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To Home of: Increasing Awareness of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Two Spirit, Queer... Suicide Issues
University of Calgary Home Page
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender
"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks
Suicidality Studies From 1970 to 2014
Faculty of Social Work Home Page
 
To Search For Anything At This Site!

Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010).
Shutting LGBT Students Out: How Current Anti-Bullying Policies Fail America’s Youth (2011)
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."

It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Why should LGBTQ students have to wait for it to get better? We have the power to make it better now.
School should not be about survival. PDF.
Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Anti-gay bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide (2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
Make It Better Project (2011). - Does it ever really get better? (2011)
Negative gay community description, with the white racism missing.

The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!

Document Containing the Resources Available for GLBT Adolescent Suicide Prevention in Schools:
SAMHSA (2012)
. Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit for High Schools. PDF Download.

Dyck DR (2013). LGBTQ Youth Suicide Prevention: Summary: Report on Outcomes and Recommendations.
Ottawa: Egale Canada Human Rights Trust.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough
.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.

Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two Spirit Information Pages and Suicide Issues.

"American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention" Website

"Honouring Life Network," Canada: Aboriginal Youth Suicide


"Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention," USA


Webpages
Available
At Website

Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies (This Page): The Index (Includes: The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!). - All Random & Special Sample Studies. - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies. - The Results of Additional School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors. - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues. - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results.

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.




This page contain the results of about 150 studies (+/- 115 published in peer reviewed journals) that have reported "attempted suicide" incidences for varying sample of sexual minority individuals most often described or self-described (may be self-identified) as Gay (G), Lesbian (L), Bisexual (B), Transgender (TG), Homosexual, Predominantly Homosexual, Homosexual/Bisexual, Same-Sex Attracted, Same-Sex Romantically Attracted, MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men), WSW (Women Who Have Sex With Women), and Same-Sex Sexually Active (Same-Sex Sex). Some "Self-Harm" or "Self-Injury" study results are also reported.

Risk Ratios (RRs) or Odds Ratios (ORs) were produced - if they were not given by study authors - when Heterosexual or Predominantly Heterosexual individuals were also a part of a study and sufficient data was available to do calculations. As a rule, homosexually oriented people have been at higher risk for attempting suicide, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, and more so for males.  Transgender people - and other gender nonconforming people in other categories - may be at the highest risk for having attempted suicide.

Study Samples have been non-random (convenience samples, or others that are quite large and representative) or random.

To.... The Alerts!

Homosexually Oriented Males More At Risk For Death By Suicide? At All Ages?

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4): 765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does not mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(2): 111-7. PDF Download. PDF Download. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."

Frisch M, Simonsen J (2013). Marriage, cohabitation and mortality in Denmark: national cohort study of 6.5 million persons followed for up to three decades (1982-2011). International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(2): 559-578. Abstract. "Results: HRs for overall mortality changed markedly over time, most notably for persons in same-sex marriage. In 2000-2011, opposite-sex married persons (reference, HR = 1) had consistently lower mortality than persons in other marital status categories in women (HRs 1.37-1.89) and men (HRs 1.37-1.66). Mortality was particularly high for same-sex married women (HR = 1.89), notably from suicide (HR = 6.40) and cancer (HR = 1.62), whereas rates for same-sex married men (HR = 1.38) were equal to or lower than those for unmarried, divorced and widowed men. Prior marriages (whether opposite-sex or same-sex) were associated with increased mortality in both women and men (HR = 1.16-1.45 per additional prior marriage)... Of note, mortality among same-sex married men has declined markedly since the mid-1990s and is now at or below that of unmarried, divorced and widowed men, whereas same-sex married women emerge as the group of women with highest and, in recent years, even further increasing mortality.

Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.

Are Homosexually Oriented Adolescents at Risk for Suicide?
Are Adolescents 'Teased' Because They Are Assumed to be Homosexual at Risk for Suicide?
See: Related "Major Alert!"

Are Homosexually Oriented Individuals Overrepresented in Hospital Emergency Care as the result of a Suicide Attempt? - As it has been the rule in most mainstream suicidality studies, "sexual orientation" information has not been solicited from study participants (2 American studies in the 1980s). One exception to this rule occurred in the
Weyrauch et al. (2001) study (and, later, in 2 smaller studies): "The study sample was composed of individuals who required admission to a major urban public hospital in Seattle, Washington, for inpatient medical treatment of significant morbidity sustained in a suicide attempt... Seventy-five percent of the subjects reported heterosexual gender orientation, 7% were  homosexual [only attracted to opposite sex persons], and 18% bisexual [attracted to both sexes]." In a study from South Africa that was published as an M.S. Dissertation by Pretorius (1992), the following was written in the abstract: "All cases of attempted suicide referred to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria were studied over a period of a year. This investigation included a psychiatric evaluation and a study of details relating to each case of suicidal behaviour. In addition, suicide intent and risk were measured. The patient's stressors were also recorded. total of 307 patients, 86 of whom were male and 221 female, were evaluated. After 5 years as many respondents of the initial investigation as possible were traced, with the main object of obtaining information about subsequent suicidal behaviour. 205 respondents were traced, 59 of whom were male and 205 female. Acute risk factors for repeated suicide attempts for men were: never married, unemployed and the loss of a job. Many were not living with someone with whom they had an intimate relationship. The most common chronic conditions were Alcohol- and Drug-related as well as Homosexuality and Epilepsy. The most commonly observed personality traits were Antisocial, Dependent and Inadequate traits.

A CDC 2011 study of all Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2009 - with sexual orientation information - produced results that indicate, as a rule, that gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents are more likely at the greatest risk, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, to report having received medical care as a result of having attempted suicide in the past year. A Report of Study Results.

An American Hint Suggesting Ongoing Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Suicide Problem: - Depression, isolation, rejection lead many gay youths to attempt suicide
(2009): Switchboard of Miami, Miami-Dade's crisis center, launched a gay suicide hotline in 2005. It became the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Suicide Hotline in 2006. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008, Switchboard took about 400 calls from people identifying themselves as gay, including 56 that counselors declared ''crisis calls,'' or people at immediate risk. It's not just young gay people contemplating suicide, said Ed Straub Jr., a Switchboard board member who founded the hotline. ''In the first year of our program, . . . 52 percent of the people calling the Switchboard were between the ages 35 and 59,'' he said. Both gay men and lesbians are at risk. ''Absolutely,'' Straub said. ``In fact, women are twice as likely to consider suicide as men, even though the number of male suicides is higher.'' The gay hotline has a $30,000 annual budget, with funding from groups including Dade Community Foundation and private donors. ''We try to spend half or a third of that in advertising,'' Straub said. ``We advertise mostly in the local gay press. That increases the call volume back to Switchboard.'' Straub became involved with suicide prevention after three friends killed themselves in 2004. ``I'm like a lightning rod. People come to me. I come to the bars. We talk at cocktail parties. On Lincoln Road. People want to open up about it. It's amazing how many people are touched by suicide.'' Straub said he has observed three factors that often contribute to gay suicide attempts: • Financial and health-related issues. • Drug and alcohol use. • Loneliness or feeling unable to achieve life goals.

A Hint From England Related to Ongoing Suicide Problems: - No Way Out (Late 1990s, or 2000): The shocking statistics for suicide amongst gay teenagers have traditionally been attributed to the pressures of coming out in a hetero-defined society. Murray Healy discovers an alarming new trend amongst twenty-somethings who find the promised land of the urban gay community isn’t all they expected it to be...
Last year, six friends of mine tried to kill themselves. All men in their twenties, all intelligent, attractive, popular, and seemingly happy; and all, to a greater or lesser extent, identifying as gay. I started the year never having known anyone who’d attempted suicide. 
 


Review Papers & Meta-Analyses: GLB Suicidality & Mental Health


Index: Tables of Suicidality Study Results

"Attempted Suicide" Incidences For Homosexually Oriented People
& Some Comparisons With Heterosexually Oriented People


Categories
Random
Non-Random
Non-Random
American
Adolescents
in Schools:
1, 2, 3 A - A4
Youth / Adults
1970-1983 B
1987-1991 B-1
Youth / Adults
1993-1999
2000-2009 C - C5
American
Youth/Adult  -
University Students D-D5

Adults
1994-2011 E - E3

Dissertation
Studies
F - F2
North American
Adults G
---
---
Canada
Adolescents in School: 1, 2
Adults 1, 2, 3, 4
Youth
AIDS/HIV
Male Cohorts

UK/Ireland
---
Youth/Adults (England/Scotland) H
Youth/Adult (Ireland)
---
Europe
Youth/Adults I - I2
Youth/Adults J -J3
France K
Austria L-L1
Australia
New Zealand
Adolescents N-N3
Adults Australia N-7
NZ Birth Cohort M
Youth/Adullts M-7
---
Japan, Mexico
& South Africa
--
Youth/Adults --
World
Special Samples
---
USA Twin Study
NZ Birth Cohort /
- USA Longitudinal: School O - O3
---
Colorado, USA
Three Studies
Three Studies
---
Selected "At Risk"
Populations
Psychiatric Patients
Transsexual People
Street Youth: USA /
Canada / UK: 1991-2006
Transgender P -P7


Associated Supplementary Data Table(s)
: A.
Pinhey & Millman (2004: Guam YRBS), A-2. Olshen et al. 2007: 2005: NYC YRBS, A-3. Farley et al (2008): 2007: NYC YRBS, A-4. Borowski et al. (1999): Adolescent Health Survey, American Indian / Alaska Native, A-5. Massachusetts's 2008 MetroWest Survey, Kessel-Schneider et al. (2011-2012). - B. Bell & Weinberg (1978: San Francisco), B-2. Remafedi et al. (1991: US Midwest. Pacific Northwest). -  C. Savin- Williams (2001, 3 Tables, USA Community / University samples), C-2. Clatts et al. (2005: New York, MSM, Venue Sample): Race, Attempted Suicide, Sexual Orientation), C-3. D'Augelli et al. (2005: New York), C-4. Kipke et al. (2007, LA Venue Sample, GB Males), C-5. Mustanski et al. (2010).  - D. Whitlock & Knox (2007, Cornell & Princeton Universities), D-2. University of Michigan's 2005/2007 "Healthy Minds Study", D-3. The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey: ACHA-NCHA, D-4. Smith (2006, NYU 2003 ACHA-NCHA results), D-5. Murphy (2007, University of Washington, Non-Random), D-6. 2009 National ACHA-NCHA Survey, Oswalt &Wyatt (2011).  D-7. College Life Study, Longitudinal, Wilcox et al. (2010, 2011-12), D-8. The Survey of Student Wellbeing (SSWB): Suicidality Risks After Non-Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI): Whitlock et al. (2013), D-9. ACHA's National College Health Assessment-II: Fall 2008, Spring 2009, and Fall 2009 Surveys Combined: Female Sexual Orientation & Suicidality: Kerr at al. (2013).   - E. Balsam et al. (2005: USA, GLB, Heterosexual Siblings), E-2. Ryan et al. (2009, Venue Sampling, GLB, SF), E-3. Meyer et al. (2008, Venue Sampling, NYC). - F. Friedman (2002: USA), F-2. Murphy (2007, University of Washington, Non-Random). - G. Paul et al. (2002: USA) - H. Hunt & Fish (2008 & 2008a). - I. Wichstrom & Hegna (2003: Noway), Sweden, National Public Health Survey (2005), 2005 & 2008 National Public Health Survey, Combined, Sweden, Ungdomsstyrelsen (2010). - J. Hegna et al. (1999) & Hegna and Wichstrom (2007a), Non-Random, GLB. J-2. Hanner (2002, Non-Random, Sweden), J-3. Quinn (2006, Non-Random, Central Europe). K. L’Enquête presse gay (2004). -  L. Ploderl & Fartacek (2005: Austria) L1. Ploderl & Fartacek (2009: Austria) - M. Fergusson et al. (2005, NZ Birth Cohort, as young adults). M-1. McNair et al. (2005, Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health: ALSWH). - N-1. New Zealand Youth 2000 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey, N-2. New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey. N-3. New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey.  N-7. Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. O. Herrell et al. (1999: USA), O-2. Fergusson et al. (2005, NZ Birth Cohort, as young adults), O-3. McNair et al. (2005, Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health: ALSWH). - P. Mathy (2002b: North America), P-2. Clements-Nolle et al. (2006: San Francisco), P-3. Whittle et al. (2007, UK, Internet Sample),  P-4. Whittle et al. (2008, Europe, Internet Sample), P-5. FHI Rapport (2005, Sweden Internet Sample)., P-6. Grant et al. (2010, American, Internet Sample, Some Pencil/Paper Surveys), P-7. Scandlon et al. (2010, Ontario, Canada: Internet, Pencil/Paper, or by Telephone with a Language Interpreter, Where Necessary for a Near-Random Sample).

The Alerts

Alert! There was a time, not long ago, when those in the 'helping' professions, including 'mental help' professionals, would have been best described as 'professionals' who were only seeking to help heterosexual people, with a major focus being on harming, as much as possible, non-heterosexual people such as gay, lesbian, bisexual individuals. This was done, for example, when 'mental health' professionals had decreed that homosexual individuals were all mentally disordered and were to be treated (harmed) accordingly. However, even if this 'mental disorder decree for homosexual people' was removed from the American DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) in 1973, the ICD (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) in 1992, with China having done the same only in 2003 (Mental Disorder Redefined, Homosexuality Excluded), these outcomes did not mean that 'mental health' 'professionals' would suddenly / 'magically' become knowledgeable of homosexually oriented people and begin helping. As with racist groups, heterosexist and homophobic groups may take generations to end their abuses of the hated ones, with ongoing more insidious ways developed to continue harming the hated ones. For example, by 1994, ignoring sexual minority issues in American psychology and psychiatry research was the rule as illustrated in a paper titled “"I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men” (Rothblum, 1994). By the late 1990s and the early 2000s, the same neglect had been reported in family therapy, psychology, community psychology and social work, as reported here (must scroll). The ongoing inherently harming ways of many / most(?) 'mental health' professionals - as related to sexual minority clients - was documented in New Zealand (Semp, 2006, 2007), and the same is likely happening throughout the western world.
Rothblum ED (1994). "I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 213-20. (PubMed Abstract) Full Text.

Semp, David (2007). A Public Silence: Sexual Orientation and Mental Health Services. Presentation, Mental Health Awareness Week, 2007: Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand. Word Download.

Semp, David (2006). A public silence : discursive practices surrounding homosexuality. PhD Dissertation, The University of Auckland. Download Page. PDF Download: Front Pages. PDF Download: Whole Document.

Alert! Statistics New Zealand. (2008). Considering Sexual Orientation as a Potential Official Statistic: Discussion paper. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand. PDF Download - Download Page - Related. Sexual minority children, youth and adults are often at high risk for experiencing or having experienced a number of problems, including very serious ones such as having been abused, bullied and assaulted in schools and in their communities - including in their families (Corliss et al., 2002) - and experiencing related suicidality (Ryan et al., 2009). However, the majority of school surveys that inquire about youth health and problems do not solicit sexual orientation information (or the often related gender nonconformity information), thus avoiding to produce study results that would highlight sexual minority individuals to be at risk. As a result, related issues continue to be ignored as sexual minority students continue to be abused, silenced, harmed and ignored (to death? 1, 2, 3: must scroll, p. 23). Furthermore, almost all suicidality studies carried out in North America or elsewhere continue to exclude sexual orientation measures with few realizing that such omissions should be perceived as highly harmful unprofessional and unethical highly harmful conduct. Unfortunately, the AAS (American Association of Suicidology) has not forcefully spoken to this issue and its official publication - Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior - has not implemented policies such as maybe refusing to publish suicidality studies that have not included "sexual orientation" measures, especially in youth and young adult studies. Tragically, the CDC also continues to make available an official version of The Youth Risk Behavior Survey that does not include "sexual orientation" measures, in spite of the fact that many adolescent school surveys in the past 14 years have revealed sexual orientation measures to be not only predictive of general suicidal behaviors (and related problems), but also to more strongly predict the most serious life-threatening suicidal behaviors... beginning in early adolescence. It is therefore not surprising that even the most academically successful sexual minority youth - university students - are likely to also be at greater risk for suicidality and related problems, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with even greater risk maybe/likely existing for the lesser educated young adults who have been much neglected in suicidality research. To date, the highest suicidality risk has been reported for American sexual minority street youth who form about 20% of the street youth population. Their lifetime attempted suicide incidence is 62% (van Leeuwen et al., 2006). A special web page has been constructed for the studies related to the suicidality of street and homeless youth with a focus on the overrepresentation of both aboriginal and sexual minority individuals in these populations. Note: Nothing is known about suicidality issues for middle age to elder sexual sexual minority individuals because suicidality researchers have not included sexual minority measures in their studies.


Alert! Hatzenbuehler et al (2009) tested and retested (7 months later, same school year) Grade 6 to 8 mostly non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino students (68%) from 2 low SES middle schools in central Connecticut. On the following - Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), Children’s Response Styles Questionnaire (CRSQ,  Rumination Subscale),  and Emotion Expression Scale for Children (EESC, Poor Emotional Awareness Subscale) - the 29 same-sex romantically attracted children scored higher (p < 0.05 to p < .01) than heterosexual students (n = 1042 at Time-1, and 825 at Time-2). Therefore, factors that may increase the risk for suicidality are higher for sexual minority children at a young age, this likely being implicated in their reported higher risk for suicidality from Grade 7 to 12 in other mostly random American studies. Little has been done to end the generally highly heterosexist, homophobic and homohating(?) nature of public or private K-12 schools where the word "gay" - as in "So Gay!" - has 'evolved' to designate anyone who is lacking in all ways, including intelligence (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, How 'gay' became children's insult of choice, BBC). "At risk" sexual minority children can expect little in term of help from teachers or school psychologists on the personal level and, especially, with respecting to changing the "traditional" nature of schools that have been highly harming and abusing of sexual minority children and youth. The North American Public School Situation: Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. - 2007 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Harassed.


Potter L, Silverman M, Connorton E, Posner M, Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2004). Promoting mental health and preventing suicide in college and university settings. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/college_sp_whitepaper.pdf.
"Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: ... There is no concrete information about suicide rates among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) college students and little to no information about efforts to promote their mental health or prevent suicide. There is even less information about the behavior and needs of transgender students, though we can assume they face somewhat similar risks...GLB students who transition from high school to higher education may bring some of the same suicidal behavior to their new environment. One study attempted to measure the suicidal risk among a small sample of GLB college students compared with a sample of their heterosexual peers (Westefeld, Maples, Buford, & Taylor, 2001). Researchers administered a paper and pencil assessment of suicidal risk called the College Student Reasons for Living Inventory (CSRLI). GLB students were more depressed, lonelier, and had fewer reasons for living than a control group of their peers, and depression and loneliness correlated positively with suicidal tendencies. In addition, GLB students in this study experienced prejudice and related issues (Westefeld et al., 2001). Many campuses are increasingly open to and supportive of inclusion of GLBT students, but homophobia remains a problem..."

Note: In 2004 (and to 2010), this was the best that the authors had to offer about the suicidality situation for GLBT young adults in American universities. Without doubt, suicidology researchers had been almost completely indifferent or even neglectful of the welfare of GLBT students by not ever producing research that would reveal whether or not GLBT students were - or were not - more at risk for attempting suicide than their heterosexual counterparts... as it was the case for GLBT adolescents in schools. Yet, there were many data sets available - that solicited both sexual orientation and suicidality/depression information - from which this possibility could have been explored. For example, from 2000 to 2008, the American College Health Association produced 18 data sets (2 per year) known as the National College Health Assessment surveys (ACHA-NCHA), but only the
2000 Spring Survey was reported on in 2005 (Leino & Kisch, 2005; Kisch et al., 2005) with associated GLBT information. However, nothing was reported about GLBT students being at risk for attempting suicide, even if only a trend existed given the possible low counts, by maybe a "risk" factor of "6" as one NYU report notes for the 2003 Spring Survey. Nonetheless, not being heterosexual was the second largest independent predictor (OR =  2.6) for university students having seriously considered suicide in the past year (1999-2000). Interestingly, many NCHA data sets have the counts required to do a GLBT "Attempted Suicide in the Past Year" analysis but all ACHA-NCHA Survey data reports do not mention possible "at risk" GLBT status so that, for example, if they are "at risk," initiatives to help GLB students could be implemented. Massachusetts, for example, does report the GLB "at risk" status when reporting the results of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2007: 4.4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). The same was done in Rhode Island (2007: GLBU students, 4.4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year) and in Washington DC (2007 N/A: GLB students, 3.8 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). Others have made the results available for others to disseminate and make public as it was done in Chicago (2005, GLB students, 3-4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year) and in Vermont (2007: GLB students, 7 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year, with the results for 2005 also given: GLBQ students, 5 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). In 2007, from another survey carried out at two universities in 2005 (Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being), Whitlock & Knox (2007) reported GLB students to be 4 times more at risk for a lifetime suicide attempt. Gay/lesbian, bisexual and questioning students also had, separately and as a group, the highest associations between lifetime self-injury and suicidality. The small-scale university classroom survey of males by Savin-Williams (2001) reported that about 50% of males were non-heterosexual, that 83% of males (5/6) reporting a true suicide attempt were non-heterosexual, and that the 3 males for whom medical care was associated with the suicide attempt were also non-heterosexual (Related Data Analysis). The Murphy (2007) dissertation study highlighted the possibility that, in American universities, a high risk group for current suicidality - usually ignored by researchers - identify as "heterosexual" but also report some same-sex attraction or sexual behavior. All who report GLBT results from the ACHA-NCHA-like surveys - that solicits only "identity" sexual orientation information - should caveat their results accordingly. In the Murphy (2007) study, 50% (5/10) of the females who had attempted suicide in the past year were non-heterosexual and the two male suicide attempters were non-heterosexual.

The 2011/2012/2013 University GLB Student Alert!

It Gets Better Project. Does it Get Better for At Risk GLB College/University Students?
Why are GLBU students at greater risk for suicidality and deliberate non-suicidal self-injury in universities?

Kognito LGBTQ on Campus for Faculty and Staff
Kognito LGBTQ on Campus for Faculty and Staff is a 30-minute, online, interactive gatekeeper and cultural competency training simulation that teaches faculty and staff at institutions of higher education how to contribute to a safer and more supportive campus environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) students.


The sexual orientation related suicidality and deliberate self-injury results of the national American study of university and college students are tabled. The 2009 Fall ACHA-NCHA survey data (N = 27,454) was analyzed and reported on by Oswalt &Wyatt (2011) for both males and females combined (64.1% female), age range: 18 to 49 years-old (84.5% 18 to 24 years-old), and only including students who identified as heterosexual (93.8%), gay or lesbian (1.9%), bisexual (2.9%), and those unsure about their sexual orientation (1.5%). Transgender individuals (0.1%) and others were removed from the analysis, including foreign students. On the basis of the given results, computations were carried out by the webpage author to produce additional results.

The Most Important Sexual Minority Suicidality Results Are:
Compared to Heterosexual Students, Gay/Lesbian Students Were at the Highest Risk for Having Attempted Suicide in the Past Year: OR (Odds Ratio): 4.6 (4.4% Incidence), Followed by a 3.7 OR for Bisexual Students (3.6%) and a 2.7 OR for those Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation (2.7%). One Percent (1.0%) of Heterosexual Students Reported Having Attempted Suicide in the Past Year: 2008/2009. Note: Sexual minority students accounted for about one in five university students (19.3%) attempting suicide in 2008/2009. This result replicates the 20% - Planning and/or Attempting Suicide at College - reported in the 4-year longitudinal "College Life Study" of American undergraduate students. The results also replicate the GLB 18.9% of the alcohol/drug use related college suicidality in the Reed et al. (2010) study. [University students, however, are a special population originating from high school populations where sexual minority students were likely even "more at risk" compared to their heterosexual counterparts. This is reflected, for example, in the Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey results: sexual minority adolescents in varied ethic-'race' / sex categories accounted for 25% to 46% of suicide attempters in the same category. In the white category, sexual minority students accounted for 40.7% of white adolescents who attempted suicide during a one-year period.]

Blosnich & Bossarte (2012) also replicated the "20%" sexual minority proportion for college students who attempted suicide in the past year (Gay/Lesbian: 3.3% (OR: 3.8), Bisexual Males & Females: 4.6% (OR: 5.3), versus 0.9% for heterosexual students, with gay, lesbian and bisexual students accounting for 18.6% of all those who attempted suicide. The results are from the analysis of the ACHA's National College Health Assessment 2008 Fall / 2009 Spring Surveys Combined.

This "20%" proportion, however, is lower than the proportion of the total suicide attempters associated with sexual minority adolescents still in high school where "more at risk" sexual minority adoles
cents are likely located. In the Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, for example, sexual minority adolescents in varied ethic-'race' / sex categories accounted for 25% to 46% of suicide attempters in varied categories. In the white category, sexual minority students accounted for 40.7% of suicide attempters in a one-year period."

Compared to Heterosexual Students, Bisexual Students Were at the Highest Risk for Having Attempted Suicide in their Lifetime: OR: 4.8 (25.3% Incidence) Followed by a 3.1 OR for Gay/Lesbian Students (18.0%) and a 2.2 OR for those Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation (13.6%). 6.6% of Heterosexual Students Reported Having Attempted Suicide in Their Lifetime. Note: The 3.1 OR for gay/lesbian students having attempted suicide in their lifetime somewhat replicates the 4.2 OR Reported by Whitlock & Knox (2007, university student sample) for gay/lesbian students.

"In the Past Year, 2008/2009, American Gay/Lesbian" Students Were the Most Likely to Attempted for the First Time in 2009 (24.4% of Lifetime GL suicide attempters), Followed by "Unsure" Students (19.8% of lifetime suicide attempters in the category) and About Equal Percentages for "Bisexual" (14.6% of lifetime Bisexual suicide attempters) and "Heterosexual" Students (15.1% of lifetime Heterosexual suicide attempters).
Comment: Given that the average student in the 2009 ACHA-NCHA study sample would have been at university for at least two years, it is likely that more that 25% of gay/lesbian lifetime suicide attempters attempted suicide "for the first time" only after they had enrolled in a university. This "attempted suicide" incidence has been reported to be high for sexual minority high school students (Youth Risk Behavior or similar surveys: Some results are given on this webpage), but significant numbers of sexual minority students maintaining high enough grade scores to permit them to go to universities will only attempt suicide for the first time after the arrive at university. Other high school sexual minority adolescents would likely not have the grades to permit them to go to a university, with their numbers being greatly overrepresented, for example, in the homeless population (See: Corliss HL, Goodenow CS, Nichols L, Austin SB (2011). High burden of homelessness among sexual-minority adolescents: findings from a representative Massachusetts high school sample. American Journal of Public Health, 101(9): 1683-9. Abstract. PDF DownloadPDF Download "Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths' greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians..."). See: More on the overrepresentation of sexual minority youth in street youth populations and their high attempted suicide incidences.)  See an important caveat for the suicidality part of this study written immediately above "The 2011 University GLB Student Alert" section.

The Most Important Sexual Minority Deliberate Self-Injury Results Are:
Compared to Heterosexual Students, Bisexual Students Were at the Highest Risk for Deliberate Self-Injury in the Past Year: OR (Odds Ratio): 4.5 (17.1% Incidence), Followed by a 4.2 OR for Gay/Lesbian Students (16.3%) and a 3.7 OR for those Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation (14.7%). 4.4% of Heterosexual Students Reported Having Deliberately Self-Injured in the Past Year: 2008/2009. Note: Sexual minority students accounted for about one in five university students (19.7%) engaging in deliberate self-injury in 2008/2009. This result replicates the 21.3% reported in the 4-year longitudinal "College Life Study" of American undergraduate students.

Compared to Heterosexual Students, Bisexual Students Were at the Highest Risk for Deliberate Self-Injury in their Lifetime: OR: 4.7 (44.8% Incidence) Followed by a 2.6 OR for both Gay/Lesbian Students (31.4%) and Those Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation (31.4%). 14.8% of Heterosexual Students Reported Having Deliberately Self-Injured in Their Lifetime. Note: Whitlock & Knox (2007, university student sample) reported lifetime deliberate self-injury ORs to be 4.5 (45.2% incidence) for bisexual students, 2.8 (34.2% incidence) for students "questioning" their sexual orientation, and 1.3 (not statistically significant, 19.0% incidence) for gay/lesbian students.

"In the Past Year, 2008/2009, American Gay/Lesbian" Students Were the Most Likely to  Have Deliberately Self-Injured for the First Time (51.9% of them), Followed by "Unsure" Students (46.8% of them), "Bisexual" Students (38.2% of them), and "Heterosexual" Students (29.7% of them).
Comment: Given that the average student in the 2009 ACHA-NCHA study sample would have been at university for at least two years, it is likely that more that 51.9% of gay/lesbian self-injurers deliberately self-injured "for the first time" only after they had enrolled in a university. Therefore, it can be suggested that the great majority of gay/lesbian students in universities began engaging in deliberate self-injury only after they enrolled in university. The same would apply for students unsure about their sexual orientation.

Important Comment on the Oswalt &Wyatt (2011) Study of the 2009 Fall ACHA-NCHA Data Set:
All results should be generated separately for males and females. As is, because the sample is 64.1% female, and because female youth have often been reported to have higher incidences for both attempting suicide and deliberate self-injury than male youth, the combined results - as published - would more closely reflect the female situation. It is possible that, for example, the ORs for attempting suicide by sexual minority males (when compared to heterosexual males) are higher than those given in the male/female combined analyses, and lower for females (when compared to heterosexual females), as it has been the case in most sexual minority adolescent/youth studies reporting on attempting suicide. A similar situation may also apply for deliberate self-injury.


Additional Comment: Given that the multiple replications of study results is important in science, all of the ACHA-NCHA survey data sets (there are many of them) should have the suicidality and deliberate self-injury results generated on the basis of sexual orientation and the results should be officially published. At the very least, these results could be placed on the web to possibly encourage researchers to further analyze the data and then have the results officially published after peer review. To date, these data sets have generally been ignored by youth suicidality researchers (mostly located in universities) for reasons that should be explored. It is possible that there have been great pressures to not explore or publish "at risk" suicidality and self-injury results for sexual minority university/college students so that - for a number of possible unsavory reasons - these problems will not be officially recognized and addressed. Also possible: the problem is mentioned but nothing is actually done to address it. These situations can only result in the maintenance of the likely ongoing high "at risk" - and possibly life-threatening - status for many sexual minority students in American universities.

Whitlock et al. (2013, Tabled Data) reported on a part of what would be the sexual minority suicidality results that could be generated from a 2007 to 2009 longitudinal study of university students*:

For university students who had engaged in non-suicidal self injury in the past, the risk for later experiencing "suicide-related thoughts/behavior" or "suicide behavior" while at university was greatest for all non-heterosexual students (Unadjusted Models), and the greatest - at statistically significant levels - only for the "mostly gay/lesbian or gay/lesbian" group (Adjusted Models).
Note: When the least serious and most common form of suicidality (suicide ideation) is removed from the suicidality category, the risk for what remains (more serious forms of suicidality) increases even more for the "mostly gay/lesbian or gay/lesbian" group in the "Unadjusted Models" (ORs from 3.2 to 5.1) and the "Adjusted Models" (ORs from 2.5 to 4.3). This is consonant with multiple examples where sexual minority individuals have been reported to be more at risk for the more serious forms of suicidality. See: Related Webpage.
*For example, the varied forms of suicidality incidences could be compared between heterosexual students and sexual minority students (individually or combined) for the approximately 2 years following the initial intake of data (From the 2007 Wave 1 to the 2009 Wave 3). Data was likely also solicited that would permit suicidality incidence comparisons prior to 2007.


The Jed Foundation (TJF), Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) (2012).
a guide to Campus Mental Health Action Planning. PDF Download Page.

Risk and Protective Factors Relevant to College Students (p.11):
"Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth" mentioned as risk factor for attempting suicide, but not suicide.
However, will what is proposed be appropriate/effective for at risk GLBT students?
The Jed Foundation. SPRC Resources: Colleges and Universities


More Than 20% of University Student Suicide Victims May Be LGBT

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download... reported that: "Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition."

Implications: LGBT youth are more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors and they may therefore also be the most at risk for the most serious outcome: death. See: Related Webpage.

