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          Increasing Awareness of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender,
          Two Spirit, Queer... Suicide Issues
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Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People
High "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Random & Special Study Samples
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"While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence- based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within [the LGBT] population." Marshall A (2016). Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89: 205-213. PDF Download.

A World First! - - Jacobs R, Morris S (2016). National LGBTI Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Strategy: A New Strategy for Inclusion and Change: An Australian Government initiative. Related Article. Document PDF Download.


Sent(a)Mental Project - A Memorial to GLBTIQA Suicides / Final Version (2009)

Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Feds support new national LGBT youth suicide prevention task force (USA, 2010)
Task Forces Focus on LGBT Youth, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Military/Veterans (2010)
Related: 1, 2, 3. Notes of Caution / Warnings: 1, 2 (Paragraphs 7-9), 3, 4.
Will it be white racist GLBT suicide prevention? - To be Ignored: Two Spirit Youth? GLBT Street Youth?
To Effectively Address a Serious Problem, Good to Know How It Developed. Related Paper.
A Department of Silence: Bullying of LGBT youth not a priority (2010).
LGBT youth suicide reports show need for more studies (2011).

Jamie Hubley, Gay 15-Year-Old Ottawa, Canada (2011). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
"I hate being the only open gay guy in my school… It f***ing sucks, I really want to end it. Like all of it, I not getting better
theres 3 more years of highschool left, Iv been on 4 different anti -depressants, none of them worked. I’v been depressed since january,
How f***ing long is this going to last. People said “It gets better”. Its f***ing bull****. I go to see psychologist,
What the f*** are they suppost to f***ing do? All I do is talk about problems, it doesnt make them dissapear?? I give up."
Gay teens 'terrorized' in Canada's schools (2009, Study). Related: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
It Gets Better Project. - Related Thesis. - The “It Gets Better Campaign”: An unfortunate use of queer futurity.
Jamey Rodemeyer Suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Anti-gay bullying leads to another tragic teen suicide (2011): Nicholas Kelo Jr... was 13 years old.
It is unknown as to whether or not Nick was gay, but that did not stop his bullies or their attacks... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Gay teen Lance Lundsten's death ruled a suicide (2011): 1, 2, 3.
New study shows that before things “get better,” there are consequences.
The 2011 University GLB Student Suicidality & Deliberate Self-Injury Alert!

Dyck DR (2013). LGBTQ Youth Suicide Prevention: Summary: Report on Outcomes and Recommendations.
Ottawa: Egale Canada Human Rights Trust.
PDF Download. Download Page.

Author Keith Boykin's new book (2011: Amazon: 2012 - Reviews: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - Interview):
For Colored Boys Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow Is Still Not Enough
.
43 Percent of Black Gay Youth Have Contemplated or Attempted Suicide. Survey Results.
 
Aboriginal / American Indian / First Nations Two Spirit Information Pages and Suicide Issues.

"American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention" Website

"Honouring Life Network," Canada: Aboriginal Youth Suicide


"Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention," USA

Webpages
Available
At Website

Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies. - All Random & Special Sample Studies (This Page). - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies. - The Results of School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors. - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues. - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results.

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.


This page contain the results of about 45 mostly peer reviewed random studies of homosexually oriented people who have "attempted suicide," including some non-random transgender and street youth studies. The study samples are mostly been random in nature. Homosexually oriented people are most often described or self-described (may be self-identified) as Gay (G), Lesbian (L), Bisexual (B), Homosexual, Predominantly Homosexual, Homosexual/Bisexual, Same-Sex Attracted, Same-Sex Romantically Attracted, MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men), WSW (Women Who Have Sex With Women), and Same-Sex Sexually Active (Same-Sex Sex).

Risk Ratios (RRs) or Odds Ratios (ORs) were produced (except in one case) given that Heterosexual or Predominantly Heterosexual individuals were also a part of the studies. As a rule, homosexually oriented people have been at higher risk for attempting suicide, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, and more so for males... as a rule. (Related Information) Transgender people - and other gender nonconforming people in other categories - may be at the highest risk for having attempted suicide.



To.... The Alerts!

Homosexually Oriented Males More At Risk For Death By Suicide? At All Ages?

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4): 765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does not mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. [Epub ahead of print]. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."

Frisch M, Simonsen J (2013). Marriage, cohabitation and mortality in Denmark: national cohort study of 6.5 million persons followed for up to three decades (1982-2011). International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(2): 559-578. Abstract. "Results: HRs for overall mortality changed markedly over time, most notably for persons in same-sex marriage. In 2000-2011, opposite-sex married persons (reference, HR = 1) had consistently lower mortality than persons in other marital status categories in women (HRs 1.37-1.89) and men (HRs 1.37-1.66). Mortality was particularly high for same-sex married women (HR = 1.89), notably from suicide (HR = 6.40) and cancer (HR = 1.62), whereas rates for same-sex married men (HR = 1.38) were equal to or lower than those for unmarried, divorced and widowed men. Prior marriages (whether opposite-sex or same-sex) were associated with increased mortality in both women and men (HR = 1.16-1.45 per additional prior marriage)... Of note, mortality among same-sex married men has declined markedly since the mid-1990s and is now at or below that of unmarried, divorced and widowed men, whereas same-sex married women emerge as the group of women with highest and, in recent years, even further increasing mortality.
 
Child Death Review Unit, BC Coroners Service (2008). "Looking for Something to Look Forward to" (a B.C. youth who died by suicide) ... A Five-Year Retrospective Review of Child and Youth Suicide in B.C. : In the five-year period between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 81 children and youth died by suicide in British Columbia. When this project was initiated, 66 of these cases were closed and 15 remained open and under investigation. The Child Death Review Unit’s review of the 66 closed cases resulted in the following findings: • Older youth (age 17–18 years), males, Aboriginal children and youth, and gay, lesbian and bisexual children and youth, as well as those who were questioning their sexuality, were at increased risk of suicide... Sexual orientation: Four children and youth identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual. Three other children and youth had been questioning their sexual orientation in the months prior to death.

Are Homosexually Oriented Individuals Overrepresented in Hospital Emergency Care as the result of a Suicide Attempt? - As it has been the rule in most mainstream suicidaity studies, "sexual orientation" information has not been solicited from study participants. One exception to this rule occurred in the
Weyrauch et al. (2001) study: "The study sample was composed of individuals who required admission to a major urban public hospital in Seattle, Washington, for inpatient medical treatment of significant morbidity sustained in a suicide attempt... Seventy-five percent of the subjects reported heterosexual gender orientation, 7% were  homosexual [only attracted to opposite sex persons], and 18% biexual [attracted to both sexes]." In a study from South Africa that was published as an M.S. Dissertation by Pretorius (1992), the following was written in the abstract: "All cases of attempted suicide referred to the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria were studied over a period of a year. This investigation included a psychiatric evaluation and a study of details relating to each case of suicidal behaviour. In addition, suicide intent and risk were measured. The patient's stressors were also recorded. total of 307 patients, 86 of whom were male and 221 female, were evaluated. After 5 years as many respondents of the initial investigation as possible were traced, with the main object of obtaining information about subsequent suicidal behaviour. 205 respondents were traced, 59 of whom were male and 205 female. Acute risk factors for repeated suicide attempts for men were: never married, unemployed and the loss of a job. Many were not living with someone with whom they had an intimate relationship. The most common chronic conditions were Alcohol- and Drug-related as well as Homosexuality and Epilepsy. The most commonly observed personality traits were Antisocial, Dependent and Inadequate traits.

An American Hint Suggesting Ongoing Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Suicide Problem: - Depression, isolation, rejection lead many gay youths to attempt suicide
(2009): Switchboard of Miami, Miami-Dade's crisis center, launched a gay suicide hotline in 2005. It became the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Suicide Hotline in 2006. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008, Switchboard took about 400 calls from people identifying themselves as gay, including 56 that counselors declared ''crisis calls,'' or people at immediate risk. It's not just young gay people contemplating suicide, said Ed Straub Jr., a Switchboard board member who founded the hotline. ''In the first year of our program, . . . 52 percent of the people calling the Switchboard were between the ages 35 and 59,'' he said. Both gay men and lesbians are at risk. ''Absolutely,'' Straub said. ``In fact, women are twice as likely to consider suicide as men, even though the number of male suicides is higher.'' The gay hotline has a $30,000 annual budget, with funding from groups including Dade Community Foundation and private donors. ''We try to spend half or a third of that in advertising,'' Straub said. ``We advertise mostly in the local gay press. That increases the call volume back to Switchboard.'' Straub became involved with suicide prevention after three friends killed themselves in 2004. ``I'm like a lightning rod. People come to me. I come to the bars. We talk at cocktail parties. On Lincoln Road. People want to open up about it. It's amazing how many people are touched by suicide.'' Straub said he has observed three factors that often contribute to gay suicide attempts: • Financial and health-related issues. • Drug and alcohol use. • Loneliness or feeling unable to achieve life goals.

A Hint From England Related to Ongoing Suicide Problems: - No Way Out (Late 1990s, or 2000): The shocking statistics for suicide amongst gay teenagers have traditionally been attributed to the pressures of coming out in a hetero-defined society. Murray Healy discovers an alarming new trend amongst twenty-somethings who find the promised land of the urban gay community isn’t all they expected it to be...
Last year, six friends of mine tried to kill themselves. All men in their twenties, all intelligent, attractive, popular, and seemingly happy; and all, to a greater or lesser extent, identifying as gay. I started the year never having known anyone who’d attempted suicide. 


Review Papers & Meta-Analyses: GLB Suicidality & Mental Health


Index: Tables of Suicidality Study Results: Random Samples

"Attempted Suicide" Incidences For Homosexually Oriented People
& Some Comparisons With Heterosexually Oriented People

Categories
Random
Random
American
Adolescents
in Schools:
1, 2, 3 A - A4
Youth/Adult  -
University Students D-D5
North American
Adults G
Canadian Adolescents
in School: 1, 2
Europe
Youth/Adults I - I2
-
Australia
New Zealand
NZ Birth Cohort M
Youth/Adults N-N2
World
Special Samples
---
USA Twin Study
NZ Birth Cohort /

USA Longitudinal: School O - O3
Colorado, USA
Three Studies
Three Studies
Selected "At Risk"
Populations
Psychiatric Patients
Transsexual People
Street Youth: USA /
Canada / UK: 1991-2006

Transgender P -P5


Associated Supplementary Data Table(s)
: A.
Pinhey & Millman (2004: Guam YRBS), A-2. Olshen et al. 2007: 2005: NYC YRBS, A-3. Farley et al (2008): 2007: NYC YRBS, A-4. Borowski et al. (1999): Adolescent Health Survey, American Indian / Alaska Native. - D. Whitlock & Knox (2007, Cornell & Princeton Universities), D-2. University of Michigan's 2005/2007 "Healthy Minds Study", D-3. The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey: ACHA-NCHA, D-4. Smith (2006, NYU 2003 ACHA-NCHA results), D-5. Murphy (2007, University of Washington, Non-Random).  - G. Paul et al. (2002: USA)  - I. Wichstrom & Hegna (2003: Noway), Sweden, National Public Health Survey (2005). - M. Fergusson et al. (2005, NZ Birth Cohort, as young adults). - N. New Zealand Youth 2000 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey, N-2. New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health SurveyO. Herrell et al. (1999: USA), O-2. Fergusson et al. (2005, NZ Birth Cohort, as young adults), O-3. McNair et al. (2005, Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health: ALSWH).  - P. Mathy (2002b: North America), P-2. Clements-Nolle et al. (2006: San Francisco), P-3. Whittle et al. (2007, UK, Internet Sample),  P-4. Whittle et al. (2008, Europe, Internet Sample), P-5. FHI Rapport (2005, Sweden Internet Sample)., P-6. Grant et al. (2010, American, Internet Sample, Some Pencil/Paper Surveys), P-7. Scandlon et al. (2010, Ontario, Canada: Internet, Pencil/Paper, or by Telephone with a Language Interpreter, Where Necessary for a Near-Randon Sample).

The Alerts

Alert! There was a time, not long ago, when those in the 'helping' professions, including 'mental help' professionals, would have been best described as 'professionals' who were only seeking to help heterosexual people, with a major focus being on harming, as much as possible, non-heterosexual people such as gay, lesbian, bisexual individuals. This was done, for example, when 'mental health' professionals had decreed that homosexual individuals were all mentally disordered and were to be treated (harmed) accordingly. However, even if this 'mental disorder decree for homosexual people' was removed from the American DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) in 1973, the ICD (The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) in 1992, with China having done the same only in 2003 (Mental Disorder Redefined, Homosexuality Excluded), these outcomes did not mean that 'mental health' 'professionals' would suddenly / 'magically' become knowledgeable of homosexually oriented people and begin helping. As with racist groups, heterosexist and homophobic groups may take generations to end their abuses of the hated ones, with ongoing more insidious ways developed to continue harming the hated ones. For example, by 1994, ignoring sexual minority issues in American psychology and psychiatry research was the rule as illustrated in a paper titled “"I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men” (Rothblum, 1994). By the late 1990s and the early 2000s, the same neglect had been reported in family therapy, psychology, community psychology and social work, as reported here (must scroll). The ongoing inherently harming ways of many / most(?) 'mental health' professionals - as related to sexual minority clients - was documented in New Zealand (Semp, 2006, 2007), and the same is likely happening throughout the western world.
Rothblum ED (1994). "I only read about myself on bathroom walls": the need for research on the mental health of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2), 213-20. (PubMed Abstract) Full Text.

Semp, David (2007). A Public Silence: Sexual Orientation and Mental Health Services. Presentation, Mental Health Awareness Week, 2007: Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand. Word Download.

Semp, David (2006). A public silence : discursive practices surrounding homosexuality. PhD Thesis. The University of Auckland. Download Page. PDF Download: Front Pages. PDF Download: Whole Document.

