates an attitude of hatred towards lesbian women. Unfortunately, support groups report that corrective rape is on the rise in South African townships...

Mieses A (2009). Gender Inequality and Corrective Rape of Women Who Have Sex With Women. GMHC Treatment Issues. PDF Download. African women face a new epidemic, one that threatens their lives and creates additional barriers to HIV prevention.  South African lesbians and other women who have sex with women (WSW) challenge dominant South African ideas about gender identity. Some WSW are sexually and brutally punished by local men for being gay and violating traditional gender presentation. This punishment is referred to as “corrective rape.” Reported incidents of corrective rape have been growing, and many unreported cases remain uncounted. South African officials rarely declare these crimes as hate crimes, despite the fact that the victims are targeted for being WSW. In July 2007, two women were found in a Johannesburg township after being gang-raped, tortured, tied with their underwear and shot execution-style in the head... - 'These Women, They Force Us to Rape Them': Rape as Narrative of Social Control in Post-Apartheid South Africa (2006). - « Corrective rape » or how to set lesbians straight (2010). - Hate crimes: The rise of ‘corrective’ rape in South Africa (2009).

Krause, Kristina (2006). Being a Lesbian in South AfricaWord Download. “In a country numbered by violence against women, lesbians are a target not just because they’re women, but because they love women”, (Gail Smith of Women Behind the Mask, 2003). Black women are the most underprivileged group in South Africa and when the title of lesbian is added, their status drops even further. For outsiders, a black lesbian woman has become something deeply offensive. Her homosexuality all at once, puts her against South African culture, religion, blackness, womanhood and her family. However, according to South Africa’s constitution this should not be the case...

Klein, Thamar (2009). Intersex and transgender activism in South Africa. Liminalis: Journal for sex/gender emancipation and resistance, 3. PDF Download. Download Page. South Africa has come a long way concerning the legal treatment of trans* (in medical literature often categorised as transgenderism, transsexuality, gender dysphoria, or gender identity disorder) and intersexuality (also known as hermaphroditism or disorder of sex development). LGBTTIQ-activists consider the country to be, from a legal point of view, among the most progressive worldwide... South Africa is despite its progressive laws far from being a ‘dreamland’ for trans* and intersexed people. Instead they still face a vast array of obstacles, phobias, discrimination, and hate crimes. However the constitution and the progressive laws provide a legal basis from which they can fight for their rights.

MSM left out of media, prevention programmes (2010): Men who have sex with men (MSM) do not make headlines in South African media and HIV experts have warned that a lack of accurate coverage prevents targeted HIV prevention and care for these men... "MSM doesn't mean that you're gay – it just [means] a man who sleeps with other men ... but as soon as you say that a man sleeps with another man, people think that's 'gay'," Radebe told IRIN/PlusNews. "We have to get away from boxing people and come to an understanding." Reinforcing stereotypes that all MSM are gay – or that they have the same HIV prevention needs as gay men – may alienate this vulnerable group, which does not usually self-identify as being gay. It may also deter them from accessing target HIV services for fear of being labelled “gay”, he added... But same-sex relationships remain difficult terrain for media in South Africa. One of the most popular television soap operas, Generations, recently broke new ground with a gay kiss – and lost a substantial number of viewers in the process, according to Melissa Meyer, a project coordinator with the HIV/AIDS and the Media Project at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand...

HIV Prevalence and Risk Practices Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Two South African Cities (2011): MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided finger-prick blood specimens for anonymous HIV testing in a laboratory. From July to December 2008, 285 MSM were recruited in Johannesburg (n=204) and Durban (n=81). Participants had a median age of 22 years and were predominantly black Africans (88.3%). The HIV prevalence was 49.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.5%-56.5% in Johannesburg and 27.5% (95% CI 17.0%-38.1%) in Durban. HIV infection was associated with gay identification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.4; 95% CI, 3.7-19). Factors in the previous year that were associated with HIV infection included receptive unprotected anal intercourse (aOR 4.3; 95% CI 2.4-7.6); sex with a person known to be HIV positive (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9); and a sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.2)..,

HIV and Sexual Risk in African MSM in South African Township (Study From 2008 to 2012): South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are an understudied population in HIV/AIDS epidemiological and social science research... The aims of the proposed study are (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV among African MSM living in South African townships and identify which behavioral, psychosocial, and network characteristics distinguish infected MSM from non-infected MSM; (2) to identify the structural and psychosocial correlates of sexual risk behavior in these men, with a particular focus on the role of alcohol use; and (3) to describe the social organization of same-sex sexual practices of these men and identify structural and psychosocial factors that affect how these practices are experienced. To accomplish these aims, the proposed study combines HIV testing, a survey, and ethnography. - HIV prevention and men who have sex with men: A South African experience (2010).

Disclosure decisions of HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cape Town, South Africa (PPT Presentation as PDF): Sixty eight of the 92 MSM living with HIV reported anal sex with more than onepartner who were unaware of their HIV positive status. Almost 60% of the respondents indicated that it was difficult for them to tell other people about their HIV positive status. MSM did report experiencing discrimination (64%) resulting from being HIV positive, including loss of housing or employment (45%). Of interest is that 11% of the MSM reported that they were currently married. Whilst 36 of the 92 MSM indicated that they had unprotected vaginal sex more than once in the previous 3 months with partners who were unaware of their HIV positive status.