Above, the suggestion was made that LGBT students would account for about 20% of suicide attempters.  What, however, would be the percentage of more serious suicide attempters - such as suicide attempters reporting that they also wished to die - accounted for by LGBT students?

Suicidality results from: Anestis MD, Pennings SM, Williams TJ (2014). Preliminary results from an examination of episodic planning in suicidal behavior. Crisis, 35(3):186-92. Abstract. From a sample of 732 undergraduate students, there were 50 students who reported having attempted suicide with some intent to die (therefore being more serous suicide attempters). Of these, 28% were reported by homosexual or bisexual students.

The evidence suggests that it may be possible that 30 to 50 percent of university student suicide victims (maybe more?) could be gay, lesbian or bisexual.



Malley E, Posner M, Potter L, Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf.
"The majority of literature reviews on LGB suicide attempts conclude that LGB youth have a significantly higher rate of attempting suicide than heterosexual youth. Furthermore, most suicide attempts among LGB people occur during adolescence and young adulthood (Kulkin, Chauvin, & Percle, 2000; Proctor & Groze, 1994; Remafedi et al., 1991). (The same holds true for people of all sexual orientations; national hospital data show self-harm rates are highest for youth age 15 through 19 years old (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007))."


Alert! It is sometimes believed that, compared to heterosexual individuals, sexual minority individuals are only more at risk for attempting suicide only during adolescence. However, a New Zealand birth cohort study reports that their "higher risk" for attempting suicide continues to exist between the ages of 21 to 26 years, at least for sexual minority males (Skegg et al., 2003), with a re-analysis by Fergusson et al. (2005) indicating that the higher risk applies for both sexual minority males and females. In the United States, for young adults ranging in age from 18 to 26 years in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Silenzio et al. (2007) reports that sexual minority males and females have remained more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past year, compared to their heterosexual counterpart (includes those reporting to be predominantly heterosexual): OR = 1.4<3.0<6.2, controlling for race, gender, and age. During adolescence for the same sample, Russell & Joyner (2001) report the "greater risk" factor to have been - OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6) - for sexual minority females, with an OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9) for sexual minority males, controlling for demographic factors.



Major Alert!


Are Homosexually Oriented Adolescents at Risk for Suicide?
Are Adolescents 'Teased' Because They Are Assumed to be Homosexual at Risk for Suicide?


Are Homosexually Oriented Adolescents at Risk for Suicide? - It is almost always reported on the basis of two psychological autopsy studies (Shaffer et al. 1995; Renaud et al. 2010) that homosexually oriented adolescents appear to not have been at greater risk for suicide, compared to heterosexual adolescents. At best, as related to these studies, Haas et al. (2011) offer the following:
"To date, psychological autopsy studies that have examined sexual orientation have used relatively small samples and have identified very few suicide decedents as having minority sexual orientation. In the New York study, 3 of 120 adolescent suicide decedents and none of a similar number of living community control subjects with whom the suicide victims were compared, were found to have a same-sex orientation (Shaffer et al., 1995). The Quebec study similarly identified same-sex orientation in 4 of 55 suicide adolescent suicide victims and none of the community control subjects (Renaud et al., 2010). Minority sexual orientation may have been underreported by key informants in these studies because they were not aware of, or chose to withhold this information (Renaud et al., 2010). In any case, conclusions based on the small numbers reported must be regarded as tentative."

In their conclusion, Shaffer et al. (1995) state: "This study shows a slight, but not significantly, higher rate of homosexual experience among teen suicides than controls." Renault et al. (2010) conclude with: "Our sample did not find same-sex sexual orientation and gender identity issues to be more prevalent among youth who die by suicide, ..." In both cases, statistical non-significance, as in p = or > 0.05 is deemed to mean: 'there is no difference' - or there is 'little difference' between the two groups. Concerning this, Gelman & Stern (2006) state: "As well, introductory courses regularly warn students about the perils of strict adherence to a particular threshold such as the 5% significance level. Similarly, most statisticians and many practitioners are familiar with the notion that automatic use of a binary significant/ nonsignificant decision rule encourages practitioners to ignore potentially important observed differences."

The Results for the
Shaffer et al. (1995) and Renaud et al. (2010) are given in a Table. At a later date the results of a more sophisticated statistical analysis of both studies individually and both studies meta-combined will be made available. Given the "low count" problem, however, both groups of researchers failed to consider the possibility that adolescents reported to have been apparently "teased for being effeminate" as noted by Shaffer et al. (1995) would also be at greater risk for suicidality and therefore maybe for suicide. This suicidality risk is made evident from the Seattle 1995 Youth risk behavior data and is reported on in a highlighted web page section titled:

Calculating the "Total Homosexuality Factor In Adolescent Suicidality" (Alternate Link)
Using the Seattle 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey


That is, many adolescents who would not be known or deemed to be homosexually oriented (including those self-identifying as heterosexual), but are targeted for 'teasing' because they are gender nonconformable - that is the most common indicator for suspecting that one is homosexually oriented - are at risk for greater suicidality - such as reporting to have attempted suicide in the past year - compared to those not targeted for such 'teasing'. It should also be noted that such 'teasing' is likely more akin to what was reported by other researchers as emphasized in the following media report of Canadian research:
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. It must be noted that that most Canadian or American gay or bisexual identified teens in schools remain in the closet and that they are therefore harassed/abused/terrorized because they are "assumed" to be gay as opposed to "known" to be gay. As a result of this knowledge, the "at risk" category - as related to "Homosexuality Issues" - was expanded in both the Shaffer et al. (1995) and Renaud et al. (2010) to include those reported to have been 'teased' for gender non-conforming reasons. The result of this analysis are given in another Table and the results are as follows:

As a Group, Adolescents Deemed to be Homosexually Oriented and Adolescents
'Teased'/Abused/Terrorized Because Others Assumed Them to be Homosexual
Are Generally at risk for Suicide... More Likely So for Males.

Males and Females Combined: Shaffer et al. (1995), p = 0.008  - Renaud et al. (2010), p = 0.081
Males Only:
Shaffer et al. (1995), p = 0.008  - Renaud et al. (2010), p = 0.028
New Related Webpage

Note: Suicidality researchers have almost totally neglected heterosexual self-identified adolescents who have been assumed to be gay or lesbian and abused accordingly, even though they have been recognized to exist:
In the last several months the media has covered a number of high‐profile suicides of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, many of whom had been taunted, ridiculed and bullied in the days and months leading up to the decision to take their own lives. Those of us who work with LGBTQ young people know that this is nothing new: for many years, youth whose appearance or behavior challenges norms about sexual orientation, gender expression and identity have been the brunt of discrimination, psychological abuse and violence. This is as true for those who are self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender as it is for those who are perceived by others as straying from “the norm.” LA Unified School District and the LA Gay & Lesbian Center (2011). Project SPIN: Suicide Prevention Intervention Now. Full Text. See suicidality results from the Seattle 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for heterosexual students targeted for anti-gay abuses. They are at much greater risk for having attempted suicide. Link.

Gelman A, Stern H (2006). The Difference Between “Significant” and “Not Significant” is not Itself Statistically Significant. The American Statistician, 60(4): 328-331. Full Text.


Major Alert!

Are Homosexually Oriented / Queer Youth at Risk for Non-Suicidal Self-Injury?

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury:  The Cutting Edge: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence (By Janis Whitlock): "Indeed, the only demographic variable to be significantly linked to NSSI is sexual orientation. Sexual minorities appear to be at higher risk than their heterosexual peers. In fact, youth identifying as bisexual or questioning have been shown to be at significantly elevated risk for self-injury compared to both their heterosexual and homosexual peers (Whitlock, Eckenrode, et al., 2006; Whitlock, Muehlenkamp, et al., 2009). This is particularly true for females."

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Has Been Linked to Suicidality in Youth, Including Sexual Minority Youth
(Whitlock & Knox, 2007: University Students, Tabled Results)

For Swedish Adolescent Students, those not being 100% Heterosexual Were Reported to be
At Greater Risk for Both Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSSI)
[OR: 4.06, 1.95 - 8.47]
and Attempting Suicide [OR: 6.81, 3.70 - 12.55]
: Wichstrom (2009).

These Results Were Replicated in the Massachusetts MetroWest Survey of Adolescent Students.
Kessel-Schneider et al. (2012) Report That Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Unsure Students are
More At Risk for NSSI (OR: 4.12, 3.42 - 4.96) & Attempting Suicide (OR: 5.17, 4.05 - 6.60) in the Past Year.


A Grade 8 Boy Reports on Bullying Since 1rst Grade & Self-Injury / Suicidality Since 2nd Grade (YouTube Video, 2011).
However, This Part of His Life Has Not Been Always Obvious, As Expected (YouTube Videos, 2011).

The Same Would Apply For Others In Similar Situations.


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Online Survey carried out by Finnbogason (2010) for a Master Dissertation Study of 385 Canadian aged 19 to 29 years. "The self-injury rate for the total sample (N = 385) was 40%. Of this, rates reported in the queer sample (n = 230) are 47% and 28% in the combined heterosexual sample (n = 155). This difference was statistically significant as calculated using chi-square with a Yates continuity correction; χ2 (1, n =385) = 12.60, p < .001, Φ = .19 (small effect size)."  Queer Sample: Male Homosexual:  n = 83 (22%), Male- Bisexual: n = 5 (1%), Female Homosexual: n = 80 (21%), Female Bisexual n = 40 (10%), Transgendered (female to male) all orientations combined: n = 5 (1%)  vs. Heterosexual Sample: Male Heterosexual: n = 56 (15%), Female Heterosexual: n = 99 (26%).




"Attempted Suicide" Results: Published Studies 1970-1983
Homosexually Oriented Males and Females

Study
Sample
GLB
(n)
Compa-
rison
Group (n)
Attempted Suicide
% (n / N),
Odd Ratio (95% CI)

p
Saghir et al., 1970a (F*)
Adults: Homophile Organization
Chicago & San Francisco
57
Homo-
Sexual
43
Hetero-
Sexual
23% (13 / 57) vs.
5% (2 / 43)
0.012
Saghir et al., 1970b (M*)
Adults
: Homophile Organization
Chicago & San Francisco
85
Homo-
Sexual

35
Hetero-
Sexual

7% (6 / 85) vs. 0% (0 / 35)
Note: 5 / 6 attempted
before age of 20 years
0.107
Roesler & Deisher, 1972 (M) - Age = 16-22 Years: Clinical: 48% = previous psychiatric care
60
Gay /
Bisexual
None 31%
--
Bell & Weinberg, 1978 (M, F)
Stratified Sampling:
1969, Bay Area, San Francisco
Predominantly Homosexual &
Predominantly Heterosexual
Mean Ages = 26 to 36 Years
Complete Tabulated Results
575 (M)
284 (M)
White Males, Lifetime
18.3% (105 / 575 vs.
3.2% (9 / 284)
OR = 6.8 (3.4, 13.7)
0.000
111 (M)
53 (M)
Black Males; Lifetime
19.8% (22 / 111) vs.
1.9% (1 / 53)
OR = 12.8 (1.7, 98.2)
0.002
229 (F)
101 (F)
White Females, Lifetime
25.3% (58 / 229) vs.
9.9% (10 / 101)
OR =
3.1 (1.5, 6.3)
0.001
64 (F)
38 (F)
Black Females, Lifetime
17.2% (11 / 64) vs.
18.4% (7 / 38)
0.874
575 (M)
284 (m)
White Males: To Age 20 Years - 9.4% (54 / 575) vs.
0.7% (2 / 284)
OR =
14.6 (3.5, 60.4)
0.000
Jay & Young, 1979 (M, F)
Survey Questionnaire National
USA
+5,000
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual
None
40% (M). 39% (F)
Attempters + those who only seriously considered suicide.
--
Harry, 1983a, Using
Bell & Weinberg, 1978.
Sample Data (1969)

Analysis of those who seriously considered suicide or
attempted suicide (combined) as related to gender non-
conformity (high/low rating, to age 17), sexual
orientation, and loner status (high/low rating).
* F = Female, M = Male



"Attempted Suicide" Results: Published Studies 1987-1991
Homosexually Oriented Males and Females

Study
Sample
GLB
(n)
Compa-
rison
Group (n)
Attempted Suicide
Incidences
% (n / N)
p
Remafedi, 1987 (M*)
Age = 15-19
29
None
34%
--
Bradford & Ryan, 1988, 1994. (F*)
Adults: 1984-85
National Volunteer Sample
1925
None
All: 19%, White: 16%
Latina: 28%
Black: 27%
--
Martin & Hetrick, 1988. (M, F)
Youth Receiving Social Services
New York

None
21%
--
Uribe & Harbeck, 1992. (M)
Gay High School Students (LA)

37
None
50%
--
Uribe & Harbeck, 1992. (F)
Lesbian High School Students (LA)
13
None
23%
--
Schneider et al., 1989. (M)
College & Community
Gay Rap Groups (LA)
106
None
23%
--
Remafedi et al., 1991.
Age = 14-21 Years: Volunteers: Gay Community. US Midwest & Pacific
Northwest. - Additional Results.
139
None
30%
58% of attempts = moderate to low chance of
rescuability.
--
* F = Female, M = Male




BEM: Femininity / Masculinity Categories & Suicidality
Gay And Bisexual Male Youth: Age 14 - 21 Years
Remafedi, Farrow & Deisher (1991)
Femininity / Masculinity
Categories
Feminine
Androgynous: 31%
Undifferentiated: 26%
Masculine
% of Males
in Category
23%
(31/137)
31% + 26% = 57%
(42/137) / (35/137)
20%
(28/137)
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
48%
(15/31)
Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(23/77 = 30% ) 1
11%
(3/28) 2, 3
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
Feminine = 48%, Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(38/108 = 35.2% )
11%
(3/28) 4
Bem Sex Role Inventory: Feminine: High F, Low M scores- Masculine: Low F, High M scores

Androgynous High F & M scores - Undifferentiated: Low F & M scores

Greater risk (95% Confidence Intervals) for attempting suicide: 1. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = .98<1.6<2.7 (χ2 = 3.3, p = .068); 2. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.4<4.5<14.0 (χ2 = 9.8, p = .002); "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = .91<2.8<8.6 (χ2 = 4.0, p = .044); 4. "Feminine / Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.1<3.3<9.9 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012).






North American Lifetime "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random: GLB Community or GLB Services
Homosexually Oriented Youth: 1993 - 1999
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age

Hammelman
(1993)
48
28 (M*)
20 (F*)
None
29%
(14 / 48)
Iowa, USA: GLB Support Groups
College / Community: 96% White
Age = 15 - 32 Years
D'Augelli &
Hershberger
(1993)
194
142 (M)
52 (F)
None
42%
GLB Community Support
Groups, USA - Canada
Age: <= 21 Years
Proctor &
Groze (1994)
221
159 (M)
62 (F)
None
40.3%
(89 / 221)
GLB Community Groups
USA, Canada
Age <= 21 Years
Remafedi
(1994)

239 (M)
None
29.5%
(70 / 237)
GLB Community Sites, Appeals,
Advertisements, Referrals. USA
Age = 13 - 21 Years
Rotheram-
Borus et al.
(1994)
132 (M)
None
39%
(51 / 131)
Hispanic: 51%,  Black: 30%. White: 12%. Hetrick & Martin, New York
GLB Service Organization: 1988-91
Age = 14 - 19 Years
Waldo
et al.
(1998)

54
38  (M)
16 (F)
None
31.5%
(17 / 54)
US Rural University Setting
Organizations / Events
Age = 16 - 21 Years
Lehmann
et al.
(1998)

53 (F)
None
27%
Study Participants Contacted
by Lesbian Organization: USA
Age = 15 - 44 Years
Grossman
& Kerner
(1998)
58 (M)
None
26%
(15 / 58)
Volunteers, 1995: New York Drop-In: Hetrick-Martin Institute.
Mostly Black and Latino/a
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Identified
Mean Age: 17.6 Years, 14 - 21 Years
32 (F)
None
38%
(12 / 38)
Safren &
Heimberg
(1999)

56
29 (M)
27 (F)
48
21 (M)
27 (F)
30.9% (17 / 55)
vs.12.5%
(6 / 48)
USA: After-School Education or
Recreation; Job Training, YMCA
Age = 16 - 21 Years, About 36% White
All Attempters: OR = 3.1 (1.1, 8.8)
Attempters With Intent to Die
OR = 5.1 (1.1, 24.6)
17.9% (10 / 55)
vs. 4.2%
(2 / 48)
* M = Males - F = Females




North American Lifetime "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random: GLB Community, GLB Services, Internet
or Other. - Homosexually Oriented Youth / Adults: 2000 - 2014
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age, Odd Ratio ((5%CI) - p

D'Augelli
et al. (2001)

350 (MF*)
None
34%
Lifetime
GLB Community Support
Groups, USA - Canada
Age: <= 21 Years
Savin-
Williams
(2001)

83 (F)
None
17%
(14 / 83)
41% Lesbian: True Attempters
See Table
73 (F)
  1 to 100%
Homosexual
79 (F)
100%
Heterosexual
10% (7 / 73)
vs. 8%
(6 / 79)
University Students: See Table
OR: 1.3 (0.41, 5.0), p = 0.661
52 (M)
1 to 100%
Homosexual

61 (M)
100%
Heterosexual
9%: (5 / 53)
vs. 2%
(1 / 61)
University Students: See Table
6.2 (0.71, 6.9),  p = 0.063
D'Augelli
(2002)
542
336 (M)
206 (F)
None
37%
36% (M)
39% (F)
Lifetime
D'Augelli & Hershberger (1993)
D'Augelli et al. (2001)
Combined - 75% White
Age = 15 - 21 Years
Remafedi
(2002)

254 (M)
None
33.5%
(85 / 254)
(4.7% in the
Past Year)
Volunteers: Popular Gay Venues in Major metropolitan area: Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Criteria: Same-Sex Sex, Past Year. 85% White, 8.8% Black
Age: 15 - 25 Years
Carragher
& Rivers (2002)
203 (M) None
18.7%
(38 / 203)
Lifetime
American Volunteers: Gay Community
Mean Age: 25.3 Years, 18 to 30 Years
97% With Some University Education (13%), in College (13%), or with One or More University Degree (71%)
Carragher (1999)
Kephart
(2003)

33 (M)
19 (F)
None
36.5%
Lifetime
Volunteers from College GLBT Groups. Likely: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 88.5% Caucasian.
Sexual Orientation Ratings from 1 (100% Homosexual) to 7 (100% Heterosexual): 1 (n =14, 26.9%), 2 (n =23, 44.2%), 3 (n=5, 9.6%), 4 (n=6, 11.5%), 5 (n=4, 7.7%).
Age: 18 to 35 years, mean age: 21.4 years.
Savin-Williams
& Ream
(2003)
51 (M)
None
6 / 51
12%
Past Year
Detroit, Affirmation Gay
Support Group.
Ages: 14 to 23 Years
Mean Age: 18.4 Years
681 (M)
None
12%
Past Year
OutProud Internet Sample:
USA/Canada (n = 117), UK/
Ireland (n = 327), Australia/
New Zealand (n = 237)
Igartua
et al.
(2003)
Clinical
Sample: 61
(MF)
Community
Sample: 136
(MF)
None
Clinical:
23%
Community
14%
Lifetime
Sample Combined:
Mean Age: 33 Years
Rage: 18 to 63 Years
Study Carried Out in
Montreal, Canada.
Rosario
et al.
(2005)
156 (MF)
80 (M)
76 (F)
None
All: 35.3%
(55 / 156)
17.9%
(28 / 156)
Med. Care
Volunteers: 3 GLB Community & 2 GLB Student organizations: New York, 1993-95
Latino: 37%, Black: 35%, White: 22%
Mean Age: 18.3 (SD: 1.6), 14-21 Years
D'Augelli
et al. (2005)
See Tabulated
Results

361
202 (M)
159 (F)
None
31.4%
(166 / 528)
True Attempts:
14.8%
(78 / 528)
Black (41%), Hispanic (29%),
White (27%), New York
GLB Service Organizations
Age = 15 - 19 Years
Clatts et. al.
(2005)
Additional
Results:
- Race -
- Sexual
Orientation
-
- Suicidality -
549
None 33.4%
Lifetime
Sampling: Popular Gay Venues, New York
26.7%
White: See Tabulated Information
Mean Age: 21.7 (SD: 2.9), 17 to 28 Years
320
None 26.6%
Never Homeless
249
None 42.2% Ever Homeless
166
None 41.8%
Previously Homeless
83
None
43.4%
Presently Homeless
Walls
et al.
(2008)
142
(MF)
None
57 / 142
40.1%
Lifetime
GLBT Youth Receiving Services at a Denver, Colorado GLBT Community Social Services Agency: "Rainbow Alley." Age Range: 14-21 Years, 82%: 16-19 Years. 29% White, 28% Bi/Multi-Racial, 20% Latino.
Moon
et al.
(2007)

77: Only
Same-Sex
Partners
None
21 / 77
27.3%
Lifetime
Volunteers (1999 & 2001): Receiving services at the Richmond Organization for Sexual Minority Youth, Richmond, Virginia.
Age Range: 14 to 21 Years
Sexually Bisexual Youth are more at risk for attempting suicide, compared to Sexually Homosexual Youth: OR: 1.2<4.4<15.8
27
Both-Sex
Partners
None
17 / 26
65.4%
Lifetime
Kipke
et al.
(2007)

526 (M)
None
All: 4%
White: 4%
Black: 5%
Latino: 4%
2005 Volunteer Venue Sample, Los Angeles, Age: 18 to 24 years. 95 (37%) Caucasian, 126 (24%) African American, and 205 (39%) Latino YMSM of Mexican descent. 74% Gay, 16% Bisexual.
Attempted Suicide: Past year

Speculated to not be "at risk" by comparing results with author generated national results for 18 year-old males in school: The CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data Set.
See Contested Conclusion in Table Below.
526 (M)
None
All: 2%
White: 1%
Black: 2%
Latino: 3%
Corliss
et al.
(2009)
Study Participants (F): Los Angeles County, N = 1,253) - San Francisco Bay area. N = 748.
82.8% Lesbian
11.2% Bisexual
None
10.2%
Attempted
Suicide
Before
Age = 18 Years.
Lifetime:
18%
Volunteer, self-administered, mailed questionnaire.
67% White, Mean Age: 40 Years, SD: 12 Years.
Attempted Suicide = 14 to 18%
for LB females with early sexual orientation development milestones ( < 18 Years).
Moniruzzaman
et al.
(2009)
605 Aboriginal
people, aged 14–30 Years, and use drugs.
537
Heterosexual
Sexual
Identity.
189 / 537 =
35.2%
67
GLBTQ
Sexual Identity.
35 / 67 =
52.2%
Study Sample (Cedar Project) from Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
GLBTQ more at risk for having attempted suicide:
OR (Calculated by webpage authors): 2.0 (1.2, 3.5), p = .007 (http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html). p = .007 also given by study authors.
Mustanski
et al.
(2010).
See Mustanski
& Liu (2013)
for longitudinal
attempted
suicide
predictors.
246
GLBT
None
31%,
Lifetime
6.5%,
Past Year
2007-08 non-random community sample of 246 ethnically diverse youths (57.3% African-American) aged 16 to 20 years living in the Chicago area: 90% GLB, 28% Bisexual, 49% Born Male, 8% Transgender.  Survey Instrument: Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) version 4.0. "First Time" use in study of GLBT adolescents. Additional Results: Table Below.
Outlaw
et al.
(2011)

Hightow-Weidman
et al.
(2011)
363
84% Gay /
Homosexual,
Bisexual
Males
None
23%
Lifetime
79 / [338 to 349?]

Almost half of suicide attempters attempted suicide more than once.
Washington, DC. Multisite Cohort recruited from 2006-2009 for a Cohort Study. All HIV Positive. All Racial/Ethnic Minority. African American (67%), Latino (21%), Multiravial (12%), N = 363. Mean age: 20.4 Years.
Attempted Suicide Incidence if age of sexual debut was less than age of 16: 29%
Attempted Suicide Incidence if age of sexual debut was at theage of 16 or older: 18%
Data Intake: Interview Format
House,
et al.
(2011)

Internet
Sample
Males
n = 524
None
17.7%
Lifetime
Males: Gay (n = 465), Bisexual (n = 42),
Other (n = 17)
Lifetime Self-Harm: 10.3%
Females
n = 438
None
26.7%
Lifetime
Females: Lesbian (n = 335),
Bisexual (n = 91), Other (n= 12)
Lifetime Self-Harm: 30.4%
Transgender
n = 164
None
34.8%
Lifetime
Transgender: Heterosexual (n = 42), Gay / Lesbian (n = 26), Bisexual (n= 65),
Other (n = 31)
Lifetime Self-Harm: 29.9%
Langhinrichsen-
Rohling
et al.
(2011)

Same-Sex
n = 33
M/F
2.3% of
Study
Sample
Opposite-Sex
n = 1,212
M/F
19% vs.
7%
Lifetime
* RR: 2.6
p = 0.029
Same-Sex Attraction: 39% Girls, 79& African American, 12% Caucasian
Opposite-Sex Attraction: 48% Girls, 48% African American, 40% Caucasian
Both-Sex
n = 167
M/F
12% of
Study
Sample

Opposite-Sex
n = 1,212
M/F
23% vs.
7%
Lifetime
* RR: 3.2
p = 0.000
Both-Sex Attraction: 64% Girls, 48.5% African American, 36% Caucasian
Note: Results also given on lifetime and recent suicidal ideation.
* RR (Risk Ratios) and p-value (Fisher, 2-tailed) Calculated by Webpage Author from data derived from given percentages and n's, and calculated n's.
Sample Composition: "[R]ecruited from three locations that varied in their risk profile (a socioeconomic and ethnically diverse urban high school, an Early Warning Truancy Program for youth with excessive absences from school, and a youth center that is the entry point for the juvenile justice system) but were located within the same urban area."
Fisher
et al.
(2011)

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer
N = 770
None
All:
18.2%,
Lifetime.

Transgender:
37%
Lowest
Income:
40%
Highest
Income:
7%
Nebraska: Omaha Metro (68%), Lincoln Metro (20%) & Surrounding Area (12%): 60% male, 37% Female, 3% 'Other', 12% Transgender. Ages: 19 to 70 years, most (64%) 19 to 39 years. Having attempting suicide not related to education, age, race / ethnicity, or geographic location, but related to income, gender (higher for females), and transgender status.
Perez &
Torres
(2011)
305 (F)
None
18.4%
Lifetime
305 Volunteer Chicago Latina LGBTQQ participants,
13-60 years old.
50% identify as lesbian/gay/homosexual, 8.8% bisexual, 6.5% queer, 1% heterosexual, 4.5%  uncertain/questioning, and 9.7 percent do not use labels to identify themselves.
Marshal
et al.
(2012)

Lesbian, Gay (n = 8) or Bisexual Identity (n = 21). Same-sex romantic attraction only (n = 2).
31 (F)
496 (F)
Hetero-
sexual
Self-Harm
(Past 12 months):
12.9% vs,
2.0% - OR:
7.20
 (2.12-24.45)
Pittsburgh Girl Cohort Sampled at ages 5 to 8 years: N = 2,451. Study Sample - Girls age 17 years: n = 527 [85% (527/622) of the original cohort].
Also at greater risk for suicide ideation, substance use and mental disorders.
Chirico
(2012)
983 (M, F)
Identification:
Man: 44.6%
Woman: 48.7%
Other: 6.6%
None
23%
Lifetime
Volunteer Internet Sample via
Facebook & Word of Mouth.
Ages: 21 to 70+, Mostly 21-49
Identification: 71% Homosexual
29% Bisexual / Other
Cochran
et al.
(2013)
409 (M, F)
USA Veterans
Identification:
Male: 64.7% Female: 27.2% 
None
14.7%
Lifetime
Serious
Suicide Attempt
425 Volunteer USA Veterans.
Excluded from Analysis:
16 Transgender / Other: 8.1%
Ages: 19-83, Mean: 45 Years
Identified as Gay / Lesbian:: 93.2%. White: 87.3%
Irwin &
Austin
(2013)
1,141 (F)
Lesbian
Identified
None
15.9%
Average,
Lifetime
Lesbian Social Life study: 2007
- 2008, mostly internet sample.
Attempted Suicide, Lifetime Incidence, ranges from 9.9% to 20.8% in varied demographic
categories.
Mereish
et al.
(2013)
Lesbian / Gay
(MF)
n = 1,310
None,
but hetero-
sexual sample is
available.
See Table
Below
.
11.7%
153 / 1,310
Lifetime
Study sample taken at a Fenway Institue Clinic in a New England city; likely in Boston, Massachussetts.It is somewhat similar to the study sample reported on by Woodward et al. (2013).
See Table Below.
Bisexual
(MF)
n = 147
20.4%
30 / 147
Lifetime
Woodward
et al.
(2013)
Gay / Lesbian
n = 1,373
81.1% Male
Heterosexual
50.4% Male

2.9%
10.8%
OR:
4.1 (2.8, 6.0)
The Fenway Institute's CORE Data Project. See Table Below for given data & estimated values for Odds Ratio (OR, 95% CI) Estimations..
Results for Suicide Ideation & Suicide Attempt (Both Reported), Lifetime.
Bisexual (MF)
n = 147
46.9% Male
17.7%
OR:
7.2 (4.1, 12.7)
Questioning (MF), n = 38
34.2% Male
15.8%
OR:
6.3 (2.2, 17.0)
* M = Males - F = Females




The Fenway Institute's CORE Data Project
Cross-Sectional Study: Participants, Community Health Center

Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Gay/
Lesbian
Bi-
sexual
Ques-
tioning
N's (Given)
1,283 1,373 147 38
Mean Age
Years
26.36
35.86
32.97
30.81
% Male
50.4%
81.1%
46.9%
34.2%
Suicide Ideation &
Suicide Attempt
Incidence (Given)
n = 37
2.9%
n = 148
10.8%
n = 26
17.7%
n = 6
15.8%
Approximate n's
Estimated
37 / 0.029
= 1,276
148 / 0.108
= 1,370
26 / 0.177
= 147
6 / 0.158
n = 38
Yes - No
Attempted Suicide
& Suicide Ideation
37 - 1,239
148 - 1,222
26 - 121
6 - 32
Estimated
Odds Ratios *
95% CI
1.0
Reference
Category
4.1
(2.8 - 6.0)
p < 0.000
7.2
(4.1 - 12.7)

p < 0.000
6.3
(2.2 - 17.0)
p < 0.000

*Odds Ratio Calculations by Webpage Author: 2-way Contingency
Table Analysis: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
Comments

* Given the differences in "Mean Ages" and "% Males," plus other differences between compared groups, the above Odds Ratios are likely rough approximations. More accurate calculations for Odds Ratios would require control variables. Such ORs were not generated by the study authors.

The following appears to be an error by the authors: "Self-identified sexual minority individuals were significantly more likely (p < .05) to report suicide attempts than their heterosexual peers (44.3% vs. 2.9%)." The "44.3%" is likely an error.
Data Source: Woodward et al. (2013)
See also: Mereish et al. (2013)
The Fenway Institute: http://www.fenwayhealth.org/



The Savin-Williams 2001 Study 1: Sexual Minority Women
"Attempting Suicide" Criteria *
Categories
University
Students
n = 72
Community Support Groups
n = 11
All
N = 83
% White
90%: 65 / 72 **
64%: 7 / 11
86.7%: 72 / 83
% Lesbian
Identified
35%: 23 / 72
82%: 8 / 11
41%: 31 / 83
% Reporting
Attempt(s)
19%: 14 / 72
45%: 5 / 11 23%: 19 / 83
% True Suicide
Attempters
12%: 9 / 72
45%: 5 / 11 17%: 14 / 83
% False Suicide
Attempters
7%: 5 / 72
0.0%: 0 / 11 6%: 5 / 83
% of Suicide
Attempters = False
38% : 5 / 14
0.0%: 0 / 5 26%: 5 / 19

Sample:
USA Volunteers with nonheterosexual sexual identity, Mean Age: 21.9 Years, 18 to 25 Years.

*Criteria for Determining False Suicide Attempters: If their "Suicide Attempt(s) was described as one of the following: 1. Thought seriously about it. - 2. Had a plan but did not carry it out. - 3. Had a method but did not carry it out.
** Counts not given. Estimated from given percentages.