Alert! Statistics New Zealand. (2008). Considering Sexual Orientation as a Potential Official Statistic: Discussion paper. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand. PDF Download - Download Page - Related. Sexual monority children, youth and adults are often at high risk for experiencing or having experienced a number of problems, including very serious ones such as having been abused, bullied and assaulted in schools and in their communities - including in their families (Corliss et al., 2002) - and experiencing related suicidality (Ryan et al., 2009). However, the majority of school surveys that inquire about youth health and problems do not solicit sexual orientation information (or the often related gender nonconformity information), thus avoiding to produce study results that would highlight sexual minority individuals to be at risk. As a result, related issues continue to be ignored as sexual minority students continue to be abused, silenced, harmed and ignored (to death? 1, 2, 3: must scroll, p. 23). Furthermore, almost all suicidality studies carried out in North America or elsewhere continue to exclude sexual orientation measures with few realizing that such omissions should be perceived as highly harmful unprofessional and unethical highly harmful conduct. Unfortunately, the AAS (American Association of Suicidology) has not forcefully spoken to this issue and its official publication - Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior - has not implemented policies such as maybe refusing to publish suicidality studies that have not included "sexual orientation" measures, especially in youth and young adult studies. Tragically, the CDC also continues to make available an official version of The Youth Risk Behavior Survey that does not include "sexual orientation" measures, in spite of the fact that many adolescent school surveys in the past 14 years have revealed sexual orientation measures to be not only predictive of general suicidal behaviors (and related problems), but also to more strongly predict the most serious life-threatening suicidal behaviors... beginning in early adolescence. It is therefore not surprising that even the most academically successful sexual minority youth - university students - are likely to also be at greater risk for suicidality and related problems, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with even greater risk maybe/likely existing for the lesser educated young adults who have been much neglected in suicidality research. To date, the highest suicidality risk has been reported for American sexual minority street youth who form about 20% of the street youth population. Their lifetime attempted suicide incidence is 62% (van Leeuwen et al., 2006). A special web page has been constructed for the studies related to the suicidality of street and homeless youth with a focus on the overrepresentation of both aboriginal and sexual minority individuals in these populations. Note: Nothing is known about suicidality issues for middle age to elder sexual sexual minority individuals because suicidality researchers have not included sexual minority measures in their studies.

Taskforce for Prevention of Suicides among LGBTs Instated (USA, 2010)

Alert! Hatzenbuehler et al (2009) tested and retested (7 months later, same school year) Grade 6 to 8 mostly non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino students (68%) from 2 low SES middle schools in central Connecticut. On the following - Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), Children’s Response Styles Questionnaire (CRSQ,  Rumination Subscale),  and Emotion Expression Scale for Children (EESC, Poor Emotional Awareness Subscale) - the 29 same-sex romantically attracted children scored higher (p < 0.05 to p < .01) than heterosexual students (n = 1042 at Time-1, and 825 at Time-2). Therefore, factors that may increase the risk for suicidality are higher for sexual minority children at a young age, this likely being implicated in their reported higher risk for suicidality from Grade 7 to 12 in other mostly random American studies. Little has been done to end the generally highly heterosexist, homophobic and homohating(?) nature of public or private K-12 schools where the word "gay" - as in "So Gay!" - has 'evolved' to designate anyone who is lacking in all ways, including intelligence (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, How 'gay' became children's insult of choice, BBC). "At risk" sexual minority children can expect little in term of help from teachers or school psychologists on the personal level and, especially, with respecting to changing the "traditional" nature of schools that have been highly harming and abusing of sexual minority children and youth.

Potter L, Silverman M, Connorton E, Posner M, Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2004). Promoting mental health and preventing suicide in college and university settings. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/college_sp_whitepaper.pdf.
"Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: ... There is no concrete information about suicide rates among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) college students and little to no information about efforts to promote their mental health or prevent suicide. There is even less information about the behavior and needs of transgender students, though we can assume they face somewhat similar risks...GLB students who transition from high school to higher education may bring some of the same suicidal behavior to their new environment. One study attempted to measure the suicidal risk among a small sample of GLB college students compared with a sample of their heterosexual peers (Westefeld, Maples, Buford, & Taylor, 2001). Researchers administered a paper and pencil assessment of suicidal risk called the College Student Reasons for Living Inventory (CSRLI). GLB students were more depressed, lonelier, and had fewer reasons for living than a control group of their peers, and depression and loneliness correlated positively with suicidal tendencies. In addition, GLB students in this study experienced prejudice and related issues (Westefeld et al., 2001). Many campuses are increasingly open to and supportive of inclusion of GLBT students, but homophobia remains a problem..."

Note: In 2004, this was the best that the authors had to offer about the suicidality situation for GLBT young adults in American universities. Without doubt, suicidology researchers had been almost completely indifferent or even neglectful of the welfare of GLBT students by not ever producing research that would reveal whether or not GLBT students were - or were not - more at risk for attempting suicide than their heterosexual counterparts... as it was the case for GLBT adolescents in schools. Yet, there were many data sets available - that solicited both sexual orientation and suicidality/depression information - from which this possibility could have been explored. For example, from 2000 to 2008, the American College Health Association produced 18 data sets (2 per year) known as the National College Health Assessment surveys (ACHA-NCHA), but only the
2000 Spring Survey was reported on in 2005 (Leino & Kisch, 2005; Kisch et al., 2005) with associated GLBT information. However, nothing was reported about GLBT students being at risk for attempting suicide, even if only a trend existed given the possible low counts, by maybe a "risk" factor of "6" as one NYU report notes for the 2003 Spring Survey. Nonetheless, not being heterosexual was the second largest independent predictor (OR =  2.6) for university students having seriously considered suicide in the past year (1999-2000). Interestingly, many NCHA data sets have the counts required to do a GLBT "Attempted Suicide in the Past Year" analysis but all ACHA-NCHA Survey data reports do not mention possible "at risk" GLBT status so that, for example, if they are "at risk," initiatives to help GLB students could be implemented. Massachusetts, for example, does report the GLB "at risk" status when reporting the results of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2007: 4.4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). The same was done in Rhode Island (2007: GLBU students, 4.4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year) and in Washington DC (2007 N/A: GLB students, 3.8 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). Others have made the results available for others to disseminate and make public as it was done in Chicago (2005, GLB students, 3-4 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year) and in Vermont (2007: GLB students, 7 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year, with the results for 2005 also given: GLBQ students, 5 times the risk for having attempted suicide in the past year). In 2007, from another survey carried out at two universities in 2005 (Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being), Whitlock & Knox (2007) reported GLB students to be 4 times more at risk for a lifetime suicide attempt. Gay/lesbian, bisexual and questioning students also had, separately and as a group, the highest associations between lifetime self-injury and suicidality. The small-scale university classroom survey of males by Savin-Williams (2001) reported that about 50% of males were non-heterosexual, that 83% of males (5/6) reporting a true suicide attempt were non-heterosexual, and that the 3 males for whom medical care was associated with the suicide attempt were also non-heterosexual. The Murphy (2007) dissertation study highlighted the possibility that, in American  universities, a high risk group for current suicidality - usually ignored by researchers - identify as "heterosexual" but also report some same-sex attraction or sexual behavior. All who report GLBT results from the ACHA-NCHA-like surveys - that solicits only "identity" sexual orientation information - should caveat their results accordingly. In the Murphy (2007) study, 50% (5/10) of the females who had attempted suicide in the past year were non-heterosexual and the two male suicide attempters were non-heterosexual.
Malley E, Posner M, Potter L, Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf.
"The majority of literature reviews on LGB suicide attempts conclude that LGB youth have a significantly higher rate of attempting suicide than heterosexual youth. Furthermore, most suicide attempts among LGB people occur during adolescence and young adulthood (Kulkin, Chauvin, & Percle, 2000; Proctor & Groze, 1994; Remafedi et al., 1991). (The same holds true for people of all sexual orientations; national hospital data show self-harm rates are highest for youth age 15 through 19 years old (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007))."
Alert! It is sometimes believed that, compared to heterosexual individuals, sexual minority individuals are only more at risk for attempting suicide only during adolescence. However, a New Zealand birth cohort study reports that their "higher risk" for attempting suicide continues to exist between the ages of 21 to 26 years, at least for sexual minority males (Skegg et al., 2003), with a re-analysis by Fergusson et al. (2005) indicating that the higher risk applies for both sexual minority males and females. In the United States, for young adults ranging in age from 18 to 26 years in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Silenzio et al. (2007) reports that sexual minority males and females have remained more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past year, compared to their heterosexual counterpart (includes those reporting to be predominantly heterosexual): OR = 1.4<3.0<6.2, controlling for race, gender, and age. During adolescence for the same sample, Russell & Joyner (2001) report the "greater risk" factor to have been - OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6) - for sexual minority females, with an OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9) for sexual minority males, controlling for demographic factors.

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury:  The Cutting Edge: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence (By Janis Whitlock): "Indeed, the only demographic variable to be significantly linked to NSSI is sexual orientation. Sexual minorities appear to be at higher risk than their heterosexual peers. In fact, youth identifying as bisexual or questioning have been shown to be at significantly elevated risk for self-injury compared to both their heterosexual and homosexual peers (Whitlock, Eckenrode, et al., 2006; Whitlock, Muehlenkamp, et al., 2009). This is particularly true for females."




Adolescent School Surveys: Random or Near-Random
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual
Orientation/Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity
Published American Studies
Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Remafedi
et. al
(1998)


178 (M*)
Homo/Bi
Sexual
168 (M)
Heterosexual
Matched
28.1% vs.
4.2% RR: 6.8
Lifetime
Adolescent Health Survey
Minnesota,1987
N = 36,254. Grades 7 to 12
Sexual Minority / Others =
Self-Identification
Males: OR = 7.1 (3.1, 16.5)
Females: OR - 1.5 (0.81, 2.8) ns

166 (F*)
Homo/Bi
Sexual

145 (F)
Heterosexual
Matched

20.5% vs.
14.5% RR: 1.4 ns. Lifetime
Garofalo
et. al
(1999)




129 (MF)
GLBN
3,236 (MF)
Heterosexual
31.0% vs.
9.1%
RR: 3.4
In The Past
12 Months
*** YRBS Massachusetts, 1995. N = 3,365 - GLBN: Self-Identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or 'Not Sure' of Sexual Orientation: OR = 2.28 (1.4, 3.4)
With Control Variables
? (M)
GLBN
? (M)
Heterosexual
** 41.6% vs.
6.4% RR: 6.5
12 Months
OR = 3.74 (1.9, 7.3)
With Control Variables
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
? (F)
GLBN
? (F)
Heterosexual
** 27.1% vs.
13.4% RR: 2.0
Past 12 Months
OR = 1.42 (0.65, 3.1) ns
With Control Variables
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
? (MF)
Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
? (MF)
No Same-Sex
Sex, Ever
30.6% vs.
9.2% RR: 3.3
Past 12 Months
OR: Not Given
Attempted Suicide: Past 12 Months
Bontempo
& D'Augelli
(2002)

196 (M)
GBUS
4,416 (M)
Heterosexual
20.4% vs.
1.2% RR: 17.0
Past 12 Month
1995 Massachusetts & Vermont: YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12. - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure Identity and/or Same-Sex Sex Reported: GLBUS.
Attempted Suicide 4 or More Times
In Past 12 Months - Statistical Significance for RRs:
p < 0.001
119 (F)
LBUS
4,457 (F)
Heterosexual
10.8% vs.
1.4% RR: 7.7
12 Months
Olshen
et al.
(2007)

8080
New York
City High
School
Students
> = 14 Years
51% Female,
40.1%
Hispanic,
36.0% Black, 16.0% Asian/other,
 7.9%
white
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: See Table Below For More Related Information.
3.7 (2.4-5.9)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.45 (1.31-4.56)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Dating violence (1.6), Feeling sad or hopeless (3.6), Disordered eating (1.8), Unsafe at school (1.9), Physical fighting (1.6), Binge drinking (1.9).

(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
9.0 (5.3-15.3)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.44 (1.88-6.32)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Sexual assault (3.9),  Feeling sad or hopeless (4.3), Disordered eating (2.6),  Drug use (2.3), Carried a gun (4.3).
Farley
et al.
(2008)

GLBU
(MF)
Heterosexual
(MF)
31% vs. 8%
Past 12 Months
New York City: 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. - See More Results: Table Below.
RR: 3.9
Levasseur
(2013)

GLB
(MF)
951
(7.9%)
Heterosexual
(MF)
9,763
(92.1%)
??% vs. ??%
Past Year
Attempted Suicide, GLB vs. Hetero.
Not Adjusted: New York City, 2009
4.39 (3.46, 5.57)  p <.001, 95% CI
Adjusted, controlling for being: bullied, Hispanic, and male: OR:
3.65 (2.71, 4.93) p <.001, 95% CI
GB

122
Heterosexual
Males
2,583
GB
??% vs. ??%
Hetero. Males
??% vs. ??%
Past Year,
bullied - not bullied
Hetero Males, Attempted Suicide, Bullied vs.. Not Bullied:
OR: 2.27 (1.15, 4.47), p = .018

GB Males, Attempted Suicide,  Bullied vs. Not Bullied:
OR: 21.39 (5.69, 80.35), p < .001
Other
Studies

Sexual minority suicidality results from many other large scale adolescent surveys - especially Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - have been reported in non-peer-reviewed venues such as reports and web pages. Some of these results are given on another Web Page and show that, generally, sexual minority adolescents are at increasing risk for the more serious suicide behavior, compared to other adolescents. Summaries of suicidality results for adolescent school surveys are located here.
** Not Given. Estimated Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females - *** YRBS = Youth Risk Behavior Survey




New York City 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey; Grades 9 to 12
Suicidality, Past Year: Non-Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual 1

Categories /
Variables
Heterosexual
% Incidence
GLBU
% Incidence
Risk
Ratio 2
Seriously Considered
Suicide
14%
37%
2.6
Planned Suicide
10%
29%
2.9
Atempted Suicide
8%
31%
3.9
Injured, Poisoned, or
Overdosed in an Attempt
2%
9%
4.5
Data Source: Farley et al (2008)

Results are reported to be similar in three New York City neighborhoods with high rates of illness and premature death: East and Central Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Bushwick, and the South Bronx. See Noyes et al. (2008).