Researching MSM in South Africa: Some Preliminary Notes from the Frontlines of a Hidden Epidemic (2009, PDF Download. Reference): In South Africa, almost all medical and civil society-based research on HIV and AIDS has been focused on heterosexual transmission (or on mother-to-child transmission) (Abdool Karim & Abdool Karim, 2005). The near-erasure of homosexuals from the HIV/AIDS epidemiological picture in South Africa could be attributed to political exclusion (Fourie, 2006). It may also be due to a historical reluctance by policymakers to address HIV/ AIDS in same-sex practicing populations because such an engagement would require engaging with sexual practices and identities that are already steeped in prejudice and pathologization (Johnson, 2007). We would argue that the prevailing culture of denial vis á vis homosexuality in the South African context is in and of itself a hostile response towards homosexuality, and is something which warrants analysis in terms which include South Africa in other continental cultures of denial around homosexuality. These cultures tend to categorize homosexuality as a Euro-American perversion that has contaminated African “tradition”; despite increasing evidence of the existence of homosexuality in pre-colonial Africa2. The assumption that homosexuality is a sign of European and Western decadence is underpinned by homogenising discourses that view “tradition” as static, unchanging and fixed. Central to this discourse is the common and totalising argument that homosexuality is “unAfrican” with the argument often focused on homosexuality’s absence in pre-colonial Africa (Antonio, 1997)...

Call for MSM to Be on Aids Agenda (2010): As World AIDS Day approaches, activists and service providers in the non-governmental health sector have warned government that it will never turn the tide of AIDS if high risk groups such as men who have sex with other men are not brought into focus in efforts to prevent HIV spreading further. An online survey conducted by the OUT Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Inter-sex network in 2007 shows that 15 - 20% of men in South Africa, which translates to about 1.8 million men, have sex with other men. Non-governmental organizations and activists have cautioned that this is a high-risk group and its continued marginalization in national AIDS programmes poses a threat to making real progress in addressing AIDS. So far, programmes in South Africa, largely driven by the National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS, have been designed to respond to what has been described as a "general heterosexual epidemic". This is of concern to Dr Oscar Radebe, a medical officer with Health for Men, an NGO that offers health services to men...

Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H, McFarland W, McIntyre J (2011). High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study. AIDS and Behavior, 15(3): 626-34. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. The Soweto Men’s Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15 seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.4–13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men, 6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified MSM... The results of the Soweto Men’s Study confirm that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed..

Lane T, et al (2006). High-Risk Sex among Black MSM in Gauteng, South Africa. PDF Download. Despite high levels of HIV awareness, high-risk sexual behavior among the most sexually active suggest that Black South African MSM are highly vulnerable to HIV infection.  • A concentrated HIV epidemic among Black MSM may be linked to the generalized epidemic in South Africa through the
sexual behavior of men who have sex with both men and women. • Researchers, CBOs, and provincial and national departments of health can work together to address the HIV prevention needs of MSM.
• The feasibility of community-based strategies for HIV prevention should be systematically explored. This must include the development of specific strategies to encourage HIV prevention among bisexual and straight-identified men as well as among gay-identified men.  • The association of alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior among Black South African MSM will be an important area of focus for HIV prevention efforts.  • Barriers to availability of and access to latex-compatible lubrication, particularly cost barriers, must be addressed.

Livingston L, et al. (2008). Prism Project: Needs Assessment Report: Resourced Gay Men in Tshwane aged 18-40, 2007/8. Pretoria: OUT Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) Well-Being. PDF Download. The NA was a first step in exploring determinants of casual sexual risk-taking among White resourced gay men in Tshwane. Three broad areas were explored, i.e. biographical data, views of health problems and solutions and lastly, sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof. It became clear that HIV and STIs are seen as serious health problems confronting gay men. Without a strong sense of community, they appear apathetic and disinterested in taking responsibility for their own sexual health and well-being. Casual sex seems to be occurring in a context where anal sex is a preference, where motivating and de-motivating factors are mediated by the type of venue, the time of day, the codes given and the substance used, where there is no regular testing and no one knows their recent status, where there is no condom use in steady relationships and inconsistent condom use in casual encounters, where there is no negotiated safety in steady relationships and casual encounters, and where monogamy is claimed but not carried out and secrecy surrounds the most recent casual encounter. It is clear that this situates these men as being at a high risk of contracting and transmitting an STI or HIV. An intervention is needed to deal with the developing problem.

Tucker, Andrew (2009). Framing exclusion in Cape Town's gay village: the discursive and material perpetration of inequitable queer subjects. Area, 41(2): 186-197. Abstract: Within and beyond geography, there has been a growing concern in understanding how and why exclusion can occur within ‘gay spaces’, with a specific focus on Western Europe and North America. Heidi Nast's (2002 Queer patriarchies, queer racisms, international Antipode 34 874–909) work on the ‘white queer patriarch’ has taken this work further by exploring the multiple, interrelated, historical and contemporary factors that can lead to exclusion and exploitation. Despite growing interest surrounding South Africa's new liberal queer agenda, issues of contemporary exclusion among queer groups as a direct result of race and racism have remained relatively unexplored. By incorporating elements of Nast's schema, this article will examine the power that exists in the creation and framing of essentialistic ‘white’ and ‘coloured’ queer male subjects in Cape Town's gay village. These subjects will be shown to simultaneously draw on historical inequalities while also re-imagining them in contemporary settings to re-inscribe perceptions of classed and gendered difference. The creation of such inequitable subjects helps us understand how exclusion can become real and normalised within a space such as Cape Town's gay village in a way that draws on a history of material inequalities and discursive perceptions of race.