The Savin-Williams 2001 Study 2
Sexual Minority
Female University Students
"Attempting Suicide" Criteria *
Categories
Kinsey Rating 1
"1 to 7"
n = 73
Kinsey Rating 1
"0"
n = 79
Odd Ratios 2
(95%CI), p
(Fisher Exact, 2-sided)
% Reporting
Attempt(s)
22%: 16 / 73 3 11%: 9 / 79
2.2 (0.83, 5.8)
p = 0.124
[One-sided: p = 0.063]
% True Suicide
Attempters
10%: 7 / 73
8%: 6 / 79
1.3 (0.36, 4.6)
p = 0.775
% Suicide Attempters
Medical Care Received

3%: 2 / 73
3%:  2 / 79
1.1 (0.11, 11.1)
p = 1.000
[One-sided: p = 0.660]
% False Suicide
Attempters
12%: 9 / 73
4%: 3 / 79
3.6 (0.94, 13.9)
p = 0.071
[One-sided: p = 0.049]
% of Suicide
Attempters = False
56% : 9 / 16
33%: 3 / 9
2.6 (0.36, 20.1)
p = 0.411
[One-sided: p = 0.248]
Sample: USA Volunteers Taking Introductory University Courses (Human Development, Sexuality), Mean Age: 20.2 Years, 17 to 25 Years.
*Criteria for Determining False Suicide Attempters: If their "Suicide Attempt(s) was described as one of the following:
1. Thought seriously about it. - 2. Had a plan but did not carry it out. - 3. Had a method but did not carry it out.

1. Kinsey Ratings: "0" = "exclusively heterosexual". "1 to 7" = "slightly" to "exclusively homosexual".
2. Odds ratios are calculated from estimated counts.
3. Counts not given. Estimated from given percentages.



The Savin-Williams 2001 Study 2
Sexual Minority
Male University Students
"Attempting Suicide" Criteria *
Categories
Kinsey Rating 1
"1 to 7"
n = 53
Kinsey Rating 1
"0"
n = 61
Odd Ratios 2
(95%CI), p
(Fisher Exact, 2-sided)
% Reporting
Attempt(s)
23%: 12 / 53 3
2%: 1 / 61
17.6 (2.2, 375.5)
p = 0.001
% True Suicide
Attempters
9%: 5 / 53
2%: 1 / 61
6.2 (0.67, 146.3)
p = 0.095
[One-sided: p = 0.074]
% Suicide Attempters
Medical Care Received

6%: 3 / 53
0.0%:  0 / 61
p = 0.097
[One-sided: p = 0.097]
% False Suicide
Attempters
13%: 7 / 53
0.0%: 0 / 61
p = 0.004
% of Suicide
Attempters = False
58% : 7 / 12
0.0%: 0 / 1
p = 0.462
[One-sided: p = 0.462]
Sample: USA Volunteers Taking Introductory University Courses (Human Development, Sexuality), Mean Age: 20.2 Years, 17 to 25 Years.
*Criteria for Determining False Suicide Attempters: If their "Suicide Attempt(s) was described as one of the following:
1. Thought seriously about it. - 2. Had a plan but did not carry it out. - 3. Had a method but did not carry it out.

1. Kinsey Ratings: "0" = "exclusively heterosexual". "1 to 7" = "slightly" to "exclusively homosexual".
2. Odds ratios are calculated from estimated counts.
3. Counts not given. Estimated from given percentages.
Note: Given that 5 of the 6 true suicide attempters were non-heterosexual and that the 3 suicide attempters who received medical attention were all non-heterosexual males, this result should maybe have caused a major alert to be sounded at the counseling services of the university where the study sample was taken.

Update: Redoing the statistical analyses using more appropriate unconditional statistical tests, as opposed to the more conservative Fisher exact test, produced statistical significant results for the above analysis as well as for the analysis using only suicide attempters reporting that they had received medical care. See: Related Webpage.





Mustanski et al. (2010): GLBT Chicago Adolescents
Categories
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Possible
Comparison: 1
Chicago Cohorts
Age: 15-20 Years
Attempted
Suicide,
Past Year
Possible
Comparison: 2
Chicago Cohorts
Age: 15-20 Years
Possible
Comparison: 3
Chicago YRBS
Age: Mostly 14-18
All, N = 246
90% GLB
Age: 16-20 Years
31.0%
Cohort 12: 2.9%
Cohort 15: 6.4%
Average: 4.6%,
Lifetime
6.5%
Cohort 12: 1.5%
Cohort 15: 1.1%
Average: 1.3%,
Past Year
2003 & 2005
Chicago YRBS
Average: 31%,
Past Year
Born Male: 121
25.8%
See: 4
3.3%


Born Female: 125
36.0%

9.6%


Transgender: 20
45.0%

10.0%


Lesbian/Gay: 151
34.0%

7.3%


Bisexual: 70
21.4%

4.3%


African-American: 141
31.2%

6.4%


White: 34
28.1%

3.1%


Latino/Latina: 28
32.1%

7.1%


Mustanski et al (2010) Study: 2007-08 non-random community sample of 246 ethnically diverse youths aged 16 to 20 years.  Survey Instrument: Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) version 4.0.
1, 2: Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Suicide Interview, Wave 3, 2000-2002: Unweighted Results for cohort 12 (Age: 15-17 Years, N = 545) & Cohort 15 (Age: 18-20 Years, N = 436) available online. Survey Instrument: Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) version 4.0. Cohorts are likely to be near-random. As a rough estimate from 2 studies having used the same survey  instrument, it would appear that GLB Chicago adolescents have been at much greater risk for Lifetime Suicide Attempts (31% vs. 4.6%), OR: 9.3. - Also at greater risk for having Attempted Suicide, Past Year: (6.5% vs. 1.3%), OR: 5.3.

3. The GLB average incidence for "Attempted Suicide, Past Year" was calculated for the 2003 (32%) and 2005 (30
) Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS, Pencil & Paper): 31% (Chicago GLB YRBS results are given on a separate web page). Methodologies are much different, the long suspected proposition being that YRBS produce greatly over-estimated GLB "Attempted Suicide" Results for adolescents. Question to Ask: Are YRBS Heterosexual adolescents' "Attempted Suicide, Past Year"incidences similarly over-estimated? The answer is likely "Yes" given the following... The Chicago Cohorts 2000-2002 results (1.3% Attempted Suicide Incidence, Past Year) for all Chicago adolescents of all sexual orientations (about 95% heterosexual), and the CDC reported 2001 YRBS incidence for all Chicago students was 11.8%, suggests that the YRBS "Attempted Suicide, Past Year) results for all students are inflated by about a "9.1-times factor" (11.8 / 1.3) when compared to the 1.3% Chicago cohorts estimate. Furthermore, If we compare the Chicago GLB YRBS results (31%, attempted suicide, past year) with the Mustanksi et al (2010) GLB results (6.5%), we can estimate that the GLB YRBS are only inflated by a factor of 4.8-times (31.0 / 6.5), the suggestion being that Heterosexual adolescents are more likely - maybe by a 2-times factor - to report 'false' suicide attempts (such as a 'near attempt' reported to be a suicide attempt), compared to GLB adolescents. If so, this would also mean that all "Attempted Suicide, Past Year" ORs (GLB vs. Heterosexual) reported or published for YRBS studies have been underestimated. This proposition is also consonant with the report/observation that GLB individuals, and especially males, have been generally more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. See related webpage.

4. Paul et al. (2002) reports - for a four-city USA random sample of Gay/Bisexual men (N = 2,881) that included Chicago - the following "Lifetime Attempted Suicide" incidence to the age of 24 years for GB men divided in 4 birth cohorts: ≤25 y in 1970 (3%), 25 y in 1971–1980 (8%), 25 y in 1981–1990 (8%), 25 y after 1990 (11%) - p = 0.001, with little difference in suicidality rates for the major 'race' groups. The suggestion is that GB male youth suicidality had been increasing over the years and, if the Mustanski et al (2010) results for GB males is used as an indicator, it is possible that the Lifetime GB Male Youth Attempted Suicide incidence may have doubled from 1985-95 (11% to age 24), to 2007 for the Chicago GB males in the Mustanski et al. (2010) study aged 16 to 20 years, or to the average age of 18 Years: 25.8%. Noting here that the
Paul et al. (2002) also used a structured interview format containing multiple suicidality questions. Noting also that the Paul et al. (2002) "Lifetime Attempted Suicide" results for the "25 years-old after 1990" cohort would be less than 11% it it had been given to the age of 18 years. This proposition and the possible reasons for this increase in GB male suicidality over the years is available in Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2004). The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide problems. Updated Paper.




Suicidality of 2005 Venue Sampled Gay/Bisexual in Kipke et al. (2007) Study
Comparison Issues/Problems With CDC's 2005
National Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results

Categories
% Incidence
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
% Incidence, Attempted Suicide,
Received Medical Attention,
Past Year
Kipke et al. (2007) Results: Using YRBS Style Questions
For 18 to 24-Year-Old Males
20 / 526 = 3.8%
Given as 4% 1
10 / 526 = 1.9%
Given as 2%
1
Kipke et al. Generated  National YRBS Results, 2005: 18 Year-Old Part of Sample: N = 1046
56 / 1046 = 5.35
Given as 6% 2
16 / 1046 = 1.53%
Given as 2% 2
Note: As stated by authors, it looks like GB males are not at greater risk for suicidality, or they are at lesser risk, thus warranting further investigation. The CDC does not generate and report YRBS results based on age, but only based on high school grade level. On average, the oldest male students - those closest in age to the males in the Kipke et al. (2007) sample - would be in Grade 12.
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,  Grade 9
6.8%
2.1%
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,  Grade 10
7.3%
2.2%
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,  Grade 11 4.5%
1.4%
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,  Grade 12 4.3%
1.0%
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,  Grades 9-12 6.0%
1.8%
Note: It appears like GB males, compared to Grade 12 males nationally, may have twice the risk of an attempted suicide associated with having received medical attention. Also: Why is the generated national "attempted suicide" incidence for 18-year-old males by Kipke et al (2007) almost as high as it is for males in grades 9 and 10? And almost 50% higher than that generated by the CDC for males in grades 11 and 12 in 2005?
Note: The CDC Grades 9-12 national male "attempted suicide" incidences are obtained from widely varying results ranging from a high incidence of 12.7% in North Carolina, to a low of 2.8% in New Hampshire, and from a high of 14.2% in a city such as New Orleans to a low of 2.1% in Los Angeles, where the Kipke sample was taken. Thus explaining why researchers should always compare their results with those of a similar sample taken at least in the same city and also in the same year (because changes often occur from year to year) with a similar survey instrument! Or else, what will be concluded in terms of relative risk will likely be meaningless, at best; or it may be manipulative, as in maybe also being 'politically' motivated, at its worse.
CDC (2006) Results, 2005 YRBS, Males,
Grade 9-12, Los Angeles
2.1%
1.2%
Not Available, But 'Roughly' Estimated for Grades 11-12 Males in the Los Angeles 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. This was done using, as a guide, the relative incidences in the above national "attempted suicide" incidences for males.
2.1% X (4.3 / 6.0 = 0.73)
1.5%
1.2% X (1.25 / 1.8% = 0.69)
0.83
Note: As a rule, the two "attempted suicide" incidences for males decrease significantly from Grades 9-10 to Grades 11-12, and the incidences likely continue to decrease to let's say the mean age of 20 (being another 3 years older, on average), or for males ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, as in the Kipke et al. sample. Therefore, for males aged 18 to 24 years living in Los Angeles in 2005, the "attempted suicide" incidences may have been yet another third less than for the above estimate for Grades 11-12 males in LA.
Estimated Incidences of 18-24-year-old males in LA in 2005.
These figures also include the likely overrepresented suicidality of gay/bisexual males in the sample studied. Therefore, the incidences would be even lower for heterosexual males only.
1.0%
0.56%
Meaning?  Possible? Likely? 3
If so, similar to Silenzio et al (2007) results given in Table  for young adults aged 18 to 26 years. Also similar to Whitlock & Knox (2007) result for mostly undergraduate
students at two universities: Table.
Kipke et al. GB Males:
4-Times More at Risk.
Kipke et al. GB Males:
Almost 4-Times The Risk

1. Possible Non-Responders to the Question.

2.Discrepancy is likely the result of non-responders to the "Attempted Suicide" question.
3. Kipke et al (2007): "While not a perfect comparison given the younger age of the YRBSS respondents and the fact that not all HYM data could be compared to this national sample, these comparisons do suggest that YMSM may not be at much greater risk for negative health outcomes associated with diet, weight, physical activity, and suicide, although they may be at increased risk for exposure to STIs and HIV infection."



Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Age: 17 to 28 Years - Mean: 21.7 Years:
'Race'/Ethnicity
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Percent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
White, % Category,
% White,
n's*
26.7%
100%
152
16.5%
27.0%
41 : 111
34.7%
73.0%
111 : 41
20.5%
22.4%
34 : 118
8.4%
4.6%
7 : 145
Black, % of Category,
% Black,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
22.7%
100%
129


24.1%
46.5%
60 : 69
2.4 (1.4, 3.9)
0.0006
21.6%
53.5%
69 : 60


22.9%
29.4%
38 : 91
1.4 (0.85, 2.5)
0.175
26.5%
17.1%
22 : 107
4.3 (1.7, 10.3)
0.0006
Hispanic, % of Category,
% Hispanic,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
40.4%
100%
230


50.2%
54.3%
125 : 105
3.2 (2.1, 5.0)
0.0000
32.8%
45.7%
105 : 125


48.8%
35.2%
81 : 149
1.9 (1.2, 3.0)
0.007
53.0%
19.1%
44 : 186
4.9 (2.1, 11.2)
0.0000
Others, % of Category,
% Others,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. White
p ***
10.2%
100%
58


9.2%
39.6%
23 : 35
1.8 (0.94, 3.4)
0.074
10.9%
60.4%
35 : 23


7.8%
22.4%
13 : 45
1.0 (0.48, 2.1)
0.994
12.0%
17.2%
10 : 48
4.3 (1.6, 12.0)
0.003
*** Statistics
4 'Races': Chi Square

28.7
0.001
28.7
0.000
8.8
0.05
16.9
0.001
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within each 'Race'/Ethnic category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.



Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Sexual Orientation Categories
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Percent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
Gay, % of Category
% of Gay Males
n's*
63.4%
100%
361
49.4%
34.1%
123 : 238
74.4%
65.9%
238 : 123
56.0%
25.8%
93 : 268
36.1%
8.3%
 30 : 331
Bisexual, % of Category
% of Bisexual Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
23.9%
100%
136


31.3%
57.4%
78 : 58
2.6 (1.7, 3.9)
0.0000
17.8%
42.6%
58 : 78


29.5%
36.0%
49 : 87
1.6 (1.1, 2.5)
0.024
34.9%
21.3%
 29 : 107
3.0 (1.7, 5.2)
0.0000
Hetero..., % of Category
% of Heterosexual Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
7.2%
100%
41


12.0%
73.2%
  30 : 11
5.3 (2.6, 10.9)
0.000
3.4%
28.8%
 11 : 30


7.2%
29.3%
 12 : 29
1.2 (0.58, 2.4)
0.628
21.7%
43.9%
 18 : 23
8.6 (4,2, 17.8)
0.0000
Other, % of Category,
% of "Other" Males,
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
5.6%
100%
32


7.2%
56.3%
18 : 14
2.5 (1.2, 5.2)
0.012
4.4%
43.8%
14 : 18


7.2%
37.5%
12 : 20
1.7 (0.81, 3.7)
0.150
7.2%
18.8%
 6 : 26
2.5 (0.97, 6.7)
0.0497
Total
100%
570
100%
249
100%
321
99.9%
166
99.9%
83
*** Statistics
4 Sex Orientations
 Chi Square

40.4
0.001
40.4
0.001
6.2
0.20
45.2
0.001
Trans..., % of Category
% of Transgender Males
n's*
OR (95%CI): vs. Gay
p ***
8.8%
100%
50


11.6%
58.0%
29 : 21
2.7 (1.5, 4.9)
0.001
6.6%
42.0%
21 : 29


7.8%
26.0%
13 : 37
1.0 (0.52, 2.0)
0.971
19.3%
32.0%
16 : 36
4.9 (2.4, 9.8)
0.0000
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within each Sexual Orientation category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.
Transgender compared to Gay,
but some transgender identified MSMs may also have identified as gay.



Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): New York
Age: 17 to 28 Years - Mean: 21.7 Years:
'Race'/Ethnicity
Categories
All MSM
Males **
** Ever
Homeless
Never
Homeless
Previously
Homeless
Currently
Homeless
N's
Percent
569
100%
249
43.8%
320
56.2%
166
29.2%
83
14.7%
Age: Mean, (SD)
21.7 (2.9)

21.8 (2.9) 21.6 (2.9)
21.4 (2.9)
Attempted Suicide: %
% of Suicide Attempters
* n's: Attempters : Non-Att
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***
33.4%
100%
190 : 379


42.2%
55.3%
105 : 144
2.0 (1.4, 2.9)
0.0000
26.6%
44.7%
85 : 235


41.8%
36.3%
69 : 97
2.0 (1.3, 2.9)
0.0007
43.4%
19.9%
36 : 47
2.1 (1.3, 3.5)
0.0029
% Attempters =
Multiple Attempters

46.8% **
54.3% **
37.6%
53.6%
55.6%
Multiple S. Attempters: %
% of Multiple Attempters
* n's
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***

15.6%
100%
89 : 480


22.9%
64.0%
57 : 192
2.7 (1.7, 4.3)
0.0000
10.0%
36.0%
32 : 288


22.4%
41.6%
37 : 129
2.6 (1.5, 4.3)
0.0002
24.1%
22.5%
20 : 63
2.9 (1.5, 5.3)
0.0006
% Attempters = Attempted,
Sex Orientation (S.O.) Reason

34.7% **
33.3% **
36.2%
32.4%
36.4%
S.O. Suicide Attempters: %
% of S.O. Attempters
* n's
OR: vs. Never Homeless
p ***
11.6%
100%
66 : 503


14.1%
53.0%
35 : 214
1.5 (0.91, 2.6)
0.106
9.6%
47.0%
31 : 289


13.5%
33.3%
22 : 144
1.4 (0.80, 2.5)
0.232
15.8%
19..7%
13 : 70
1.7 (0.86, 3.5)
0.120
Data Source: Clatts et. al. (2005)
* The n's are not given. Estimated from given percentages in Homeless Categories
n's = Yes : No - within Attempted Suicide category
Assuming that all study participants responded to the questions asked.
** Generally not given. Calculated from other data.
*** Odd Ratios and Significance calculated by web page author.



The D'Augelli et al. 2005 Study of New York GLB Youth
"Attempting Suicide" Criteria

All Reporting Having
Attempting Suicide
Suicide
Attempters
n's
Category Described
Attempt: Serious / Not Serious
Intent To Die
All Youths Reporting to Have
Attempted Suicide:
166 / 528 (31.4%)

Those Deemed to Have
Attempted Suicide:
78 / 528 (14.8%)

Those Deemed to Have
Attempted Suicide in Final
Study Sample (Data Complete):
61 / 361 (16.9%)
Removed As
Suicide
Attempters *
28
Report or Indication of
Having Attempted Suicide
60
Removed As
Suicide
Attempters
30
Not Serious, No Intent to Die
23
Serious, No Intent to Die
7
No Information Given
78
Deemed To Be
Real Suicide
Attempters
21
Not Serious, Intent to Die
25
Serious, Intent to Die
22
Very Serious, Intent to Die, with
7 Having No Intent to Die

* 19 were removed because "attempting suicide" was reported in questionnaire, but not in interview.
9 were removed because "attempting suicide" was only threatened, but not done




American Lifetime "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random: GLB Community, GLB Services
Homosexually Oriented Adults: 1994 - 2011
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odd Ratios (95%CI)
Perez & Torres
(2011)

(F)
305

None
18.4%
Lifetime
305 Latina LGBTQQ participants in Chicago, 13-60 years old. Sexual Identity: 50% lesbian/gay/homosexual, 8.8% bisexual, 6.5% queer, 1% straight or heterosexual, 4.5% uncertain/questioning, and 9.7% do not use labels to identify themselves.
Ryan
et al.
(2009)
114 (M)
110 (F)
107 White
117 Latino
None
Range For Groups:
27.3-
54.8%,
Lifetime
All:
40.6%
Volunteer Sample from 249 GLB Venues, San Francisco. Age Range: 21-25 Years, Mean age: 22.8 Years. Sample Criteria: GLB Self-Identified and having come out to at least one parent/guardian in adolescence.
Additional Results: Table Below, including
Family Rejection effects.
O'Donnell
et al.
(2011)

193 (M)
195 (F)
388 (MF)
132 - White
128 - Black
128 - Latino
18 to 59
Years-Old
None
17.0%, Lifetime
Suicide Attempt, All.
White: 9.1%
Latino/a: 22.7%
Black: 19.5%
Volunteers, 2004-05 at 274 Project Stride (Stress, Identity, Mental Health) Venues, New York City. Same Sample Used by Meyer et al (2008) Study (Below).
Conclusion: Mental Disorders not generally preceeding suicide attempts. Discrimination associations proposed for Black's and Latinos/a's Excess Suicidality.
Meyer
et al.
(2008)
193 (M)
195 (F)
388 (MF)
132 - White
128 - Black
128 - Latino
18 to 59
Years-Old

None
8.4%, Lifetime
Serious Suicide
Attempt
68.8%, One or More Mental Disorder, Lifetime
Volunteers, 2004-05 at 274 Project Stride (Stress, Identity, and Mental Health) Venues, New York City.
Information to determine "serious suicide attempts" was obtained via the computer- assisted personal interview (Version 19) of the WHO World Mental Health Survey: the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. See Table Below for Variable Results.
Walter
et al.
(2008)

244 (M*)
None
59 / 241
24.5%
Lifetime
*244 mostly male sexual minority American Indians from a volunteer multi-city sample (includes 10 female-to-male transsexual individuals)
Koh &
Ross
(2006)

524 (F)
Lesbian
637 (F)
Hetero-
sexual
16.7%
(85 / 510) vs.
10.2% (63/617)
Lifetime
USA Volunteers: Inpatients at General Health Care Sites, Lesbian Health Clinics.
Mean Ages: 36-41, SDs: 9 to 13 Years
81% to 85% Caucasian. ORs calculated from counts estimated from given data.
Lesbian vs. Hetero. : OR = 1.4 (1.006, 2.0)
Bisexual vs. Hetero.: OR =
2.4 (1.5, 3.8)
143 (F)
Bisexual
637 (F)
Hetero-
sexual
21.3%
(30 / 141)vs
10.2% (63/617)
Lifetime
Balsam
et al. (2005a)

445 (MF)
None
28.9% USA Military Veterans, Internet Sample
N = 445, Age = 19 - 83 Year
64.7% male, 27.2% female, 8.1% self-
identified as transgender or “other.”
87.6% White, 88.7% Lesbian or Gay
Balsam
et al. (2005)
Estimates:
Additional
Results

264 (M*)
185 (M)
11.4% vs
3.3%
OR = 3.8 (1.6, 9.4) - To Age 17 years
264 (M)
185 (M)
10.6% vs.
3.3%
OR = 3.5 (1.4, 8.7) - Age 18 + Years
457 (F)
358 (F)
9.8% vs.
6.2%
OR =  1.6 (0.95, 2.7) - To Age 17 years
457 (F)
348 9F)
8.7% vs.
4.4%
OR =  2.1 (1.1, 3.8) - Age 18 + Years
Roberts
et al.
(2004)

1,139 (F)
None
19.5%
Lifetime
Volunteers, Via Outreach: 1997-2000. Sample From 44 American States. Mean Age = 40 Years (Approx) .
Age Range = 15-55+ Years
For 146 / 225 Suicide Attempters,
First Attempt Occurred <= 18 Years
Matthews
et al.
(2002)

Hughes
et al.
(2000)
550 (F)
Lesbian /
Bisexual
279 (F)
Hetero-
sexual
22% (91 / 414)
vs. 13%
(22 / 169)
Lifetime
p < 0.01

OR = 1.9 (1.2, 3.1): An Estimate.

Volunteers, Lesbian Communities, in Three Large American Cities: 1992-96. Mean Age: 43 Years
Most Suicide Attempts: 15 to 29 Years
OR = 1.9 (1.2, 3.1): An Estimate.

Age 15-19, Attempted Suicide:
12% vs 6%, p < 0.05
Age: 20-29, Attempted Suicide:
12% vs. 5%,
p < 0.05
Differences for older lesbian participants are not statistically significant.
McBee-
Strayer
& Rogers
(2002)
162 (MF)
85 (M)
75 (F)
None
36.4%
Lifetime
USA Volunteers: GLB Organizations & Snowballing. - Mean Age: 37.1. (SD: 12.0), 18 to 64 Years
Attempters: 23.4% (Ambivalence) +
13.0% (Intent to Die) = 36.4%
D'Augelli &
Grossman
(2001)
Grossman et al.
(2001)
416
295 (M)
121 (F)
None
12.5%
(52 / 416)
Lifetime
Volunteers Obtained Via Community Organizations: Many American States, and Ontario, Canada: 1997-98.
Age = 60 - 91 Years,
Mean: 68.5 Years, SD: 5.8 Years
Most Attempted Suicide Between ages 22 to 59 years.
Morris
et al.
(2001)

2,401 (F)
Mostly
Lesbian/Gay
None
21.5%, Lifetime
About 52% of them attempted suicide two or more times.
On Suicidality Scale: Native Americans More at Risk.
Volunteers: National Lesbian Wellness Survey - Average Age: 36 Years. Range: 15-83 Years.
White (75%, N=1,809), African American (10%, N=231), Latina (7%, N=173), Native American (4%, N=85), and Asian American/Pacific Islander, (3%, N=63), with 1% (N=40) indicated "other". 75% with a one or more college degrees.
Sorensen &
Roberts
(1997)

1,633 (F)
None
18%
Lifetime
USA Volunteers, Via Outreach: 1987. Median Age = 32. Years. Age Range = 16 - 82 Years. 46% of Suicide Attempts Occurred Between Ages or 13 to 18 Years
Bradford
& Ryan
(1988, 1994)
1,925 (F)
None
All: 19%, Lifetime
White: 16%
Latina: 28%
Black: 27%
National American Volunteer Snowball
Sample Taken in 1984-85.
Age = 17 - 80 Years
80% Between Ages of 25 - 44 Years
* M = Males - F = Females



 224 American White and Latino Young Adults, 21 to 25 Years Old
GLB Identified & Out to At Least One Parent / Guardian in Adolescence
Suicidality and Depression: Effects of Family Rejection 1
Categories /
Variables
4
Rejection
Scale Score
OR 2

Rejection
Level

Mode-
rate
Rejec-
tion
OR
High
Rejec-
tion
OR
Low
Mode-
rate
High
Depression, Current
CES-D > 16
2.21
(1.62–3.01)
22.4%
44.6%
63.5% 2.92
 (1.42–6.00)
5.94
(2.86–12.34)
Suicide Ideation,
Past 6 Months
2.13
(1.53–2.95
11.8%
21.6%
43.2% 2.12
(0.86–5.18)
5.64
(2.42–13.14)
Attempted
Suicide, Ever
3.09
(2.18–4.37)
19.7%
35.1%
67.6% 2.29
(1.08–4.83)
8.35
(3.90–17.85)

Categories /
Variables 4

All
Males
Females
Effects
Statistically
Significant
White
Latino
White
Latino
N's
224
52
62
55
55
-
Mean Age, Years
At Survey Time
22.8
22.9
22.9
23.1
22.6
None
Come Out, Parent(s)
Mean Age, Years
15.8
15.2
15.8
16.2
16.1
None
Depression, Current
CES-D > 16
43.3%
44.2%
58.1%
41.8%
27.3%
GxE 3
Suicide Ideation,
Past 6 Months
25.4%
25.0%
35.5%
27.3%
12.7%
GxE 3
Attempted
Suicide, Ever
40.6%
44.2%
54.8%
34.5%
27.3%
None
1. The selection process for this study creates an unknown: What are the possible effects on GLB self-identified adolescents if, during adolescence, they did not come out to at least one parent or guardian? Study by Ryan et al. (2009).
2. All ORs, 95% Confidence Intervals
3. GxE: GxE indicates gender-by-ethnicity interaction, p < 0.05
4. At risk results also given in the paper for substance abuse and taking sexual risks.

Note: A comprehensive view of the GLBT suicidality situation in the study sample would be achieved via an "attempted suicide" logistic regression analysis that would include, in addition to "family rejection" as possible independent predictor variables, the following "at risk" associated variables solicited from the study participants and reported in the following papers: Toomey at al. (2010) [Gender Nonconformity & School Victimization] and Russell et al. (2011) [School  Victimization as most related to suicidality]. Another paper reported the suicidality of the study participants but focused on the protective nature of family acceptance: Ryan et al. (2010).



Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Adults, and Their Siblings
"Attempted Suicide" Incidences / Risks
Homosexual/Bisexual vs. Heterosexual
Sexual Orientation »
Hetero-
sexual
Bisexual
Homosexual
Homosexual
& Bisexual *
Men

Counts in Categories 185
38
226
264
Attempted Suicide
< 18 Years
** Odd Ratios (95%CI)
3.3% 17.1%
5.6 (1.7, 18.4)
10.5%
3.5 (1.4, 8.9)
11.4%
3.8 (1.6, 9.4)
Attempted Suicide
18 + Years
** Odd Ratios (95%CI)
3.3%
11.4%
3.4 (0.94, 13.1)
10.5%
3.5 (1.4, 8.9)
10.6%
3.5 (1.4, 8.7)
Lifetime
?
?
?
?
Women

Counts in Categories 348
125
332
457
Attempted Suicide
< 18 Years
** Odd Ratios (95%CI)
6.2%
17.4%
3.2 (1.7, 5.9)
7.0%
1.1 (0.60, 2.0)
9.8%
1.6 (0.95, 2.7)
Attempted Suicide
18 + Years
** Odd Ratios (95%CI)
4.4%
10.7%
2.6 (1.2, 5.6)
7.9%
1.9 (0.98, 3.6)
8.7%
2.1 (1.1, 3.8)
Lifetime ?
?
?
?
Data Source: Balsam et al. (2005)
GLB Sampling via Magazine/Web Advertisement. Their Siblings: via mail.
Mean Ages For Groups: 31.6-39.3 Years (SDs: 10.3-11.7 Years). 91.7% European American
* Data For Combined Homosexual & Bisexual Groups Not Given. Estimated From Given Percentages.
** Odds Ratio Calculated From Estimated Counts, Assuming No Non-Responders to Questions.
The actual Odds Ratio Would be a Little Less.




Lifetime Serious Suicide Attempts & Mental Disorders
White, Black & Latino/a Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adults in New York City

Categories *
Any Anxiety
Disorder
Any Mood
Disorder
Any Substance
Use Disorder
Any
Disorder
Serious
Suicide Attempt
All, N = 388
44.3%
30.7%
38.4%
69.8%
8.3%
Male, n = 193
43.0%
26.4%
36.8%
65.3%
9.3%
Female, n = 195
45.6%
34.9%
40.0%
74.4%
7.2%
White, n = 132
47.0%
38.6%
41.7%
76.5%
4.6%
Black, n = 128
36.7%
21.9%
30.5%
60.2%
7.0%
Latino/a,  n = 128
49.2%
31.3%
43.0%
72.7%
13.3%
Lesbian/Gay, n = 318
43.7%
30.2%
35.5%
68.2%
7.9%
Bisexual, n = 70
47.1%
32.9%
51.4%
77.1%
10.0%
18 - 29 Years, n = 172
46.5%
29.1%
35.5%
69.8%
8.7%
30 - 44 Years, n = 171
43.9%
25.7%
39.8%
67.8%
5.9%
45 - 59 Years, n = 45
37.8%
55.6%
44.4%
77.8%
15.6%

Data Source: Meyer et al. (2008) - * Lifetime Incidences (Percent: %) for All Categories
Information to determine "mental disorders" & "serious suicide attempts" was obtained via the computer- assisted personal interview (Version 19) of the WHO World Mental Health Survey: the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.