1. Males & Females analysed together, but differences possible/expected. All 'Race' groups analyzed together, but differences possible/expected. All Non-Heterosexual Students (GLBU = Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure) analyzed together, but differences are possible/expected. See result for NYC 2005 YRBS.
2. The counts are not given for populations or incidences. It is therefore not possible to calculate confidence intervals and statistical significance values. However, it can be assumed that differences are statiscally significant.



2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey: New York City High Schools
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual
Orientation/Identity/Behavior vs. Others

Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Olshen
et al.
(2007)

N = 8080
14 years and older
51% Female,
40.1% Hispanic,
36.0% black,
16.0% Asian/other,
 7.9% white
(F)
Gay/Lesbian
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
0.9 (0.3-2.6)
(F)
Bisexual
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
5.3 (2.9-9.8)
(F)
Unsure
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.4 (1.1-5.4)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.7 (2.4-5.9)
(F)
GLBU (All)
(F)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
2.45 (1.31-4.56)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Dating violence (1.6), Feeling sad or hopeless (3.6), Disordered eating (1.8), Unsafe at school (1.9), Physical fighting (1.6), Binge drinking (1.9).
(M)
Gay
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
6.2 (1.7-22.7)
(M)
Bisexual
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
12.8 (6.5-25.3)
(M)
Unsure
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
6.8 (3.3-13.9)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
9.0 (5.3-15.3)
(M)
GBU (All)
(M)
Heterosexual
?
Past 12 Months
3.44 (1.88-6.32)
Model Controls with Associated ORs: Sexual assault (3.9),  Feeling sad or hopeless (4.3), Disordered eating (2.6),  Drug use (2.3), Carried a gun (4.3).
Egan
et al.
(2007)
N = 7,103
GB or Same-Sex
Intercourse (M)
Gay = 118
Bisexual = 101

Others (m)
3,538

-
Those who were missing behavior and
identity were excluded (N=374).
"Significant differences were found between groups in reported tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use. Overall trends show that lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) youth were more likely to report ever using substances and increased alcohol use (days drank, binge drinking, age first used). Lesbian/bisexual girls and bisexual boys reported increased tobacco use (age first used, last 30-days, quantity). These data suggest that NYC LGB youth may face significantly greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals..."

LB or Same-Sex
Intercourse (F)
Lesbian = 132
Bisexual = 290

Others
3,565

-
Pathela (2008)
See the Powerpoint Presentation for the associations between same-sex behavior and sexual identity and other sex related life events in the New York City 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. .
** Not Given. Estimate Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females - *** YRBS = Youth Rsik Bhavior Survey





American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 2003 to 2012
Suicidality & Other Survey Results

Categories /
Information
Sources
Location, Year
Sample Size
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year, %

Related Information:
Percentages For GLBU
Odd Ratios (OR), 95% CI
Other Related Suicidality Results
Sexual
Minority
Hetero-
sexual
Benbow
(2005)
Sullivan &
Valles (2006)

Chicago 2003 YRBS:
968 students in 23
public high schools.
Grades 9-12
GLB 1
32%
Past Year
RR = 2.9 2
Hetero-
sexual

11%
GLB = 6.3%, 7.3% M, 4.7% F. 3
GLB = 7.3% Black, 5.8% Hispanic. 4.9% White. Same-Sex Sex = 2.3%, 1.6% M, 2.9% F. Depression:
GLB vs. Heterosexual: 52% vs. 31%
Horn
(2008)
Horn
(2007)
Chicago 2005 YRBS:
941 students in 23
public high schools.
Grades 9-12

GL: 27.3%
B: 33.3%
Past Year
RR: 3.6-4.4
Hetero-
sexual

7.5%
GLB = 4.2%. Unsure = 2.5% - GLB or Same-Sex Sex = 8.8% - African Americans (52.6%), Latino (26.8%), White (9.5%), Asian (3.2%) and other (7.9%).
Plan Suicide, Past year: 33.3% (GL), 35.0% (B)
vs. 9.7% (Heterosexual). RR: 3.4-3.6

VDH
(200_)
Outright
Vermont
(200_)
VDH (2006)
Vermont 2005 YRBS:
9,207-9,214 students
replied to sexual
orientation questions.
All Students Surveyed:
9,342 from High /
Middle Schools
Same-Sex
Sex: 42%
GL: 32%
B: 31%
Unsure: 18%
Past Year
RR: 3.6-6.4
Opposite-
Sex Sex: 9%

Hetero-
sexual:
5%
Results Not Weighted. GL = 1.0%, B = 3.2%,
Unsure = 3.0%, Same-Sex Sex = 2.6%
Same-Sex-Sex. Females: Only With Females (0%), With Males & Females (2%). Males: Only With Males (0%), With Males & Females (1%). Results for many more "At Risk" behaviors are given in referenced document.
Total Survey: 31,617 eight to twelfth grade students in 146 schools representing 59 supervisory unions.
Outright
Vermont
(200_)
VDH (2008)
Vermont 2007 YRBS:
8,364 students:
replied to sexual
orientation questions.
High / Middle Schools.
Census for Vermont:
95.3% White,
non Hispanic.
GL: 27%
B: 11%
Past Year
Unsure: 15%, RR: 2.8-6.8
Hetero-
sexual
4%
All: GL = 1.1%, B = 3.4%, Unsure = 2.8%
Males:
GL = 1%, B = 2%, Unsure = 2%
Females: L = 1%, B = 5%, Unsure = 3%
Same-Sex-Sex. Females: Only With Females (1%), With Males & Females (3%). Males: Only With Males (1%), With Males & Females (2%).
Total Survey: 28,918 eight to twelfth grade students in 144 schools representing 60 supervisory unions.
MCGLBTY
(2003)
Massachusetts
2003 YRBS:
3,624 Students,
Grade 9 - 12

GLB
40.4%
Past Year
RR: 7.2
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual
7.2%
GLB = 3.5%.
 GLB or had Same-Sex Sex = 6.0%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 18.3% vs. 2.2%, RR: 8.3,
p < 0.05
MCGLBTY
(2005)
Massachusetts
2005 YRBS:
3,522 Students,
Grade 9 - 12
GLB
24.8%
Past Year
RR: 4.4
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual

5.7%
GLB = 3.7%.
 GLB or Had Same-Sex Sex = 6.4%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 8.2% vs. 2.2%, RR: 3.7,
p < 0.05
MCGLBTY
(2007)
MDESE
(2008)

Massachusetts
2007 YRBS:
3,131 Students,
Grade 9 - 12
GLB
29.1%
Past Year
RR: 4.5
p < 0.05
Hetero-
sexual
6.4%
GLB = 5.4%.
 GLB or Had Same-Sex Sex = 9.2%
Attempted Suicide, Required Medical
Attention: 12.1% vs. 2.2%, RR: 5.5,
p < 0.05
White (72.8%), Hispanic/Latino (14.5%), African American (6.8%), Asian (3.1%), Others (2.9%).
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2005)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2003
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
1,960 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
44.0%
Past Year
RR: 3.3
Hetero-
sexual

13.5%
5.6% GLBU Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual + Unsure.
White (81.2, 74.3%), Hispanic/Latino (10.9, 21.6%), Asian (5.4, 2.6%), Black (1.8, 0.9%), Native
American (0.7. 0.7%).

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2006)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2005
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,956 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
23.6%
Past Year
RR: 3.7
Hetero-
sexual

6.3%
0.07% Gay/Lesbian, 3.6% Bisexual, 2.2% Unsure.
White (72.1%), Hispanic/Latino (17.3%), Asian (4.1%), Black (1.6%), Native American (1.3%).
Seriously consider suicide: 45.9% (GLBU) vs.
15.0% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.1
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2008)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2007
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,106 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
23.0%
Past Year
RR: 3.2

Hetero-
sexual

7.2%
89.0% Heterosexual, 1.5% Gay/Lesbian, 3.7% Bisexual, 2.3% Unsure, 2.3% None of The Above.
White (74.0%), Other ? (13.5%), Others ?
Seriously consider suicide: 49.7% (GLBU) vs.
14.1% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.5

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2010)
Boulder, St. Vrain
School Districts: 2009
Youth Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,106 Students
Grade 9 - 12

GLBU
20.3%
Past Year
RR: 4.8

Hetero-
sexual

4.2%
90.7% Heterosexual, 9.3% GLBU.

Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2012)
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,197 Students. Grade 9 - 12. GLBU
31.8%
Past Year
RR: 7.6
Hetero-
sexual

4.2%
91.8% Heterosexual
8.2% GLBU

Additional Suicidality Results.
Jiang
et al.
(2010)

Basic Results
RIDHESE
(2009):

At Risk for
27 of 30
"At Risk"
Behaviors

Rhode Island
2007 Youth
Risk Behavior
Survey.
2,210 Students
Grade 9 - 12

GLBU
31.0%
Past Year
Hetero-
sexual
6.6%
Odds Ratio, No Controls:
6.4, p < 0.001
Odds Ratio, Many Controls:
3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
p < 0.001
See Table Below for
More Suicidality Results.
See Another Table for
"Attempted Suicide" Results Based on Sex Ethnicity.
Cryan &
Perry
(2011)
Rhode Island
2009 Youth
Risk Behavior
Survey.
3,213 Students
Grade 9 - 12
GLBU
22%
Past Year
Hetero-
sexual
6%
GLBU =
11% Females, 6% Males

Webpage Author
Estimated OR: 4.4

DCPS
(2008)
Washington DC 2007
Youth
Risk Behavior. Survey. 1,783 Students: 1,532 replied to sexual orientation question.
1,523
replied to
same-sex sex question.

GLB
32.6%
Past Year
RR:
3.8
Hetero-
sexual
8.6%
Males: G (3.0%), B (4.1%), Not Sure (3.0%). Females:
L (3.6%), B (6.3%), Not Sure (3.3%). Results likely
weighted. Raw Counts given and give slightly different
percentage results.
Females report same-sex sex with females only (5.2%) and Males/Females (3.6%). Males report lifetime same-sex sex with Males only (4.9%) and Males/Females (2.0%). Demographics: African American (82.0%), Hispanic/Latino (10.8), White (5.4%),
Asian/PI (1.6%), Others (0.2%)
Blake
et al.
(2010)
Washington DC 2007
Youth
Risk Behavior. Survey
GLB
or
Same-Sex
Sex
34%
Past Year
RR: 3.8
Hetero-
sexual
or
Only
Opposite-
Sex Sex
9%
Additional Suicidality Results:
Table Below
WDPI (2008)
Crabe (2008)
GSASS
(2009)

Wisconsin 2007 Youth Risk Behavior. Survey.  2,094 Students
Grade 9 - 12,
56 Schools

Same-Sex
Sex, Lifetime
RR: 3.7
?
Females report lifetime same-sex sex with females only (1.6%) and Males/Females (5.4%). Males report lifetime same-sex sex with males only (2.0%) and Males/Females (1.6%). Greater risk for having attempted suicide in the past year is reported to be 3.7-times, but comparison group not stated. Could be "all others" or "only those who reported lifetime opposite-sex".
Census: White, non Hispanic (
85.4%), African American (6.0%), Hispanic / Latino (4.9%), Other (3.7%).
SFUSD
(2008)
ETRA
(2008b)

ETRA
(2008a)
San Francisco 2007 Youth Risk Behavior. Survey.
2,587 Students
Grade 9 - 12,
14 Schools

GLB
16%

Past Year RR: 3.3
Hetero-
sexual
5%
LGBQ (11%): Males (10%), Females (13%). Gay/ Lesbian (1.8%), Bisexual (3.7%), Not Sure (5.8%).
Transgender Demographics: All (1%), American Indian (20%), Hawaiian/PI (4%), Multiracial (4%), African American (3%), Chinese (1%), Filipino (1%), Other Asian (2%), Hispanic / Latino (0.4%), White (2%).
School Demographics: Chinese (36%), Hispanic/Latino (19%), African American (12%), Filipino (6%), Other Non-White (13%), Multiracial (2%), White (9%).
Hatzenbuehler
(2011)

Oregon Healthy
Teen Study
2006-2008
Grade 11
: Random
Combined
Lesbian or Gay

19.60%

RR: 4.6
p < 0.001
Hetero-
Sexual

4.21%
Reported Identities:
Heterosexual, n=30,439,
60.8% Male
Lesbian or Gay, n = 301, 49.5% Male
Bisexual, n = 1,112, 25.0% Male
72.8% to 73.5% White
Attempted Suicide, Past Year
RR: Risk Ratios Calculated by Webpage Author. Statistical Significance given by Study Author.
Given ORs, Unadjusted:
Lesbian/Gay vs. Heterosexual:
OR: 5.99 [95% CI: 4.48–8.04]
Bisexual
vs. Heterosexual:
6.60 [95% CI: 5.67–7.70]
Given ORs, Adjusted:
Lesbian/Gay vs. Heterosexual:
OR: 3.48 [95% CI: 2.33–5.20]
Bisexual
vs. Heterosexual:
2.82 [95% CI: 2.32–3.42]

Bisexual

22.03%

RR: 5.2
p < 0.001
Hetero-
Sexual

4.21%
Shields
et al.
(2012)

2009 San Francisco
Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Grade 9-12
N = 2,154
Gay, Lesbian &
Bisexual

23%
Hetero-
sexual


8%
Weighted, No Control Variables: OR (Odd Ratio): 3.6, p < .05
OR, Weighted, 5 Control Variables: 
2.2
[95% CI: 1.2–4.2]
OR Results also given for Depression & Making a Suicide Plan, with GLB Students being more at risk.
Schneider
et al.
(2012)

Massachussett's 2008
MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey:
High Schools
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual &
Unsure
n = 1,261
? %
OR:
5.17
(4.05, 6.60)
Hetero-
sexual
n =
18,795

? %
OR - Odds Ratio - Calculated using many control variables.
See Table Below for additional results:
Depression, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury,  Suicide Ideation & Attempting Suicide Requiring Medical Treatment.
All for Past One Year Period.
Kidd
et al.
(2012)
2008 Boston Youth Survey: Boston Public Schools.
Females Only.
42.4% African American. 34.7%
Hispanic / Latino.
7.7% White
Mostly
Hetero-sexual
Females
to Lesbian
n = 89

13.6%

OR: 4.2
p < 0.0001

100%
Hetero-sexual
Females
n = 800

3.6%
Odds Ratios (ORs) calculated by webpage author. Statistical Significances given by study authors.