Black like me? Gay hairstyling and the paradox of modernity in South Africa (2007 Dissertation): The starting point for this research project is hairstyling and "hair saloons". Hairstyles are an important marker of cultural identity and hair saloons frequently provide safe social spaces for gay men as well as a significant point of interaction with broader communities. Hair saloons are thus sites where same-sex identities can be developed and expressed as well as negotiated with the outside world. In the South African public imaginary, gay lifestyles are associated with "modernity", a term which has both negative and positive connotations. This is particularly apparent in the ambiguous response to hairstylists, as a source of what is both desirable and regrettable about "modernity". This research will explore the articulation between "modernity" and contemporary same-sex identities in South Africa. The nature of rural and urban, traditional and modern, will be explored through a network of stylists and their associates who live and work outside of the metropole, in the urban peripheries, small towns and rural areas of South Africa's Mpumalanga province.

Currier, Ashley McAllister (2007). The Visibility of Sexual Minority Movement Organizations in Namibia and South Africa. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The South African state has responded favorably to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movement organizations’ (SMOs) efforts to protect and extend sexual and gender minority rights, whereas Namibian state leaders have verbally attacked LGBT organizing and threatened to arrest sexual and gender minorities... I engaged in intensive, continuous ethnographic observation of four Namibian and South African LGBT social movement organizations for approximately 800 hours and analyzed my ethnographic fieldnotes. I also analyzed more than 2,100 newspaper articles and LGBT SMO documents and conducted 56 in-depth interviews with staff, members, and leaders of LGBT SMOs. In this dissertation, I explore the varied strategic dilemmas of visibility and invisibility that Namibian and South African LGBT SMOs faced...

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2003): Expressions of Johannesburg pride (Alternate Link): "One can almost write a report on Pride before it takes place. South African Gay and Lesbian Pride (formerly Lesbian and Gay Pride - a more inclusive and less marginalizing title) is now firmly following the model set by Prides worldwide... so what are they partying after, you may ask? It is a far cry from the foundation of the Pride phenomenon in South Africa, now in its 14th year. There was a time - and Yusoof Abdullah, co-organiser of the Pride event this year is keen to remind people of his connection to those initial Pride marches - when Pride meant something... Well there is a good reason why some political sentiments need to be injected back into the Pride event - our most public expression of pride in ourselves and our community. Just because it says so in the constitution doesn't mean that people don't discriminate against lesbian and gay people and that homophobia is not still rife in South Africa... Few lesbian or gay people in the world have not heard of Matthew Shepard; a victim of a violent and brutal homophobic attack that led to his death hanging from a fence in the USA. But we have our own Matthew Shepards - we are just less willing to learn their names and honour their suffering with action... I have been marching in Pride marches in UK and South Africa since 1985. I have never missed a year. I even helped to organise one in South Africa in 2001. My commitment to the need for Pride and its meaning is total - so why was this the first year of my adult life that I couldn't march? Am I getting old? And why should that be such a sin in the gay world? No, none of this, I just could not find anything there to be proud of.

'I've got two men and one woman': ancestors, sexuality and identity among same-sex identified women traditional healers in South Africa (2003):  This paper presents preliminary insights into the complex nature of the same-sex orientation of seven women who are sangomas (traditional healers) in Soweto. Data was derived from an ethnographic study, used as the appropriate methodology because of the veiled and secret nature of same-sexuality amongst traditional healers... the belief system of the sangomas provides a window into different categories of sexuality in an African framework through which the interaction and intersection of their personal same-sex desire, and that of their male ancestors, can be viewed. Sangomas construction of identity and desire shifted between that of personal agency and that of a dominant male ancestor. This required constant negotiation and encompassed elements of both the 'modern' and 'traditional'. In the case of these sangomas, same-sexuality the basis of marginality assumes a social status and becomes a source of power.

(Un)Imagined Bodies and Identities (2008): I come from South Africa, a country that suffers in its postcolonial phase, like all other African countries do, from the past and present afflictions of European colonization and American imperialism that has including a white minority regime until 1990. Like all imperialist and other formerly colonized countries, South Africa is also still embedded within European heteropatriarchal values and queerphobia. However, I did not expect to be one of the unimagined and unvoiced bodies and identities in Canada, a country globally recognized for its advanced human rights and protections that includes the legal recognition of a person’s multi-layered identities... I would also like to preface this paper with the argument that theorizing about the lack of queer content in the MA Documentary Media program is about more than a silence about queer sexuality. It is about a racialized heteronormativity as it is reproduced within Canadian academia and the larger Canadian mainstream society...

Cloete A, Rispel L, Reddy V, Metcalf C (2010). Constructs of identity and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two South African cities. PPT Presentaton at the
Third Annual International Colloquium "Gender, Sexuality, History and Culture in Africa", University of Lagos, Nigeria.
PDF Download. Comclusion: MSM identities are not only widespread but also
diverse in South Africa. - Understanding the social context of risk for MSM is important when designing HIV prevention programmes and services, in order to meet the needs of individuals with diverse sexual behaviours in a non-discriminatory and nonjudgmental manner. - More in-depth ethnographic type of research is needed to understand risk taking behaviour of MSM.