Canadian Lifetime "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random: GLB Community or GLB Services
Homosexually Oriented Adults: AIDS/HIV Cohort Studies
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
Incidence
Sampling Information
Age
Botnick
et al.
(2002)

345
** MSM
None
19.4%
(67 / 345)
Lifetime
Vancouver, British Columbia - 1998
Subsample: Vanguard AIDS/HIV Cohort
Men (Age = 18 to 30 Years) Identified as Gay / Bisexual, or Having Sex With Men
Otis
(2000)

629
msm
None
36.1%
Lifetime
Montreal, Canada - 1999
Subsample: Omega AIDS/HIV Cohort
Men (Mean Age = 32 Years)
Identified as Gay / Bisexual, or Having Sex With Men
* M = Males - F = Females - MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men




Lifetime "Self Harm / Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random GLB Study Populations:
United Kingdom
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Self Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Comments
Rivers
(2000)
116 (MF*)
92 (M)
None
37.1% (43 / 116)
Self Harm /
Suicide Attempt(s)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Advertising in GLB Community Venues. Follow-up Questionnaire to 190 United Kingdom Participants in a Previous Study. Mean Age = 28 Years, 16 to 54 Years
Men: 16 to 54 years, Women: 16 to 44 Years
Age Range Information: Rivers (2004)
Cant
(2002)

85
(MF)
None
32%
Attempted Suicide
35%
Self-Harm
The Metro Centre in Greenwich that is accessed by some young lesbian, gay and bisexual people from Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham. Data collected on 85 youth registered there from October 2001 to April 2002: 85 young people.
Carragher
& Rivers (2002)
93 (M)
None
33.7% (29 / 86)
Self Harm /
Suicide Attempt(s)
Lifetime
Male Part of Rivers (2000) UK Sample.
Mean Age = 28 Years, SD: 9.0 Years
Age Range:
16 to 54 Years
Webb &
Wright (2001)
1145
(MF)
None
Attempted S.
18.3% (210 / 1145)
Lifetime
90% Living in Brighton & Hove. Women: significantly more likely than men to have self-harmed. No significant differences for attempting suicide. Serious thoughts of suicide, ever: declines from 53.1% to 21.6%, from age group 16-25, to age group 65+
Age = 16 - 65+

Self Harm: 10.6%
(121 / 1145)
Lifetime
Hutchison
et al.
(2003)
95 (M)
None
Self Harm: 28.4%
(27 / 95)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Gay Venues (Edinburgh, Scotland)
Age = 15 - 26 Years
Self Harm = No Intent To Die
42% of Suicide Attempters: Repeat Attempters
Compared to National Male Statistics:
Self Harm: 5.6 Times More likely
Attempted Suicide: 6.7 Times More Likely
Attempted S.
27.4% (26 / 95)
Lifetime
King
et al.
(2003)*
&
Warner
et al.
(2004)*
656 (M)
Gay
505 (M)
Hetero-
sexual
Self Harm**
25%
vs. 13.5%
Snowball Sampling (England, Wales): Gay / Lesbian Venues, Publications, Advertisements,
Followed by Recruitment: Friends, etc.
Mean Age = 36.4 Years
Self-Harm: Lifetime
84 (M)
Bisexual
505 (M)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
27%
vs. 13.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 35.5 Years
430 (F)
Lesbian
588 (F)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
31%
vs. 16.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 34.2 Years
111 (F)
Bisexual
588 (F)
Hetero-
sexual

Self Harm**
33%
vs. 16.5%
Snowball Sampling (As Above)
Mean Age = 29.8 Years
Cull et al.
(2006)

44
GLBT
Homeless
Youth
None
Attempted
Suicide:
> 66.7%
Lifetime
Volunteer: GLBT Presently/Past Homeless in Brighton and Hove, England - Age = 16 - 25 Years. 'Nearly all reported a history of mental health problems or substance misuse. Half reported alcohol or substance misuse. Over two thirds had a history of attempting suicide.'
Aitken
et al.
(2007)
138 (F)
110 (M)
Mostly
GLB
None
Attempted Suicide:
31 / 224
13.8%
Lifetime
224 GLBT Participants from the City of
Edinburgh, the Lothians and the Borders in Scotland..
Age: 14 to 75, mean = 37 Years (Approx.)
Meads
et al.
(2007)

449 (F)
93.5%
LGB
Identified
None
31.3%
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime

Volunteer: Measure for Measure 1 Study (2002) Commissioned by the West Midlands
South Strategic Health Authority
166 (F)
77%
LGB
Identified

None
20.0%
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime

Volunteer: Measure for Measure 2 Study (2005) Commissioned by the West Midlands
South Strategic Health Authority
Hunt &
Fish
(2008)

5,053 (F)
81%
Lesbian
Identified
None
5.0%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
England: Volunteer Sample: Online & Pencil/Paper - 82% White British. Age Range: 14 to 84 Years. - Attempted Suicide Incidence Range, in the Past Year, in 10 Regions: 3.5% to 7.4%. See Table Below.
Self-Harm, With No Intention of Killing Self, in the Past Year: Incidence Range: 15.9% to 22.9%, in 10 Regions. See Table Below.
Results Similar for Wales:
See Table Below.
None
20.0%
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Hunt &
Fish
(2008a)
510 (F)
77.8%
Lesbian
Identified

None
4.8%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Scotland: Volunteer Sample: Online & Pencil/Paper - Age Range: 15 to 72 years.
Attempted Suicide Incidence Range, in the Past Year, in 10 Regions: 1.1% to 10.2%.
See Table Below.
Self-Harm, With No Intention of Killing Self, in the Past Year: Incidence Range: 14.6% to 39.1%, in 10 Regions. See Table Below.

None
20.8%
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Guasp
(2012a)


6,861
Gay /
Bisexual
Males
None
3% (Gay)
5% (Bisexual)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Britain: England, Scotland & Wales Internet Sample: 6,861 gay (92%) & Bisexual (8%) Males. Age Range: 16-85.
77% Between Ages 21-50.
95% Caucasian.
Other Attempted Suicide Rates, Past Year:
5%: Black & Ethnic Minorities
10%: Ages 16 to 19
5%: Ages 16 to 24

None
7%: Gay/Bi
11%: Bisexual
21%: GB, Ages 16 to 19
15%: GB, Ages 16-24
Self-Harm,
Past Year
Guasp
(2012b)


633
Gay /
Bisexual
Males

None
3% (Gay)
7% (Bisexual)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
Results for Scotland: a part of above sample of 6,861 males. Internet Sample, 633 gay (91%) & Bisexual (9%) Males.
Males. Age Range: 16-84.
79% Between Ages 21-50.
99% Caucasian.

Other Attempted Suicide Rate, Past Year:
6%: Ages 16 to 19

None
6%: Gay/Bi
14%: GB, Ages 16 to 19
Self-Harm,
Past Year
** Described as "Self Harm" in 2003 Paper, but as "Attempted Suicide" in 2004 Paper.
* M = Males - F = Females



Attempted Suicide & Self-Harm: Lesbian & Bisexual Women in United Kingdom
"Prescription For Change" Studies by Hunt & Fish (2008 & 2008a)
Categories /
Strategic Health Authority (SHA)
N's
%
Lesbian *
% Bisexual
Women *
% Attempted
Suicide,
Past Year
% Self-Harm,
No Death Intent
Past year
All England
5,043
80.9%
15.7%
5.0%
20.0%
East of England
415
81.2%
17.6% 7.4%
22.2%
East Midlands
377
82.5%
14.9% 4.2%
17.3%
London
1,330
79.9%
15.7% 3.5%
18.1%
North East
224
79.9%
16.5% 6.4%
22.6%
North West
638
81.3%
15.4% 5.1%
22.0%
South Central
369
78.3%
17.9% 4.9%
23.5%
South East Coast
449
81.1%
15.1% 5.8%
19.0%
South West
376
82.4%
14.4% 5.6%
22.9%
West Midlands
425
81.6%
15.8% 5.2%
15.9%
Yorkshire & Humber
418
82.2%
14.2% 4.6%
19.7%
England (SHA unknown)
22
86.4%
13.6% 31.8%
45.5%
All Wales
267
81.3%
16.1% 6.4%
22.7%
South East (Wales)
135
80.7%
16.3% 4.5%
20.3%
Mid & West (Wales)
81
80.2%
17.3% 11.1%
24.7%
North Wales 51
84.3%
13.7% 3.9%
26.0%
Scotland
510
77.8%
18.2%
4.8%
20.6%
Greater Glasgow & Clyde
157
81.5%
15.9%
5.2%
14.6%
Lothian
149
73.8%
20.8%
3.4%
17.6%
Other Areas
204
74.0% to 81.8%
15.9% to 21.2%
1.1% to 10.2%
19.5% to 39.1%

* Those not Identifying as Lesbian or Bisexual are Classified as "Other".  Study Commentary: "One in five lesbian and bisexual women have deliberately harmed themselves in the last year, compared to 0.4 per cent of the general population. Half of women under the age of 20 have self-harmed compared to one in fifteen of teenagers generally. Five per cent have attempted to take their life in the last year and sixteen per cent of women under the age of 20 have attempted to take their life. ChildLine estimate that 0.12 per cent of people under 18 have attempted suicide."




Lifetime "Self Harm / Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Non-Random GLB Study Populations: Ireland
Study Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Self Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Comments
Carolan & Redmond
(2003)
362
232 (M)
130 (F
None
Self Harm
26.2%
(95 / 362)
Volunteers: Questionnaire promoted  through youth, community and gay organisations, and online.  Northern Ireland
Age = <= 25 Years
Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
Attempted S.
28.7%
(104 / 362)
McNamee
(2006)
190 (M)
93.4%
Gay
Bisexual
Identified
None
27.1%
Attempted
Suicide
30.7%
Self-Harmed
Volunteers: Northern Ireland
Mean Age: 20.6 Years, 15 to 25 Years
60% Live in Belfast or Derry/Londonderry.

Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
CCL
(2006)

107 (F)
85%
Lesbian
Identified
None
14.2%
Attempted
Suicide
23.8%
Self-Harmed
Volunteers: Cork Region,  Northern Ireland
Age: 8.5% (< 23 years),  45% (23-49 Years), 44% (. 49 Years)
Self-Harm / Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
Mayock
et al.
(2009)

Internet
Sample

Age Range:
14-73 years
Mean Age:
30.5 Years
Ireland
Residents:
90%*
Male
n = 707
None 105 / 707
14.8%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
1.6% (n = 11), 1.0% (7), 0.42% (3), respectively
Female
n = 377
None 89 / 377
23.6%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
3.7% (n = 14), 2.4% (9), 0.79% (3), respectively
Other
n = 22
None 3 / 22
13.6%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
0.0% (n = 0), 0.0% (0), 0.0% (0). respectively
All
n = 1,110
None 197 / 1,110
17.7%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
2.3% (n = 25), 1.4% (16), 0.54 (6),  respectively
Trans-
gender
n = 46
None
12 / 46
26.1%
Attempted Suicide in Past 12 months, 6 months, 30 days:
6.5% (n = 3), 6.5% (3), 0.0% (9), respectively
Interview Sample
n = 22
None
13 / 22
59.1%
Qualitative Part of the Study.
For Above Quantitative Study: First suicide attempts were Very Much (12%), Very (35%) and Somewhat (25%) related to LGBT Identification
* Over 90% were residents in the Republic of Ireland. 4% were living in Northern Ireland.



Adolescent School Surveys: Random or Near-Random
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual
Orientation/Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity
Published American Studies
Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Remafedi
et. al
(1998)


178 (M*)
Homo/Bi
Sexual
168 (M)
Heterosexual
Matched
28.1% vs.
4.2% RR: 6.8
Lifetime
Adolescent Health Survey
Minnesota,1987
N = 36,254. Grades 7 to 12
Sexual Minority / Others =
Self-Identification
Males: OR = 7.1 (3.1, 16.5)
Females: OR - 1.5 (0.81, 2.8) ns

166 (F*)
Homo/Bi
Sexual

145 (F)
Heterosexual
Matched

20.5% vs.
14.5% RR: 1.4 ns. Lifetime
Garofalo
et. al
(1999)




129 (MF)
GLBN
3,236 (MF)
Heterosexual
31.0% vs.
9.1%
RR: 3.4
In The Past
12 Months
*** YRBS Massachusetts, 1995. N = 3,365 - GLBN: Self-Identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or 'Not Sure' of Sexual Orientation: OR = 2.28 (1.4, 3.4)
With Control Variables
? (M)
GLBN
? (M)
Heterosexual
** 41.6% vs.
6.4% RR: 6.5
12 Months
OR = 3.74 (1.9, 7.3)
With Control Variables
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
? (F)
GLBN
? (F)
Heterosexual
** 27.1% vs.
13.4% RR: 2.0
Past 12 Months
OR = 1.42 (0.65, 3.1) ns
With Control Variables
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
? (MF)
Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
? (MF)
No Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
30.6% vs.
9.2% RR: 3.3
Past 12 Months
OR: Not Given
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
Bontempo
& D'Augelli
(2002)

196 (M)
GBUS
4,416 (M)
Heterosexual
20.4% vs.
1.2% RR: 17.0
Past 12 Month
1995 Massachusetts & Vermont: YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12. - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure Identity and/or Same-Sex Sex Reported: GLBUS.
Attempted Suicide 4 or More Times
In Past 12 Months - Statistical Significance for RRs:
p < 0.001
119 (F)
LBUS
4,457 (F)
Heterosexual
10.8% vs.
1.4% RR: 7.7
12 Months
Olshen
et al.
(2007)

8080
New York
City High
School
Students
> = 14 Years
51% Female,
40.1%
Hispanic,
36.0% Black, 16.0% Asian/other,
 7.9%
white
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: See Table Below For More Related Information.
3.7 (2.4-5.9)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.45 (1.31-4.56)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Dating violence (1.6), Feeling sad or hopeless (3.6), Disordered eating (1.8), Unsafe at school (1.9), Physical fighting (1.6), Binge drinking (1.9).

(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
9.0 (5.3-15.3)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.44 (1.88-6.32)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Sexual assault (3.9),  Feeling sad or hopeless (4.3), Disordered eating (2.6),  Drug use (2.3), Carried a gun (4.3).
Farley
et al.
(2008)

GLBU
(MF)
Heterosexual
(MF)
31% vs. 8%
Past 12 Months
New York City: 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. - See More Results: Table Below.
RR: 3.9
Levasseur
(2013)

GLB
(MF)
951
(7.9%)
Heterosexual
(MF)
9,763
(92.1%)
??% vs. ??%
Past Year
Attempted Suicide, GLB vs. Hetero.
Not Adjusted: New York City, 2009
4.39 (3.46, 5.57)  p <.001, 95% CI
Adjusted, controlling for being: bullied, Hispanic, and male: OR:
3.65 (2.71, 4.93) p <.001, 95% CI
GB

122
Heterosexual
Males
2,583
GB
??% vs. ??%
Hetero. Males
??% vs. ??%
Past Year,
bullied - not bullied
Hetero Males, Attempted Suicide, Bullied vs.. Not Bullied:
OR: 2.27 (1.15, 4.47), p = .018

GB Males, Attempted Suicide,  Bullied vs. Not Bullied:
OR: 21.39 (5.69, 80.35), p < .001
Other
Studies

Sexual minority suicidality results from many other large scale adolescent surveys - especially Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - have been reported in non-peer-reviewed venues such as reports and web pages. Some of these results are given on another Web Page and show that, generally, sexual minority adolescents are at increasing risk for the more serious suicide behavior, compared to other adolescents. Summaries of suicidality results for adolescent school surveys are located here.
** Not Given. Estimated Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females - *** YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey




New York City 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; Grades 9 to 12
Suicidality, Past Year: Non-Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual 1
Categories /
Variables
Heterosexual
% Incidence
GLBU
% Incidence
Risk
Ratio 2
Seriously Considered
Suicide
14%
37%
2.6
Planned Suicide
10%
29%
2.9
Attempted Suicide
8%
31%
3.9
Injured, Poisoned, or
Overdosed in an Attempt
2%
9%
4.5

Data Source: Farley et al (2008)

Results are reported to be similar in three New York City neighborhoods with high rates of illness and premature death: East and Central Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Bushwick, and the South Bronx. See Noyes et al. (2008).

1. Males & Females analysed together, but differences possible/expected. All 'Race' groups analyzed together, but differences possible/expected. All Non-Heterosexual Students (GLBU = Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure) analyzed together, but differences are possible/expected. See result for NYC 2005 YRBS.
2. The counts are not given for populations or incidences. It is therefore not possible to calculate confidence intervals and statistical significance values. However, it can be assumed that differences are statistically significant.



2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: New York City High Schools
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual
Orientation/Identity/Behavior vs. Others

Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Olshen
et al.
(2007)

N = 8080
14 years and older
51% Female,
40.1% Hispanic,
36.0% black,
16.0% Asian/other,
 7.9% white
(F)
Gay/Lesbian
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
0.9 (0.3-2.6)
(F)
Bisexual
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
5.3 (2.9-9.8)
(F)
Unsure
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.4 (1.1-5.4)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.7 (2.4-5.9)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.45 (1.31-4.56)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Dating violence (1.6), Feeling sad or hopeless (3.6), Disordered eating (1.8), Unsafe at school (1.9), Physical fighting (1.6), Binge drinking (1.9).
(M)
Gay
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
6.2 (1.7-22.7)
(M)
Bisexual
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
12.8 (6.5-25.3)
(M)
Unsure
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
6.8 (3.3-13.9)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
9.0 (5.3-15.3)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.44 (1.88-6.32)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Sexual assault (3.9),  Feeling sad or hopeless (4.3), Disordered eating (2.6),  Drug use (2.3), Carried a gun (4.3).
Egan
et al.
(2007)
N = 7,103
GB or Same-Sex
Intercourse (M)
Gay = 118
Bisexual = 101

Others (m)
3,538

-
Those who were missing behavior and
identity were excluded (N=374).
"Significant differences were found between groups in reported tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use. Overall trends show that lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) youth were more likely to report ever using substances and increased alcohol use (days drank, binge drinking, age first used). Lesbian/bisexual girls and bisexual boys reported increased tobacco use (age first used, last 30-days, quantity). These data suggest that NYC LGB youth may face significantly greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals..."

LB or Same-Sex
Intercourse (F)
Lesbian = 132
Bisexual = 290
Others
3,565

-
Pathela (2008)
See the Powerpoint Presentation for the associations between same-sex behavior and sexual identity and other sex related life events in the New York City 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. .

** Not Given. Estimate Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females - *** YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey





Near Random / Random Schools Surveys
Multiple Suicide Attempts: A Likely Higher Risk Factor For GLBTQ Youth
Sexual Minority Adolescents: More At Risk For Multiple Suicide Attempts
Categories
Attempted
Suicide
One
Attempt
Two or More
Attempts
Attempt(s)
With Injury
Wisconsin - Dane County - Survey Via Internet (2008-2009)
Heterosexual Incidence
Reference Category
2.4%
1.8%
0.6%
N/A
Gay / Lesbian / Bisexual /
Transgender / Questioning
(GLBTQ) Incidence
6.6%
5.1%
1.6%
N/A
Odds Ratios (ORs), Without
Control Variables *
OR: 4.1
p < 0.001
OR: 3.6
p < 0.001
OR: 5.1
p < 0.001
N/A

Robinson & Espelage (2011) (2011a) r
esults are given separately for GL, B, T, and Q in Table Below. Greater risk for "Two or More Attempts" does not seem to apply for GL & T (two categories with smallest n's), but results from other studies are required to confirm this, as well as the other results.

Massachusetts 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Goodenow et al (2006)
Heterosexual Identified or
Reported only Opposite-Sex Sex. Incidence
Reference Category
6.9%
3.7%
3.2%
3.4%
Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual
And/Or Reported Same-
Sex-Sex. Incidence
28.5%
10.3%
18.2%
17.8%
Odds Ratios (ORs), Without
Control Variables *
OR: 5.4
p < 0.001
OR: 3.0
p < 0.01 ?
OR: 6.7
p < 0.001
OR: 6.2
p < 0.001

* ORs calculated by webpage author from given percentages. Statistical Significances given by authors of the studies.





The Dane County [Wisconsin] Youth Assessment
Sexual Minority Suicidality 1
Categories
Hetero-
Sexual
n=12,559
Gay/
Lesbian
n = 90
Bi-
sexual
n = 331
Trans-
gender
n = 72
Questi-
oning
n = 217
GLB-
TQ 2
n = 654
Suicide Ideation: Past 30 Days, have you seriously thought about killing yourself?
Yes
8.1% 3
14.5%
OR: 1.9
p = 0.397
41.4%
OR: 8.0
p < 0.001
6.1%
OR: 0.74
p = 0.424
28.1%
OR: 4.4
p < 0.001
25.9%
OR: 4.0
p < 0.001
Rare/
Sometimes
7.7%
14.0%
OR: 1.9
p = 0.030
35.8%
OR: 6.7
p < 0.001
4.1%
OR: 0.51
p = 0.228
25.5%
OR: 4.1
p < 0.001
23.1%
OR: 3.6
p < 0.001
GLLAMM
ORs 4
Reference
Category
OR: 1.4
p = 0.261
OR: 6.8
p < 0.001
OR: 0.35
p = 0.056
OR: 3.5
p < 0.001
5 Not
Generated
All The
Time
0.4%
0.5%
OR: 1.2
p = 0.754
5.6%
OR: 14.8
p < 0.001
2.0%
OR: 5.1
p = 0.046
2.6%
OR: 6.6
p < 0.001
2.8%
OR: 7.2
p < 0.001
GLLAMM
ORs
4
Reference
Category
OR: 0.69
p = 0.726
OR: 17.8
p < 0.001
OR: 2.8
p = 0.187
OR: 5.6
p < 0.001
5 Not
Generated
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months, have you attempted to kill yourself?
Yes
2.4% 3 6.6%
OR: 2.9
p = 0.094
16.8%
OR: 8.2
p < 0.001
2.7%
OR: 1.1
p = 0.895
9.9%
OR: 4.5
p < 0.001
9.2%
OR: 4.1
p < 0.001
One
Time
1.8%
5.1%
OR: 2.9
p = 0.005
9.8%
OR: 5.9
p < 0.001
0.7%
OR: 0.38
p = 0.429
8.2%
OR: 4.9
p < 0.001
6.2%
OR: 3.6
p < 0.001
GLLAMM
ORs
4
Reference
Category
OR: 2.2
p = 0.044
OR: 5.9
p < 0.001
OR: 0.24
p = 0.261
OR: 4.0
p < 0.001
5 Not
Generated
More Than
Once
0.6%
1.6%
OR: 2.7
p = 0.305
7.0%
OR: 12.5
p < 0.001
2.0%
OR: 3.4
p = 0.156
1.7%
OR: 2.9
p = 0.036
3.0%
OR: 5.1
p < 0.001
GLLAMM
ORs
4
Reference
Category
OR: 1.6
p = 0.637
OR: 12.2
p < 0.001
OR: 2.1
p = 0.422
OR: 2.2
p = 0.159
5 Not
Generated

Data Source: Robinson & Espelage (2011) (2011a)
1. Anonymous survey (collected via SurveyMonkey in 2008–2009) from a total of 13,213 students (n = 3,826 middle school [Grades 7–8]; n = 9,387 high school [Grades 9–12]) in 30 schools in Dane County, Wisconsin. The response rate was very high, ranging from 90% to 95% across the 30 schools. The DCYA data set contains a total of 17,366 student responses. About 4,000 were removed for a number of reasons.
2. The Total for Gay/Lesbian, Bisexual, Transsexual and Questionning is 710 and exceeds the total given for GLBTQ (654). This happened because sexual minority students could choose more than one sexual minority descriptive. This means that a study participant can be present/counted in more than one calculation column.
3. All percentage incidences and Statistical Significances are given by the study authors. The 2X2 ORs (Odds Ratios) were calcuated by the webpage author from the given percentages. They are therefore near-correct estimations.
All ORs are comparisons with Heterosexual results (the reference category).
4. GLLAMM: Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model. Predictors are given as Beta values that were converted to ORs by the webpage author. All ORs are comparisons with Heterosexual results (the reference category). Statistical Significances are given by study authors. The models also have Middle School vs. High School, and Females vs Males as control variables. In all categories, females report more suicidality than males (differences are moslty statistically significant), and middle school students report less suicidality that high school students, but differences are not statiscally significant.
5. Given the results for the GLLAMM ORs in the subcategories, as related to the corresponding 2X2 ORs (Immediately Above), it is likely that, if the
GLLAMM ORs for the GLBTQ category had been generated, they would be a little less than the 2X2 ORs (Immediately Above), with the statistical significance being about the same.
6. The
GLLAMM ORs are likely not as accurate as the 2X2 ORs, given that some sexual minority individuals are counted in more that one sexual minority category.





American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 2003 to 2012
Suicidality & Other Survey Results

Categories /
Information
Sources
Location, Year
Sample Size
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year, %

Related Information:
Percentages For GLBU
Odd Ratios (OR), 95% CI
Other Related Suicidality Results
Sexual
Minority
Hetero-
sexual
Benbow
(2005)
Sullivan &
Valles (2006)

Chicago 2003 YRBS:
968 students in 23
public high schools.
Grades 9-12
GLB 1
32%
Past Year
RR = 2.9 2
Hetero-
sexual

11%
GLB = 6.3%, 7.3% M, 4.7% F. 3
GLB = 7.3% Black, 5.8% Hispanic. 4.9% White. Same-Sex Sex = 2.3%, 1.6% M, 2.9% F. Depression:
GLB vs. Heterosexual: 52% vs. 31%
Horn
(2008)
Horn
(2007)
Chicago 2005 YRBS:
941 students in 23
public high schools.
Grades 9-12

GL: 27.3%
B: 33.3%
Past Year
RR: 3.6-4.4
Hetero-
sexual

7.5%
GLB = 4.2%. Unsure = 2.5% - GLB or Same-Sex Sex = 8.8% - African Americans (52.6%), Latino (26.8%), White (9.5%), Asian (3.2%) and other (7.9%).
Plan Suicide, Past year: 33.3% (GL), 35.0% (B)
vs. 9.7% (Heterosexual). RR: 3.4-3.6

VDH
(200_)
Outright
Vermont
(200_)
VDH (2006)
Vermont 2005 YRBS:
9,207-9,214 students
replied to sexual
orientation questions.
All Students Surveyed:
9,342 from High /
Middle Schools
Same-Sex
Sex: 42%
GL: 32%
B: 31%
Unsure: 18%
Past Year
RR: 3.6-6.4
Opposite-
Sex Sex: 9%

Hetero-
sexual:
5%
Results Not Weighted. GL = 1.0%, B = 3.2%,
Unsure = 3.0%, Same-Sex Sex = 2.6%
Same-Sex-Sex. Females: Only With Females (0%), With Males & Females (2%). Males: Only With Males (0%), With Males & Females (1%). Results for many more "At Risk" behaviors are given in referenced document.
Total Survey: 31,617 eight to twelfth grade students in 146 schools representing 59 supervisory unions.
Outright
Vermont
(200_)
VDH (2008)
Vermont 2007 YRBS:
8,364 students:
replied to sexual
orientation questions.
High / Middle Schools.
Census for Vermont:
95.3% White,
non Hispanic.
GL: 27%
B: 11%
Past Year
Unsure: 15%, RR: 2.8-6.8
Hetero-
sexual
4%
All: GL = 1.1%, B = 3.4%, Unsure = 2.8%
Males:
GL = 1%, B = 2%, Unsure = 2%
Females: L = 1%, B = 5%, Unsure = 3%
Same-Sex-Sex. Females: Only With Females (1%), With Males & Females (3%). Males: Only With Males (1%), With Males & Females (2%).
Total Survey: 28,918 eight to twelfth grade students in 144 schools representing 60 supervisory unions.
MCGLBTY
(2003)
Massachusetts
2003 YRBS:
3,624 Students,
Grade 9 - 12

GLB
40.4%
Past Year
RR: 7.2
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual
7.2%
GLB = 3.5%.
 GLB or had Same-Sex Sex = 6.0%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 18.3% vs. 2.2%, RR: 8.3,
p < 0.05
MCGLBTY
(2005)
Massachusetts
2005 YRBS:
3,522 Students,
Grade 9 - 12
GLB
24.8%
Past Year
RR: 4.4
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual

5.7%
GLB = 3.7%.
 GLB or Had Same-Sex Sex = 6.4%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 8.2% vs. 2.2%, RR: 3.7,
p < 0.05
MCGLBTY
(2007)
MDESE
(2008)

Massachusetts
2007 YRBS:
3,131 Students,
Grade 9 - 12
GLB
29.1%
Past Year
RR: 4.5
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual
6.4%
GLB = 5.4%.
 GLB or Had Same-Sex Sex = 9.2%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 12.1% vs. 2.2%, RR: 5.5,
p < 0.05
White (72.8%), Hispanic/Latino (14.5%), African American (6.8%), Asian (3.1%), Others (2.9%).
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2005)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2003
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
1,960 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
44.0%
Past Year
RR: 3.3
Hetero-
sexual

13.5%
5.6% GLBU Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual + Unsure.
White (81.2, 74.3%), Hispanic/Latino (10.9, 21.6%), Asian (5.4, 2.6%), Black (1.8, 0.9%), Native
American (0.7. 0.7%).

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2006)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2005
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,956 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
23.6%
Past Year
RR: 3.7
Hetero-
sexual

6.3%
0.07% Gay/Lesbian, 3.6% Bisexual, 2.2% Unsure.
White (72.1%), Hispanic/Latino (17.3%), Asian (4.1%), Black (1.6%), Native American (1.3%).
Seriously consider suicide: 45.9% (GLBU) vs.
15.0% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.1
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2008)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2007
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,106 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
23.0%
Past Year
RR: 3.2

Hetero-
sexual

7.2%
89.0% Heterosexual, 1.5% Gay/Lesbian, 3.7% Bisexual, 2.3% Unsure, 2.3% None of The Above.
White (74.0%), Other ? (13.5%), Others ?
Seriously consider suicide: 49.7% (GLBU) vs.
14.1% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.5

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2010)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2009
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,106 Students
Grade 9 - 12

GLBU
20.3%
Past Year
RR: 4.8

Hetero-
sexual

4.2%
90.7% Heterosexual, 9.3% GLBU.

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2012)
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,197 Students. Grade 9 - 12. GLBU
31.8%
Past Year
RR: 7.6
Hetero-
sexual

4.2%
91.8% Heterosexual
8.2% GLBU

Additional Suicidality Results.
Jiang
et al.
(2010)

Basic Results
RIDHESE
(2009):

At Risk for
27 of 30
"At Risk"
Behaviors

Rhode Island
2007 Youth
Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,210 Students
Grade 9 - 12

GLBU
31.0%
Past Year
Hetero-
sexual
6.6%
Odds Ratio, No Controls:
6.4, p < 0.001
Odds Ratio, Many Controls:
3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
p < 0.001
See Table Below for
More Suicidality Results.
See Another Table for
"Attempted Suicide" Results Based on Sex Ethnicity.
Cryan &
Perry
(2011)
Rhode Island
2009 Youth
Risk Behavior
Survey.
3,213 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
22%
Past Year
Hetero-
sexual
6%
GLBU =
11% Females, 6% Males

Webpage Author
Estimated OR: 4.4

DCPS
(2008)
Washington DC 2007
Youth
Risk Behavior. Survey. 1,783 Students: 1,532 replied to sexual orientation question.
1,523
replied to
same-sex sex question.