Suicide Ideation: 33.3 vs. 12.4%
OR: 3.5,
p < 0.0001

Deliberate Self-Harm:
33.0 vs. 8.3%
OR: 5.4,
p < 0.0001
Button
et al.
(2012)
Delaware Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2003, 2005, 2007
Combined
Homo-
sexual
Bisexual
Unsure
n = 353
26.2%
Past Year
Hetero-
Sexual
n =
6,283

5.5%
Past Year
Odds Ratio estimated
by webpage author: 6.1
See Table Below for additional results:
Mohr &
Husain
(2012)
Wisconsin Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2007, 2009, 2011
Combined.
Results: Weighted
Same-Sex
Sex
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
28% vs. 7% - OR: 4.8
See: Related Information &
More Suicidality Results
.
Same-Sex
Sex
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Attempted Suicide, Medical Care, Past Year:
13% vs. 2% - OR: 5.4
See: Related Information &
More Suicidality Results
.

Mohr &
Husain
(2012)
Wisconsin Youth
Risk Behavior
Surveys: 2007, 2009, 2011
Combined.
Results: Weighted
Gay /
Lesbian
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
29% vs. 5% - Odds Ratio: 7.6
See: Related Information.
Bi-
sexual
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
31% vs. 5% -
Odds Ratio: 8.3
See: Related Information.
Not
Sure
Hetero-
sexual
Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
24% vs. 5% -
Odds Ratio: 5.2
See: Related Information.
Bostwick
et al.
(2014)
Collation of
Multiple YRB
Surveys from
2005 to 2007
Sexual
Minority:
Varied
Defini-
tions
Sexual
Majority:
Only
Hetero-
sexual
See Table Below:
Generally, sexual minority adolescents are more at risk
for the more serious suicidal behaviors.However, this often
does not apply for race/ethnic sexual minority adolescents.

1.
GLBUQ = Gay, lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure, Questioning. - 2. Risk Ratio. - 3. M = Males - F = Females




Washington, DC 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Minority Results
Categories
Heterosexual or
Only  Opposite-
Sex Sex

Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual or Same-
Sex Sex

Odds Ratio
No
Controls*
Sad, Hopeless
for 2 Weeks
26%
41%
2.0
p < 0.05
Considered
Suicide
13%
31%
3.0
p < 0.05
Planned
Suicide
10%
24%
2.8
p < 0.05
Attempted
Suicide
9%
34%
5.2
p < 0.05
Attempted,
Received
Medical Care
3
10%
3.6
p < 0.05

Data Source: Blake et al. (2010)
*Odds Ratios calculated by webpage author from given percentages. Statistical Significance, p < 0.05, given by study authors.




Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Orientation Results
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
n = 1,954
%, 95%CI
1
Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual, Unsure
n = 225
%, 95%CI 1
Odds Ratio
No
Controls 2
Odds Ratio
  Using Many
Controls
1
Sad, Hopeless
for 2 Weeks
20.8 (18.3, 23.4)
50.3 (41.9, 58.7)
OR: 3.8
p < 0.001
2.4 (1.7, 3.5)
p < 0.001
Considered
Suicide
9.6 (8.5, 10.7)
33.5 (21.6, 45.3)
OR: 5.2
p
< 0.001
2.7 (1.6, 4.5)
p < 0.001
Planned
Suicide
9.7 (8.6, 10.8)
26.8 (17.4, 36.2)
OR: 3.4
p < 0.001
2.0 (1.2, 3.4)
p < 0.05
Attempted
Suicide
6.6 (5.5, 7.8)
31.0 (22.5, 39.4)
OR: 6.4
p < 0.001
3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
p < 0.001
Attempted,
Received
Medical Care
3.1 (2.0, 4.1)
10.5 (6.8, 14.2)
OR: 3.7
p < 0.001
2.0 (1.1, 3.5)
p < 0.05

Data Source: Jiang et al. (2010)
1. Reported by Study Authors.
2. Statistical Significance Given by Study Authors. Odds Ratios Calculated by Webpage Author From Given Weighted Percentages.




Rhode Island 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Sexual Orientation Related "Attempted Suicide" Results


Categories
n's
% Attempted
Suicide: All
in Category
% Attempted
Suicide:
Heterosexual
% Attempted
Suicide:
GLBU
% Attempters
in Category =
GLBU
All
Students *
1,874
177 / 1,874 =
9.4%
115 / 1,685 =
6.8%
62 / 189 =
32.8%, RR: 4.8
OR: 6.7 (4.6, 9.7)
p < 0.000
62 / 177 =
35.0%
White
Students *
1,182
86 / 1,182 =
7.3%
51 / 1,066 =
4.7%
35 / 106 =
33.0%. RR: 7.0
OR: 9.8 (5.8, 16.5)
p < 0.000
35 / 86 =
40.7%
Students
Of Color **
692
91 / 692 =
13.1%
64 / 609 =
10.5%
27 / 83 =
32.5%, RR: 3.1
OR: 4.1 (2.3, 7.2)
p < 0.000
27 / 91 =
29.7%
All
Males *
888
72 / 888 =
8.1%
49 / 810 =
6.0%
23 / 78 =
29.5%, RR: 4.9
OR: 6.5 (3.5, 11.8)
p < 0.000
23 / 72 =
31.4%
White
Males *
549
30 / 549 =
5.5%
21 / 514 =
4.1%
9 / 35 =
25.7%, RR: 6.3
OR: 8.1 (3.1, 21.0)
p < 0.000
9 / 30 =
30.0%

Males Of
Color **
339
42 / 339 =
12.4%
28 / 296 =
9.5%
14 / 43 =
32.6%, RR: 3.4
OR: 4.6 (2.0, 10.4)
p < 0.000
14 / 42 =
33.3%
All
Females *
981
104 / 981 =
10.6%
66 / 872 =
7.6%
38 / 109 =
34.9%, RR: 4.6
OR: 6.5 (4.0, 10.7)
p < 0.000
38 / 104 =
36.5%
White
Females *
633
56 / 633 =
8.8%
30 / 562 =
5.3%
26 / 71 =
36.6%, RR: 6.9
OR: 10.2 (5.3, 19.6)
p < 0.000
26 / 56 =
46.4%
Females Of
Color **
348
48 / 348 =
13.8%
36 / 310 =
11.6%
12 / 38 =
31.6%, RR: 2.7
OR: 3.5 (1.5, 8.0)
p = 0.002
12 / 48 =
25.0%

Data Source: Tremblay (2009)
: Unweighted Results Generated Online From the Data Set.


Odds Ratio (OR) Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using the Given Not Weighted Counts: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html

* Exact Counts / Results. ** Approximate Counts / Results: A Few Additional Counts.



Massachussett's 2008 MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey: High Schools
Sexual Minority Depression, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury & Suicidality

Categories
Hetero-
sexual

n = 18,795
93.7%
Gay, Lesbian
Bisexual &
Unsure
n = 1,261
6.3%
* Odds Ratios:
Compared to
Heterosexual
Students
Depression **
? %
? % 2.36 (1.97, 2.83)
Seriously Considered
Suicide: Suicide Ideation
? % ? % 3.43 (2.83, 4.16)
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury
NSSI
? % ? % 4.12 (3.42, 4.96)
Attempted
Suicide
? % ? % 5.17 (4.05, 6.60)
Attempted Suicide,
Medical Treatment
? % ? % 5.34 (3.69, 7.74)
Data Source: Schneider et al. (2012)
* All Adjusted Odds Ratios: Controlling With Many Variables.
** All Variables for Past One Year Period.





Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
2003, 2005, 2007, Combine
d: Suicidality

Categories
Homo-
sexual
Bi-
sexual
Not
Sure
Sexual
Minority
Hetero-
sexual
Odds
Ratio **

n's
73
209
71
353
6,283
Consider
Suicide *
33.3%
49.8%
50.0%
46.5%
11.5%
6.7
Plan
Suicide *
33.3%
39.2%
38.0%
37.8%
8.9%
6.2
Attempted
Suicide *
24.7%
26.6%
26.8%
26.2%
5.5%
6.1
Data Source: Button et al. (2012)
* In the past 12 months. ** OR, Sexual Minority vs. Heterosexual. Estimated at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html by Webpage Author from given data. All, p < .000



Wisconsin 2007, 2009 & 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Behavior Related Suicidality Results

Categories Students
Reporting
Same-Sex
Sex
Students
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sex
Odds
Ratio *
Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities
49%*
25%
OR: 2.5
Seriously considered attempting suicide
during the past 12 months
42%
15%
OR: 3.7
Planned a Suicide
during the past 12 months
33%
11%
OR: 3.6
Actually attempted suicide one or more times
during the past 12 months
28%
7%
OR: 4.8
Made a suicide attempt during the past 12 months that resulted in an  injury, poisoning, or overdose  that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse
13%
2%
OR: 5.4

Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
*Percentages are weighted.
*Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.


Wisconsin 2007, 2009 & 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys:
Grades 9 to 12 - Sexual Identity Related Suicidality Results
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Gay /
Lesbian
Bisexual
Unsure
Felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks  or more in a row during the past 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities: Incidence
20%*
46%
60%
44%
Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
-
3.7
5.1
2.9





Actually attempted suicide one or more times
during the past 12 months: Incidence
5%*
29%
31%
24%
Odds Ratios, With Control Variables **
GL, B or U vs. Heterosexual
-
7.6
8.3
5.2

Note
: Results for 'Seriously considering suicide', 'Planning suicide', and 'Attempting suicide that required medical attention' would be available but they were not given.


Data Source: Mohr & Husain (2012)
*Percentages are weighted.
**Odds Ratios: Controlled for difference related to grade and sex.



Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: 2003, 05, 07, 09, 2011
Boulder County, Colorado - Suicidality Related Variables
Risk Behaviors
Statistical Significance,
p < 0.05
- No Overlapping CIs
(Confidence Intervals)
Incidence %, GLBU (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure)
vs. Incidence % Heterosexual.
Risk Ratio [__] *
- Odds Ratio (__) *

2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more during the 12 months preceding the survey
49.5% vs
24.2% [2.0]
(3.1)
53.7% vs.
22.8% [2.4]
(3.9)
53.2% vs.
25.4% [2.1]
(3.3)
52.2% vs
22.3% [2.3]
(3.8)
55.1% vs. 22.3% [2.5]
(4.3)
Seriously considered attempting suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey
63.3% vs.
16.8% [3.8]
(8.5)
45.9% vs.
15.0% [3.1]
(4.8)
45.7% vs.
14.3% [3.2]
(5.0)
35.3% vs.
11.1% [3.2]
(4.4)
43.9% vs. 11.3% [3.9]
(6.1)
Planned Suicide, Past 12 Months
Not
Given
Not
Given
Not
Given
28.9% vs.
9.2% [3.1]
(4.0)
41.4% vs. 13.4% [3.1]
(4.6)
Attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey 44.0% vs.
13.5% [3.3]
(5.0)
23.6% vs.
6.3% [3.7]
(4.6)
23.0% vs.
7.2% [3.2]
(3.8)
20.3% vs.
4.2% [4.8]
(5.8)
31.8% vs. 4.2% [7.6]
(10.6)
Suicide attempt resulted in medical treatment Not
Given
Not
Given
Not
Given
4.1% vs.
1.8% [2.3]
(2.3)
12.4% vs. 1.7% [7.3]
(8.2)
Intentionally Self-Injured
Not
Given
55.4% vs.
17.2% [3.2]
(6.0)
38.9% vs.
17.6% [2.2]
(3.0)
51.0% vs.
16.1% [3.2]
(5.4)
61.1% vs. 17..1% [3.6]
(7.6)
Data Sources: 2003 YRBS Results. - 2005 YRBS Results. - 2007 YRBS Results.
2009 YRBS Results. 2011 YRBS Results.
* RRs & ORs Calculated by Webpage Author Using:  2-way Contingency Table Analysis.





Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 2005 to 2007 1
Sexual Minority Suicidality & Self-Harm Results

Cate-
gories 2

Feel
Sad
Suicide
Ideation
Planned
Suicide
Attempted
Suicide
Attempt,
Medical
Attention
Self-
Harm

Sexual Minority % vs. Heterosexual % (Weighted), Odds Ratio:
Almost All Differences/Ratios Would Be Statistically Significant. 3
Males &
Females
48.1 vs 24.5
2.9
32.2 vs 11.7
3.6
27.4 vs 9.7
3.5
22.8 vs 6.6
4.2
8.3 vs 2.0
4.4
39.1 vs 14.2
3.9







Males
37.6 vs 18.1
2.7
25.4 vs 8.6
3.6
22.4 vs 8.0
3.3
20.9 vs 5.4
4.6
9.1 vs 2.0
4.9
30.9 vs 10.1
4.0
Females
54.7 vs 31.2
2.7
36.4 vs 14.9
3.4
30.5 vs 11.4
3.4
23.9 vs 7.7
3.8
7.8 vs 2.1
3.9
44.6 vs 18.4
3.6
Males & Females
American
Indian, PI
53.8 vs 33.4
2.3
33.6 vs 18.1
2.3
36.5 15.6
3.1
32.2 vs 14.5
2.8

12.8 vs 4.4
3.2
59.9 vs 14.8
8.6
Asian
42.9 vs 24.5
2.3
25.2 vs 13.2
2.2
22.4 vs 11.5
2.2
21.1 vs 6.4
3.9
8.7 vs 1.8
5.2
31.3 vs 13.7
2.9
Black
38.7 vs 26.4
1.8
26.0 vs 11.3
2.9
22.1 vs 9.8
2.6
20.7 vs 7.8
3.1
5.3 vs 2.7
2.0
18.3 vs 8.2
2.5
White
48.0 vs 20.5
3.6
33.9 vs 10.9
4.2
27.5 vs 8.7
3.6
21.1 vs 4.9
5.2
8.8 vs 1.4
6.8
42.5 vs 15.4
4.1
Hispanic/
Latino
55.2 vs 32.3
2.6
34.5 vs 11.8
3.9
25.9 vs 9.7
3.2
26.9 vs 9.0
3.7
7.4 vs 2.5
3.1
35.0 vs 11.7
4.1
Multi-
racial
59.4 vs 31.2
3.2
37.3 vs 14.9
3.4
34.6 vs 13.1
3.5
26.9 vs 9.8
3.4
8.2 vs 3.2
2.7
41.7 vs 16.3
3.7
Males
American
Indian, PI
42.6 vs 25.3
2.2
25.8 vs 12.4
2.5
36.9 vs 12.0
4.3
32.7 vs 11.7
3.7
10.9 vs 5.4
2.1
55.1 vs 12.6
8.5
Asian
34.8 vs 20.7
2.0
22.1 vs 10.4
2.4
18.0 vs 9.2
2.2
19.0 vs 4.2
5.3
11.4 vs 1.7
7.4
17.7 vs 9.7
2.0
Black
28.9 vs 18.9
1.7
20.7 vs 8.1
3.0
17.6 vs 8.2
2.4
21.7 vs 7.7
3.3
6.9 vs 2.9
2.5
23.3 vs 6.3
4.5
White
34.8 vs 14.9
3.0
26.2 vs 8.1
4.0
20.7 vs 7.3
3.3
18.5 vs 5.9
3.6
8.1 vs 1.2
7.3
28.6 vs 10.7
3.3
Hispanic/
Latino
53.6 vs 24.1
3.6
27.6 vs 8.6
4.0
19.9 vs 8.0
2.9
20.2 vs 7.0
3.4
7.5 vs 2.3
3.4
34.9 vs 9.7
5.0
Multi-
racial
51.3 vs 22.7
3.6
34.2 vs 9.8
4.8
32.9 vs 9.7
4.6
25.0 vs 7.8
3.9
12.2 vs 2.8
4.8
46.0 vs 12.6
5.9
Females
American
Indian, PI
65.5 vs 43.4
2.5
42.9 vs 25.2
2.2
36.1 vs 20.0
2.3
30.8 vs 17.9
2.0
14.5 vs 3.1
5.3
64.0 vs 19.7
7.2
Asian
51.6 vs 29.0
2.6
28.6 vs 16.5
2.0
27.1 vs 14.3
2.2
23.6 vs 8.7
3.2
5.9 vs 1.9
3.2
42.3 vs 18.5
3.2
Black
45.1 vs 33.2
1.6
29.5 vs 14.1
2.5
25.0 vs 11.0
2.7
20.1 vs 7.9
2.9
4.5 vs 2.5
1.8
11.7 vs 10.1
1.2
White
55.5 vs 26.6
3.4
38.4 vs 13.8
3.9
31.6 vs 10.2
4.1
22.6 vs 5.9
4.7
9.3 vs 1.6
6.3
50.4 vs 20.4
4.0
Hispanic/
Latina
56.4 vs 40.3
1.9
38.5 vs 14.9
3.6
29.4 vs 11.4
3.2
30.4 vs 10.8
3.6
7.3 vs 2.6
2.9
36.0 vs 13.7
3.5
Multi-
racial
63.3 vs 40.0
2.6
38.2 vs 20.1
2.5
35.0 vs 16.7
2.7
27.4 vs 11.5
2.9
6.2 vs 3.2
2.0
39.0 vs 18.8
2.8

Data Source: Bostwick et al. (2014)
1. Pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 14 states & cities. There are 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the analysis out of a total sample of 72 691 adolescents, 33,028 being White, 11,274 Black, 9,626 Hispanic/Latino, 7,905 Multiracial, 7,028 Asian, and 2,057 Native American/Alaska Native/Pacific Islanders. Respectively, sexual minority adolescents have the following counts in the race-ethnic groups: 2,372, 1,019, 834, 975, 566, 276. The sexual minority variable was "constructed from self-reported sexual identity, behaviors, and attractions." Participants were classifiable as sexual minority versus sexual majority if they "reported a nonheterosexual identity, any same-sex behavior, or any same-sex attractions."  All others were coded sexual majority: heterosexual.

2. Feeling Sad - is for at least a 2 week period in the past year. All suicidality variables are for the past year. Self-Harm information (may or may not exist in association with being suicidal) was solicited only in a minority of studies.

3. The Odds Ratios were not given in the study paper. They were calculated by the webpage author using the given incidence percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html. It would have been too time consuming to generate approximate confidence intervals for the ORs but the counts suggest that almost all the ORs (maybe minus 2 of the smaller ones) would be statistically significant.

Note: From a meta-analysis, Marshal et al. (2011, below) reported that sexual minority adolescents have generally been more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors. The above data supports this, but also shows that, in many race/ethnic groups, and depending on gender, this 'rule' does to apply.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-23. Full Text. Abstract: "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'.





Adolescent Public School Surveys: Random / Near-Random
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Same-Sex Sexual Behavior,
Sexual Fantasies or Romantic Attraction vs.
Opposite-Sex Behavior, Attraction, Fantasies

Study Sexual
Minority
Others Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Grade - Age
OR, (95% CI) Comments
Fried
et al.
(2012)

Grade 9
Homosexual
Attraction
Grade 9
Heterosexual
Attraction
Only
15.3% vs.
5.1%
Add Health Longitudinal Survey, Waves 1 to 3 data. Weighted.
N = 1,648
OR: 3.38 [1.36, 8.36], 95% CI
Grade 11
Homosexual
Attraction
Grade 11
Heterosexual
Attraction
Only
5.4% vs.
2.8%
Add Health Longitudinal Survey, Waves 1 to 3 data. Weighted.
N = 1,728
OR: 1.95 [0.62, 6.20], 95% CI
Eisenberg
&
Resnick (2006)

402 (M*)
Same-Sex
Partners
1,135 (M)
Only Opposite
Sex Partners
29.0% vs. 12.6%
RR: 2.3
Lifetime
2004 Minnesota Student Survey
N = 21, 927. Grades 9 & 12
Sex Partners: In The Past Year
Males: OR = 2.5 (2.1, 3.0)
Females: OR = 2.6 (2.2, 3.2)
ORs: Controlling for Demography
409 (F*)
Same-Sex
Partners

2,559 (F)
Only Opposite
Sex Partners

52.4% vs. 24.8%
RR: 2.1
Lifetime
Pinhey &
Millman
(2004)

? 24 (M)
Gay, Bisexual
? 650 (M)
? 44.0% vs.
? 14.5%
2001Guam Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Grade 9 to 12, 2.9% White
Males, OR = 5.0 (2.1, 11.8)
Females, OR = 2.6 (1.2, 6.0)
Unadjusted ORs: No Controls
Other Results & Estimate (?) Problems

? 25 (F)
Lesbian, Bisexual
? 682 (M)
? 52.0% vs.
? 27.4%
Robin
et al.
(2002)

585 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners,
Ever

6,873 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner,
Only
** 32.0% vs.
11.9%
RR: 2.7
12 Months
1995 & 1997 Vermont YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12
OR = 4.0 (2.9, 5.6), With Controls
228 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever

3,948 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only

** 36.5% vs.
12.4% - RR: 2.9
12 Months
1995 & 1997 Massachusetts YRBSs, Combined: Grade 9 to 12
OR = 4.9 (2.8, 8.7), With Controls
585 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever
6,873 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only
** 17.8% vs.
4.5% - RR: 3.9
Medical Care
Attempted Suicide Resulting in
Having Received Medical Care
Past 12 Months (Vermont)
OR = 4.8 (2.9, 8.0), With Controls
228 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners, Ever
3,948 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner, Only
** 20.5% vs.
4.5% - RR: 4.6
Medical Care
Attempted Suicide Resulting in
Having Received Medical Care
Past 12 Months (Massachusetts)
OR = 5.0 (2.7, 9.3), With Controls
Russell &
Joyner
(2001)

453 (M)
Same-Sex
RA/Re
5,233 (M)
5.0% vs.
2.0%
RR: 2.5
12 Months
National Longitudinal Survey
of Adolescent Health (1994-95)
Same-Sex RA (
Romantic Attraction) /Re (Relationships)
Males - OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9)
Females - OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6)
ORs: Controlling for Demography

414 (F)
Same-Sex
RA/Re

5,840 (F)
12.2% vs.
5.0%
RR: 2.4
12 Months
Faulkner
& Cranston
(1998)

105 (MF)
Same-Sex
Partners,
Ever

1,563 (MF)
Opposite Sex
Partner,
Only

27.5% vs. 13.4%
RR: 2.0
1993 Massachusetts YRBS: Grade 9 to 12 - RR's Are Significant, p < 0.05
All Suicide Attempts &
Attempt(s) With Associated
Medical Care Occurred During The
Last 12  Months

20.0% vs. 4.7%
RR: 4.3 - Medical Care Related
Barney
(2003)

65 (M)
Same-Sex Sex
Fantasies Only
4,254 (M)
Opposite-Sex
Sex Fantasies
Only
23.2%
vs.
11.1%
RR: 2.1
1988 Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12 -USA Indian/Alaka Native Reservations. RR: p < 0.01
Additional Results
Other
Studies

Sexual minority suicidality results from many other large scale adolescent surveys - especially Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - have been reported in non-peer-reviewed venues such as reports and web pages. Some of these results are given on another Web Page and show that, generally, sexual minority adolescents are at increasing risk for the more serious suicide behavior, compared to other adolescents. Summaries of suicidality results for adolescent school surveys are located here.
** Not Given. Estimate Made From Given Data. "RR" = Risk Ratio. "OR" = Odds Ratio
All RRs or ORs are Statistically Significant, Except for "ns" = Not Statistically Significant.
* M = Males - F = Females



2001 Guam Youth Risk Behavior Survey Suicidality Results
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual vs. Other Adolescents
Pinhey & Millman (2004) Study
Categories
N's
All
N's 1
Respon-
ders
Attempted
Suicide
Odds Ratios, (95%CI)
Unadjusted / Adjusted
All (Ethnicities)
1,381
?
?

All Males
674 ?
14.5%

Males: Gay
& Bisexual
24 2
?
44.0% 3
Greater Risk for Attempting Suicide:
Gay/Bisexual Males vs. Other Males
OR = 2.45 (1.5, 3.9), No Controls
OR = 5.1 (1.6, 15.5), 8 Control Variables
Males, Others
650 2 ?
14.5% 3
All Females
707 2 ?
28.2%

Females: Lesbian
& Bisexual
25 2 ?
52.0% 3 Greater Risk for Attempting Suicide:
Lesbian & Bisexual Females vs.
Other Females
OR = 2.48 (1.7, 3.6), No Controls
OR = 2.2 (0.84, 5.6), 8 Control Variables, ns

Females, Others
682 2 ?
27.4% 3
1. The number for students who responded to both the "sexual orientation" and "attempted suicide"  questions are not given.
2. Estimated from given proportion of student population that gay/bisexual (3.5% of males) and lesbian/bisexual (3.5% of females). Nonresponders likely and numbers may be less.
3. Estimated using given Ns (assuming no nonresponders) for population/subpopulation and numbers of attempters by using a a 2X2 Computation Table. That is, placing varying number estimates in 2X2 table to produce ORs for males and females (Attempted Suicide Risk, Sexual Minority vs. others, for each sex) that are as close as possible to the given ORs, without controls having been used to generate them.
Ethnicity: 'Self-reported ethnicity consists of Chamorros (53.3% of the sample), Filipinos (25.9%), Asians (5.9%), Micronesians (7.2%), whites (2.9%), and other ethnicities (4.8%). The Asian category includes Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean respondents. The Micronesian category includes Chuukese, Yapese, Korean, Pohnpeian, and Palauan respondents. The ‘‘other ethnicity’’ category includes African Americans, Hispanics, and other Pacific Islanders.' (Pinhey & Brown, 2005)



1988 Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12
USA Indian / Alaska Native Reservations

Sexual
Fantasies
Opposite-
Sex Only
Same-Sex
Only
Both-
Sex
Lifetime Attempted Suicide
Incidence, Males
11.7%
(n = 515)
25.0%
(n = 17)
10.9%
(n = 21)
Lifetime Attempted Suicide.
Incidence, Females
25.2%
(n = 925)
15.1%
(n = 14)
16.8%
(n = 83)
Data Supplied by Borowski et al. (1999). Analysis for Same- vs. Opposite Sex Fantasies  Males carried out by Barney (2003) who gives the "Sexual Fantasiy" question: “When you think or daydream about sex, do you think about males, females, or both?”

Note: Bisexual males not at risk. Homosexual/Bisexual Females at l;esser Risk than Heterosexual Femnales. But replication studies never carried out since 1988.