Arnott J, Crago A-L (2009). Rights Not rescue: A Report on Female, Male, and Trans Sex Workers’ Human Rights in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa Sexual Health and Rights Project, Open Society Institute. PDF Download.

Sonnekus, Theo (2009). Invisible Queers: Investigating the 'other' Other in gay visual cultures. Master or Arts Dissertation, University of Pretoria. PDF Download. Download Page. The apparent ‘invisibility’, or lack of representation of black men in contemporary mainstream gay visual cultures is the primary critical issue that the study engages with. The study presupposes that the frequency with which white men appear in popular representations of ‘gayness’ prevails over that of black men. In order to substantiate this assumption, this study analyses selected issues of the South African queer men’s lifestyle magazine Gay Pages. Gay visual cultures appear to simultaneously conflate ‘whiteness’ and normative homosexuality, while marginalising black gay men by means of positioning ‘blackness’ and ‘gayness’ as irreconcilable identity constructs. Images of the gay male ‘community’ disseminated by queer and mainstream media constantly offer stereotypical, distorted and race-biased notions of gay men, which ingrain the exclusive cultural equation of white men and ideal homomasculinity. The disclosure of racist and selectively homophobic ideologies, which seem to inform gay visual representation, is therefore the chief concern of the dissertation...

Freeing South Africa: The "Modernization" of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto (1998): Although engaged in another research project, in my free time with friends like Paul, I thus stumbled onto a series of questions that began to perplex me: Who was Linda? In the letter quoted above, I had unproblematically identified Linda as "gay." But in his context, was he? And if so, how did he come to see himself as so? And I quickly confronted questions of gender as well. Did Linda consider himself as male? And if so, had he always done so? As issues like these began to pose themselves, I soon realized that for black men in townships around Johannesburg, identifying as gay was both recent and tied up, in unexpectedly complex ways, with a much larger historical transformation: the end of apartheid and the creation of a modem nation; in a phrase, the "freeing" of South Africa... Certainly, in Soweto in the 1960s, hostels populated by rural men had become notorious sites for same-sex sexual relations. Township parents warned young sons not to go anywhere nearby, that they would be swept inside and smeared with Vaseline and raped (see also Mathabane 1986:68-74). To urbanraised skesanas like Linda, however, these stories apparently only aroused phantasy and desire. Linda described a "marriage ceremony" in which she took part in one of the hostels, as follows:...

Coetzee, Catherine Anne (2009). The development and evaluation of a programme to promote sensitive pscyhotherapeutic practice with gay men and lesbians. PhD Dissertation, Rhodes University. Abstract and Download Page. Clinical psychology’s relevance and future viability depend on its ability to render services that are relevant and sensitive to multicultural and minority issues. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people are one such group that professional psychology – both in South Africa and abroad - has identified as having unique treatment needs for which psychologists require specialised knowledge and skills in order to render appropriate treatment. Competence to treat non-heterosexual patients has been framed in terms of a gay affirmative paradigm which has as its basic tenet the recognition that same-gender orientation is not pathological but rather a healthy alternative to heterosexuality. From this perspective being “gay friendly” or “gay accepting” is not enough. To implement a gay affirmative approach in practice, practitioners must have resolved their possible prejudice and heterosexist bias and have the requisite knowledge of concerns unique to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals to be able to apply their skills in a culturally sensitive manner. Although more American post-graduate psychology programmes are addressing sexual diversity, their failure to produce psychologists who feel competent to treat lesbian/gay or bisexual individuals has highlighted the need to develop effective training strategies based on empirical nvestigation. The dearth of comparable data about local South African psychology training prompted this inquiry which had four broad aims namely, (i) to establish to what extent trainees’ prior training had equipped them with the knowledge, awareness, and skills to approach their work with non-heterosexual patients in a gay affirmative manner, and (ii) to implement and (iii) to evaluate to what extent a brief structured training programme is effective in engaging the trainees; in increasing knowledge, in raising awareness, and in changing specific attitudes and imparting specific skills required for treating lesbian and gay patients.; and (iv) what, if any, recommendations should be made for the future with respect to training of sychologists in this area?...

Uit in die kuberruim: enkele waardetoevoegings en uitdagings ten opsigte van Gay@Litnet binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks (2006): This article investigates the nature, role and contribution of Gay@Litnet as an electronic alternative for the publication of gay literature in South Africa. Attention will be given to the manner in which Gay@Litnet acts as a public forum for nurturing gay identity within the current socio-political context of South Africa. A brief summary of the current socio-political situation of South African gays will be given in order to place the discussion into the necessary context. Secondly, an evaluative description of the dynamics of Gay@Litnet will be given, where after a few value-adding properties and challenges concerning Gay@Litnet will be discussed.

The Lesbian and Gay Equality project: Special features (2001-04): Charity begins at… uhm… - Meds, Drugs and HIV. - How Sexuality is used to disempower women. - Homophobia and the Rights of Lesbians and Gays. - Recognise Same Sex Marriages. - Queer State funeral in Sebokeng.