GLB
32.6%
Past Year
RR:
3.8
Hetero-
sexual
8.6%
Males: G (3.0%), B (4.1%), Not Sure (3.0%). Females:
L (3.6%), B (6.3%), Not Sure (3.3%). Results likely
weighted. Raw Counts given and give slightly different
percentage results.
Females report same-sex sex with females only (5.2%) and Males/Females (3.6%). Males report lifetime same-sex sex with Males only (4.9%) and Males/Females (2.0%). Demographics: African American (82.0%), Hispanic/Latino (10.8), White (5.4%),
Asian/PI (1.6%), Others (0.2%)
Blake
et al.
(2010)
Washington DC 2007
Youth
Risk Behavior. Survey
GLB
or
Same-Sex
Sex
34%
Past Year
RR: 3.8
Hetero-
sexual
or
Only
Opposite-
Sex Sex
9%
Additional Suicidality Results:
Table Below
WDPI (2008)
Crabe (2008)
GSASS
(2009)

Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior. Survey.  2,094 Students
Grade 9 - 12,
56 Schools

Same-Sex
Sex, Lifetime
RR: 3.7
?
Females report lifetime same-sex sex with females only (1.6%) and Males/Females (5.4%). Males report lifetime same-sex sex with males only (2.0%) and Males/Females (1.6%). Greater risk for having attempted suicide in the past year is reported to be 3.7-times, but comparison group not stated. Could be "all others" or "only those who reported lifetime opposite-sex".
Census: White, non Hispanic (
85.4%), African American (6.0%), Hispanic / Latino (4.9%), Other (3.7%).
SFUSD
(2008)
ETRA
(2008b)

ETRA
(2008a)
San Francisco 2007 Youth Risk Behavior. Survey.
2,587 Students
Grade 9 - 12,
14 Schools

GLB
16%

Past Year RR: 3.3
Hetero-
sexual
5%
LGBQ (11%): Males (10%), Females (13%). Gay/ Lesbian (1.8%), Bisexual (3.7%), Not Sure (5.8%).
Transgender Demographics: All (1%), American Indian (20%), Hawaiian/PI (4%), Multiracial (4%), African American (3%), Chinese (1%), Filipino (1%), Other Asian (2%), Hispanic / Latino (0.4%), White (2%).
School Demographics: Chinese (36%), Hispanic/Latino (19%), African American (12%), Filipino (6%), Other Non-White (13%), Multiracial (2%), White (9%).
Hatzenbuehler
(2011)

Oregon Healthy
Teen Study
2006-2008
Grade 11
: Random
Combined
Lesbian or Gay

19.60%

RR: 4.6
p < 0.001
Hetero-
Sexual

4.21%
Reported Identities:
Heterosexual, n=30,439,
60.8% Male
Lesbian or Gay, n = 301, 49.5% Male
Bisexual, n = 1,112, 25.0% Male
72.8% to 73.5% White
Attempted Suicide, Past Year
RR: Risk Ratios Calculated by Webpage Author. Statistical Significance given by Study Author.
Given ORs, Unadjusted:
Lesbian/Gay vs. Heterosexual:
OR: 5.99 [95% CI: 4.48–8.04]
Bisexual
vs. Heterosexual:
6.60 [95% CI: 5.67–7.70]
Given ORs, Adjusted:
Lesbian/Gay vs. Heterosexual:
OR: 3.48 [95% CI: 2.33–5.20]
Bisexual
vs. Heterosexual:
2.82 [95% CI: 2.32–3.42]

Bisexual

22.03%

RR: 5.2
p < 0.001
Hetero-
Sexual

4.21%
Shields
et al.
(2012)

2009 San Francisco
Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Grade 9-12
N = 2,154
Gay, Lesbian &
Bisexual

23%
Hetero-
sexual


8%
Weighted, No Control Variables: OR (Odd Ratio): 3.6, p < .05
OR, Weighted, 5 Control Variables: 
2.2
[95% CI: 1.2–4.2]
OR Results also given for Depression & Making a Suicide Plan, with GLB Students being more at risk.
Schneider
et al.
(2012)

Massachussett's 2008
MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey:
High Schools
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual &
Unsure
n = 1,261
? %
OR:
5.17
(4.05, 6.60)
Hetero-
sexual
n =
18,795

? %
OR - Odds Ratio - Calculated using many control variables.
See Table Below for additional results:
Depression, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury,  Suicide Ideation & Attempting Suicide Requiring Medical Treatment.
All for Past One Year Period.
Kidd
et al.
(2012)
2008 Boston Youth Survey: Boston Public Schools.
Females Only.
42.4% African American. 34.7%
Hispanic / Latino.
7.7% White
Mostly
Hetero-sexual
Females
to Lesbian
n = 89

13.6%

OR: 4.2
p < 0.0001

100%
Hetero-sexual
Females
n = 800

3.6%
Odds Ratios (ORs) calculated by webpage author. Statistical Significances given by study authors.

Suicide Ideation: 33.3 vs. 12.4%
OR: 3.5,
p < 0.0001

Deliberate Self-Harm:
33.0 vs. 8.3%
OR: 5.4,
p < 0.0001
Button
et al.
(2012)
Delaware Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2003, 2005, 2007
Combined
Homo-
sexual
Bisexual
Unsure
n = 353
26.2%
Past Year
Hetero-
Sexual
n =
6,283

5.5%
Past Year
Odds Ratio estimated
by webpage author: 6.1
See Table Below for additional results:
Mohr &
Husain
(2012)
Wisconsin Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2007, 2009, 2011
Combined.
Results: Weighted
Same-Sex
Sex
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
28% vs. 7% - OR: 4.8
See: Related Information &
More Suicidality Results
.
Same-Sex
Sex
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Attempted Suicide, Medical Care, Past Year:
13% vs. 2% - OR: 5.4
See: Related Information &
More Suicidality Results
.

Mohr &
Husain
(2012)
Wisconsin Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2011

Results: Weighted
Gay /
Lesbian
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
29% vs. 5% - Odds Ratio: 7.6
See: Related Information.
Bi-
sexual
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
31% vs. 5% -
Odds Ratio: 8.3
See: Related Information.
Not
Sure
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
24% vs. 5% -
Odds Ratio: 5.2
See: Related Information.
Bostwick
et al.
(2014)
Collation of
Multiple YRB
Surveys from
2005 to 2007
Sexual
Minority:
Varied
Defini-
tions
Sexual
Majority:
Only
Hetero-
sexual
See Table Below:
Generally, sexual minority adolescents are more at risk
for the more serious suicidal behaviors.However, this often
does not apply for race/ethnic sexual minority adolescents.

1.
GLBUQ = Gay, lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure, Questioning. - 2. Risk Ratio. - 3. M = Males - F = Females




Washington, DC 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Minority Results
Categories
Heterosexual or
Only  Opposite-
Sex Sex

Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual or Same-
Sex Sex

Odds Ratio
No
Controls*
Sad, Hopeless
for 2 Weeks
26%
41%
2.0
p < 0.05
Considered
Suicide
13%
31%
3.0
p < 0.05
Planned
Suicide
10%
24%
2.8
p < 0.05
Attempted
Suicide
9%
34%
5.2
p < 0.05
Attempted,
Received
Medical Care
3
10%
3.6
p < 0.05

Data Source: Blake et al. (2010)
*Odds Ratios calculated by webpage author from given percentages. Statistical Significance, p < 0.05, given by study authors.





Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Orientation Results
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
n = 1,954
%, 95%CI
1
Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual, Unsure
n = 225
%, 95%CI 1
Odds Ratio
No
Controls 2
Odds Ratio
  Using Many
Controls
1
Sad, Hopeless
for 2 Weeks
20.8 (18.3, 23.4)
50.3 (41.9, 58.7)
OR: 3.8
p < 0.001
2.4 (1.7, 3.5)
p < 0.001
Considered
Suicide
9.6 (8.5, 10.7)
33.5 (21.6, 45.3)
OR: 5.2
p
< 0.001
2.7 (1.6, 4.5)
p < 0.001
Planned
Suicide
9.7 (8.6, 10.8)
26.8 (17.4, 36.2)
OR: 3.4
p < 0.001
2.0 (1.2, 3.4)
p < 0.05
Attempted
Suicide
6.6 (5.5, 7.8)
31.0 (22.5, 39.4)
OR: 6.4
p < 0.001
3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
p < 0.001
Attempted,
Received
Medical Care
3.1 (2.0, 4.1)
10.5 (6.8, 14.2)
OR: 3.7
p < 0.001
2.0 (1.1, 3.5)
p < 0.05

Data Source: Jiang et al. (2010)
1. Reported by Study Authors.
2. Statistical Significance Given by Study Authors. Odds Ratios Calculated by Webpage Author From Given Weighted Percentages.




Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Orientation Related "Attempted Suicide" Results


Categories
n's
% Attempted
Suicide: All
in Category
% Attempted
Suicide:
Heterosexual
% Attempted
Suicide:
GLBU
% Attempters
in Category =
GLBU
All
Students *
1,874
177 / 1,874 =
9.4%
115 / 1,685 =
6.8%
62 / 189 =
32.8%, RR: 4.8
OR: 6.7 (4.6, 9.7)
p < 0.000
62 / 177 =
35.0%
White
Students *
1,182
86 / 1,182 =
7.3%
51 / 1,066 =
4.7%
35 / 106 =
33.0%. RR: 7.0
OR: 9.8 (5.8, 16.5)
p < 0.000
35 / 86 =
40.7%
Students
Of Color **
692
91 / 692 =
13.1%
64 / 609 =
10.5%
27 / 83 =
32.5%, RR: 3.1
OR: 4.1 (2.3, 7.2)
p < 0.000
27 / 91 =
29.7%
All
Males *
888
72 / 888 =
8.1%
49 / 810 =
6.0%
23 / 78 =
29.5%, RR: 4.9
OR: 6.5 (3.5, 11.8)
p < 0.000
23 / 72 =
31.4%
White
Males *
549
30 / 549 =
5.5%
21 / 514 =
4.1%
9 / 35 =
25.7%, RR: 6.3
OR: 8.1 (3.1, 21.0)
p < 0.000
9 / 30 =
30.0%

Males Of
Color **
339
42 / 339 =
12.4%
28 / 296 =
9.5%
14 / 43 =
32.6%, RR: 3.4
OR: 4.6 (2.0, 10.4)
p < 0.000
14 / 42 =
33.3%
All
Females *
981
104 / 981 =
10.6%
66 / 872 =
7.6%
38 / 109 =
34.9%, RR: 4.6
OR: 6.5 (4.0, 10.7)
p < 0.000
38 / 104 =
36.5%
White
Females *
633
56 / 633 =
8.8%
30 / 562 =
5.3%
26 / 71 =
36.6%, RR: 6.9
OR: 10.2 (5.3, 19.6)
p < 0.000
26 / 56 =
46.4%
Females Of
Color **
348
48 / 348 =
13.8%
36 / 310 =
11.6%
12 / 38 =
31.6%, RR: 2.7
OR: 3.5 (1.5, 8.0)
p = 0.002
12 / 48 =
25.0%

Data Source: Tremblay (2009)
: Unweighted Results Generated Online From the Data Set.


Odds Ratio (OR) Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using the Given Not Weighted Counts: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html

* Exact Counts / Results. ** Approximate Counts / Results: A Few Additional Counts.




Massachussett's 2008 MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey: High Schools
Sexual Minority Depression, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury & Suicidality

Categories
Hetero-
sexual

n = 18,795
93.7%
Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual &
Unsure
n = 1,261
6.3%
* Odds Ratios:
Compared to
Heterosexual
Students
Depression **
? %
? % 2.36 (1.97, 2.83)
Seriously Considered
Suicide: Suicide Ideation
? % ? % 3.43 (2.83, 4.16)
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury
NSSI
? % ? % 4.12 (3.42, 4.96)
Attempted
Suicide
? % ? % 5.17 (4.05, 6.60)
Attempted Suicide,
Medical Treatment
? % ? % 5.34 (3.69, 7.74)
Data Source: Schneider et al. (2012)
* All Adjusted Odds Ratios: Controlling With Many Variables.
** All Variables for Past One Year Period.




Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
2003, 2005, 2007, Combine
d: Suicidality

Categories
Homo-
sexual
Bi-
sexual
Not
Sure
Sexual
Minority
Hetero-
sexual
Odds
Ratio **

n's
73
209
71
353
6,283
Consider
Suicide *
33.3%
49.8%
50.0%
46.5%
11.5%
6.7
Plan
Suicide *
33.3%
39.2%
38.0%
37.8%
8.9%
6.2
Attempted
Suicide *
24.7%
26.6%
26.8%
26.2%
5.5%
6.1
Data Source: Button et al. (2012)
* In the past 12 months. ** OR, Sexual Minority vs. Heterosexual. Estimated at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html by Webpage Author from given data. All, p < .000



Wisconsin 2007, 2009 & 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Behavior Related Suicidality Results

Categories Students
Reporting
Same-Sex
Sex
Students
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Odds
Ratio *
Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities
49%*
25%
OR: 2.5
Seriously considered attempting suicide
during the past 12 months
42%
15%
OR: 3.7
Planned a Suicide
during the past 12 months
33%
11%
OR: 3.6
Actually attempted suicide one or more times
during the past 12 months
28%
7%
OR: 4.8
Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose  that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse
13%
2%
OR: 5.4

Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
*Percentages are weighted.
*Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.




Wisconsin 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Identity Related Suicidality Results
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Gay /
Lesbian
Bisexual
Unsure
Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities: Incidence
20%*
46%
60%
44%
Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
-
3.7
5.1
2.9





Actually attempted suicide one or more times
during the past 12 months: Incidence
5%*
29%
31%
24%
Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
-
7.6
8.3
5.2

Note
: Results for 'Seriously considering suicide', 'Planning suicide', and 'Attempting suicide that required medical attention' would be available but they were not given.


Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
*Percentages are weighted.
**Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.





Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 2005 to 2007 1
Sexual Minority Suicidality & Self-Harm Results

Cate-
gories 2

Feel
Sad
Suicide
Ideation
Planned
Suicide
Attempted
Suicide
Attempt,
Medical
Attention
Self-
Harm

Sexual Minority % vs. Heterosexual % (Weighted), Odds Ratio:
Almost All Differences/Ratios Would Be Statistically Significant. 3
Males &
Females
48.1 vs 24.5
2.9
32.2 vs 11.7
3.6
27.4 vs 9.7
3.5
22.8 vs 6.6
4.2
8.3 vs 2.0
4.4
39.1 vs 14.2
3.9







Males
37.6 vs 18.1
2.7
25.4 vs 8.6
3.6
22.4 vs 8.0
3.3
20.9 vs 5.4
4.6
9.1 vs 2.0
4.9
30.9 vs 10.1
4.0
Females
54.7 vs 31.2
2.7
36.4 vs 14.9
3.4
30.5 vs 11.4
3.4
23.9 vs 7.7
3.8
7.8 vs 2.1
3.9
44.6 vs 18.4
3.6
Males & Females
American
Indian, PI
53.8 vs 33.4
2.3
33.6 vs 18.1
2.3
36.5 15.6
3.1
32.2 vs 14.5
2.8

12.8 vs 4.4
3.2
59.9 vs 14.8
8.6
Asian
42.9 vs 24.5
2.3
25.2 vs 13.2
2.2
22.4 vs 11.5
2.2
21.1 vs 6.4
3.9
8.7 vs 1.8
5.2
31.3 vs 13.7
2.9
Black
38.7 vs 26.4
1.8
26.0 vs 11.3
2.9
22.1 vs 9.8
2.6
20.7 vs 7.8
3.1
5.3 vs 2.7
2.0
18.3 vs 8.2
2.5
White
48.0 vs 20.5
3.6
33.9 vs 10.9
4.2
27.5 vs 8.7
3.6
21.1 vs 4.9
5.2
8.8 vs 1.4
6.8
42.5 vs 15.4
4.1
Hispanic/
Latino
55.2 vs 32.3
2.6
34.5 vs 11.8
3.9
25.9 vs 9.7
3.2
26.9 vs 9.0
3.7
7.4 vs 2.5
3.1
35.0 vs 11.7
4.1
Multi-
racial
59.4 vs 31.2
3.2
37.3 vs 14.9
3.4
34.6 vs 13.1
3.5
26.9 vs 9.8
3.4
8.2 vs 3.2
2.7
41.7 vs 16.3
3.7
Males
American
Indian, PI
42.6 vs 25.3
2.2
25.8 vs 12.4
2.5
36.9 vs 12.0
4.3
32.7 vs 11.7
3.7
10.9 vs 5.4
2.1
55.1 vs 12.6
8.5
Asian
34.8 vs 20.7
2.0
22.1 vs 10.4
2.4
18.0 vs 9.2
2.2
19.0 vs 4.2
5.3
11.4 vs 1.7
7.4
17.7 vs 9.7
2.0
Black
28.9 vs 18.9
1.7
20.7 vs 8.1
3.0
17.6 vs 8.2
2.4
21.7 vs 7.7
3.3
6.9 vs 2.9
2.5
23.3 vs 6.3
4.5
White
34.8 vs 14.9
3.0
26.2 vs 8.1
4.0
20.7 vs 7.3
3.3
18.5 vs 5.9
3.6
8.1 vs 1.2
7.3
28.6 vs 10.7
3.3
Hispanic/
Latino
53.6 vs 24.1
3.6
27.6 vs 8.6
4.0
19.9 vs 8.0
2.9
20.2 vs 7.0
3.4
7.5 vs 2.3
3.4
34.9 vs 9.7
5.0
Multi-
racial
51.3 vs 22.7
3.6
34.2 vs 9.8
4.8
32.9 vs 9.7
4.6
25.0 vs 7.8
3.9
12.2 vs 2.8
4.8
46.0 vs 12.6
5.9
Females
American
Indian, PI
65.5 vs 43.4
2.5
42.9 vs 25.2
2.2
36.1 vs 20.0
2.3
30.8 vs 17.9
2.0
14.5 vs 3.1
5.3
64.0 vs 19.7
7.2
Asian
51.6 vs 29.0
2.6
28.6 vs 16.5
2.0
27.1 vs 14.3
2.2
23.6 vs 8.7
3.2
5.9 vs 1.9
3.2
42.3 vs 18.5
3.2
Black
45.1 vs 33.2
1.6
29.5 vs 14.1
2.5
25.0 vs 11.0
2.7
20.1 vs 7.9
2.9
4.5 vs 2.5
1.8
11.7 vs 10.1
1.2
White
55.5 vs 26.6
3.4
38.4 vs 13.8
3.9
31.6 vs 10.2
4.1
22.6 vs 5.9
4.7
9.3 vs 1.6
6.3
50.4 vs 20.4
4.0
Hispanic/
Latina
56.4 vs 40.3
1.9
38.5 vs 14.9
3.6
29.4 vs 11.4
3.2
30.4 vs 10.8
3.6
7.3 vs 2.6
2.9
36.0 vs 13.7
3.5
Multi-
racial
63.3 vs 40.0
2.6
38.2 vs 20.1
2.5
35.0 vs 16.7
2.7
27.4 vs 11.5
2.9
6.2 vs 3.2
2.0
39.0 vs 18.8
2.8

Data Source: Bostwick et al. (2014)
1. Pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 14 states & cities. There are 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the analysis out of a total sample of 72 691 adolescents, 33,028 being White, 11,274 Black, 9,626 Hispanic/Latino, 7,905 Multiracial, 7,028 Asian, and 2,057 Native American/Alaska Native/Pacific Islanders. Respectively, sexual minority adolescents have the following counts in the race-ethnic groups: 2,372, 1,019, 834, 975, 566, 276. The sexual minority variable was "constructed from self-reported sexual identity, behaviors, and attractions." Participants were classifiable as sexual minority versus sexual majority if they "reported a nonheterosexual identity, any same-sex behavior, or any same-sex attractions."  All others were coded sexual majority: heterosexual.

2. Feeling Sad - is for at least a 2 week period in the past year. All suicidality variables are for the past year. Self-Harm information (may or may not exist in association with being suicidal) was solicited only in a minority of studies.

3. The Odds Ratios were not given in the study paper. They were calculated by the webpage author using the given incidence percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html. It would have been too time consuming to generate approximate confidence intervals for the ORs but the counts suggest that almost all the ORs (maybe minus 2 of the smaller ones) would be statistically significant.

Note: From a meta-analysis, Marshal et al. (2011, below) reported that sexual minority adolescents have generally been more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors. The above data supports this, but also shows that, in many race/ethnic groups, and depending on gender, this 'rule' does to apply.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-23. Full Text. Abstract: "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'.




Adolescent Public School Surveys: Random / Near-Random
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual Behavior,
Sexual Fantasies or Romantic Attraction vs.
Opposite-Sex Behavior, Attraction, Fantasies

Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Fried
et al.
(2012)

Grade 9
Homosexual
Attraction
Grade 9
Heterosexual
Attraction
Only
15.3% vs.
5.1%
Add Health Longitudinal Survey, Waves 1 to 3 data. Weighted.
N = 1,648
OR: 3.38 [1.36, 8.36], 95% CI
Grade 11
Homosexual
Attraction
Grade 11
Heterosexual
Attraction
Only
5.4% vs.
2.8%
Add Health Longitudinal Survey, Waves 1 to 3 data. Weighted.
N = 1,728
OR: 1.95 [0.62, 6.20], 95% CI
Eisenberg
&
Resnick (2006)

402 (M*)
Same-Sex
Partners
1,135 (M)
Only Opposite
Sex Partners
29.0% vs. 12.6%
RR: 2.3
Lifetime
2004 Minnesota Student Survey
N = 21, 927. Grades 9 & 12
Sex Partners: In The Past Year
Males: OR = 2.5 (2.1, 3.0)
Females: OR = 2.6 (2.2, 3.2)
ORs: Controlling for Demography
409 (F*)
Same-Sex
Partners

2,559 (F)
Only Opposite
Sex Partners

52.4% vs. 24.8%
RR: 2.1
Lifetime
Pinhey &
Millman
(2004)

? 24 (M)
Gay, Bisexual
? 650 (M)
? 44.0% vs.
? 14.5%
2001Guam Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Grade 9 to 12, 2.9% White
Males, OR = 5.0 (2.1, 11.8)
Females, OR = 2.6 (1.2, 6.0)
Unadjusted ORs: No Controls
Other Results & Estimate (?) Problems

? 25 (F)
Lesbian, Bisexual
? 682 (M)
? 52.0% vs.
? 27.4%
Robin
et al.
(2002)

585 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners,
Ever

6,873 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner,
Only
** 32.0% vs.
11.9%
RR: 2.7
12 Months
1995 & 1997 Vermont YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12
OR = 4.0 (2.9, 5.6), With Controls
228 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever

3,948 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only

** 36.5% vs.
12.4% - RR: 2.9
12 Months
1995 & 1997 Massachusetts YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12
OR = 4.9 (2.8, 8.7), With Controls
585 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever
6,873 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only
** 17.8% vs.
4.5% - RR: 3.9
Medical Care
Attempted Suicide Resulting in
Having Received Medical Care
Past 12 Months (Vermont)
OR = 4.8 (2.9, 8.0), With Controls
228 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever
3,948 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only
** 20.5% vs.
4.5% - RR: 4.6
Medical Care
Attempted Suicide Resulting in
Having Received Medical Care
Past 12 Months (Massachusetts)
OR = 5.0 (2.7, 9.3), With Controls
Russell &
Joyner
(2001)

453 (M)
Same-Sex
RA/Re
5,233 (M)
5.0% vs.
2.0%
RR: 2.5
12 Months
National Longitudinal Survey
of Adolescent Health (1994-95)
Same-Sex RA (
Romantic Attraction) /Re (Relationships)
Males - OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9)
Females - OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6)
ORs: Controlling for Demography

414 (F)
Same-Sex
RA/Re

5,840 (F)
12.2% vs.
5.0%
RR: 2.4
12 Months
Faulkner
& Cranston
(1998)

105 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners,
Ever

1,563 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner,
Only

27.5% vs. 13.4%
RR: 2.0
1993 Massachusetts YRBS: Grade 9 to 12 - RR's Are Significant, p < 0.05
All Suicide Attempts &
Attempt(s) With Associated
Medical Care Occurred During The
Last 12  Months

20.0% vs. 4.7%
RR: 4.3 - Medical Care Related
Barney
(2003)

65 (M)
Same-Sex Sex
Fantasies Only
4,254 (M)
Opposite-Sex
Sex Fantasies
Only
23.2%
vs.
11.1%
RR: 2.1
1988 Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12 -USA Indian/Alaka Native Reservations. RR: p < 0.01
Additional Results
Other
Studies

Sexual minority suicidality results from many other large scale adolescent surveys - especially Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - have been reported in non-peer-reviewed venues such as reports and web pages. Some of these results are given on another Web Page and show that, generally, sexual minority adolescents are at increasing risk for the more serious suicide behavior, compared to other adolescents. Summaries of suicidality results for adolescent school surveys are located here.
** Not Given. Estimate Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females



2001 Guam Youth Risk Behavior Survey Suicidality Results
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual vs. Other Adolescents
Pinhey & Millman (2004) Study
Categories
N's
All
N's 1
Respon-
ders
Attempted
Suicide
Odds Ratios, (95%CI)
Unadjusted / Adjusted
All (Ethnicities)
1,381
?
?

All Males
674 ?
14.5%

Males: Gay
& Bisexual
24 2
?
44.0% 3
Greater Risk for Attempting Suicide:
Gay/Bisexual Males vs. Other Males
OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9), No Controls
OR = 5.1 (1.6, 15.5), 8 Control Variables
Males, Others
650 2 ?
14.5% 3
All Females
707 2 ?
28.2%

Females: Lesbian
& Bisexual
25 2 ?
52.0% 3 Greater Risk for Attempting Suicide:
Lesbian & Bisexual Females vs.
Other Females
OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6), No Controls
OR = 2.2 (0.84, 5.6), 8 Control Variables, ns

Females, Others
682 2 ?
27.4% 3
1. The number for students who responded to both the "sexual orientation" and "attempted suicide"  questions are not given.
2. Estimated from given proportion of student population that gay/bisexual (3.5% of males) and lesbian/bisexual (3.5% of females). Nonresponders likely and numbers may be less.
3. Estimated using given Ns (assuming no nonresponders) for population/subpopulation and numbers of attempters by using a a 2X2 Computation Table. That is, placing varying number estimates in 2X2 table to produce ORs for males and females (Attempted Suicide Risk, Sexual Minority vs. others, for each sex) that are as close as possible to the given ORs, without controls having been used to generate them.
Ethnicity: 'Self-reported ethnicity consists of Chamorros (53.3% of the sample), Filipinos (25.9%), Asians (5.9%), Micronesians (7.2%), whites (2.9%), and other ethnicities (4.8%). The Asian category includes Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean respondents. The Micronesian category includes Chuukese, Yapese, Korean, Pohnpeian, and Palauan respondents. The ‘‘other ethnicity’’ category includes African Americans, Hispanics, and other Pacific Islanders.' (Pinhey & Brown, 2005)



1988 Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12
USA Indian / Alaska Native Reservations

Sexual
Fantasies
Opposite-
Sex Only
Same-Sex
Only
Both-
Sex
Lifetime Attempted Suicide
Incidence, Males
11.7%
(n = 515)
25.0%
(n = 17)
10.9%
(n = 21)
Lifetime Attempted Suicide.
Incidence, Females
25.2%
(n = 925)
15.1%
(n = 14)
16.8%
(n = 83)
Data Supplied by Borowski et al. (1999). Analysis for Same- vs. Opposite Sex Fantasies Males carried out by Barney (2003) who gives the "Sexual Fantasy" question: “When you think or daydream about sex, do you think about males, females, or both?”

Note: Bisexual males not at risk. Homosexual/Bisexual Females at Lesser Risk than Heterosexual Females. But replication studies never carried out since 1988.





"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Random Samples, North America
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Bagley &
Tremblay
(1997)

82 (M*)
Homosexual,
or Bisexual
or Same-Sex Sex, Past 6 Months
668 (M)
Heterosexual,
With No
Same-Sex Sex,
Past 6 Months
6.1%
(5 / 82)
vs. 0.45%
(3 / 668)
Lifetime
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Stratified Random Sample: 1992
Lifetime Attempted Suicide (Serious)
Males, 18 to 27 years
OR = 14.4 (3.4, 61.4)
Cochran
& Mays
(2000)

78 (M)
Reporting
Lifetime
Male Sex
Partner(s)
3,214 (M)
Reporting
Only Lifetime
Female Sex
Partners
19.3%
vs.
3.6%
(Weighted)
Lifetime
USA: NHANES III Survey: 1988/94
Complex, multistage USA sample, civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Subsample: Men, 17 to 39 Years
OR = 6.45 (2.7, 15.2)
OR = 5.36 (2.2, 13.0), With
Demographic Control Variables
Gilman
et al.
(2001)

74 (M)
Reporting
Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years
2,310 (M)
Reporting
Only Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

(Weighted)
Lifetime
National Comorbidity Survey: 1992
Complex, multistage USA sample.
Age = 15 to 54 Years.

OR = 2.4 (1.0, 5.8), With
Demographic Control Variables
51 (F*)
Reporting
Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

2,475 (F)
Reporting
Only Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

(Weighted)
Lifetime
National Comorbidity Survey: 1992
Complex, multistage USA sample.
Age = 15 to 54 Years.
OR = 1.5 (0.7, 3.4), With
Demographic Control Variables
Paul
et al.
(2002)
Additional
Results

2,881 (M*)
93%  Mostly Gay,
Homosexual or Bisexual
Identified
MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men
None
12%:
Lifetime
8%:
Before Age
of 25 Years
Random (Telephone): New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco.
Age Range: 18 to 70+ Years
75% of males first attempted suicide
before the age of 25 years.
Cochran
et al. (2007)
N =
4,649
> = 18 Years
Latino &
Asian. National
Household
NLAAS
Survey

84 (M): GB Identified or Same-Sex Sex, Past year
1,982
8.0% vs. 2.3%
Lifetime
RR = 3.5
0.86<3.37<13.21
Weighted, With Controls, ns
84 (M) 1,982
2.4% vs. 0.3
Past Year
RR = 8
1.63<6.43<25.36
Weighted, With Controls
161 (F) LB Identified or Same-Sex Sex, Past year 2,271
8.5% vs. 5.2%
Lifetime
RR = 1.6
0.79<1.71<3.71
Weighted, With Controls,  ns
161 (F) 2,271
2.4 vs. 0.6
Past Year
RR = 4
0.84<4.98<29.33
Weighted, With Controls, ns
Silenzio
et al.
(2007)
GLB
176 (M)
271 (F)
Heterosexual & Mostly Heterosexual
Identified
6,535 (M)
7,207 (F)
4.9%
vs.
1.6%
Past Year
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: 14,322 (MF). GLB = bisexual, mostly homosexual, or exclusively homosexual identified.
Age = 18 to 26 years.
Attempted suicide in the past 12 months. OR: 1.4<3.0<6.2,
controlling for race, gender, and age.
Steele
et al.
(2009)
Women
Homosexual
N = 354, 0.57%
Bisexual
N = 424, 0.69%
Heterosexual
N = 60,937,
98.4%
Homosexual
29.5% vs.9.6%
OR: 3.9
Bisexual
45.4% vs. 9.6%
OR : 5.9
Canadian Community Health Survey: cycle 2.1, 2003 national population-based survey designed to gather health data on a representative sample of over 135,000 Canadians.
Women in Analysis: N = 61,715
, 18-59 Years
Men in Analysis: 49,901, 18-59 Years
Only Suicidality Question asked: ‘‘Have you ever seriously considered committing suicide or taking your own life?’’ Unadjusted Odds Ratios Given. See Adjusted Odds Ratios: Table Below.
Brennan
et al.
(2010)
Men
Homosexual
1.3%
Bisexual
0.6%
Heterosexual
98.1%
Homosexual
25.2% vs. 7.4%
OR : 4.2
Bisexual
34.8% vs. 7.4%
OR : 6.7
VanKim & Padilla (2010) (M) (F)
Gay / Lesbian
Attempted, Yes, n = 13
(M) (F)
Heterosexual
Attempted, Yes,
n = 263
23.7% vs.
5.3%
OR: 5.5
New Mexico: The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.
See Two Tables Below: For Results, Males & Females, Separated. Also See Results for Depression and Suicide Ideation, Gay/Lesbian & Bisexual, and also Separated by Sex.