"Attempted Suicide" Risk: Random Samples, North America
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Bagley &
Tremblay
(1997)

82 (M*)
Homosexual,
or Bisexual
or Same-Sex Sex, Past 6 Months
668 (M)
Heterosexual,
With No
Same-Sex Sex,
Past 6 Months
6.1%
(5 / 82)
vs. 0.45%
(3 / 668)
Lifetime
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Stratified Random Sample: 1992
Lifetime Attempted Suicide (Serious)
Males, 18 to 27 years
OR = 14.4 (3.4, 61.4)
Cochran
& Mays
(2000)

78 (M)
Reporting
Lifetime
Male Sex
Partner(s)
3,214 (M)
Reporting
Only Lifetime
Female Sex
Partners
19.3%
vs.
3.6%
(Weighted)
Lifetime
USA: NHANES III Survey: 1988/94
Complex, multistage USA sample, civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Subsample: Men, 17 to 39 Years
OR = 6.45 (2.7, 15.2)
OR = 5.36 (2.2, 13.0), With
Demographic Control Variables
Gilman
et al.
(2001)

74 (M)
Reporting
Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years
2,310 (M)
Reporting
Only Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

(Weighted)
Lifetime
National Comorbidity Survey: 1992
Complex, multistage USA sample.
Age = 15 to 54 Years.

OR = 2.4 (1.0, 5.8), With
Demographic Control Variables
51 (F*)
Reporting
Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

2,475 (F)
Reporting
Only Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past 5 Years

(Weighted)
Lifetime
National Comorbidity Survey: 1992
Complex, multistage USA sample.
Age = 15 to 54 Years.
OR = 1.5 (0.7, 3.4), With
Demographic Control Variables
Paul
et al.
(2002)
Additional
Results

2,881 (M*)
93%  Mostly Gay,
Homosexual or Bisexual
Identified
MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men
None
12%:
Lifetime
8%:
Before Age
of 25 Years
Random (Telephone): New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco.
Age Range: 18 to 70+ Years
75% of males first attempted suicide
before the age of 25 years.
Cochran
et al. (2007)
N =
4,649
> = 18 Years
Latino &
Asian. National
Household
NLAAS
Survey

84 (M): GB Identified or Same-Sex Sex, Past year
1,982
8.0% vs. 2.3%
Lifetime
RR = 3.5
0.86<3.37<13.21
Weighted, With Controls, ns
84 (M) 1,982
2.4% vs. 0.3
Past Year
RR = 8
1.63<6.43<25.36
Weighted, With Controls
161 (F) LB Identified or Same-Sex Sex, Past year 2,271
8.5% vs. 5.2%
Lifetime
RR = 1.6
0.79<1.71<3.71
Weighted, With Controls,  ns
161 (F) 2,271
2.4 vs. 0.6
Past Year
RR = 4
0.84<4.98<29.33
Weighted, With Controls, ns
Silenzio
et al.
(2007)
GLB
176 (M)
271 (F)
Heterosexual & Mostly Heterosexual
Identified
6,535 (M)
7,207 (F)
4.9%
vs.
1.6%
Past Year
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: 14,322 (MF). GLB = bisexual, mostly homosexual, or exclusively homosexual identified.
Age = 18 to 26 years.
Attempted suicide in the past 12 months. OR: 1.4<3.0<6.2,
controlling for race, gender, and age.
Steele
et al.
(2009)
Women
Homosexual
N = 354, 0.57%
Bisexual
N = 424, 0.69%
Heterosexual
N = 60,937,
98.4%
Homosexual
29.5% vs.9.6%
OR: 3.9
Bisexual
45.4% vs. 9.6%
OR : 5.9
Canadian Community Health Survey: cycle 2.1, 2003 national population-based survey designed to gather health data on a representative sample of over 135,000 Canadians.
Women in Analysis: N = 61,715
, 18-59 Years
Men in Analysis: 49,901, 18-59 Years
Only Suicidality Question asked: ‘‘Have you ever seriously considered committing suicide or taking your own life?’’ Unadjusted Odds Ratios Given. See Adjusted Odds Ratios: Table Below.
Brennan
et al.
(2010)
Men
Homosexual
1.3%
Bisexual
0.6%
Heterosexual
98.1%
Homosexual
25.2% vs. 7.4%
OR : 4.2
Bisexual
34.8% vs. 7.4%
OR : 6.7
VanKim & Padilla (2010) (M) (F)
Gay / Lesbian
Attempted, Yes, n = 13
(M) (F)
Heterosexual
Attempted, Yes,
n = 263
23.7% vs.
5.3%
OR: 5.5
New Mexico: The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.
See Two Tables Below: For Results, Males & Females, Separated. Also See Results for Depression and Suicide Ideation, Gay/Lesbian & Bisexual, and also Separated by Sex.

(M) (F)
Bisexual
Attempted, Yes, n = 11
(M) (F)
Heterosexual
Attempted, Yes,
n = 263
22.7% vs.
5.3%
OR: 5.2
Bolton & Sareen
(2011)

Men
Gay: 1.31%
Heterosexual
97.65%

9.8% vs. 2.1%
OR:
2.3<4.4<8.6
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Men (N = 14.481) & Women (N = 19,896).
Reported Odds Ratios, Using Demographic Control Variables
.
More Results: Tables Below: Men. Women.
Bisexual: 0.56%
10.0% vs. 2.1%
OR:
1.9<4.4<10.3
Unsure: 0.48%
8.5% vs. 2.1%
OR:
1.2<3.4<9.3
Bolton & Sareen
(2011)

Women
Lesbian: 0.73%
Heterosexual:
97.95%
10.9% vs. 4.2%
OR:
1.6<3.0<5.5
Bisexual: 0.81%
24.4% vs. 4.2%
OR:
3.7<5.9<9.3
Unsure: 0.51%
9.9% vs. 4.2%
OR:
0.7<2.3<7.3
* M = Males - F = Females -- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant




National Canadian Community Health Survey (2003)
Results for "Seriously Considered Suicide," Lifetime

Study
Homo-
sexual
Bisexual
Hetero-
sexual
Homosexual
vs.
Hetero-
sexual *
Bisexual
vs.
Hetero-
sexual *
Study Information
Steele
et al.
(2009)
Women
Homosexual
N = 354, 0.7%
Bisexual
N = 424, 0.9%
Heterosexual
N = 60,937
29.5% vs.
9.6%
OR 1:
3.9
OR 2:
1.9<3.5<6.6
45.4% vs.
9.6%
OR 1:
7.8
OR 2:
3.0<5.9<11.8
Canadian Community Health Survey: cycle 2.1, a 2003 national population-based survey designed to gather health data on a representative sample of over 135,000 Canadians.
Women in Study: N = 61,715
, 18-59 Years. In OR Analysis: 23,729.
Men in Study: 49,901, 18-59 Years
Only Suicidality Question asked: ‘‘Have you ever seriously considered committing suicide or taking your own life?’’
Brennan
et al.
(2010)
Men
Homosexual
1.3%
Bisexual
0.6%
Heterosexual
98.1%
25.2% vs.
7.4%
OR 1:
4.2
OR 2:
2.1<4.1<8.0
34.8% vs.
7.4%
OR 1:
6.7
OR 2:
2.1<6.3<19.1

* For Having Seriously Considered Suicide in Lifetime.
1. Basic OR (Odd Ratio) Calculated by Webpage Author, Using Given Percentages, Unadjusted

2. Given Odd Ratio, With 95% Confidence Intervals, Using Contol Variables

Sexual Orientation Question: Do you consider yourself to be: 1. ... heterosexual? (sexual relations with people of the opposite sex) - 2. ... homosexual, that is lesbian or gay? (sexual relations with people of your own sex) - 3. ... bisexual? (sexual relations with people of both sexes)

Comment: As a rule in studies, homosexually oriented individuals have been at greater risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors, with ORs being about 1.5 to 7.0 for "seriously considerering suicide" and OR being about 2 to 14 for "having attempted suicide, with such outcomes differences especially applying for males. See Related Webpage.
It is therefore possible, and especially for homosexually oriented men, that - had "attempted suicide" information been solicited in the study, the ORs for Homosexual / Bisexual men having attempted suicide, compared to Heterosexual men, would have been greater than those noted above for 'had seriously considered suicide in their lifetime'.





National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Men
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Gay
Bisex-
ual
Not
Sure
Study
Information
N
14,109
190
81
101
Survey Response Rate = 70.2%
For Wave 2
Survey, Wave 1 : 2001-2001.

Demographic Variables:
age, marital status, education,
household income, race/ethnicity,
region of residence, and urbancity.
Mental Disorders, Lifetime:
Mood & Anxiety Disorders,
Any Substance Use Disorder,
Any Cluster A or C personality
disorder, Any Cluster B
personality disorder, and
Schizophrenia, psychotic
illness, or episode
% of Total = 14.481 **
97.4%
1.3%
0.56%
0.70%
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime / 95% CI,

Not Adjusted
2.1%
1.8–2.5
9.8% *
5.7–16.4
10.0% *
4.9–19.4
8.5% *
3.5–19.4
Odd Ratios, Not
Adjusted **
Reference
Category
5.1 *
5.2 *
4.3 *
Odd Ratios, Adjusted for
Demographic Variables
Reference
Category
4.4 *
2.3–8.6
4.4 *
1.9–10.3
3.4 *
1.2–9.3
Odd Ratios, Adjusted for
Demographic Variables &
Mental Disorders, 96% CI
Reference
Category
2.27 ns
(0.99–5.21)
2.92 *
(1.12–7.63)
1.55 ns
(0.51–4.68)
Data Souce: Bolton & Sareen (2011)
* Statistically Significant. - ns: Not Statistically Significant
Calculated by Web Page Author





National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 (USA, 2004-2005): Women
Categories
Hetero-
sexual
Lesbian
Bisex-
ual
Not
Sure
Study
Information
N
19,489
145
161
101
Survey Response Rate = 70.2%
For Wave 2
Survey, Wave 1 : 2001-2001.

Demographic Variables:
age, marital status, education,
household income, race/ethnicity,
region of residence, and urbancity.
Mental Disorders, Lifetime:
Mood & Anxiety Disorders,
Any Substance Use Disorder,
Any Cluster A or C personality
disorder, Any Cluster B
personality disorder, and
Schizophrenia, psychotic
illness, or episode
% of Total = 19,896 **
97.9%
0.73%
0.81%
0.51%
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime / 95% CI,
Adjusted
Demographic Variables
4.2%
3.8–4.6
10.9% *
6.5–17.8
24.4% *
17.6–32.8
9.9%
3.3–26.1
Odd Ratios, Not
Adjusted
**
Reference
Category
2.8 *
7.4 *
2.5 ns
Odd Ratios, Adjusted
Demographic Variables
Reference
Category
3.0 *
1.6–5.5
5.9 *
3.7–9.3
2.3 ns
0.7–7.3
Odd Ratios, Adjusted
Demographic Variables &
Mental Disorders
Reference
Category
2.2 ns
0.96–4.98
3.2 *
1.9–5.1
1.25 ns
0.39–3.95
Data Souce: Bolton & Sareen (2011)
* Statistically Significant. - ns: Not Statistically Significant
Calculated by Web Page Author






The Urban Men’s Health Study: 1996-98
Random Sample - MSM Suicidality - Paul et al. (2002)
MSM: Men Who Have Sex With Men (Since Age 14) or Identified as Gay / Bisexual
Total Sample, N = 2881
Age: 18 to 70+ Years
Suicide Attempters
n = 326
Variables
Frequency
n1
Suicide
Plan
Attempted
Suicide
2Before
Age 25?

4Mean
Number

3Mean
Age
All Males
100%
2,678
21%
12%
8%
2.1
22.6
White
79%
2,138
21%
11%
8%
2.1
23.7
African-
American
4%
117
21%
12%
8%
2.3
18.9
Hispanic /
Latino
9%
245
20%
10%
9%
2.2
18.9
Asian/Pacific Islander
4%
102
21%
11%
8%
2.4
20.0
Native American
3%
76
33%
30%
25%
2.8
18.2
Significance5
-
-
ns
0.006
0.0002
ns
0.06
RR, Statistical Significance6
-
-
1.6
0.02
2.7
0.0000
3.1
0.0000
?
Likely
Significant
1. The counts (n's) are not given in the paper but they are given by Mills et al. (2004) and would be an approximation. Therefore, all "n's" given in table are estimates. - 2. For having attempted suicide. - 3. For suicide attempts. - 4. For first suicide attempt. - 5. Significance for the suicidality variable and all 'race' groups. 6. - RR = Risk Ratio: Greater risk for Native American males, compared to White males. Significance for 2X2 RRs calculated from estimated n's.Statistically significant is: < 0.05






New Mexico 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Gay / Lesbian "At Risk" Status: Suicidality & Depression
Categories
Sex
Heterosexual
Male (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Gay Males (M)
& Lesbians (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Odds Ratio
Estimates **
Depression,
Lifetime, Told
By Doctor
M + F
924
17.2% (15.9, 18.6)
30
*47.3% (32.3, 62.8)
4.3
F
689
23.9% (21.9, 25.9)
16
37.8% (21.7, 57.2)
1.5
M
235
10.5% (9.0, 12.3)
14
*57.1% (31.6, 79.3)
11.3

Thought About
Committing
Suicide,
Past Year
M + F
275
6.2% (5.2, 7.2)
9
16.8% (6.6, 36.6)
3.1
F
178
7.1% (5.8, 8.6)
7
13.5% (6.0, 27.8)
2.0
M
97
5.3% (4.0, 6.9)
2
20.1% (4.4, 57.7)
4.5

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
M + F
263
5.3% (4.5, 6.2)
13
*23.7% (11.7, 42.2)
5.5
F
207
7.7% (6.4, 9.2)
7
16.0% (7.0, 32.6)
2.3
M
56
2.8% (2.0, 4.0) 6
*31.7% (11.8, 61.6)
16.1
Data Source: VanKim & Padilla (2010)
* Difference From Heterosexual Result Reported as Statistically Significant by Study Authors.
* (In Red): Statistical Significance Incorrectly Given by Study Authors, But Corrected.
** Or Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using Given Weighted Percentages: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (2006),
Suicidality Questions Added by New Mexico.