History: South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations. - Gays tell of mutilation by apartheid army. - Men who suffer in silence:  South African law does not recognise the existence of male rape..." - A leading light of gay and AIDS activism in SA (1998). - The official treatment of white, South African, homosexual men and the consequent reaction of gay liberation from the 1960s to 2000. PhD Dissertation. University of Jahannesburg. Download Page.- 'I've Got Two Men and One Woman': Ancestors, Sexuality and Identity among Same-Sex
Identified Women Traditional Healers in South Africa
(2003). -
State of Emergency: An exploration of attitudes towards homosexuality in the SADF, 1969-1994. Master's Dissertation, History Department, Stellenbosch University. Abstract and Download Page.

Mbali, Mandisa (2005). The Treatment Action Campaign and the History of Rights-Based, Patient-Driven HIV/AIDS Activism in South Africa: Research Report No. 29. University of Kwazulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society. PDF Download. Download Page. In asserting these continuities, it is not this Report’s aim to underplay the discontinuities between anti-apartheid, gay rights activism in the 1980s and early 1990s and TAC’s militant AIDS activism in post-apartheid South Africa. Conservative gay AIDS activists affiliated to Gay Activists of South Africa (GASA) tried and failed to gain access to the apartheid government’s AIDS committees during the 1980s. In the early 1990s, anti-apartheid gay AIDS activists used transition-era negotiating spaces such as the National Aids Convention of South Africa (NACOSA) to further their aims. However, the post-apartheid era brought much greater scope for AIDS activism as it brought with it a free press and the Constitutional Court, which were used to maximum potential by TAC activists, especially in advocating HIV treatment access for all, as the second and third sections of this Report argue. In using these democratic institutions, TAC defended and extended ‘first generation’ political rights.

Reddy, Vasu (2005). Moffies, stabanis and lesbos: the political construction of queer identities in southern Africa. PHD Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. PDF Download (Very large: 159 Megs). Download Page. This dissertation focuses on discursive constructions of sexuality (in particular homosexuality). This study is not a social history, nor does it explain and motivate the existence of homosexuality. Rather, the project explores the regulatory public discourses of homosexuality in Southern Africa in relation to historical events and archived texts. (Southern embraces primarily South Africa although one chapter foregrounds neighbouring African countries in the Southern region). Applying recent studies in queer theory to a number of events, issues and sources, I formulate a critical methodology that demonstrates the political construction of homosexuality. I argue that the emergence of political queer identity has its roots in the apartheid State, and show how these identities are politically grounded (and indeed) reinforced In the post-apartheid project. The study conceives homosexuality as a 'queer identity' that resists and subverts heteronormativity.

Rees, Jennifer (2010). Masculinity and sexuality in South African border war literature. Master's Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch. PDF Download. Download Page. This thesis explores masculinity and sexuality, hegemonic and “deviant” in the nation state of the old apartheid South Africa, by addressing aspects of fatherhood, boyhood and motherhood in white, predominantly Afrikaans family narratives... I explore what happens when this white-centred patriarchal hegemony is broken down, threatened or resisted when “deviance” in the form of homosexuality occurs. A second focus of this thesis is that of “deviance” in the army. I analyse “deviance” in three novels, moffie (2006) by André Carl van der Merwe, The Beautiful Screaming of Pigs (1991) by Damon Galgut and Kings of the Water (2009) by Mark Behr. These novels foreground “deviance” and I make use of them in exploring the punishment, or “consequences” of being homosexual or “deviant” in the highly masculine environs of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) army.

van Zyl M, et al. (1999). Human rights abuses of gays and lesbians in the South African Defence Force by health workers during the apartheid era. Cape Town, Sotuh Africa: Simply Said and Done
on behalf of Gay and Lesbian Archives, Health and Human Rights Project, Medical Research Council, and the National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality.
PDF Download. - Gays tell of mutilation by apartheid army (2000).

Forman, Ross G (2002). Randy on the Rand: Portuguese African Labor and the Discourse on "Unnatural Vice" in the Transvaal in the Early Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 11(4): 570-609. PDF Download. Reference. Because the economic center of South Africa had shifted from the Cape Province to the Transvaal as a result of the development of the mines, the country was heavily indebted to these workers from Mozambique, who in 1907 comprised about 70 percent of the labor force officially hired by the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA)and numbered more than seventy thousand... Their inquiry was prompted by and followed on the heels of an explosive 1906 investigation of "immorality" among the indentured Chinese laborers brought to the Transvaal after the conclusion of the Anglo- Boer War, for the earlier investigators had heard repeated testimony that the "Mozambique Natives" could teach the Chinese inore vice than the Chinese could teach them... For instance, although a number of "boys" - interviewed were named by other witnesses as being party to mine marriages, nearly all claimed linowledge of the practice but categorically denied their ou7n involvement in it...

Troubling Gender: Homosexuality in an African Society: "The aim of our study is to analyse the interrelationship between the stereotypes and my myths surrounding same-sex relationships/sexuality, sexual ransgression and gender-based violence.We will document the findings and place them in the context of the existing, but marginal research. What kind of myths and stereotypes are prevalent around homosexuality in African societies and especially in South Africa? Are there any intersections between these myths and gender-based violence and/or violence against lesbians – and if so,what are these myths? To understand these myths we will documen the history of same-sex relationships in differen African societies..." (Paper presented at the Sex & Secrecy Conference 2003, the 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality,Culture and Society (IASSCS) by Wendy Isaack and Henriette Gunkel: PDF Download).