(M) (F)
Bisexual
Attempted, Yes, n = 11
(M) (F)
Heterosexual
Attempted, Yes,
n = 263
22.7% vs.
5.3%
OR: 5.2
Bolton & Sareen
(2011)

Men
Gay: 1.31%
Heterosexual
97.65%

9.8% vs. 2.1%
OR:
2.3<4.4<8.6
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Men (N = 14.481) & Women (N = 19,896).
Reported Odds Ratios, Using Demographic Control Variables
.
More Results: Tables Below: Men. Women.
Bisexual: 0.56%
10.0% vs. 2.1%
OR:
1.9<4.4<10.3
Unsure: 0.48%
8.5% vs. 2.1%
OR:
1.2<3.4<9.3
Bolton & Sareen
(2011)

Women
Lesbian: 0.73%
Heterosexual:
97.95%
10.9% vs. 4.2%
OR:
1.6<3.0<5.5
Bisexual: 0.81%
24.4% vs. 4.2%
OR:
3.7<5.9<9.3
Unsure: 0.51%
9.9% vs. 4.2%
OR:
0.7<2.3<7.3
* M = Males - F = Females -- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant




National Canadian Community Health Survey (2003)
Results for "Seriously Considered Suicide," Lifetime
Study
Homo-
sexual
Bisexual
Hetero-
sexual
Homosexual
vs.
Hetero-
sexual *
Bisexual
vs.
Hetero-
sexual *
Study Information
Steele
et al.
(2009)
Women
Homosexual
N = 354, 0.7%
Bisexual
N = 424, 0.9%
Heterosexual
N = 60,937
29.5% vs.
9.6%
OR 1:
3.9
OR 2:
1.9<3.5<6.6
45.4% vs.
9.6%
OR 1:
7.8
OR 2:
3.0<5.9<11.8
Canadian Community Health Survey: cycle 2.1, a 2003 national population-based survey designed to gather health data on a representative sample of over 135,000 Canadians.
Women in Study: N = 61,715
, 18-59 Years. In OR Analysis: 23,729.
Men in Study: 49,901, 18-59 Years
Only Suicidality Question asked: ‘‘Have you ever seriously considered committing suicide or taking your own life?’’
Brennan
et al.
(2010)
Men
Homosexual
1.3%
Bisexual
0.6%
Heterosexual
98.1%
25.2% vs.
7.4%
OR 1:
4.2
OR 2:
2.1<4.1<8.0
34.8% vs.
7.4%
OR 1:
6.7
OR 2:
2.1<6.3<19.1


* For Having Seriously Considered Suicide in Lifetime.
1. Basic OR (Odd Ratio) Calculated by Webpage Author, Using Given Percentages, Unadjusted
2. Given Odd Ratio, With 95% Confidence Intervals, Using Contol Variables

Sexual Orientation Question: Do you consider yourself to be: 1. ... heterosexual? (sexual relations with people of the opposite sex) - 2. ... homosexual, that is lesbian or gay? (sexual relations with people of your own sex) - 3. ... bisexual? (sexual relations with people of both sexes)

Comment: As a rule in studies, homosexually oriented individuals have been at greater risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors, with ORs being about 1.5 to 7.0 for "seriously considering suicide" and OR being about 2 to 14 for "having attempted suicide, with such outcomes differences especially applying for males. See Related Webpage.
It is therefore possible, and especially for homosexually oriented men, that - had "attempted suicide" information been solicited in the study, the ORs for Homosexual / Bisexual men having attempted suicide, compared to Heterosexual men, would have been greater than those noted above for 'had seriously considered suicide in their lifetime'.






National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Men
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Gay
Bisex-
ual
Not
Sure
Study
Information
N
14,109
190
81
101
Survey Response Rate = 70.2%
For Wave 2
Survey, Wave 1 : 2001-2001.

Demographic Variables:
age, marital status, education, household income, race/ethnicity,
region of residence,
and urban/city.
Mental Disorders, Lifetime:
Mood & Anxiety Disorders,
Any Substance Use Disorder,
Any Cluster A or C personality
disorder, Any Cluster B personality disorder, and
Schizophrenia, psychotic
illness, or episode
% of Total = 14.481 **
97.4%
1.3%
0.56%
0.70%
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime / 95% CI,

Not Adjusted
2.1%
1.8–2.5
9.8% *
5.7–16.4
10.0% *
4.9–19.4
8.5% *
3.5–19.4
Odd Ratios, Not
Adjusted **
Reference
Category
5.1 *
5.2 *
4.3 *
Odd Ratios, Adjusted for
Demographic Variables
Reference
Category
4.4 *
2.3–8.6
4.4 *
1.9–10.3
3.4 *
1.2–9.3
Odd Ratios, Adjusted for
Demographic Variables &
Mental Disorders, 96% CI
Reference
Category
2.27 ns
(0.99–5.21)
2.92 *
(1.12–7.63)
1.55 ns
(0.51–4.68)

Data Source: Bolton &
Sareen (2011)
* Statistically Significant. - ns: Not Statistically Significant
Calculated by Web Page Author






National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Women
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Lesbian
Bisex-
ual
Not
Sure
Study
Information
N
19,489
145
161
101
Survey Response Rate = 70.2%
For Wave 2
Survey, Wave 1 : 2001-2001.

Demographic Variables:
age, marital status, education, household income, race/ethnicity,
region of residence,
and urban/city.
Mental Disorders, Lifetime:
Mood & Anxiety Disorders,
Any Substance Use Disorder,
Any Cluster A or C personality
disorder, Any Cluster B personality disorder, and
Schizophrenia, psychotic
illness, or episode
% of Total = 19,896 **
97.9%
0.73%
0.81%
0.51%
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime / 95% CI,
Adjusted
Demographic Variables
4.2%
3.8–4.6
10.9% *
6.5–17.8
24.4% *
17.6–32.8
9.9%
3.3–26.1
Odd Ratios, Not
Adjusted
**
Reference
Category
2.8 *
7.4 *
2.5 ns
Odd Ratios, Adjusted
Demographic Variables
Reference
Category
3.0 *
1.6–5.5
5.9 *
3.7–9.3
2.3 ns
0.7–7.3
Odd Ratios, Adjusted
Demographic Variables &
Mental Disorders
Reference
Category
2.2 ns
0.96–4.98
3.2 *
1.9–5.1
1.25 ns
0.39–3.95

Data Source: Bolton &
Sareen (2011)
* Statistically Significant. - ns: Not Statistically Significant
Calculated by Web Page Author






The Urban Men’s Health Study: 1996-98
Random Sample - MSM Suicidality - Paul et al. (2002)
MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men (Since Age 14) or Identified as Gay / Bisexual
Total Sample, N = 2881
Age: 18 to 70+ Years
Suicide Attempters
n = 326
Variables
Frequency
n1
Suicide
Plan
Attempted
Suicide
2Before
Age 25?

4Mean
Number

3Mean
Age
All Males
100%
2,678
21%
12%
8%
2.1
22.6
White
79%
2,138
21%
11%
8%
2.1
23.7
African-
American
4%
117
21%
12%
8%
2.3
18.9
Hispanic /
Latino
9%
245
20%
10%
9%
2.2
18.9
Asian/Pacific Islander
4%
102
21%
11%
8%
2.4
20.0
Native American
3%
76
33%
30%
25%
2.8
18.2
Significance5
-
-
ns
0.006
0.0002
ns
0.06
RR, Statistical Significance6
-
-
1.6
0.02
2.7
0.0000
3.1
0.0000
?
Likely
Significant

1. The counts (n's) are not given in the paper but they are given by Mills et al. (2004) and would be an approximation. Therefore, all "n's" given in table are estimates. - 2. For having attempted suicide. - 3. For suicide attempts. - 4. For first suicide attempt. - 5. Significance for the suicidality variable and all 'race' groups. 6. - RR = Risk Ratio: Greater risk for Native American males, compared to White males. Significance for 2X2 RRs calculated from estimated n's.Statistically significant is: < 0.05




New Mexico 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Gay / Lesbian "At Risk" Status: Suicidality & Depression
Categories
Sex
Heterosexual
Male (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Gay Males (M)
& Lesbians (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Odds Ratio
Estimates **
Depression,
Lifetime, Told
By Doctor
M + F
924
17.2% (15.9, 18.6)
30
*47.3% (32.3, 62.8)
4.3
F
689
23.9% (21.9, 25.9)
16
37.8% (21.7, 57.2)
1.5
M
235
10.5% (9.0, 12.3)
14
*57.1% (31.6, 79.3)
11.3

Thought About
Committing
Suicide,
Past Year
M + F
275
6.2% (5.2, 7.2)
9
16.8% (6.6, 36.6)
3.1
F
178
7.1% (5.8, 8.6)
7
13.5% (6.0, 27.8)
2.0
M
97
5.3% (4.0, 6.9)
2
20.1% (4.4, 57.7)
4.5

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
M + F
263
5.3% (4.5, 6.2)
13
*23.7% (11.7, 42.2)
5.5
F
207
7.7% (6.4, 9.2)
7
16.0% (7.0, 32.6)
2.3
M
56
2.8% (2.0, 4.0) 6
*31.7% (11.8, 61.6)
16.1
Data Source: VanKim & Padilla (2010)
* Difference From Heterosexual Result Reported as Statistically Significant by Study Authors.
* (In Red): Statistical Significance Incorrectly Given by Study Authors, But Corrected.
** OR Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using Given Weighted Percentages: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (2006),
Suicidality Questions Added by New Mexico.




New Mexico 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Bisexual Male & Female "At Risk" Status:  Suicidality & Depression

Categories
Sex
Heterosexual
Male (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Bisexual
Males (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
OR
Estimates **
Depression,
Lifetime, Told
By Doctor
M + F
924
17.2% (15.9, 18.6) 21
*37.3% (23.1, 54.1)
2.9
F
689
23.9% (21.9, 25.9) 17
39.7% (22.9, 59.4)
2.1
M
235
10.5% (9.0, 12.3) 4
27.7% (9.8, 57.4)
3.3

Thought About
Committing
Suicide,
Past Year

M + F
275
6.2% (5.2, 7.2) 10
*17.4% (8.5, 32.4) 3.2
F
178
7.1% (5.8, 8.6) 6
15.5% (6.2, 33.9)
2.4
M
97
5.3% (4.0, 6.9) 4
* 25.0% (8.8, 53.7)
6.0

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
M + F
263
5.3% (4.5, 6.2) 11
*22.7% (12.2, 38.3)
5.2
F
207
7.7% (6.4, 9.2)
9
*24.0% (11.9, 42.5)
3.8
M
56
2.8% (2.0, 4.0)
2
?
?
Data Source: VanKim & Padilla (2010)
* Difference From Heterosexual Result Reported as Statistically Significant by Study Authors.
* (In Red): Statistical Significance Incorrectly Given by Study Authors, But Corrected.
** Or Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using Given Weighted Percentages
: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (2006),
Suicidality Questions Added by New Mexico.





"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Random Samples, Europe
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Youth/Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)
Additional
Results
6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
Random Survey: Longitudinal
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
Norlev
et al.
(2005)

Denmark National Random Sample. Ages: 16 to 35 Years. Numbers of homosexual / bisexual individuals said to be small. Nonetheless...
All Homo/Bi who had attempted suicide are reported to have current suicide ideation. In contrast, only a minority of Heterosexuals (maybe about 30 to 40 percent) who attempted suicide are in same category. Most do not have current suicide ideation, meaning that suicidality is not ongoing for most of them. The Odds Ratio (95% CI) for Homosexuals/ Bisexuals vs. Heterosexuals to be in 'having attempted suicide during lifetime and having current suicide ideation' category is: 5.4 (1.8–16.7), p < .05.
de Graaf
et al.
(2006)


82 (M)
Reporting
Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

2,796 (M)
Reporting
Only Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

14.6%
vs.
1.6%
** RR: 9.1
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 10.23 (5.2–20.2)
Control = Age
OR = 5.57 (2.6–12.0)
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
43 (F)
Reporting
Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

3,077 (F)
Reporting
Only Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

4.4%
vs.
3.1%
RR: 1.3 ns
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 1.52 (0.36–6.4) ns
Control = Age
OR = 0.96 (0.22–4.3) ns
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
Lhomond & Saurel-
Cubizolles
(2006)


78 (F*)
Reporting
Lifetime
Female
Sex Partner(s)


6,332 (F)
Reporting
Only Lifetime
Male
Sex Partner(s)


25.2%
vs.
6.6%
Lifetime
RR: 3.8
The Enveff (Enquête nationale sur la violence envers les femmes en France, National Survey on Violence  against Women in France) Survey. ORs From: 4.8 (2.8–8.1) to 2.2 (1.2–4.0) With Demographic Control Variable
to All Possible Controls Variables.
7.5% (7 / 78)
vs. 0.3%
(19 / 6,332)
Past Year
RR: 25.0
Attempted Suicide in the Past Year:
OR = 32.8 (13.4, 80.4)

Multiple Suicide Attempts, Lifetime:
OR = 5.9 (3.1, 11.4)

Note: Counts
Estimated From Given Percentages. ORs are Estimates. Non-responders Likely.
No Control Variables.

14.8% (11 / 78) vs. 2.7%
(171 / 6332)
Life, Multiple Attempts
RR: 5.5
Jouvin et al.
(2007)

L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results also
given in:
MSJSVA (2008)

2.9% (M)
1.5% Homo-Sex &
1.4 Bi-Sex
n = 245??
Yes
10.0%
vs.
3.0%
RR: 3.3
Lifetime
16,883 Men & Women,
Age Range = 15 to 75 Years
Elsewhere, total number said to be 30,514 for age range 12-75 years
(Site)
Note: It would be important to know the distribution of GLB individuals and suicide attempters over the age range. For example, what would be the results in the 15 to 40 years of age category?
GLB: determined on the basis of having been sexually active with at least one member of the same sex, in the past year.
GLB Demographic Summary.
The Questionnaire
1.4% (F)
0.6% Homo-Sex &
0.8% Bi-Sex
n = 118??
Yes
10.5%
vs 5.9%
RR: 1.8 ns
Lifetime
L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results
Unknown
For
Youth
Males
Yes
??

Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
15-25 Years: Les Jeunes: The Questionnaire. Some Reports are Done Separately For These Regions and are avaiable online:  Nord–Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Pays de la Loire, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine, Poitou-Charentes, and L'Ile-de-France. Maybe Others?
Data Sets could be grouped and the likely greater suicidality risks for homosexually oriented youth could likely be determined. Example: Westermann (2007), for Nord-Pas-de-Calais, N = 1,466, 5% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and 2% of females (n = approx 14). Blais et al. (2006), Pays de la Loire, N = 1,517, 4% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and  2% of females (n = approx. 15). A subsample of 100 is sufficient to so a suicidality analysis and more than 100 homo-sex males would be available if the data sets are integrated.
Females
Yes
??
Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
FHI
Rapport
(2005)

(M)
(M)
See Tabled Results: 2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden:
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality.
Results for Males & Females in Four Age Categories.
(F)
(F)
Ungdoms-
styrelsen (2010)

(M)
(M)
(M)
11% vs. 3%
2005 & 2008 National Public Health Surveys, Combined,
Sweden.
More Results in Table Below.

(F)
(F) (F)
26% vs. 8%
Hawton
et al.
(2002)

82 Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,973 Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
11.0%
vs.
3.0%
Representative Sample (N = 6,020): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in England.
Data Collected in 2000-01.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 2.0<4.0<8.3
OR, Girls: 1.6<2.7<4.3
No Contol Variables.
Not Significant in Multivariate Analysis
101 Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,590 Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
23.8%
vs.
10.5%
O'Connor
et al.
(2009)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm
Representative Sample (N = 2,008): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in Glasgow, Scotland.
Data Collected in 2006-07.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Multivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 1.5<3.8<9.5
OR, Girls: 1.3<2.6<5.2
Using about 9 Contol Variables.
Bivariate ORs: Not Given
Females:
Worries
about
SO ***

Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm


McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm:
Definition
Below
Cross-sectional study, 3881 adolescents in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. Equal genders, 53.1% of students were 16 years old.
Ages: 15 to 17 Years.
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
Males, Age Adjusted OR:
7.08 (4.10–12.23)
Females, Age Adjusted OR:
5.01 (3.46–7.25)

Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Below
Self-Harm
Definition in
McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
(2010b)
"[Participants reporting] self-harm were asked to describe, in their own words, the method(s) they had used to harm themselves. This description was later coded according to a standardized definition of deliberate self-harm : ‘An act with non-fatal outcome in which an individual deliberately did one or more of the following: initiated behaviour (for example, self cutting, jumping from a height), which they intended to cause self-harm ; ingested a substance in excess of the prescribed or generally recognizable therapeutic dose; ingested a recreational or illicit drug that was an act that the person regarded as self-harm; or ingested a non-ingestible substance or object ’ (Madge et al. 2008). Episodes of DSH were classified as a ‘yes’, ‘no’ or ‘no information given’ by three independent raters using the standardized definition above (Cohen’s k=0.77). When participants reported that they had harmed themselves in the past but did not describe the act, they were classified ‘no information given’ and were not included as a DSH case. The definition used allowed for a wide range of motives and levels of suicidal intent." (p. 1812-3)
McMahon
et al.
(2010b)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
School Bullying
History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
School Bullying
History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Cross-sectional study, 1870 boys in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. 53.3% of boys were 16 years old.
Study Sample Ages: 15 to 17.

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis: 5.59 (2.63-11.88)

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys not Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
4.70 (1.89-11.71)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
No
School Bullying History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
No School Bullying History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Non-Heterosexual
N = 659
Includes: All,
from "Mostly
Heterosexual" to "Entirely Homosexual" and "Other"
100% (Entirely)
Heterosexual

N = 6,811
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
8.9% vs. 5.3%
1.7<2.3<3.1
a
1.6<2.2<3.0 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Life Sexual Experiences:
All Same-Sex to Some Same-Sex.
N = 667
Life Sexual Experiences:
Only With Opposite Sex,
Never Same-Sex

N = 6,794
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
9.2% vs. 5.1%
1.4<1.9<2.6
a
1.3<1.8<2.5 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Those reporting no sexual partners in lifetime were removed from the analysis.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 64
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 2,903
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
14.1%
(5.6-22.6)
vs.
3.0% (2.4-3.6)
OR:
5.36
(2.57-11.2)

Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health (SMASH): 4044 males, in school, age: 16 to 20 years-old, random sampling in 2002. 72.5% only
heterosexual, 23.3% mostly heterosexual, 0.8% equally bisexual, 0.4% mostly homosexual, 0.4% only homosexual, and 2.6% nonresponse.
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 296
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 17,072
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
5.1%
(2.6-7.6)
vs.
1.3%
(1.1-1.5)
OR:
4.68
(3.06-7.15)
Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x): 22,191 males, mostly 20 years old, 50% selected for study & all completing questionnaire in 2002-03. 91.7% only heterosexual, 5.3% mostly
heterosexual, 0.9% equally bisexual, 0% mostly homosexual, 0.7%
only homosexual, and 1.2% non-response.
Note: The second Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x) drew its sample from new recruits of the Swiss army. Non-Swiss citizens (22% of the resident population) were excluded from the survey, as were Swiss men with health exemptions and those opting for civil service. A significant proportion of Swiss gay men avoid compulsory military service through those means.

* M = Males - F = Females
-- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant
*** Somewhat of a proxy for having a homosexual orientation. SO: Sexual Orientation.




Youth "Attempted Suicide" Risks: Norway
Homosexually Oriented Youth
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)



6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
20.9% (F)
8.6% (M)
Some Same
-Sex Sexual
Attraction
--
9.1%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
13.5% (F)
8.9% (M)
Some GLB
Identity
--
9.1%
vs.3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
7.0% (F)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever

93.0%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever

19.4%
vs. 4.2%
From T-2
to T-3 **
RR: 4.6
N = 1,327 Females
*** Predicting Suicide Attempt
from 1994 to 1999:
OR = 5.9 (3.2, 10.8)
, No Controls.
OR = 5.0 (2.3, 10.6), 3 Controls
Wichstrom
(2009)

(M) (F)
Non-Heterosexual
Sexual Interests
At Time 1
(M) (F)
No Same-Sex
Sexual Interests
Reported At Time 1
(M) (F)
Attempted Suicide From T1 to T2
OR = 6.8 (3.7, 12.6)
With Control Variables.
See Study Description Below.
Same Longitudinal Student Survey: In Multivariate Nominal Regression, students who had reported having had same-sex-sexual contacts before Time 1 (T1) or had been aware of their same-sex sexual interest before T1 were classified as having non-heterosexual sexual interest... and this category produced the strongest predictors (besides NSSI & Attempting Suicide at T1) for Non-suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) [OR: 4.06, 1.95 - 8.47] and Attempting Suicide [OR: 6.81, 3.70 - 12.55] from T1 to Time 2.

* M = Males - F = Females

** Longitudinal Study, 3 Questionnaires from T-1 to T3: 1992 (T-1): 12,287 students, Grades 7 - 12. - 1994 (T-2): 9,679 students, Grade 9 - 12+. - 1999 (T-3): 2,924 Youth.. - Mean Ages: 14.9 years (SD: 1.7, T-1) to 16.5 years (SD: 1.9, T-2) to 22.1 years (SD: 1.9, T-3).
*** No Homo-Sex male suicide attempters from 1994 to 1999. Comparing the N's in both regression models reveals that there are only about 1,133 males (2460 - 1,327) available for analysis.
Responders to "Attempted Suicide" and "Same-Sex Sex" questions:  Males = 1,239; Females = 1,567: Total = 2,806, but the numbers are lower in regression analyses due to non-responses to other variables: 1,133 and 1,327 (Total = 2,460), respectively.
Is An Estimate of the Percentage of Suicide Attempters Who are Homo-Sex Males Possible?  Maybe not possible to calculate given the data supplied by the authors. Males & Females Reporting Homo-Sex, Ever: 2,806 X 6.5% = 182. For Females: 1,567 X 7.0% = 109.7 = 100. For Males: 1,239 X 5.7% = 70.6 = 71. Homo-Sex Males & Females Who Attempted Suicide: 182 X 15.4% = 28 Suicide Attempters. Homo-Sex Females Who Attempted Suicide from T-2 to T-3: 110 X 19.4% = 21 Suicide Attempters. This would mean that only a maximum of 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters could exist up to T-2, the number likely being less. Furthermore, it would seem that the great majority of Homo-Sex females who attempted suicide between T-2 and T-3 (All? Almost All?) are repeat suicide attempters. Assuming "All", this would mean that there are 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters, for an "Attempted Suicide" Incidence of 9.9% (7 / 71), all having occurred up to T-2. Unfortunately, the authors did not report any "Attempted Suicide" results specific to Homo-Sex males, other males, or all males up to T-2. The lifetime "Attempted Suicide" incidence for males is 2.2%; 1.6% for Non-Homo-Sex males from T-2 to T-3.





2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality

Categories
Attempted Suicide, Ever % - Suicidal Thoughts, Ever [%]
Transgender *
n = 374
Males **
Females **
Homo-Bi
Others
Homo/Bi
Others
16 - 29 Years
27%
n = ?
11% [47%]
n = ?
4% [14%]
n = ?
21% [53%]
n = ?
8% [21%]
n = ?
30 - 44 Years
28%
n = ?
3% [30%]
n = ?
3% [12%]
n = ?
8% [17%]
n = ?
5% [14%]
n = ?
45 - 54 Year
12%
n = ?
16% [21%]
n = ?
3% [9%]
n = ?
11% [25%]
n = ?
5% [13%]
n = ?
54 - 64 Years
21%
n = ?
11% [33%]
n = ?
4% [12%]
n = ?
12% [27%]
n = ?
6% [16%]
n = ?

* Web Survey Data: Reported in National Public Health Survey, 2005. - ** National Public Health Survey, 2005. Results also given in Winzer & Boström (2007).
It 'appears" like 1,028 persons did not answer the "sexual orientation" question, and were removed from the analysis. The same applies for those "not sure" of their sexual orientation. The final sample - 29,190 persons: '648 persons (2 percent) indicated that they were not exclusively heterosexual. The largest group among those who were not exclusively heterosexual were heterosexual with some homosexual elements (here called "hetero-homo") (304 persons) followed  bisexual (221 persons), homosexuals (99 persons) and homosexuals with some heterosexual elements (here called "homo hetero") (24 persons)'.



2005 & 2008 National Public Health Survey, Combined
Sweden - Sexual Orientation
& Lifetime Suicidality

Men & Women: Ages 16 - 29 Years
Categories
Hetero-
Sexual

n = 12,560
Homo-
Sexual /
Bisexual
n = 554
Unsure of
Sexual
Orientation
n = 215
Men

Seriously Considered
Taking Your Life
12%
42%
RR: 3.5
29%
RR: 2.4
Ever Tried to
Commit Suicide
3%
11%
RR: 3.7
17%
RR: 5.7
Women

Seriously Considered
Taking Your Life
20%
47%
RR: 2.3
34%
RR: 1.7
Ever Tried to
Commit Suicide
8%
26%
RR: 3.2
21%
RR: 2.6
Data Source: Ungdomsstyrelsen (2010)
See: Figur 1.7 & 1.8, Kapitel [Chapter] 1




"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Special Population Samples
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Herrell
et al.
(1999)

103 (M*)
Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

103 (M)
Not Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

14.7%
vs
3.0%
Lifetime
**RR: 4.9
USA: Vietnam Era Twin Registry
103 Twin Pairs, Discordant for
Sexual Orientation
OR = 6.5
(1.5, 28.8)
More Related Information
119 (M)
Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

6,537 (M)
Not Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

15.2%
vs.
2.2%
Lifetime
RR: 6.9
USA: Vietnam Era Twin Registry
N = 6,656
All Homosexual vs. All Heterosexual
OR = 7.9
(4.6, 13.4)
Calculated From Estimated Counts
Fergusson
et al.
(1999)

29 (MF*)
Gay, Lesbian
or Bisexual
Identified
979 (MF)
Heterosexual
Identified
32.1%
(9 / 29)
vs. 7.1%
(69 / 979)
RR: 4.5
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 21 Years
Attempted Suicide: Age 14 - 21 Years
OR = 6.2 (2.7, 14.3)
Skegg
et al.
(2003)

427 (M)
Reporting Any
Same-Sex
Sexual
Attraction
53 (M)
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sexual
Attraction
17.0%
(9 / 53)
vs. 6.1%
(26 / 427)
RR: 2.3
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
OR = 3.2 (1.4, 7.2)
(With Control Variables)
119 (F)
Reporting Any
Same-Sex
Sexual
Attraction
343 (F)
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sexual
Attraction
12.6%
(15 / 119)
vs. 9.3%
(32 / 343)
RR: 1.3
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
OR = 1.4 (0.7, 2.7) ns
(With Control Variables)
Fergusson
et al.
(2005)

Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From age 21-25 Years. See Below.
O'Donnell
et al.
(2004)
31 (MF)
Same-Sex
Sex, Past
Year
848 (MF)
No Same-Sex
Sex, Past
Year
? %
vs.
? %
Males: 7.3%
Females: 13%
Longitudinal School Based Survey (USA):
Grade 8 to Grade 11: 42.1% Male
68.6% African American, 16.5% Hispanic/Latino, 6.8% Black/Hispanic
2.7 (1.8, 6.6), with 9 Controls
Fergusson
et al.
(2005)
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From age 21-25 Years. See Table Below.
McNair
et al.
(2005)

8.6%,
n = 801
Mainly
Heterosexual to
Lesbian
91.4%,
n = 8,482
Exclusively
Heterosexual
Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Past 6 Months
11.1 - 17.3%
vs. 2.7%
Australian ALSWH Cohort
Young Women in 2000
ORs: 4.3 to 8.0 (3 Control Variables)
ORs: 3.1 to 5.3 (6 Control variables)
Detailed Results: Table Below.
McNair
et al.
(2005)
2.5%
n = 261
Mainly
Heterosexual to
Lesbian
97.5%
n = 10,035

Exclusively
Heterosexual
Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Past 6 Months
2.0 - 16.1%
vs. 0.8%
Australian ALSWH Cohort
Mid-Life Women in 2001
ORs: 2.3 to 24.3 (3 Control Variables)
ORs: 21. to 24.6 (6 Control variables)
Detailed Results: Table Below.
* M = Males - F = Females -- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant




Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From Age 21 to 25 Years
by Sexual Orientation (Latent Class Determination)
Fergusson et al. (2005)
Heterosexual
Predominantly
Heterosexual
Predominantly
Homosexual
p
Risk Ratio*
Ods Ratio
Males, N = 469
93.7%,  n = 439
4.8%, n = 23
1.5%, n = 7


1.6%, n = 7
0.0%, n = 0
28.6%, n = 2
<0.001
RR-1: 4.5<17.9<71.4
OR-1: 4.1<24.7<149.6
RR-2: 0.9<4.2<19.3
OR-2: 0.9<4.4<22.2
Females, N = 498
81.9%,  n = 408
14.2%, n = 70
3.9%, n = 20


1.6%, n = 7
4.5%, n = 3
10.0%, n = 2
<0.005
RR-1: 1.3<5.8.<26.3
OR-1:1.2<6.4<32.8
RR-2: 1.2<2.4<4.8
OR-2: 1.04<3.4<10.9

*Note: Only the percentages - NOT the counts - are given by study authors. Counts are Estimated from Percentages.

RRs & ORs  are approximate estimates given the estimated counts used in calculations.
RR-1 & OR-1: Attempted Suicide: Predominantly Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
RR-2 & OR-2: Attempted Suicide: Predominantly Homosexual &Predominantly Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual



Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH)
Self-Harm & Attempted Suicide, Past 6 Months
Young & Mid-Life Women: McNair et al. (2005)

Categories
n. (%)
% Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Odds Ratios 1
(3 Control variables)
Odds Ratios 2
(6 Control variables)
Young Women: 22 - 27 Years of Age in 2000
Heterosexual
8,214 (91.5%)
2.7% (n = 222)
Reference Category
Reference Category
Predominantly
Heterosexual
604 (6.7%)
11.1% (67)
3.1<4.3<5.9 2.2<3.1<4.4
Bisexual
73 (0.81%)
18.7% (13)
4.1<8.0<15.8 2.5<4.8<9.3
Predominantly /
100% Homosexual
90 (1.0%)
17.3% (16)
4.3<8.0<14.7
2.9<5.6<11.0
Percent of Young Women Who Self-Harmed or Attempted Suicide who are not 100% Heterosexual Women (8.5% of Young Women)
30.2%
(96 / 318) 3
All Non-Heterosexual
Women,
No Controls 4
4.0<5.1<6.6
-
Mid-Life Women: 50 - 55 Years of Age in 2001
Heterosexual 9,676 (97.4%)
0.8% (77)
Reference Category Reference Category
Predominantly
Heterosexual
121 (1.2%)
4.0% (5)
1.5<5.0<17.3
1.2<4.6<17.3
Bisexual 15 (0.15%)
16.1% (2)
3.6<24.3<163.9
4.1<24.7<148.6
Predominantly /
100% Homosexual
123 (1.2%)
2.0% (2)
0.42<2.3<13.0 ns
0.38<2.1<11.9 ns
Percent of Mid-Life Women Who Self-Harmed or Attempted Suicide who are not 100% Heterosexual Women (2.6% of Women) 10.5%
(9 / 86) 3
All Non-Heterosexual
Women,
No Controls 4
2.2<4.5<9.0
-

1. 3 Variables: age, region of residence, highest education. - 2. 6 Variables: age, region of residence, highest education, abuse, social support, and stress. - 3. Related N's and Percentage Estimated by Web Page Author: PJT. 4. N's Estimated (An Approximation), and Related ORs Calculated by Web Page Author: PJT.
- "ns" = Not Statistically Significant





"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Other USA Random Studies
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Youth/Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Mathy
(2002a)

3,754 (M)
25,652 (M)
8.3% vs.
3.8% - Life:
Self-Harm
Sampling: News Web Site: MSNBC
Every 1000th visitor: USA, Canada
A Sexuality Survey
Males, OR: 2.3 (2.0, 2.6)
Females, OR: 2.1 (1.7, 2.5)
Suicide Question: "I have made a serious suicide attempt or gesture." Yes/No
1,048 (F)
5,499 (F)
17.1% vs.
9.1% - Life:
Self-Harm
Reis &
Saewyc
(1999)


331
Gay, Lesbian
& Bisexual
Identified

7,146
Heterosexual
Identified

20.6%
vs. 6.7%
Past Year
RR: 3.1
Seattle 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Those "Unsure" of their Sexual Orientation Are Not Included
Attempted Suicide: OR = 3.6 (2.7, 4.8)
Attempted Suicide, With Medical Care
OR = 4.6 (3.1, 6.9)

ORs Calculated With Counts Estimated
From Given Results
9.4%
vs. 2.2%
Past Year
Medical Care
RR: 4.3
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio




ACHA's National College Health Assessment-II
Fall 2008, Spring 2009, and Fall 2009 Surveys Combined
Female Sexual Orientation & Suicidality 1
Categories
Hetero-
Sexual
Bi-
Sexual
Lesbian
N's
88,005
Reduced to:
3384
2,456
849
Approximate
Percentages
96.38%
2.69%
0.93%
Felt so depressed that
it was difficult to
function, past year
32.09%
56.73%
RR: 1.76 2
OR: 2.79 3
(2.50-3.13)

50.83%
RR: 1.58
OR: 2.27
(1.94-2.67)
Seriously considered
suicide, past year
5.61%
22.25%
RR: 3.97
OR: 4.92
(4.09-5.92)
17.99%
RR: 3.21
OR: 3.84
(3.02-4.88)
Attempted suicide,
past year
0.89%
4.67%
RR: 5.25
OR: 5.13
(3.36-7.84)
3.67%
RR: 4.12
OR: 4.35
(2.58-7.33)
Intentionally cut,
burned, bruised, or
otherwise injured
yourself, past year
5.65%
22.50%
RR: 3.98
OR: 4.74
(3.95-5.69)
21.42%
RR: 3.79
OR: 4.73
(3.76-5.95)
N's & Percent Female
Suicide Attempters,
Past Year (Estimate) 4
783
84.3%
115
12.4%
31
3.3%
N's & Percent Females
Who Self-Injured,
Past Year (Estimate) 4
4,272
85.3%
553
11.0%
182
3.6%

Data Source: Kerr at al. (2013)

1. Undergraduate Women Aged 18 to 25 Years, Mean: 20.01 Years. Random Sample. USA institutions participating in the ACHA-NCHA-II surveys (Male & Female, Undergraduate & Graduate Students): 40 in Fall 2008 (N=26,685), 117 in Spring 2009 (N=87,105), and 57 in Fall 2009 (N=34,208).