New Mexico 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Bisexual Male & Female "At Risk" Status:  Suicidality & Depression

Categories
Sex
Heterosexual
Male (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Bisexual
Males (M) & Females (F)
Weighted Ns: M = ?, F = ?
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
Yes: Raw
Counts
Incidence Percent
Weighted, 95% CI
OR
Estimates **
Depression,
Lifetime, Told
By Doctor
M + F
924
17.2% (15.9, 18.6) 21
*37.3% (23.1, 54.1)
2.9
F
689
23.9% (21.9, 25.9) 17
39.7% (22.9, 59.4)
2.1
M
235
10.5% (9.0, 12.3) 4
27.7% (9.8, 57.4)
3.3

Thought About
Committing
Suicide,
Past Year

M + F
275
6.2% (5.2, 7.2) 10
*17.4% (8.5, 32.4) 3.2
F
178
7.1% (5.8, 8.6) 6
15.5% (6.2, 33.9)
2.4
M
97
5.3% (4.0, 6.9) 4
* 25.0% (8.8, 53.7)
6.0

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
M + F
263
5.3% (4.5, 6.2) 11
*22.7% (12.2, 38.3)
5.2
F
207
7.7% (6.4, 9.2)
9
*24.0% (11.9, 42.5)
3.8
M
56
2.8% (2.0, 4.0)
2
?
?
Data Source: VanKim & Padilla (2010)
* Difference From Heterosexual Result Reported as Statistically Significant by Study Authors.
* (In Red): Statistical Significance Incorrectly Given by Study Authors, But Corrected.
** Or Estimates Calculated by Web Page Author Using Given Weighted Percentages
: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (2006),
Suicidality Questions Added by New Mexico.





"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Random Samples, Europe
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Youth/Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)
Additional
Results
6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
Random Survey: Longitudinal
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
Norlev
et al.
(2005)

Denmark National Random Sample. Ages: 16 to 35 Years. Numbers of homosexual / bisexual individuals said to be small. Nonetheless...
All Homo/Bi who had attempted suicide are reported to have current suicide ideation. In contrast, only a minority of Heterosexuals (maybe about 30 to 40 percent) who attempted suicide are in same category. Most do not have current suicide ideation, meaning that suicidality is not ongoing for most of them. The Odds Ratio (95% CI) for Homosexuals/ Bisexuals vs. Heterosexuals to be in 'having attempted suicide during lifetime and having current suicide ideation' category is: 5.4 (1.8–16.7), p < .05.
de Graaf
et al.
(2006)


82 (M)
Reporting
Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

2,796 (M)
Reporting
Only Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

14.6%
vs.
1.6%
** RR: 9.1
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 10.23 (5.2–20.2)
Control = Age
OR = 5.57 (2.6–12.0)
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
43 (F)
Reporting
Female
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

3,077 (F)
Reporting
Only Male
Sex Partner(s)
Past Year

4.4%
vs.
3.1%
RR: 1.3 ns
Lifetime
Netherlands' NEMESIS Study
Age = 18 to 64 Years
OR = 1.52 (0.36–6.4) ns
Control = Age
OR = 0.96 (0.22–4.3) ns
Controls = Age, Mental Disorders
Lhomond & Saurel-
Cubizolles
(2006)


78 (F*)
Reporting
Lifetime
Female
Sex Partner(s)


6,332 (F)
Reporting
Only Lifetime
Male
Sex Partner(s)


25.2%
vs.
6.6%
Lifetime
RR: 3.8
The Enveff (Enquête nationale sur la violence envers les femmes en France, National Survey on Violence  against Women in France) Survey. ORs From: 4.8 (2.8–8.1) to 2.2 (1.2–4.0) With Demographic Control Variable
to All Possible Controls Variables.
7.5% (7 / 78)
vs. 0.3%
(19 / 6,332)
Past Year
RR: 25.0
Attempted Suicide in the Past Year:
OR = 32.8 (13.4, 80.4)

Multiple Suicide Attempts, Lifetime:
OR = 5.9 (3.1, 11.4)

Note: Counts
Estimated From Given Percentages. ORs are Estimates. Non-responders Likely.
No Control Variables.

14.8% (11 / 78) vs. 2.7%
(171 / 6332)
Life, Multiple Attempts
RR: 5.5
Jouvin et al.
(2007)

L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results also
given in:
MSJSVA (2008)

2.9% (M)
1.5% Homo-Sex &
1.4 Bi-Sex
n = 245??
Yes
10.0%
vs.
3.0%
RR: 3.3
Lifetime
16,883 Men & Women,
Age Range = 15 to 75 Years
Elsewhere, total number said to be 30,514 for age range 12-75 years
(Site)
Note: It would be important to know the distribution of GLB individuals and suicide attempters over the age range. For example, what would be the results in the 15 to 40 years of age category?
GLB: determined on the basis of having been sexually active with at least one member of the same sex, in the past year.
GLB Demographic Summary.
The Questionnaire
1.4% (F)
0.6% Homo-Sex &
0.8% Bi-Sex
n = 118??
Yes
10.5%
vs 5.9%
RR: 1.8 ns
Lifetime
L’enquête Baromètre
santé 2005 de l’INPES
Results
Unknown
For
Youth
Males
Yes
??

Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
15-25 Years: Les Jeunes: The Questionnaire. Some Reports are Done Separately For These Regions and are avaiable online:  Nord–Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Pays de la Loire, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine, Poitou-Charentes, and L'Ile-de-France. Maybe Others?
Data Sets could be grouped and the likely greater suicidality risks for homosexually oriented youth could likely be determined. Example: Westermann (2007), for Nord-Pas-de-Calais, N = 1,466, 5% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and 2% of females (n = approx 14). Blais et al. (2006), Pays de la Loire, N = 1,517, 4% of males had homo-sex in the past year (n = approx. 35), and  2% of females (n = approx. 15). A subsample of 100 is sufficient to so a suicidality analysis and more than 100 homo-sex males would be available if the data sets are integrated.
Females
Yes
??
Lifetime, and in the Past 12 Months
FHI
Rapport
(2005)

(M)
(M)
See Tabled Results: 2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden:
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality.
Results for Males & Females in Four Age Categories.
(F)
(F)
Ungdoms-
styrelsen (2010)

(M)
(M)
(M)
11% vs. 3%
2005 & 2008 National Public Health Surveys, Combined,
Sweden.
More Results in Table Below.

(F)
(F) (F)
26% vs. 8%
Hawton
et al.
(2002)

82 Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,973 Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
11.0%
vs.
3.0%
Representative Sample (N = 6,020): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in England.
Data Collected in 2000-01.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 2.0<4.0<8.3
OR, Girls: 1.6<2.7<4.3
No Contol Variables.
Not Significant in Multivariate Analysis
101 Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
2,590 Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
23.8%
vs.
10.5%
O'Connor
et al.
(2009)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm
Representative Sample (N = 2,008): 16- to 17-Year-Old Secondary school Students Living in Glasgow, Scotland.
Data Collected in 2006-07.
Lifetime Prevalence of Self-Harm: Boys (6.9%), Girls (19.9%)
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Multivariate Analysis:
OR, Boys: 1.5<3.8<9.5
OR, Girls: 1.3<2.6<5.2
Using about 9 Contol Variables.
Bivariate ORs: Not Given
Females:
Worries
about
SO ***

Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
??
Deliberate
Self-Harm


McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
Males:
Worries
about
SO ***
Males:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm:
Definition
Below
Cross-sectional study, 3881 adolescents in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. Equal genders, 53.1% of students were 16 years old.
Ages: 15 to 17 Years.
Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Those Reporting Sexual Orientation Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
Males, Age Adjusted OR:
7.08 (4.10–12.23)
Females, Age Adjusted OR:
5.01 (3.46–7.25)

Females:
Worries
about
SO ***
Females:
No Worries
About SO
(Sexual Orientation)
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Below
Self-Harm
Definition in
McMahon
et al.
(2010a)
(2010b)
"[Participants reporting] self-harm were asked to describe, in their own words, the method(s) they had used to harm themselves. This description was later coded according to a standardized definition of deliberate self-harm : ‘An act with non-fatal outcome in which an individual deliberately did one or more of the following: initiated behaviour (for example, self cutting, jumping from a height), which they intended to cause self-harm ; ingested a substance in excess of the prescribed or generally recognizable therapeutic dose; ingested a recreational or illicit drug that was an act that the person regarded as self-harm; or ingested a non-ingestible substance or object ’ (Madge et al. 2008). Episodes of DSH were classified as a ‘yes’, ‘no’ or ‘no information given’ by three independent raters using the standardized definition above (Cohen’s k=0.77). When participants reported that they had harmed themselves in the past but did not describe the act, they were classified ‘no information given’ and were not included as a DSH case. The definition used allowed for a wide range of motives and levels of suicidal intent." (p. 1812-3)
McMahon
et al.
(2010b)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
School Bullying
History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
School Bullying
History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Cross-sectional study, 1870 boys in 39 schools, anonymous questionnaire. Part of the Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) study. 53.3% of boys were 16 years old.
Study Sample Ages: 15 to 17.

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis: 5.59 (2.63-11.88)

Greater Risk for Lifetime Self-Harm for Boys not Bullied in School and Reporting SO Worries in Bivariate Analysis:
4.70 (1.89-11.71)
Males: Worries
about SO ***
No
School Bullying History
Males: No Worries About SO (Sexual
Orientation)
No School Bullying History
Deliberate
Self-Harm
:
Definition
Above
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Non-Heterosexual
N = 659
Includes: All,
from "Mostly
Heterosexual" to "Entirely Homosexual" and "Other"
100% (Entirely)
Heterosexual

N = 6,811
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
8.9% vs. 5.3%
1.7<2.3<3.1
a
1.6<2.2<3.0 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Chakraborty
et al.
(2011)

Life Sexual Experiences:
All Same-Sex to Some Same-Sex.
N = 667
Life Sexual Experiences:
Only With Opposite Sex,
Never Same-Sex

N = 6,794
Attempted
Suicide, Lifetime
9.2% vs. 5.1%
1.4<1.9<2.6
a
1.3<1.8<2.5 b
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (n = 7403): representative of the population living in private UK households.
a. Unajusted OR. - b. OR Adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity and education.
Those reporting no sexual partners in lifetime were removed from the analysis.
Note: Study also reports results for "Self-Harm, Lifetime" and for "Suicidal thoughts, lifetime."
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 64
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 2,903
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
14.1%
(5.6-22.6)
vs.
3.0% (2.4-3.6)
OR:
5.36
(2.57-11.2)

Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health (SMASH): 4044 males, in school, age: 16 to 20 years-old, random sampling in 2002. 72.5% only
heterosexual, 23.3% mostly heterosexual, 0.8% equally bisexual, 0.4% mostly homosexual, 0.4% only homosexual, and 2.6% nonresponse.
Wang
et al.
(2012)

Bisexual to
Homosexual Group:
n = 296
100%
Heterosexual:
n = 17,072
The 'Mostly
Heterosexual'
Removed
From Analysis.
Lifetime:
5.1%
(2.6-7.6)
vs.
1.3%
(1.1-1.5)
OR:
4.68
(3.06-7.15)
Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x): 22,191 males, mostly 20 years old, 50% selected for study & all completing questionnaire in 2002-03. 91.7% only heterosexual, 5.3% mostly
heterosexual, 0.9% equally bisexual, 0% mostly homosexual, 0.7%
only homosexual, and 1.2% non-response.
Note: The second Swiss Recruit Survey (ch-x) drew its sample from new recruits of the Swiss army. Non-Swiss citizens (22% of the resident population) were excluded from the survey, as were Swiss men with health exemptions and those opting for civil service. A significant proportion of Swiss gay men avoid compulsory military service through those means.

* M = Males - F = Females
-- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant
*** Somewhat of a proxy for having a homosexual orientation. SO: Sexual Orientation.




Youth "Attempted Suicide" Risks: Norway
Homosexually Oriented Youth
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Wichstrom
& Hegna
(2003)



6.5% (MF*)
7.0%(F)
5.7% (M)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever
93.5%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever
15.4%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 4.3
108 Attempters = 4.4%,
N = 2,460 (In Regression Model)
OR = 4.7 (3.1, 7.3), No Controls.
OR = 4.3 (2.1, 5.6),
With 6 Controls Variables
20.9% (F)
8.6% (M)
Some Same
-Sex Sexual
Attraction
--
9.1%
vs.
3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
13.5% (F)
8.9% (M)
Some GLB
Identity
--
9.1%
vs.3.6%
Lifetime
RR: 2.5
ORs not Generated
7.0% (F)
Same-Sex
Sexual Contact, Ever

93.0%
No Same-Sex
Sexual Contact,
Ever

19.4%
vs. 4.2%
From T-2
to T-3 **
RR: 4.6
N = 1,327 Females
*** Predicting Suicide Attempt
from 1994 to 1999:
OR = 5.9 (3.2, 10.8)
, No Controls.
OR = 5.0 (2.3, 10.6), 3 Controls
Wichstrom
(2009)

(M) (F)
Non-Heterosexual
Sexual Interests
At Time 1
(M) (F)
No Same-Sex
Sexual Interests
Reported At Time 1
(M) (F)
Attempted Suicide From T1 to T2
OR = 6.8 (3.7, 12.6)
With Control Variables.
See Study Description Below.
Same Longitudinal Student Survey: In Multivariate Nominal Regression, students who had reported having had same-sex-sexual contacts before Time 1 (T1) or had been aware of their same-sex sexual interest before T1 were classified as having non-heterosexual sexual interest... and this category produced the strongest predictors (besides NSSI & Attempting Suicide at T1) for Non-suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) [OR: 4.06, 1.95 - 8.47] and Attempting Suicide [OR: 6.81, 3.70 - 12.55] from T1 to Time 2.