Ratele, Kopano (2006). Ruling masculinity and sexuality. Feminist Africa, 6: 48-64. PDF Download. Full Text. Download Page. In a recent study on masculinity focusing on boys from several high schools around the Western Cape, similar thinking was evident. Firstly, in response to the question “What is a man?”, some of the boys answered that a man is “always considered … the head of the household while women are subordinate to men. Therefore a woman is not allowed to [be equal to] her husband when it comes to household decision-making.” In regard to the question of sexuality, a boy said “the problem with abstinence is that you might go crazy, if you are a man” (Ratele et al, in press). From discussion on gay and lesbian identities in that study, it was also clear that “a real man” does not behave in ways that are “unmanly” and does not have sex with another man. As a boy in one group said, “like some gays you can’t even tell that they’re gay ... among themselves they don’t parade around with it. I don’t mind if they’re like that, but I mean if they walk around going like ‘hello doll’ and that little kiss thingy…” [he doesn’t need to finish his idea]. Another boy at a different school, in reference to men looking after children, said “when you look after a child, you also have to put on an apron which makes you look like a moffie”[4] (Ratele et al, in press).

Belkin A, Canaday M (2010). Assessing the integration of gays and lesbians: Into the South African National Defence Force. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 38(2): 1-21. PDF Download. The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel has not had a negative impact on recruitment and retention, morale, unit cohesion or operational effectiveness in the SANDF.

Achmat, Zackie (2010). LGBTI Freedom and Equality in Africa: a Different South African Perspective. Newsletter: International AIDS Society (PDF, Must Scroll). In theory, we are equal as gay men. We can have sex without any fear of prosecution. The constitution and a myriad of laws guarantee us equal access to social services, employment benefits, fostering, adoption, marriage, divorce and inheritance. We can also serve in the South African National Defence Force and enjoy gay culture and freedom of expression. However, that young, Black gay man’s only rights include sex with a partner of his choice and to openly associate with LGBTI people. These rights are vital, but real equality is a chimera. Equality, privacy and freedom are privileges enjoyed by middle- and upper-class people, including gay men of all races. LGBTI people both consciously and unconsciously lay claim to their rights as human beings and they locate these rights as global citizens. These rights to freedom and equality correctly inspire and activate people everywhere. However, the uncritical adoption of the American, Australian and European rights–based strategies focused on the lobbying of parliaments, litigation and visibility through the media has led to an impasse. A rightsbased movement that looks only to parliaments and the courts must fail, since they are largely captured by corporations and the urban, middle- and upper-class elites...

Kraak, Gerald  (2002). Homosexuality and the South African left: the amibiguities of exile. On The Subject of Sex & The Body Seminar Series (in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Humanities and the School of Arts). Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research (WISER), The University of Witwatersrand. PDF Download. Download Page. This article is a contribution to a slim, but emerging body of work in gay South African historiography – the hidden, largely unacknowledged role played by gay menand lesbians in opposition politics and in the anti-apartheid and liberation movements..

Muholi, Zanele  (2009). Mapping Our Histories: A Visual History of Black Lesbians in Post-Apartheid South Africa PDF Download. Other Writings. Home Page.

Mark Gevisser: In his new essay in the latest edition of Granta, Mark looks back at the lives of two older men from Soweto, and how they negotiated the double-jeopardy of being black and being gay in apartheid South Africa, from the perspective of his own same-sex marriage in February 2009. Extract. See: Recent Writings. - Gevisser, Mark (2000). Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa. In: Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: South Africa: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: South Africa. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

Simon and I: A film by Beverley Palesa Ditsie and Nicky Newman. A challenging, provocative, and unconventional film about life in Southern Africa in the presenceof HIV/AIDS. - Simon and I: Simon and I recounts the lives of two giants in the South African gay and lesbian liberation movement, Simon Nkoli and the film maker herself, Bev Ditsie. The story is narrated by Bev, both as a personal statement and a political history. Through good times and bad, their relationship is viewed against a backdrop of intense political activism and the HIV/AIDS crisis. Their converging and diverging lives, culminating in Simon s death, are revealed in this heartfelt testament using a mixed format of interviews and archive footage.

Resources: GALA: Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action: GALA was established under the name The Gay and Lesbian Archives in 1997. - Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (To 2009). (Old Site, to 2007) (Archive Link). GALA 2003 Report:  Established in 1997, GALA is an independent project of the South African History Archives Trust (SAHA) which forms part of the Historical Papers collection based at the William Cullen Library at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. For SAHA this was a valuable extension of its existing collections that echoed SAHA’s historic commitment to documenting human rights struggles in South Africa. GALA represents a unique resource of material relating to lesbian and gay experience in Southern Africa. It is appropriate that the only lesbian and gay archive on the continent should be located in South Africa, considering that this is the first country in the world to enshrine equality on the basis of sexual orientation in its constitution. In the light of the constitution making process and the ensuing legal reforms, South Africa has become a focus for international and local research attention.. - Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action (GALA): Strategic plan 2007-2011.