2. RR's: Risk Ratios Calculated by Webpage Author Using Given Data. All Statistical Significances for RRs in Table are the same as for ORs.
3. ORs: Odds Ratios Calculated by Study Authors, with 95% CI (Confidence Intervals). All Statistical Significances for ORs in Table are p < 0.000
4. Estimations by Webpage Author. Calculated from the Given Data. Bisexual women and lesbians would account for about 16% of suicide attempters and 15% of self-injurers in a one-year period at university. The percentage would likely be higher for all sexual minority women - or non-heterosexual women - given that groups such as "transgender" - or those "unsure of their sexual orientation" - were removed from the analysis. These percentages may be about 20% for all non-heterosexual female undergraduates. That is, one in five.



The Survey of Student Wellbeing (SSWB)
Suicidality Risks After Non-Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI)
Categories
Contribution of non-suicidal self-injury to later
suicide-related thoughts/behavior: Odds Ratios, 95% C.I.
Post NSSI development of any
suicide-related thoughts/behavior
Post NSSI development of suicide
behavior (excluding ideation)
Unadjusted
Model
Adjusted
Model
Unadjusted
Model
Adjusted
Model
Sexual
Orientation

Heterosexual
(Comparison Group)
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Mostly
Heterosexual
1.5e (1-2.2) .7 (.4-1.1) 1.7e (1-2.7) .4 (.4-1.5)
Bisexual
3c (1.8-5.1) 1.3 (.6-2.5) 3.1c (1.6-6) 1.5 (.6-3.3)
Mostly gay/lesbian
or gay/lesbian
3.2c (1.8-5.7) 2.5e (1.2-5.3) 5.1c (2.8-9.3) 4.3c (1.9-9.6)
      c p < .001 -  e p < .05
Comments: For university students who had engaged in non-suicidal self injury in the past, the risk for later experiencing "suicide-related thoughts/behavior" or "suicide behavior" while at university was greatest for all non-heterosexual students (Unadjusted Models), and the greatest - at statistically significant levels - only for the "mostly gay/lesbian or gay/lesbian" group (Adjusted Models).
Note: When the least serious and most common form of suicidality (suicide ideation) is removed from the suicidality category, the risk for what remains (more serious forms of suicidality) increases even more for the "mostly gay/lesbian or gay/lesbian" group in the "Unadjusted Models" (ORs from 3.2 to 5.1) and the "Adjusted Models" (ORs from 2.5 to 4.3). This is consonant with multiple examples where sexual minority individuals have been reported to be more at risk for the more serious forms of suicidality. See: Related Webpage.

Data Source: Whitlock et al. (2013)
Sampling Information: "In 2007, 14,372 students from eight Northeast and Midwest public and private universities participated in aWeb-based study entitled the Survey of Student Wellbeing (SSWB). The sample was representative of the overall student population across all eight universities in terms of ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status although more females than males participated (57.6% vs. 41.7%, 95% CI, 53.3 - 59.2; Z = 14.96, p < .001). Five of these universities agreed to allow participants the option of participating in a longitudinal study. Two of the five schools were private, two were public, and one was a mix of public and private. All but one are located in largely urban areas. Of 5,214 eligible respondents, 2,320 (44.5%) indicated willingness to participate in longitudinal study. A total of 1,810 (78%) of these participated at Time 2 (spring 2008). Of the eligible 1,810, a total of 1,466 participated at Time 3 (spring 2009). This represents 63.2% of the original sample (n = 2,320) willing to participate in longitudinal study. The final sample did not differ from the original cross-sectional sample of students from the original eight-college study by sex, ethnicity/race, age, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status, NSSI history, or STB history. At baseline the longitudinal sample (n = 1,466) had an average age of 20.3 (SD = 4); was 59.9% female; 75.5% heterosexual, 16.1% mostly heterosexual, 4.5% bisexual, 3.9% gay/lesbian; 69.3% Caucasian, 4.8% African-American, 3.8% Hispanic,11.1% Asian, and 11% other; 72.2% had fathers who had completed college." (p. 487)




Cornell University's "Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being" 1
Undergraduate Students: Cornell University & Princeton University 2
"Attempted Suicide" Risk:
GLBQ vs. Heterosexual Identified Young Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Whitlock
& Knox
(2007)

63 Gay/Lesbian
(MF*)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
Web Survey, Random, Undergraduates
at Cornell & Princeton University
Appears like only gay & lesbian students are at significantly greater risk for having attempted suicide in lifetime:  Adjusted OR: 1.2<4.2<14.1 3
Mostly Self-Injury & General Suicidality Analyzed. See Table Below.
See also: Whitlock et al. (2006), but no relevant GLBT results are given.
84 Bisexual
(MF)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
76 Questioning
(MF)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
1. The Survey: Related Information & Related Publications. - 2. Three other universities appear to be also involved in this survey: MIT, Harvard, and the University of Rochester. See: "College Mental Health Issues and Suicide-Prevention Program Discussed". 3. The OR results from a logistic regression analysis with a control variable (Self-Injury) that is a powerful predictor of "Attempting Suicide" (5.4<9.6<17.1), controlling for demographic variables, including sexual orientation. It is possible that both bisexual and questioning students were also significantly more at risk for having attempted suicide, but that such significant ORs were driven to insignificance by the aforementioned variable being present in the regression, given that such students are at high risk for self-injury. Nothing in this respect was mentioned by the authors. Counts or incidences related to "attempting suicide" were not given. Related ORs - GLBQ groups vs. heterosexual students - with/without controlling demographic variables - were also not given. Nonetheless, bisexual and questioning students remained more at risk for "planning suicide" in a regression: AOR = 2.1<4.0<7.6.
* M = Males - F = Females




"Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being"
Lifetime Self-Injury Behavior (SIB) & Suicidality: Undergraduate Students
Cornell & Princeton Universities: Whitlock & Knox (2007)
Raw Counts: Data Not Weighted 1

Category /
Sexual
Orientation
SIB
Only
SIB &
Suici-
dality 5
Suicidality
Only
All
SIB
2 All
Suicidality
2 SIB or
Suicidality

No SIB / Suici-
dality
 "N" Totals
Given: 2,875
292
196
227
488
423
715
2,160
"N" Totals
Sexuality
N = 2,845
281 (9.8%)
196 (6.9%)
225 (7.9%)
477 (16.7%)
421 (14.7%)
702 (24.6%)
2,143
(74.3%)
Heterosexuality
n = 2,632 [92.2%]
256 (9.7%) 3
155 (5.9%)
194 (7.4%)
411 (15.6%)
349 (13.3%)
605 (23.0%)
2,027
[93.8%]

Gay / Lesbian
n = 63 [2.2%]
7 (11.1%)
5 (7.9%)
9 (14.3%)
12 (19.0%)
14 (22.2%)
21 (33.3%)
42
[1.9%]
Odds Ratio 4
0.52<1.2<2.6
0.54<1.4<3.5
1.02<2.1<4.3
0.67<1.3<2.4
1.02<1.9<3.4
0.98<1.7<2.8

X2 , p 4
0.13, 0.71
0.46, 0.50
4.2, 0.04
0.55, 0.46
4.2,  0.04
3.7, 0.05


Bisexual
n = 84 [2.9%]
17 (20.2%)
21 (25.0%)
14 (16.7%)
38 (45.2%)
35 (41.7%)
52 (61.9%)
32
[1.5%]
Odds Ratio 1.4<2.3<4.1
3.2<5.3<9.0
1.4<2.5<4.5
2.9<4.5<6.9
3.0<4.7<7.3
1.3<2.1<3.2

X2 , p 9.9, 0.002
49.0, 0.0000
9.9, 0.002
51.8, 0.0000
54.1, 0.0000
10.3, 0.001


Questioning
n = 76 [2.7%]
11 (14.5%)
15 (19.7%)
8 (10.5%)
26 (34.2%)
23 (30.3%)
34 (44.7%)
42
[1.9%]
Odds Ratio 0.82<1.6<3.0
2.2<3.9<7.1
0.70<1.5<3.1
1.7<2.8<4.6
1.7<2.8<4.7
1.7<2.7<4.3

X2 , p 1.9, 0.17
24.1, 0.0000
1.06, 0.30
18.9, 0.0000
18.0, 0.0000
19.4, 0.0000


1.
An "added to" version of Table 1 in the Whitlock & Knox (2007) paper. 2. Columns added, via count additions from other columns. 3. Counts & Incidence. 4. Odds Ratios: Compared to heterosexual students in same category. Calculated by web page author (PJT) using the given counts. 5. Suicidality: Students reporting suicidal ideation, plan, gesture, or having attempted suicide.




University of Michigan's 2005 / 2007 "Healthy Minds Study"
Sexual Minority Results From a Presentation & Related Papers 1

Eisenberg
et al.
(2006)
Study results given at a symposium. 2,828 completed surveys, 56.3% response rate (48% for undergrads, 65% for grad students), all results are weighted for non-response. In a list of the "most prominent risk factors for mental health problems": "Bisexual or gay/lesbian/queer (Depression and self-injury)". The intake question for "attempting suicide" in the past 4 weeks only produced one suicide attempter, thus precluding this study from having any value in exploring or understanding more serious forms of suicidality. "Between 3-4% reported suicidal thoughts in the past 4 weeks, and less than 1% reported plans for suicide."
Note
: It is possible (likely?) that those planning to commit suicide in the past 4 weeks, and especially those who attempted suicide in the past 4 weeks, may have been in a state of mind that would not be conducive to participating in a survey.
Eisenberg
et al. (2007a)
Some of the demographic data given in Table Below. "Self-identified bisexual students were more likely to screen positive for depression than self-identified heterosexual students": OR = 2.1<3.9<7.3, from a regression analysis with many control variables. Similar regression analyses do not reveal sexual minority students to be significantly more at risk for depression, anxiety disorders, or suicidal thoughts in the past 4 weeks. However, the low N's may have compromised detecting such "at risk" status. See sexual minority N's in Table Below. The sampling representation for sexual minority undergraduates is poor (the worst being only one undergraduate lesbian in the study sample), and the same applies for the bisexual male representation for both graduate and undergraduate students: 8 students each.
Eisenberg
et al. (2007b)
"... multivariate logistic regression estimates of predictors of perceiving a need for mental health services in the past year... reporting oneself to be bisexual (relative to heterosexual, OR = 2.09, p = 0.03) or gay/lesbian (relative to heterosexual, OR = 2.04, p = 0.03)."
Gollust
et al.
(2008)

"For the full student population, we found no significant associations between self-injury and age, international student status, sexual orientation, graduate or undergraduate student status, or year in school, controlling for all covariates. Logistic regression models, which we estimated separately for male and female students, revealed several notable differences in the predictors of self-injury... Bisexual men (OR = 4.75, CI = 0.98-23.01, p = .053) and lesbians (OR = 5.52, CI = 1.80-16.9, p = .003) were more likely to report self-injury than were heterosexual students..." Alert: Many researchers in suicidology, and especially in sexual minority suicidology, have recognized that males and females should NOT be analysed together, if it is at all possible to do otherwise. The same applies within a sex group for the different sexual minority groups. That is, when analyzed together, a significant "at risk" association for only one group may be greatly reduced (as in being spread over other groups), or even eliminated as the result of non-associations in other groups.
Golberstein
et al.
(2008)
Sexual minority students are not mentioned in the paper titled "Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking."
Cranford
et al.
(2009)
In the paper "Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students," "sexual orientation" is only mentioned to be a control variable in multivariate analyses, with the related results are not reported.
Eisenberg
et al.
(2009)
In the unpublished paper, "Mental health and academic success in college," sexual minority students are not mentioned.
Zivin
et al.
(2009)
This study, 'Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population," is longitudinal in nature, using a subset of students who completed the first survey in 2005. "In the fall of 2007, all students who had completed the baseline survey in 2005 and were still enrolled at the university (N=1272) were asked to complete a two-year follow-up survey, with a nearly identical set of measures. Of those re-contacted, 763 (60%) of students completed the second survey. The present study examines data from these 763 students who completed both the 2005 and the 2007 survey." There were 45 GLBT students (5.44% of students) in the 2007 survey. Sexual orientation (GLBT) is a control variable in multivariable logistic regression models but the GLBT results are not reported.

1.
Papers related to the Healthy Minds Study.
Note: It appears like researcher who have been publishing papers on results from the 2005 / 2007 Healthy Minds Study have specialized in not producing suicidality results - that would likely be "at risk" results -  for gay, lesbian and bisexual students.
This appears to be a continuing trend for the survey carried out in November 2007 and in March to April 2009, as made evident in the Eisenberg et al. (2013) study (N = 14,175, 5.5% GLB). Suicidality results are given for males & females & race/ethnicity groups, but not on the basis of sexual orientation. Higher risks for GLB students are only given for depression and anxiety (using control variables). Depression, Bisexual, OR (95% Confidence Intervals): 2.11 (1.60, 2.78) - Anxiety, Bisexual, OR: 1.92 (1.36, 2.70) - Anxiety, Gay/Lesbian, OR: 2.09 (1.43, 3.05).



University of Michigan's 2005 "Healthy Minds Study"
Some Demographic Highlights, N = 2,843
Categories /
Variable

Undergraduates
Weighted Percentages
Graduates
Weighted Percentages
Female
n = 677
Male **
n = 504
Female
n =  819
Male
n = 843
Age: 18 to 22 Years
95.1%
93.0%
10.0%
7.1%
White / Caucasian
Non-Hispanic / Non-Arab
68.6%
68.1%
56.5%
53.9%
Asian /
Pacific Islander
15.0%
15.9%
24.4%
30.8%
International
Students
4.3%
6.9%
16.3%
27.3%
Heterosexual
97.2%
96.0%
92.6%
93.6%
Gay / Lesbian /
Queer
0.1%
n = 1 *
2.5%
n = 13
3.2%
n = 26
4.5%
n = 38
Bisexual
2.6%
n = 18
1.5%
n = 8
3.6%
n = 29
1.0%
n = 8
Data Source: Eisenberg et al. (2007a)* The n's are estimated from weighted percentages. Raw counts & percentages are not given, except for the total male and female numbers in the study sample. ** The "504" counts is reported to be "604" in the paper but that would be an error. See Gollust et al. (2008). The representation of sexual minority students in this study sample is generally poor, the worst being "one lesbian" representing lesbian undergraduate students. Why there would be about 30-times more lesbians in graduate school sample, compared to the undergraduate sample, is food for thought.
Eisenberg et al. (2007b) - Weighted Demographic Summary: "The results, weighted for nonresponse, reflect a population composed of 60.6% white (non-Hispanic), 6.3% black, 19.9% Asian or Asian-American, 3.5% Hispanic (any race), 5.4% multiracial, and 3.6% students who identified some other race. Forty-eight percent were female, 11.8% were international students, and 33.9% were graduate students. This student population was roughly similar in demographic characteristics to the national population of college students." Therefore, weighting would, in many cases, radically change what were the raw counts, especially for females, and for graduate students. 




The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey
Depression & Suicidality: GLBT Results 1

Study
GLBT
Hetero-
sexual
Depression
Diagnosis 3
Seriously
Considered Suicide,
Past Year
3
Attempted
Suicide
Past Year 4
Leino &
Kisch
(2005)

n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
<
14,711 2
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odds Ratio:
1.4<1.8<2.4 - Lifetime
27 Control Variables
% Depression All: 10.3%
-
-
n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
< 14,711 2
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odds Ratio:
1.2<1.8<2.7 - Past Year
27 Control Variables
% Depression All: 6.1%
-
-
Kisch
et al.
(2005)

n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
< 14,711 2
-
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odd Ratio:
2.0<2.6<3.3
27 Control Variables
% Consider... All: 9.5%
?
% Attempted...
All = 1.47%
Are GLBT Students
More at risk?
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for males in the past year: 1.59% = 88 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 85 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the GBT male category (n = 208) would produce statistically significant results. For 7 (incidence = 3.4%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.0<2.2<4.8. For 8 (Incidence = 3.8%), the OR would be 1.2<2.5<5.3. Counts Given in Table Below.
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for females in the past year: 1.40% = 126 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 122 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the LBT female category (n = 224) would produce statistically significant results.. For 7 (incidence = 3.1%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.1<2.4<5.1. For 8 (Incidence = 3.6%), the OR would be 1.3<2.7<5.7. Counts Given in Table Below.
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for males & females in the past year: 1.47% = 214 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 207 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the GLBT category (n = 439) would produce statistically significant results.. For 12 (incidence = 2.7%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.04<1.9<3.4.  For 13 (Incidence = 3.0%), the OR would be 1.2<2.0<3.6. Counts Given in Table Below.
Note: Kirsh et all (2005) did not mention whether or not GBT males, LBT females, or GLBT individuals were more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past year. 89.6% Undergraduate Students and 10.4% Graduate Students are in the study sample.
1. Data Set Results for the "Sexual Orientation" Categories & Depression / Suicidality are Given in Table Below.
2. Numbers from Table Below. The would be less "<" because of Non-Responders to questions. M = "Male". F = "Female". Also less because of non-responders to depression and suicidality questions.
3. The Odd Ratio(s) reported would likely be higher if only the Demographic control variables had been used in the regression.
4. The Possible - Likely? - greater risk for GLBT students having attempted suicide is not mentioned. Related data is not given. Hints about such a greater likelihood for GLBT students having attempted suicide - at least in the 2003 ACHA-NCHA survey at one American university - NYU - is given in a Table Below.



The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey
Sexual Orientation Demographics & Depression / Suicidality Results
Depression / Suicidality Results For GLBT Students Are Not Given

Categories /
Variables
Male
n (%)
Female
n (%)
Unknown
n (%)
Total
N (%)
Which of the following
best describes you?
Question # 32
-
-
-
-
Heterosexual
5,151 (94.5%)
8,510 (96.1%)
1,050 (94.1%)
14,711 (94.5%)
Heterosexual
'Sex Unknown" Removed
5,151 (94.5%)
8,510 (96.1%) Removed
13,661 / 14,100
96.9%
Gay / Lesbian
136 (2.5%)
69 (0.78%)
16 (1.4%)
221 (1.4%)
Bisexual
70 (1.3%)
147 (1.7%)
19 (1.7%)
236 (1.5%)
Transgendered
9 (0.17%)
8 (0.09%)
5 (0.45%)
22 (0.14%)
GBT, LBT, GLBT:
'Sex Unknown" Removed
215 (3.94%)
224 (2.53%)
Removed
439 / 14,100
(3.1%)
Unsure
84 (1.5%)
121 (1.4%)
26 (2.3%)
231 (1.5%)
Totals
% of Sample [%]

5,450 (100%)
[35.3%]
8,855 (100%)
[57.4%]
1,116 (100%)
[7.2%]
15,421 (100%)
[100%]  1
Depression Diagnosis,
Ever. n / N (%)
340 / 5,504
(6.2%)
1,146 / 8,985
(12.8%)
123 / 1,087
(11.3%)
1,609 / 15,576
(10.3%)
Depression Diagnosis,
In The Past year? Yes
125 / 326: 38%
125 / 5,504 ?
(2.3%)
685 / 1,114: 61.5%
685 /
8,985 ?
(7,6%)
71 / 118: 60.2%
71 / 1,087 ?
(6.5%)
957 / 1,558: 61.4%
957 /
15,576 ?
(6.1%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide 1-2 Times, Past Year
300 / 5,528
(5.4%)
613 / 8,999
(6.8%)
73 / 1,109
(6.6%)
986 / 15,636
(6.3%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide >2 Times, Past Year
181 / 5,528
(3.3%)
280 / 8,999
(3.1%)
38 / 1.109
(3.4%)
499 / 15,636
(3.2%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide, Past Year
481 / 5,528
(8.7%)
893 / 8,999
(9.9%)
111 / 1,109
(10.0%)
1485 / 15,636
(9.5%)
Attempted Suicide 1-2
Times, Past Year
43 / 5,528
0.78%
96 / 8,999
(1.07%)
12 / 1,108
(1.08%)
151 / 15,635
(0.97%)
Attempted Suicide > 2
Times, Past Year
45 / 5,528
0.81%
30 / 8,999
(0.33%)
14 / 1,108
(1.26%)
89 / 15,635
(0.57%)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
88 / 5,528
1.59%
126 / 8,999
(1.40%)
26 / 1,108
(2.34%)
240 / 15,635
(1.53%)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
"Sex Unknown" Removed
88 / 5,528
1.59%
126 / 8,999
(1.40%)
Removed
214 / 14,527
(1.47%)
Data Source: ACHA-NCHA (2000)
1. Total Survey: 16,024.
15,421 = 96.2% of Surveys.
Percentages often given with more precision that in original document, using the given counts for calculations.



Sexual Orientation Results From The Spring 2003
NYU American College Health Association
National College Health Assessment

General Information: Fist Year New York University Students - 1,035 surveys returned - Average age = 18.5 Years - 70% Females. 30% Males - 11% Self-Identified Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure Students (GLBU, n = 109). Note: The counts are low, therefore likely statistical non-significance of result differences for males and females analysed separately. Trends nonetheless indicated that are consistent with results in other studies of university students. A Student Presentation by Smith (2006).
Category /
Variable

Males
Females
GBU
n = ?
Hetero-
sexual
LBU
n = ?
Hetero-
sexual
Depression Diagnosis, Ever?
Question asked twice.
17%
19%
7%
8%
43%
43%
14%
15%
Depression Diagnosis, Past Year?
11%
3%
18%
7%
Anxiety Diagnosis, Ever?
15%
5%
20%
9%
Anorexia Diagnosis, Ever?
8%
< 1%
6%
5%
Seriously Considered Suicide,
Past year, One to 11+ Times?

26%
15%
25%
15%
Attempted Suicide, Past Year,
One to Two Times? 1
6%
1%
6%
1%
Attempted Suicide, Past Year,
More Than Two Times?
?
?
?
?

1.
Assuming that about 100 GLBU students and 900 Heterosexual students responded to the "Attempted Suicide" question, this would mean that there are 6 GLBU suicide attempters and about 9 Heterosexual suicide attempters. The Odds Ratio, with such numbers would be: 2.2<6.3<18.1,
X2 = 15.2 , p = 0.002. However, not all those who attempted suicide may have been counted, meaning those who attempted suicide more than 2 times in the past year. Also interesting that, of the students who attempted suicide one- to two-times in the past year, about 40% of them (6/15) would be GLBU students.



Suicidality Results: University of Washington Students, Seattle
Murphy (2007): PhD Dissertation Study

Suicidal Behavior 1
/ Sexual Identity
Sex
n
Suicide
Seriously
Considered
n: %
Suicide
Planned
n: %
Attempted
Suicide
n: %
Medical
Attention
Received
n: %
Heterosexual: No
Same-Sex Attraction
or Behavior: n= 404
n: %
M: 153
15: 9.8% 13: 8.5% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
F: 251
15: 6.0% 9: 3.5% 5: 2.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 404
30: 7.4% 22: 5.4% 5: 1.2% 0: 0.0%
Heterosexual: Some
Same-Sex Attraction
or Behavior: n = 79
n: %
M: 16
4: 25.0% 4: 25.0% 1: 6.3% 0: 0.0%
F: 63
13: 20.6% 10: 15.9% 5: 7.9% 2: 3.2%
MF: 79
17: 21.5% 14: 17.7% 6: 7.6% 2: 2.5%
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual, Queer
n = 38 2
n: %
M: 21
1: 4.8% 2: 9.5% 1: 4.8% 0: 0.0%
F: 15
5: 33.3% 2: 13.3% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 36
7: 18.4% 5: 13.2% 1: 2.6% 0: 0.0%
Not  Sure
n = 7
n: %
M: 4
2: 50.0% 1: 25.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
F: 3
0: 0.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 7
2: 28.6% 1: 14.3% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
χ2 = - - . - -  df = ( )
ρ = 0. - - - (From Study)

M & F: 14.60 (6), < 0.05
MF: 19.06 (3),
< 0.001
M&F: 12.0 (6), 0.06
MF: 15.6 (3),
< 0.01
M & F: 6.00 (2), 0.05
MF: 12.21 (3),
< 0.01
1.67 (1), 0.20
All With Same-Sex
Sexual Attraction
/ Behavior

MF:
121
26: 21.7%
20: 16.7%
7: 5.8%
2: 1.6%
All Same-Sex, Compared
With Heterosexual (n = 406)
(From Study)
χ2 (1) = 19.5,
< 0.001

χ2 (1) = 15.7,
< 0.001
χ2 (1) = 8.7,
< 0.01
χ2 (1) = 1.4,
0.20 4
Odds Ratio: Same-Sex
vs. Heterosexual 3

1.9<3.4<6.0
1.8<3.4<6.5
1.5<4.9<15.7
- 5
Sample: Mostly From First Year Psychology Classes, Some From the Q Center: GLBTQ Services
M = Male, F = Female -- 1. In the Past Year. -- 2. Gender Identity: Transgender = 1, Other = 1
3. Calculated by Web Page Author (PJT) Using the Given Counts. 4. In Error. Should be: χ2 (1) = 6.7, ρ = 0.009
5. Risk Ratio, measures based on alpha: 3.8<4.4<5.2.  If there was one suicide attempters (who had received medical attention) in the heterosexual category, the OR would be: 0.61<6.8<75.7




The American College Health Association's
National College Health Assessment 2009 Fall Survey 1

Sexual
Orientation/
Risks

Hetero-
sexual
n = 25,746
% Incidence
Gay/
Lesbian
n = 508
% Incidence
Bisexual

n = 785
% Incidence
Unsure

n = 415
% Incidence
In Lifetime 2
Considered
Suicide
16.4%
37.0%
3 OR: 3.0
47.7%
OR: 4.6
33.8%
OR: 2.6
Attempted
Suicide
6.6%
18.0%
OR: 3.1
25.3%
OR: 4.8
13.6%
OR: 2.2
Self-
Injury
14.8%
31.4%
OR: 2.6
44.8%
OR: 4.7
31.4%
OR: 2.6
Before One Year Ago, Not in the Past year
Considered
Suicide
11.2%
23.7%
OR: 2.5
26.6%
OR: 2.9
17.4%
OR: 1.7
Attempted
Suicide
5.6% 13.6%
OR: 2.6
21.7%
OR: 4.7
10.9%
OR: 2.1
Deliberate
Self-Injury
10.4%
15.1%
OR: 1.5
27.7%
OR: 3.3
16.7%
OR: 1.7
In The Past Year
Considered
Suicide
5.2%
13.3%
OR: 2.8
21.1%
OR: 4.9
16.4%
OR: 3.6
Attempted
Suicide
1.0%
4.4%
OR: 4.6
3.6%
OR: 3.7
2.7%
OR: 2.7
Deliberate
Self-Injury
4.4%
16.3%
OR: 4.2
17.1%
OR: 4.5
14.7%
OR: 3.7
In The Past Year: Suicide Attempter Counts & Proportions
Approximately One in Five Students Suicide Attempters (19.2%) in American Universities
in 2009 Were Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation. 4

Attempted
Suicide
1.0% 4.4% 3.6% 2.7%
Estimated Suicide
Attempter Counts
% of Total
257
80.8%
22
6.9%
28
8.8%
11
3.5%
In The Past Year: Self-Injurers Counts & Proportions
Approximately One in Five Students (19.3%) Who Deliberately Self-Injured in American
Universities in 2009 Were Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure of Their Sexual Orientation
. 4
Deliberate
Self-Injury
4.4%
16.3% 17.1% 14.7%
Estimated Self-
  Injurer Counts
% of Total
1,133
80.3%
83
5.9%
134
9.5%
61
4.3%
Percentage in Each Category Who Attempted Suicide for the First Time in 2009
"Gay/Lesbian" Students are More Likely to Have Attempted Suicide for the First Time
 in 2009 (24.5% of them), Followed by "Unsure" Students (19.8% of them). 4
Atttempter %
Lifetime
6.6%
18.0%
25.3%
13.6%
Atttempter %
  In 2010 Only
1.0%
4.4% 3.7% 2.7%
Percentage First
Attempted Suicide
in 2010
1 / 6.6 =
15.1%
4.4 / 18.0
24.4%
3.7 / 25.3
14.6%
2.7 / 13.6
19.8%
Category Percentage Who Deliberately Self-Injured for the First Time in 2009
"Gay/Lesbian" Students are More Likely to Have Self-Injured for the First Time in
  2009 (51.9% of them), Followed by "Unsure" (46.8%) and "Bisexual" Students (38.2%).
4
Self-Injurer %
Lifetime
14.8%
31.4% 44.8%
31.4%
Self-Injurer %
in 2010 Only
4.4%
16.3% 17.1%
14.7%
Percentage First
Self-Injured
in 2010
4.4 / 14.8 =
29.7%
16.3 / 31.4%
51.9%
17.1 / 44.8 =
38.2%
14.7 / 31.4 =
46.8%

Data Source: Oswalt &Wyatt (2011)
1. Only American students, foreign students removed. Age Range = 18-49 Years, older students removed. Transgender students (n = 42) removed. 61.4% Female.
2. This category not given in study. Derived by summing the percentages in the two categories below.
Calculated by webpage author from the given data.
3. The ORs (Odds Ratios) are comparisons between results in the category and the heterosexual results. All ORs would be statistically significant. ORs calculated by webpage author. They are near-correct approximated results.
4. Calculated by webpage author.
They are near-correct approximated results.

NOTE: It would be very important to have the results generated for males and females, separately.




ACHA's National College Health Assessment
2008 Fall / 2009 Spring Surveys Combined
Categories
Gay/
Lesbian
Bi-
sexual
Hetero-
sexual
% Total Sample
N = 90,015 1
1,800
2.0%
Given as 2%
2,503
2.8%
Given as 3%
85,710
95.2%
Given as  93%
Analyzed
Sample
1,800 (MF) 2,505 (MF) 4,273 (MF) 2
Males (M)
Females (F)
1,117 (M)  683 (F)
578 (M)  1,925 (F) 1,455 (M)  2,818 (F)
Victimization Incidence Percent: Past Year
Physical Assault
35.5%
4.5 - 6.6
38.8%*
7.7 - 10.0
5.3%
4.6 - 6.0
Intimate
Partner Violence
15.5%*
13.8 - 17.2
19.6%*
18.1 - 21.2
10.4%
9.4 - 11.3
Sexual Assault
11.3%*
9.9 - 12.8 
16.1%*
14.7 - 17.6
7.8%
7.0 - 8.6
Family
Problems
35.1%*
32.9 - 37.2
41.8%*
39.9 - 43.7
26.8%
25.5 - 28.1
Discrimination
37.4%*
35.2 - 39.6
19.5%*
17.9 - 21.0
4.2%
3.6 - 4.8
Suicidal Behaviors Incidence Percent: Past Year
Intentional
Self-Harm
12.6%*
11.0 - 14.1
4OR: 2.8
20.4%*
18.9 - 22.0
OR: 5.0
4.9%
4.2 - 5.5
Suicide
Ideation
15.0%*
13.3 - 16.6
OR: 3.0
21.0%*
19.4 - 22.
OR: 4.6
5.5%
4.8 - 6.2
Attempted
Suicide
3.3%*
2.5 - 4.2
OR: 3.8
4.6%*
3.7 - 5.4
OR: 5.3
0.9%
0.6 - 1.2
Percentage of All Suicide Attempters by Sexual Orientation Category5
All = 948 Attempters
# Suicide Attempters
% of All Attempters
n = 1800
60
6.3%
n = 2,503
116
12.2%
n = 85,710
772
81.4%
Males: 327 Attempters
# Suicide Attempters
% of Male Attempters
n = 1,117
37
11.3%
n = 578
27
8.3%
n = 29,185
263
80.4%
Females: 621 Attempters
# Suicide Attempters
% of Female Attempters
n = 683
23
3.7%
n = 1,925
89
14.3%
n = 56,525
509
82.0%

Data Source: Blosnich & Bossarte (2012)
1. 2% reported to be removed from analysis because "Unsure" of sexual orientation. This is likely why the heterosexual estimate is at 93% instead of 95.2%.
2. The subsample is said to be the same as the original sample, but the variables used for this deternimation are not listed.
3. Incidence percent, 95% Confidence Intervals. Asterix "*" means significant statistical difference when compared to heterosexual students, pairwise comparisons (stated). But also by using confidence interval method: CIs do not overlap.
4. ORs (Odds Ratios) calculated by webpage authors from given percentages. Comparisons with heterosexual students.
5. Total heterosexual sample assumed to have same "attempted suicide" incidence as studied subsample. The proportion of males and females also assumed to be the same. Note: "Unsure" (2% of sample) removed from analysis by study authors, therefore results are an approxination.