The Durban Lesbian & Gay Community & Health Centre. - GMax: gay and lesbian South Africa. - Gay South Africa. - The South African Gay Information Guide. - South African Lesbian and Gay Equality Project. - Grey Gay Guide. - Feminist Internet Resource Guide: Africa (To 2006). - Gay South Africa Lifestyle. - Gender DynamiX: African based organisation for the transgender community. The aim is to create awareness and visualize transgenderism. - Lesbians in South Africa: A forum for South Africa's Lesbian community (To 2006): - Jewish OutLook: the new South African Jewish Organisation catering for the Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgendered and Intersex Community. - Cape Town GLBT Links. - Exit online - stories from South Africa's LGBT newspaper. - South Africa Gay & Lesbian Issues News: Service for global professionals. Constantly updated news and information about South Africa..

Joburg Pride. - Cape Town Pride. - Videos, Gay Pride: Cape Town Pride Parade, 2011. - Cape Town Pride Parade After Party at Cape Town Stadium, 2011. - Cape Town Gay Pride 2010 - Bronx Boyz. - South Africa Gay Pride at Zoo Lake, 2009. - Gay Pride in Cape Town, 2008. - Cape Town Pride GoPink, 2008. - Homophobic Harassment During Gay Pride, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Sub-Saharan Africa: - South AfricaZimbabwe.

Behind the Mask - A Web Site on Gay and Lesbian Affairs in Africa. - Africa by Country: South Africa Information News. - African Veil: Countries Covered: South Africa. - Queer afrol. - Afrol News; Gay/Lesbian Archives. - theGully.com news & Articles: Africa. - Mamba Online: Gay South Africa Lifestyle, News, Dating. - Human Rights Watch: Use Search Function. - Amnesty International: Use Search Function. - Pink News: Europe's Largest Gay News Service: Africa. - AsylumLaw.Org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Documents / Reports / Website Links / Organizations. South Africa Individual Documents since 1999. - Links to News Sources for GLBT World.

Global Gayz: Africa: South Africa News Report 2000 to Present. - ILGA: Africa: South Africa. - LGBT rights in South Africa. - QRD. - Gayscape.

Arts & Culture Index: Africa N/A. (Archive Link, to 2003). - Botha MP (2003). Homosexuality and South African cinema. Kinema, 19, Spring 2003:39-64. Full Text.

Passion and pride at the gay film festival (2010). - Out in Africa, 2010. - Out in Africa Gay & Lesbian Film Festival Johannesburg (2011). April 2011 Out in Africa Film Fest (2011). - Out In Africa: South African Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. - SA Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2008, Must Scroll): The Out In Africa SA Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (OIA) celebrated its 15th birthday this spring with over 100 screenings held at Nu Metro in Johannesburg and Cape Town, for 11 days in each city. - South Africa: Out in Africa: Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2007). - Homosexuality and South African Cinema (Bibliography to 1991). - The Power of Culture Special: Cinema in Africa - South African Queer Cinema Exposes Double Standards: Ten years after the first democratic elections, black South African queer film has come out of the closet. - Queer cinema as a fifth cinema in South Africa and Australia (2005): In South Africa, the first major Queer film festival, The Out In Africa Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 1994, was instrumental in developing and maintaining a post-Apartheid Queer public sphere which fostered further legal change. Given the significant histories of activism through Queer Cinematic Cultures in both Australia and South Africa, I propose in this thesis the existence of a new genus of cinema, which I term Fifth Cinema. Fifth Cinema includes Feminist Cinema, Queer Cinema and Immigrant/Multicultural Cinema and deals with the oppressions which cultures engage with within their own cultural boundaries. It can be informed by First Cinema (classical, Hollywood), Second Cinema (Art House or dual national cinemas), Third and Fourth Cinema (cinemas dealing with the decolonisation of Third World and Fourth World people), but it develops its unique characteristics by countering internal cultural colonisation. Fifth Cinema functions as a heterognosis, where multi-dimensional representations around sexuality, race and gender are used to assist in broader cultural liberation.

Branton, Heather (2002). Feminist Visions: Lesbian and Gay in Southern Africa: Activists, Lovers. and Healers. Feminist Collections, 24(1): 6-9. PDF Download. Download Page. Films Reviewed: Forbidden Fruit. Tina Mchida in Zimbabwe (Rainmakers, Series 2). Everything Must Com to Light.

Review (2010): Reading Zanele Muholi’s Faces and Phases (Book) and Difficult Love (Film). Zanele Muholi is very clear about the objectives of her work as a black lesbian South African visual activist. In the introduction to her 2010 book, Faces and Phases, she states: In the face of all the challenges our community encounters daily, I embarked on a journey of visual activism to ensure that there is black queer visibility. It is important to mark, map and preserve our mo(ve)ments through visual histories for reference and posterity so that future generations will note that we were here" (2010: 6). - Difficult Love wins an award at Bilbao (2011). - World renowned lesbian photographer and visual activist Zanele Muholi has once again been recognised for her work as her award winning film Difficult Love is being screened in local and international film festivals.The film was commissioned by the SABC and is co-directed by Peter Goldsmid and Zanele Muholi.

Books: - Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa - 1995 - edited by Mark Gevisser, Edwin Cameron (Google Books) (Review). - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Review by Gary Kinsmans: "Third World 'Queer' Liberation "A revolution within the revolution." Contains: "Mandela's stepchildren: homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa" (P. 111-36, Alternate Link for Review) "Mark Gevisser, co-editor of the South African anthology Defiant desire (1994), discusses the development of homosexual identity in post-apartheid South Africa." Plus: "Awakenings: dreams and delusions of an incipient lesbian and gay movement in Kenya" (P. 179-92) "John Mburu writes from the embattled movements in southern Africa, where a spate of dictatorial presidents have made anti-homosexual pronouncements and embarked on campaigns of anti-gay and lesbian harassment. Mburu specifically deals with the movement in Kenya." - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Sex and politics in South Africa - 2005 - by Neville Wallace Hoad, Karen Martin, Graeme Reid (Abstract & Author Information) (Google Books).

Books: - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Among Lesbians and Gay Men (Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Issues, Volume 3) - 1997 - edited by Beverly Greene (Abstract). Contains: "From Apartheid to Mandela's Constitution" by Cheryl Potgieter. - The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities - 2001 - by Delroy Constantine-Simms (Excerpt) (Interview with author) (Review: Black Gay / Gay Black) (We are soliciting essays on Black homosexuality for the "The Greatest Taboo: Volume 2) Contains: "Institutionalizing Sexuality: Theorizing Queer in Post-Apartheid South Africa" by Vasu Reddy. - The Invisible Ghetto: Lesbian & Gay Writing from South Africa - 1995 - edited by Matthew Krouse. - Gayle: The Language of Kinks and Queens, A History and Dictionary of Gay Language in South Africa - 2005 - by Ken Cage. - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa. - The Cultural Politics of Female Sexuality in South Africa - 2010 - by Henriette Gunkel (Contents & Introduction) (New NAI Book on Homophobia in Africa).

From Social Silence to Social Science: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa - 2009 - edited by Vasu Reddy, Theo Sandfort & Laetitia Rispel (Amazon) (Review) (Podcast Package: Same-sex sexuality, HIV & AIDS and Gender in South Africa) (Free Download. Download Page). Contents: Foreword. - Introduction. - - Theory, methodology, context: 1 Researching same-sex sexuality and HIV.  2 Sexuality research in South Africa: The policy context.  3 Same-sex sexuality and health: Current psychosocial scientific research in South Africa.  4 Homosexual and bisexual labels: The need for clear conceptualisations, operationalisations and appropriate methodological designs.  5 Gender, same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Practical research challenges and solutions.  6 From social silence to social science: HIV research among township MSM in South Africa. -- History, memory, archive:  7 Gay AIDS activism in South Africa prior to 1994.  8 Sexing women: Young black lesbian women’s reflections on sex and responses to safe(r) sex in Johannesburg.  9 Creating memory: Documenting and disseminating life stories of LGBTI people living with HIV
Ruth Morgan, Busi Kheswa, John Meletse.  10. Perspectives from sub-Saharan and southern Africa 10 What we know about same-sex practicing people and HIV in Africa.  11 Same-sex sexuality and HIV/AIDS: A perspective from Malawi.  12 A bird’s eye view of HIV and gay and lesbian issues in Zimbabwe. 13 Epidemiological disjunctures: A review of same-sex sexuality and HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa. -- Needs, programming, policy and direction for future research:  14 Mobilising gay and lesbian organisations to respond to the political challenges of the South African HIV epidemic.  15 Are South African HIV policies and programmes meeting the needs of samesex practising individuals?  16 Lessons learned from current South African HIV/AIDS research among lesbian/gay/bisexual populations.  17 Observations on HIV and AIDS in Cape Town’s LGBT population.  18 Some personal and political perspectives on HIV/AIDS in Ethekwini.  19 Health for all? Women who have sex with women (WSW) health needs and issues. -- Conclusions:  20 Taking research-based prevention forward.

The Prize and the Price: Shaping sexualities in South Africa (Free Download) - 2009 - edited by Melissa Steyn, Mikki van Zyl (Amazon). - Some Sections with Homosexuality Related Issues: Foreword. - 1. The Prize And The Price. - 5. Renegotiating masculinity in the Lowveld: narratives of male-male sex in compounds, prisons and at home. - 7. Are blind people better lovers? - 8. Sexuality in later life. - 13. Heterosex among young South Africans: Research reflections. - 17. Queer marriage: Sexualising citizenship and the development of freedoms in South Africa. - 18. Beyond the Constitution: from sexual rights to belonging. - Conclusion: Shaping sexualities.  See also the Index.

The country we want to live in Hate crimes and homophobia in the lives of black lesbian South Africans (Free Download) - 2010 - by Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Jane Bennett, Vasu Reddy, Relebohile Moletsane (Full Text) (HSRC Seminar: The Country We Want to Live In - Hate Crimes and Homophobia in the Lives of Black Lesbian South Africans). Contents: Foreword. - Preface. - - Part I: Context and History:  Context and socio-political background. - Language and vocabulary. - The delimitations of this report. - -  Part II: Perspective and Profile: Roundtable Seminar on Gender-Based Violence, Black Lesbians, Hate Speech and Homophobia. - - Part III: Current and Future Prospects: Legally-focused campaigning. - Conclusions and Recommendations: a way forward?  


The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: Google.com. - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. -  findarticles.com: many free full text articles and papers. - Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - OpenPDF.com.

Search for Free Articles, Papers or ReportsFindArticles.com - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Theses / Dissertations: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - Austrralian Dissertations (Abstracts Given). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available -  Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.


Site Index
Subject Index: GLBT Information in 21 Categories.




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