College Life Study (CLS): Longitudinal
Prospective Study of American College Students.
Categories
All

N =
1,085
Hetero-
Sexual
n =
1,003 *
Homo-
sexual,
Bisexual,
Unsure
n = 82
Odds Ratio &
% of Problem
= Homosexual,
Bisexual or
Unsure
Suicide Ideation (Once)
At College
114 / 1,085
= 10.5% *
97 / 1,003
= 9.7% *
17 / 82
= 20.7%
p < 0.01
* OR: 2.4 (1.3, 4.5)
p = 0.004
17 / 114 =
14.9% *
Suicide Ideation (Ongoing)
At College
37 / 1,085
3.4% *
31 / 1,003
3.1% *
6 / 82
7.3%
p < 0.05
* OR: 2.5 (0.9, 6.4)
p = 0.054
6 / 37 =
16.2% *
Plan Suicide and/or
Attempted Suicide
At College
10 / 1,085 =
0.092% *
8 / 1,003 =
0.080% *
2 / 82 =
2.44%
p = 0.135 *
* OR: 3.1 (0.4, 16.1)
p = 0.171
2 / 10 =
20% *
Non-Suicidal
Self-Injury
At College
75 / 1,081 =
6.9% *
59 / 997 =
5.9% *
16 / 84
19.0%
p < 0.001
* OR: 3.7 (1.9, 7.1)
p < 0.000
16 / 75 =
21.3% *

Data Sources: Suicidality: Wilcox et al. (2010), Self-Injury: Wilcox et al. (2011-12)
* Calculation by Webpage Author Using the Given Data.

Wilcox et al. (2010): A 4-Year Ongoing Evaluation of Undergraduate Students. 1,085 participants, 572 (52.7%) female, 795 (73.3%) self-reported as White, and 82 (7.6%) reported being homosexual, bisexual or unsure sexual orientation.
Wilcox et al. (2011-12): 1,081 participants, 582 (54%) female, 786 (73%) self-reported as White, and 84 (8%) reported being homosexual, bisexual or unsure sexual orientation. Homosexual/Bisexual/Unsure Students Independently Predicts Lifetime NSSI (OR: 3.8: 1.9 - 7.4, p < 0.001) and NSSI in the Previous Year, Meaning While at University (OR: 6.2: 1.8 - 22.1, p = 0.005),





Heterosexual, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual University Students (Random Sample): Alcohol & Drug Use / Abuse:
Suicidality, Violence, & Feel Safe on Campus

Categories
% (n)
GLB (n = 42) vs.
Heterosexual
(n = 1028)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
1
Odds Ratio
(95% CI) 2
Odds Ratio
(95% CI) 3
Suicidality
AOD Related 4

23.8% (10)
4.5% (43)
6.6
(3.0–14.2)
6.6
(3.0–14.3)
5.1
(2.2–11.6)
Physical / Sexual
Violence
5
38.1% (16) vs.
19.5% (184)
2.5
(1.3–4.9)
2.3
(1.2–4.5)
---
Feel Safe on
Campus

83.3% (35)
95.5% (903)
0.2
(0.1–0.6)
0.2
(0.1–0.6)
---
Percentage of All AOD Associated
Suicidality that is GLB
Related
10 / [10 = 43 = 53] = 18.9%

Data Source: Reed et al. (2010)
1. Crude Odds Ratio. - 2. Controlling for Gender. - 3. Controlling for whether feel safe on campus, physical threats, sexual violence, and perceived stress - 4. "Thought about or seriously tried to commit suicide due to AOD" (alcohol and other drug use). 5. "Physical or Sexual Violence or Threats of Physical Violence."




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Other Studies
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Theuninck
(2000)
Thesis

329 (M)
95% Mostly to 100%
Gay /
Homosexual
None
All:16.5%
15-21: 25.3%
22-25: 17.4%
26-29: 11.7%
30+: 10.8%
329 Volunteers: Internet: South Africa
Age 15-74 Years, 88%: 15-34 Years
74% White, 18% Black, 8% Others
Lifetime attempted suicide incidence
given for all, and by age categories.
Wells &
Polders
(2004)

487 (M)(F)
M: 148 Black, 117 White
F: 160 Black.
56 White
None
All: 21%
No
Significant
Group
Differences
Gauteng, South Africa
Purposive Quota Sampling: At least
30 in each of 12 clusters, Volunteers,
GLB Community. Ages: 15-24 (46%),
25-40 (48%), > 40 (6%).
86% Gay/Lesbian, 14% Bisexual
Ortiz-
Hernández
(2005)
Mexico
318 (M)
None
12%
Lifetime
69% Same-Sex Attraction Only, 28% = Both Sex Attraction. Mean Age = 29 years
188 (F)
None
21%
Lifetime
52% Same-Sex Attraction Only, 35% = Both Sex Attraction. Mean Age = 29 Years
Kuang &Nojima
(2005)
266 (W)

Lesbian
Women
144 (W)
Hetero-
sexual
Women
20% vs.
15%
Lifetime
Japanese Women, Internet Sample
Age Rage Not Given, Likely from 18 to more than 35 years of age.
RR: 0.8<1.4<2.5
Fisher Exact p-value, 2-tailed = 0.285
Calculated by Webpage Author.
279 (W)

Lesbian
Women
271 (W)
Hetero-
sexual
Women
35% vs.
27%
Lifetime
Taiwanese Women, Internet Sample
Age Rage Not Given, Likely from 18 to more than 35 years of age.
RR:
1.0<1.5<2.1
Fisher Exact p-value, 2-tailed = 0.043

Calculated by Webpage Author.

Also Reported by Kuang et al (2003)
Fernandez
et al.
(2006)
South Florida
171 (M)
Same-Sex
Sex, Past 5
Years
None
16.4%
Sample: Internet Chatrooms, Then Did
Computer Questionnaire in Community.
Hispanic/Latino Males: Mean Age: 32.1 (SD: 6.5) Years, 19 to 46 Years.
Jeng
(2007)
Taiwan

Chinese
Text
From English Abstract: This study examined the moderating effects of gender on the relationship of sexual orientation to suicidality among college students and the mediating factors between sexual orientation and suicidality... A representative sample, consisting of 1,288 females and 1,325 males completed the self administered questionnaires... Results found that individuals who were gay, lesbian, bisexual and not sure (GLBN) had more severe suicide ideations, and a higher suicide attempt rate compared to their heterosexual peers. The hierarchical regression analyses showed that an interaction between gender and sexual orientation reached significance in predicting suicide ideation or suicide attempt. Further analyses revealed only GLBN males were more likely to be at risk for suicidality. Depressive symptoms and suicide attempt among relatives partially mediated, but the perceived acceptance from parents or friends completely mediated the relationship between sexual orientation and suicide attempt...
Hidaka & Operario
(2006)
Japan
1,025 (M)
None
15.1%
(155 / 1,025)
Volunteers: Internet Sample, Japan
Median Age: 26 Years
65%: University Degree - 68% Homosexual, 18% Bisexual Identified
Hidaka
et al.
(2008)

N= 2,095
(MF)
Homo/Bi/Other
= 78
Japan
49** (M)
986**
24.5% (12 / 49) vs. 4.7%
(46 / 986)
Osaka, Japan Sample: Street-intercept methods:
Age Range (MF): 15 and 24 Years
Average Age: 19.7 Years
54.4%: 15-19 Years - 45.5%: 20-24 Years
3.2<6.6<13.6 (No Controls)
2.6<6.0<13.5 (Controls)
29** (F)
1,031**
20.7% (6 / 29)
vs. 11.2%
(115 / 1031)
0.8<2.1<5.2 (No Controls) ns
0.4<1.1<3.1 (Controls) ns
Hidaka
et al.
(2014)
5,731 (M)
MSM
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime
14%
Japanese Internet Sample, N = 5,731 MSM (Men who have sex with men).
Teixeira-
Filho & Rondini (2012)

&
Teixeira-
Filho
et al.
(2011)
GLBT +
Other
:
n = 106
Hetero-
sexual
:
n = 2,147
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
21 / 106
= 19.8%
vs.
145 / 2,147
= 6.7%
High School Sample: 12 and 20 years (Average = 17 years) living in three Municipalities in São Paulo, Brazil.

OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.7-8.1
p < .000
(Using study's given n's, OR calculated by Webpage Author at
 http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html)

Manalastas
(2013)
273
(Approx.)
Suicide Ideation:
16%
7,769
Suicide
Ideation:
8%
Suicide Ideation:
16%
vs.
8%
Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey 3:
a national population-based study of 8,042
Filipino men ages 15 to 24 years-old.
3.4% reporting same-sex attraction:
8,042 X 0.034 = 273 (Approx.)

Suicide Ideation Odds Ratio:
OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.50-2.93
p < .001 (Reported)

Attempted Suicide Odds Ratio:
OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 5.3
p < .000
(Calculated using estimated n's by Webpage Author at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html)

16% X 0.039
(as reported)
= 6.24%
n = 17
(calculated)
Lifetime
Attempted
Suicide
8% X 0.26
(reported)
= 2.08%
n = 162
(calculated)
Lifetime
Attempted
Suicide

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
6,24%
vs.
2.08%
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Dissertation Studies
American Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Hecht
(1998)
Thesis

74 (MF*)
Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual
Identified
None
25.7%
(19 / 74)
American Volunteers: GLB Community
Mean Age: 18.7 Years, 13 to 24 years
52 Males & 22 Females
Male Attempters: 13 / 52 = 25.0%
Female Attempters: 6 / 22 = 27.3%
Kiedman
(2001)
Thesis
225 (MF)
106 (M)
119 (F)
None 27.1%
61 / 225
Attempted
Suicide in
High School
Volunteers: Attending a National Gay & Lesbian Youth Conference: San Francisco
99% GLB Identified. Age Range: 18 to 25 Years, 47% = 18 to 19 Years-Old
Levinson
(2000)
Thesis

469 (M)
None
11.9%
(53 / 469)
Lifetime
Greater Boston Area. About 50%
Recruited on University Campuses
Mean Age: 23.3, 18 to 24 Years
77.4% White, 52.6% (233 / 457) with one or more university degree.
Friedman
(2002)
Thesis
Additional
Results

96 (M)
96% Gay or
Bisexual Identified
None
29.2%
(28 / 96)
True Attempts:
14.8%
(14 / 96)
Volunteers: Gay Community/Other (35/99), Gay Organizations, 5 Universities (64/99)
Mean Age: 20.3, SD: 1.8, 18 to 25 Years
Some Suicidality Information Given in
Friedman et al. (2006)
Morgan
(2004)
Thesis

1,114 (MF)
100%
Same-Sex
Attracted
167
Same/Both
Sex
Attracted
27.1%
(42 / 167)
6.1%
(68 / 1,114)
Sample: Schools & Anti-Truancy Program
Alabama is Likely
50% African American,. 35% White
Mean Age: 15.5 (SD: 1.5), 13 to 18 Years
Attempted Suicide, Same/Both Sex Attracted: Males (14.0%), Females (30.9%)
OR = 5.2 (3.4, 7.9)
Percentages & OR calculated from
given data and estimations.
Boarts
(2008)

98 (MF)
67 (M)
31 (F)
None
25.5%
(25 / 98)
Lifetime
Volunteers, GLBT Organization, Cleveland, Ohio
80.8% Mostly Homosexual or Bisexual.
85.7% African American, 14.3% Mixed Ethnicity.
Age Range: 13-24 Years, Mean Age: 19.5 Years
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio



The Friedman (2002) Study of Gay/Bisexual Male Youth
"Attempting Suicide" Criteria
Category
%
n / N
Description
Reported Having
Attempted Suicide
29.2%
(28 / 96)
All who reported having attempted suicide.
False
Suicide Attempter
7.3%
(7 / 96)
Determined by follow-up statements describing what
would have been the 'suicide attempt'. e.g. only suicide
ideation or planning to kill oneself.
Inconclusive
Suicide Attempter
7.3%
(7 / 96)
Suicide attempt is confirmed, but no related medical care
required. Some definitely not serious, such as a minor cut.
Therefore deemed "inconclusive"
True Suicide
Attempters
14.8%
(14 / 96)
Suicide attempt is confirmed, also with the report
of having received related medical care.
Data Source: Friedman (2002)



"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Colorado
Homosexually Oriented Adolescents or Youth
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Jackson
(1999)
Thesis
134 (MF*)
None
44.7% (F)
59 / 132
Lifetime
Volunteers From Larger Metropolitan
Areas in Colorado.
Age Range: 14 to 28 Years
Attempted Suicide Incidences: Females
(36 / 72 = 50%), Males (23 / 59 = 39%)
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2005)
5.6% GLBU
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified +
Unsure
92.5%
Heterosexual
Identified
44.0%
vs.
13.5%
Past Year
RR : 3.3
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Colorado. White (81.2, 74.3%), Hispanic/Latino (10.9, 21.6%), Asian (5.4, 2.6%), Black (1.8, 0.9%), Native American (0.7. 0.7%). N = 1,960, Grade 9 to 12
44.0% (95%CI: 38.3, 49.7)
13.5% (95%CI: 12.6, 14.4)
** OR = 3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2006)
5.5%
GLBU
89.2%
Heterosexual
23.6%
vs.
6.3%
Past Year
RR : 3.7
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2005
Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
2,956 Students, Grade 9 - 12. 0.07% Gay/Lesbian, 3.6% Bisexual, 2.2% Unsure. White (72.1%), Hispanic/Latino (17.3%), Asian (4.1%), Black (1.6%), Native American (1.3%). Seriously consider suicide: 45.9% (GLBU) vs. 15.0% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.1
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2008)
7.2%
GLBU
92.8%
Heterosexual
23.0%
vs. 7.2%
Past year
RR: 3.2
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,381 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2010)
9.3%
GLBU
90.7%
Heterosexual
20.3%
vs. 4.2%
RR: 4.8
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,491 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2012)
8.2%
GLBU
91.8%
Heterosexual
31.8%
vs. 4.2%
RR: 7.6
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,197 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
Additional Suicidality Results.
Walls
et al.
(2008)
142 (MF)
91% GLB
Identified
None
57 / 142
40.1%
Past Year
Pencil/Paper Survey
GLBT Youth Receiving Services at a Denver, Colorado GLBT Community Social Services Agency: "Rainbow Alley." Age Range: 14-21 Years, 82%: 16-19 Years. 39% White, 28% Bi/Multi- Racial, 20% Latino/a, 8% Black, 3.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian.. Major Predictors of "Attempting Suicide": Hopelessness, Homelessness.
Protective Factor: At a school with a GSA: Gay / Straight Alliance group.
Walls et al.
(2008a)

Paper
Submitted For
Publication
265 (MF)
144 (F) 54.3%
121 (M) 45.7%
Transgender: 13
4.9%
None
59 / 265
22.3%
Past Year
Online Survey done by "Rainbow Alley" GLBT Youth Services in 2006.
Mean Age: 17.9 Years. Age Range: 13 to 22 Years
74.3%, n=197: White or Asian; 10.6%, n=28: bi- or multiracial; 6.0%, n=16: African American; 6.0%, n=16: Latino/a; 3.0%, n=8: Native American or Hawaiian Native. Cutting Behavior in Past 12 Months: 47.2% (n = 125), 56.5% (<= 17 Years),  40.8% (>17 Years). Suicide Attempters: 10 times more likely to be cutters.
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio
** Not Given. Calculated by assuming 110 GLBU (48 Suicide Attempters),
and 1813 Heterosexual Identified Adolescents (329 Suicide Attempter).




Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003, 05, 07, 09, 2011
Boulder County, Colorado - Suicidality Related Variables
Risk Behaviors
Statistical Significance,
p < 0.05
- No Overlapping CIs
(Confidence Intervals)
Incidence %, GLBU (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure)
vs. Incidence % Heterosexual.
Risk Ratio [__] *
- Odds Ratio (__) *

2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more during the 12 months preceding the survey
49.5% vs
24.2% [2.0]
(3.1)
53.7% vs.
22.8% [2.4]
(3.9)
53.2% vs.
25.4% [2.1]
(3.3)
52.2% vs
22.3% [2.3]
(3.8)
55.1% vs. 22.3% [2.5]
(4.3)
Seriously considered attempting suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey
63.3% vs.
16.8% [3.8]
(8.5)
45.9% vs.
15.0% [3.1]
(4.8)
45.7% vs.
14.3% [3.2]
(5.0)
35.3% vs.
11.1% [3.2]
(4.4)
43.9% vs. 11.3% [3.9]
(6.1)
Planned Suicide, Past 12 Months
Not
Given
Not
Given
Not
Given
28.9% vs.
9.2% [3.1]
(4.0)
41.4% vs. 13.4% [3.1]
(4.6)
Attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey 44.0% vs.
13.5% [3.3]
(5.0)
23.6% vs.
6.3% [3.7]
(4.6)
23.0% vs.
7.2% [3.2]
(3.8)
20.3% vs.
4.2% [4.8]
(5.8)
31.8% vs. 4.2% [7.6]
(10.6)
Suicide attempt resulted in medical treatment Not
Given
Not
Given
Not
Given
4.1% vs.
1.8% [2.3]
(2.3)
12.4% vs. 1.7% [7.3]
(8.2)
Intentionally Self-Injured
Not
Given
55.4% vs.
17.2% [3.2]
(6.0)
38.9% vs.
17.6% [2.2]
(3.0)
51.0% vs.
16.1% [3.2]
(5.4)
61.1% vs. 17..1% [3.6]
(7.6)
Data Sources: 2003 YRBS Results. - 2005 YRBS Results. - 2007 YRBS Results.
2009 YRBS Results. 2011 YRBS Results.
* RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis.




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Other Studies
Canadian Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Magnuson
(1992)
Thesis

77 (M*) None
26%
Lifetime
Ottawa, Canada: Volunteer Sample
Age = 14 to 25 Years

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Identified

52 (F*) None
44%
Lifetime
Rein
(1998)
Thesis

Gay, n = 32
(M)
6,811 (M)
Estimated
13 / 32
40.6%
vs. 3.7%
252 / 6,811
British Columbia 1992
Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12
More Related Information
OR = 8.6<17.7<36.2
Bisexual, n = 110
(M)
6,811 (M)
Estimated
18 / 110
16.4%
vs. 3.7%
252 / 6,811

OR = 3.0<5.1<8.5
Lesbian, n = 12
(F)
6,802 (F)
Estimated
16.7%
(2 / 12)
vs.
9.6%
(653 / 6,802)
OR = 0.41<1.9<8.6
Bisexual, n = 96
(F)
6,802 (F)
Estimated
20.8%
(21 / 96)
vs.
9.6%
(653 / 6,802)
OR = 1.5<2.5<4.0
McCreary
Centre
Society
(1999
)
77
Mostly Gay,
Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified
None
46%
1997 BC Survey, Volunteers From
Greater Vancouver, Fraser Valley, Victoria, Nanaimo and Prince George. Age Range: 13 to 19 Years
Average Age of First Suicide Attempt:
13 Years-Old
McCreary
Centre
Society
(2009)
(MF)
3% of Sample
GLB
n =
850
Approximately
(MF)
86% of Sample
Heterosexual
n =
24,940
Approximately
28% vs.
4%
Past 12
months
More than 29,000 British Columbia public school students in grades 7-12 completed the Adolescent Health Survey: February to June 2008. "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” GLB more at risk for having attempted suicide than other groups noted to be at risk: Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% others),  obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%).
Zhao
et al.
(2010)

Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual Identified.
N = 58
29.3%
ORs:
4.65 (2.57–8.41)
2.23 (1.15–4.35)
Heterosexual,
no Same-Sex
Attraction
or Behavior

N = 1,624

8.2%,
Past 12
Months
2004 Montreal Youth Risk Behavior Survey with additional items related to sexual orientation.
N = 1,856
Cited ORs, Top: Unadjusted, No Control Variables.
Below: Adjusted, With All Possible Control Variables

Unsure, N = 59
20.3%
ORs:
2.86 (1.48–5.53)
1.61 (0.77–3.36)
Heterosexual,
same-sex Attraction or Behavior, N =115
13.0%
ORs:
1.68 (0.95–2.98)
1.03 (0.55–1.91)
Langille
et al.
(2012)
Bisexual to
100%
Homosexual
n = 81


Sexual Orientation: Attraction
100%
Heterosexual
to Mostly
Heterosexual
n = 1,516

Sexual Orientation: Attraction
Unadjusted  OR:
3.43 (1.74–6.79)

Adjusted OR:
2.27 (1.08–4.79)

Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
2006 Random Survey, 3 High Schools (Grades 10 - 12), Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada.

N = 1,597
Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR):
Controlling for age and school site.

Attempted Suicide Incidences not given for both compared groups.

Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
Males: 3.6%
Females: 6.1%

* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio - OR = Odds Ratio



1992 to 2008 Adolescent Health Surveys: British Columbia Schools
Grades 7 to 12 - By The McCreary Centre Society
Attempted Suicide Results, Past 12 Months

Categories /
Studies
Sex
Sexual
Minorities
n's
Hetero-
sexual
Counter-
part
n's
Attempted
Suicide - %
Sexual Minority
vs. % heterosexual
Comments,
Sampling Information
Odds Ratio (95% CI)

1992 Survey
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)

Rein (1998)
Thesis Data 1
15,549 Students
GLB = 1.9%
Approximately
Male
Gay
[n = 32]
1
Estimated
?
[n =
6,811] 1
Estimated
44% vs ?
40.6% vs 3.7% 1
13 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 8.6<17.7<36.2 1
Bisexual
[n = 110]
1
Estimated
12% vs ?
16.4%  vs. 3.7% 1
18 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 3.0<5.1<8.5 1
Female
Lesbian
[n = 12]
1
Estimated
[n =
6,802
] 1
Estimated
19% vs. ?
16.7% vs
9.6% 1
2 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 0.41<1.9<8.6 1
Bisexual
[n = 110]
1
Estimated
13% vs. ?
20.8% vs 9.6% 1
21 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 1.5<2.5<4.0 1
1998 Survey
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)
GLB = ? %
Male
Gay
n = ?
n = ?
22% vs. ? [4%] 5
RR = 5.5
Bisexual
n = ?
n = ? 18% vs. ? [4%] 5 RR = 4.5
Female Lesbian
n = ?
n = ? 24% vs. ? [9%] 5 RR = 2.7
Bisexual
n = ?
n = ? 26% vs. ? [9%] 5 RR = 2.9
2003 Survey
30,588 students
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)
GLB = 2.4%
2
Male
Gay
n = 881 [93]
2
n = ? 9% vs. ?
8.8% vs. 3.3%
3
The percentage of gays increased by about 50% since the 1992 survey
RR =  2.7
Bisexual
n = 1,231 [130] 2
n = ? 13% vs. ?
12.8% vs. 3.3% 3
The percentage of  bisexuals decreased by about 40%
since the 1992 survey
RR =  3.9
Female
Lesbian
n = 465 [49]
2
n = ? 39% vs. ?
38% vs. 8.2%
3
The percentage of lesbians doubled since the 1992 survey 4
RR =  4.6
Bisexual
n = 4,328 [457]
2
n = ? 30% vs. ?
30.4% vs. 8.2%
3
The percentage of   bisexuals doubled since the 1992 survey 4
RR =  3.7
2003 Survey
GLB = 2.4% 2
Males /
Females
n = 729
GLB
< 29,859
24.8% (181 / 729)
vs. 5.7%
Approximately
RR = 4.3
Approximately
2008 Survey
n = >29,000
GLB = 3%
McCreary Centre
Society (2009)
Males /
Females
n = ?
< 870
n = ?
< 28,130
28% vs.
4%
Compared to heterosexuals, the
risk for attempting suicide has increased for GLB individuals
since 2003: RR = 7, Approximately.
Sexual minority groups most at risk =
Unknown! Not Reported!

1. This information is given or estimated from the Rein (1998) thesis study.

2. Counts estimated from counts and percentages given by Poon & Saewyc (2009). The first number given is weighted (resulting from a sample of 30,588 students being made to represent 290,000BC students in Grade 7 to 12. The second number approximately represents what the original sample counts would be. The GLB percentage given as 2.4%.
3. Information made available in the media (Bohn, 2006 and Gorham, 2006), reporting on the 2003 BC Adolescent Health Survey results presented by Elizabeth Saewyc at the 2006 Canadian Public Health Conference held in Vancouver, BC.
4. The doubling of the lesbian and bisexual female representation may be implicated in their rising Attempted Suicide incidence. It is possible that many more, for some reason, have been identifying at a younger age than before (1992), that is reported to be implicated in higher levels of suicidality for GLB youth.
5. Attempted Suicide incidences given in McCreary Centre Society (2001).
Note: Not a word was mentioned about GLB youth in the May et al. (2004) McCreary Centre report on the 2003 survey.




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: New Zealand &
Australian
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Nicholas &
Howard
(1998)

57 (M*)
Gay
Identified
54 (M)
Heterosexual
Identified
28.1%
(16 / 56) vs.
7.4% (4 / 54)
Lifetime
Australian Volunteers: Sidney Area
Mean Age: 20.6 Years
53.2% Post=Secondary Students
OR: 5.0 (1.5, 16.1)
Kelly
et al.
(1998)

164 (M)
HIV +
None
21.4%
Lifetime
Australia: Convenience Sample
Homosexual & Bisexual Males
From Sidney, Victoria and Brisbane.
Mean Age: 32.5, 20 to 60 Years
Attempted Suicide Incidence for All Homosexual/Bisexual Males: 25.2%
165 (M)
HIV -
None
29.1%
Lifetime
Fenaughty
(2000)
Thesis

111 (M)
83.8%
Gay or
Homosexual
Self-
Described
None
20.7%
(23 / 111)
Lifetime
New Zealand Volunteers: Auckland
52.3% European Ancestry
Age = 16 to 26 Years
Suicide Attempts verified via
descriptions of Suicide Attempt(s).
Some Study Related Information:
Fenaughty & Harre (2003)
Welch
et al.
(2000)

561 (W*)
95.2%
Lesbian
Identified
None
20.3%
(114 / 561)
Lifetime
Volunteer: New Zealand
87.5% European Ancestry
Age Range: 19 to 66 Years
 84.2%: Between 25 to 50 Years
First Attempted Suicide:

80.7% Before the Age of 25 Years
Nicholas
& Howard
(2001)

105 (M)
Gay
Identified
94 (M)
Heterosexual
Identified
20.8% vs
5.4%
Lifetime
Sidney, Australia, Mostly Metropolitan
Mean Age: 21.8 Years, 16 to 30 Years
76 (F)
Lesbian
Identified
192 (F)
Heterosexual
Identified

20.0% vs.
8.3%
Lifetime
Sidney, Australia, Mostly Metropolitan
Mean Age: 21.3 Years, 16 to 30 Years
Thorpy
et al.
(2008)

164 (MF)
None
37%
Lifetime
Internet Sample: Queensland, Australia
Age Range: 14-20, Mean Age: 17
54% Male, 44.5% Female, 0.6% Gender Queer.
89% Urban. 72% Gay/Lesbian, 23% Bisexual. 50% in High School, 20% Working, 9% at University
164 (MF)
None
59%
Self-Harm
Past year
Lea
(2011)
318 SSA
Males (M)
None
17%
Lifetime
Internet Sample, Sidney, Australia, Same-Sex Attracted M / F: 77% / 79.1% Anglo-Australian, European. Study participants only identified as male or female; all gender queer, transgender, etc. were removed. Age Range: 18 to 25 Years, Mean: 21.49 years (SD = 2.24). More Below.
None
28%
Self-Harm
Lifetime
254 SSA
Females (F)
None
30%
Lifetime
None
63%
Self-Harm
Lifetime
Lea et al.
(2014)

301
Gay Males
None
17.0%
Lifetime
Same as Above: Lea (2011). Plus:

Cross-sectional 2010 online survey. Participants recruited over a 3-month period. Eligible participants were young adults aged 18–25 years who identified as same-sex attracted and lived or regularly spent time in Sydney. Participants were recruited via paid advertisements on Facebook (58%), e-mail lists of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) organizations (27 %), and news items posted on LGBT websites (11%) and in the LGBT street press (4%).

17 Bisexual Males
None
0.0%
Lifetime
146
Lesbians
None
28.8%
Lifetime
108 Bisexual
Females
None
30.6%
Lifetime
Luke
et al.
(2013)
160
Kooris
Youth
21.2%
34 / 160
Suicide Ideation,
Past 2
Weeks
50%
6 / 12

p = .034

Data from the VAHS Young People’s
Project (YPP) study, Only Round 1 (1997/1998)
data collection - not Round 2 (2000/2001) - used in study. 172 Australian Aboriginal Kooris youth study participants from Melbourne, 43.6% male (75 / 172), Mean Age = 19 Years, SD = 4 Years, Age range 12 to 26.
N= 12 homosexual or bisexual youth.
Data/Results: generated from given data by webpage authors.

Questions:
Suicide ideation: In the last two weeks, have you had thoughts that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way?
• Suicide attempt: Have you ever tried to kill yourself (attempt suicide)?
160
Kooris
Youth
23.7%
38 / 160
Suicide
Attempt,
Lifetime
33.3%
4 / 12

p = ns
* M = Males - F = Females




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: New Zealand &
Australian
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Random Study Samples
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Fleming
 et al. (2007)
2001 Random
School Sample
New
Zealand
N = 9,570
Not Given
Also NOT Given
 is Number of same-sex and
both-sex attracted individuals, that is somewhat equivalent to GLB
Not Given
For all Males: 4.7%
For all Females:
10.5%
Not Given
OR: 1.3<1.7<2.4
For Having Attempted Suicide, Past Year, Non-Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual. with 20 Control Variable!
"Non-heterosexual orientation was defined as being attract to the same sex (as oneself), both sexes, neither sex or not sure."
The Existence of the LeBrun et al (2004) Report - below - is not mentioned by Fleming et al. (2007)
GLB Results Estimates: Table Below.
Le Brun et al. (2004)
2001 Random
School Sample
New Zealand
N = 8,997
701
7.8% of Sample
8,696
92.2% of Sample
15.3% vs.
7.2%
(Approx.)
Past Year
Question Asked: "Which of the following are you sexually attracted to…?" Non-Heterosexual: Same-Sex (68, 0.75%), Both-Sex (277, 3.1%), Unsure (206, 2.3%), Neither (150, 1.7%)
9,570 - 8,997 = 573 - The Non-Responders to the "Sexually Attracted" Question = 6.0% of Sample
GLB Results Estimates: Table Below.
Rossen et al. (2009) Same-Sex
Attracted
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
20% vs.
4.0%
The New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey:
Additional Tabled Results.
Lucassen
et al.
(2011)

Same-Sex
Attracted
Only
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
13.9% vs.
4.0%
The New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey:
Additional Tabled Results.


Both-Sex
Attracted
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
21.7% vs.
4.0%
Lucassen
et al.
(2014)
Same-/Both-
Sex
Attracted,
Males
Opposite-
Sex
Attracted
Onl