* M = Males - F = Females

** Longitudinal Study, 3 Questionnaires from T-1 to T3: 1992 (T-1): 12,287 students, Grades 7 - 12. - 1994 (T-2): 9,679 students, Grade 9 - 12+. - 1999 (T-3): 2,924 Youth.. - Mean Ages: 14.9 years (SD: 1.7, T-1) to 16.5 years (SD: 1.9, T-2) to 22.1 years (SD: 1.9, T-3).
*** No Homo-Sex male suicide attempters from 1994 to 1999. Comparing the N's in both regression models reveals that there are only about 1,133 males (2460 - 1,327) available for analysis.
Responders to "Attempted Suicide" and "Same-Sex Sex" questions:  Males = 1,239; Females = 1,567: Total = 2,806, but the numbers are lower in regression analyses due to non-responses to other variables: 1,133 and 1,327 (Total = 2,460), respectively.
Is An Estimate of the Percentage of Suicide Attempters Who are Homo-Sex Males Possible?  Maybe not possible to calculate given the data supplied by the authors. Males & Females Reporting Homo-Sex, Ever: 2,806 X 6.5% = 182. For Females: 1,567 X 7.0% = 109.7 = 100. For Males: 1,239 X 5.7% = 70.6 = 71. Homo-Sex Males & Females Who Attempted Suicide: 182 X 15.4% = 28 Suicide Attempters. Homo-Sex Females Who Attempted Suicide from T-2 to T-3: 110 X 19.4% = 21 Suicide Attempters. This would mean that only a maximum of 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters could exist up to T-2, the number likely being less. Furthermore, it would seem that the great majority of Homo-Sex females who attempted suicide between T-2 and T-3 (All? Almost All?) are repeat suicide attempters. Assuming "All", this would mean that there are 7 Homo-Sex male suicide attempters, for an "Attempted Suicide" Incidence of 9.9% (7 / 71), all having occurred up to T-2. Unfortunately, the authors did not report any "Attempted Suicide" results specific to Homo-Sex males, other males, or all males up to T-2. The lifetime "Attempted Suicide" incidence for males is 2.2%; 1.6% for Non-Homo-Sex males from T-2 to T-3.





2005 National Public Health Survey, Sweden
Sexual Orientation & Transgender Related Suicidality

Categories
Attempted Suicide, Ever % - Suicidal Thoughts, Ever [%]
Transgender *
n = 374
Males **
Females **
Homo-Bi
Others
Homo/Bi
Others
16 - 29 Years
27%
n = ?
11% [47%]
n = ?
4% [14%]
n = ?
21% [53%]
n = ?
8% [21%]
n = ?
30 - 44 Years
28%
n = ?
3% [30%]
n = ?
3% [12%]
n = ?
8% [17%]
n = ?
5% [14%]
n = ?
45 - 54 Year
12%
n = ?
16% [21%]
n = ?
3% [9%]
n = ?
11% [25%]
n = ?
5% [13%]
n = ?
54 - 64 Years
21%
n = ?
11% [33%]
n = ?
4% [12%]
n = ?
12% [27%]
n = ?
6% [16%]
n = ?
* Web Survey Data: Reported in National Public Health Survey, 2005. - ** National Public Health Survey, 2005.
It 'appears" like 1,028 persons did not answer the "sexual orientation" question, and were removed from the analysis. The same applies for those "not sure" of their sexual oreintation. The final sample - 29,190 persons: '648 persons (2 percent) indicated that they were not exclusively heterosexual. The largest group among those who were not exclusively heterosexual were heterosexual with some homosexual elements (here called "hetero-homo") (304 persons) followed  bisexual (221 persons), homosexuals (99 persons) and homosexuals with some heterosexual elements (here called "homo hetero") (24 persons)'.




"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Special Population Samples
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Herrell
et al.
(1999)

103 (M*)
Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

103 (M)
Not Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

14.7%
vs
3.0%
Lifetime
**RR: 4.9
USA: Vietnam Era Twin Registry
103 Twin Pairs, Discordant for
Sexual Orientation
OR = 6.5
(1.5, 28.8)
More Related Information
119 (M)
Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

6,537 (M)
Not Reporting
Same-Sex
Partner(s)
Since Age 18

15.2%
vs.
2.2%
Lifetime
RR: 6.9
USA: Vietnam Era Twin Registry
N = 6,656
All Homosexual vs. All Heterosexual
OR = 7.9
(4.6, 13.4)
Calculated From Estimated Counts
Fergusson
et al.
(1999)

29 (MF*)
Gay, Lesbian
or Bisexual
Identified
979 (MF)
Heterosexual
Identified
32.1%
(9 / 29)
vs. 7.1%
(69 / 979)
RR: 4.5
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 21 Years
Attempted Suicide: Age 14 - 21 Years
OR = 6.2 (2.7, 14.3)
Skegg
et al.
(2003)

427 (M)
Reporting Any
Same-Sex
Sexual
Attraction
53 (M)
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sexual
Attraction
17.0%
(9 / 53)
vs. 6.1%
(26 / 427)
RR: 2.3
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
OR = 3.2 (1.4, 7.2)
(With Control Variables)
119 (F)
Reporting Any
Same-Sex
Sexual
Attraction
343 (F)
Reporting
Only Opposite-
Sex Sexual
Attraction
12.6%
(15 / 119)
vs. 9.3%
(32 / 343)
RR: 1.3
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide: Lifetime
OR = 1.4 (0.7, 2.7) ns
(With Control Variables)
Fergusson
et al.
(2005)

Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From age 21-25 Years. See Below.
O'Donnell
et al.
(2004)
31 (MF)
Same-Sex
Sex, Past
Year
848 (MF)
No Same-Sex
Sex, Past
Year
? %
vs.
? %
Males: 7.3%
Females: 13%
Longitudinal School Based Survey (USA):
Grade 8 to Grade 11: 42.1% Male
68.6% African American, 16.5% Hispanic/Latino, 6.8% Black/Hispanic
2.7 (1.8, 6.6), with 9 Controls
Fergusson
et al.
(2005)
Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From age 21-25 Years. See Table Below.
McNair
et al.
(2005)

8.6%,
n = 801
Mainly
Heterosexual to
Lesbian
91.4%,
n = 8,482
Exclusively
Heterosexual
Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Past 6 Months
11.1 - 17.3%
vs. 2.7%
Australian ALSWH Cohort
Young Women in 2000
ORs: 4.3 to 8.0 (3 Control Variables)
ORs: 3.1 to 5.3 (6 Control variables)
Detailed Results: Table Below.
McNair
et al.
(2005)
2.5%
n = 261
Mainly
Heterosexual to
Lesbian
97.5%
n = 10,035

Exclusively
Heterosexual
Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Past 6 Months
2.0 - 16.1%
vs. 0.8%
Australian ALSWH Cohort
Mid-Life Women in 2001
ORs: 2.3 to 24.3 (3 Control Variables)
ORs: 21. to 24.6 (6 Control variables)
Detailed Results: Table Below.
* M = Males - F = Females -- ** RR = Risk Ratio, Estimated - "ns" = Not Statistically Significant




Christchurch, New Zealand: Birth Cohort: At Age 26 Years
Attempted Suicide From Age 21 to 25 Years
by Sexual Orientation (Latent Class Determination)
Fergusson et al. (2005)
Heterosexual
Predominantly
Heterosexual
Predominantly
Homosexual
p
Risk Ratio*
Ods Ratio
Males, N = 469
93.7%,  n = 439
4.8%, n = 23
1.5%, n = 7


1.6%, n = 7
0.0%, n = 0
28.6%, n = 2
<0.001
RR-1: 4.5<17.9<71.4
OR-1: 4.1<24.7<149.6
RR-2: 0.9<4.2<19.3
OR-2: 0.9<4.4<22.2
Females, N = 498
81.9%,  n = 408
14.2%, n = 70
3.9%, n = 20


1.6%, n = 7
4.5%, n = 3
10.0%, n = 2
<0.005
RR-1: 1.3<5.8.<26.3
OR-1:1.2<6.4<32.8
RR-2: 1.2<2.4<4.8
OR-2: 1.04<3.4<10.9
*Note: Only the percentages - NOT the counts - are given by study authors. Counts are Estimated from Percentages.
RRs & ORs  are approximate estimates given the estimated counts used in calculations.
RR-1 & OR-1: Attempted Suicide: Predominantly Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
RR-2 & OR-2: Attempted Suicide: Predominantly Homosexual &Predominantly Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual



Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH)
Self-Harm & Attempted Suicide, Past 6 Months
Young & Mid-Life Women: McNair et al. (2005)
Categories
n. (%)
% Self-Harm /
Attempted
Suicide
Odds Ratios 1
(3 Control variables)
Odds Ratios 2
(6 Control variables)
Young Women: 22 - 27 Years of Age in 2000
Heterosexual
8,214 (91.5%)
2.7% (n = 222)
Reference Category
Reference Category
Predominantly
Heterosexual
604 (6.7%)
11.1% (67)
3.1<4.3<5.9 2.2<3.1<4.4
Bisexual
73 (0.81%)
18.7% (13)
4.1<8.0<15.8 2.5<4.8<9.3
Predominantly /
100% Homosexual
90 (1.0%)
17.3% (16)
4.3<8.0<14.7
2.9<5.6<11.0
Percent of Young Women Who Self-Harmed
or Attempted Suicide who are not 100% Heterosexual Women (8.5% of Young Women)

30.2%
(96 / 318) 3
All Non-Heterosexual
Women, No Controls 4
4.0<5.1<6.6
-
Mid-Life Women: 50 - 55 Years of Age in 2001
Heterosexual 9,676 (97.4%)
0.8% (77)
Reference Category Reference Category
Predominantly
Heterosexual
121 (1.2%)
4.0% (5)
1.5<5.0<17.3
1.2<4.6<17.3
Bisexual 15 (0.15%)
16.1% (2)
3.6<24.3<163.9
4.1<24.7<148.6
Predominantly /
100% Homosexual
123 (1.2%)
2.0% (2)
0.42<2.3<13.0 ns
0.38<2.1<11.9 ns
Percent of Mid-Life Women Who Self-Harmed
or Attempted Suicide who are not 100% Heterosexual Women (2.6% of Women)
10.5%
(9 / 86) 3
All Non-Heterosexual
Women, No Controls 4
2.2<4.5<9.0
-

1. 3 Variables: age, region of residence, highest education. - 2. 6 Variables: age, region of residence, highest education, abuse, social support, and stress. - 3. Related N's and Percentage Estimated by Web Page Author: PJT. 4. N's Estimated (An Approximation), and Related ORs Calculated byWeb Page Author: PJT.
- "ns" = Not Statistically Significant





"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Other USA Random Studies
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Youth/Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Mathy
(2002a)

3,754 (M)
25,652 (M)
8.3% vs.
3.8% - Life:
Self-Harm
Sampling: News Web Site: MSNBC
Every 1000th visitor: USA, Canada
A Sexuality Survey
Males, OR: 2.3 (2.0, 2.6)
Females, OR: 2.1 (1.7, 2.5)
Suicide Question: "I have made a serious suicide attempt or gesture." Yes/No
1,048 (F)
5,499 (F)
17.1% vs.
9.1% - Life:
Self-Harm
Reis &
Saewyc
(1999)


331
Gay, Lesbian
& Bisexual
Identified

7,146
Heterosexual
Identified

20.6%
vs. 6.7%
Past Year
RR: 3.1
Seattle 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Those "Unsure" of their Sexual Orientation Are Not Included
Attempted Suicide: OR = 3.6 (2.7, 4.8)
Attempted Suicide, With Medical Care
OR = 4.6 (3.1, 6.9)

ORs Calculated With Counts Estimated
From Given Results
9.4%
vs. 2.2%
Past Year
Medical Care
RR: 4.3
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio






National USA College/University Students: 2008/2009
Self-Directed Violence and Depression between Sexual
 Orientation, by Race/Ethnicity
& Between Non-White LGB
and Greater Majority White, Non-Hispanic Heterosexuals

In The Past Year /
Categories
Depression
Self-
Harm
Suicide
Ideation
Suicide
Attempt(s)
Black (B)

B LGB
B Heterosexual
36 (15.2%)
161 (4.3%)
33 (13.9%)
133 (3.5%)
42 (17.6%)
202 (5.4%)
16 (6.7%)
66 (1.8%)
OR: B LGB vs. B Hetero 1 4.0 *
4.4 *
3.7 *
3.9 *
OR: B LGB vs. W LGB 1 0.63 *
0.77
1.02
2.1 *
OR: B LGB vs. W Hetero 1
1.8 3.1 4.1 8.9
Asian (A)

A LGB
A Heterosexual
42 (12.5)*
305 (4.0)
44 (13.2)*
372 (4.8)
70 (20.8)
462 (6.0)
17 (5.0)
106 (1.4)
OR: A LGB vs. A Hetero 1 3.4*
3.0*
4.1*
3.7*
OR: A LGB vs. W LGB 1 0.50*
0.73
1.2
1.5
OR: A LGB vs. W Hetero 2 1.4 3.0 4.8 6.5
Latino (La)

La LGB
 
La Heterosexual
50 (15.4)
329 (6.6)
43 (13.2)
233 (4.6)
42 (12.9)
286 (5.3)
9 (2.8)
48 (1.0)
OR: La LGB vs. La Hetero1 2.6*
3.1*
2.6*
2.8*
OR: La LGB vs. W LGB1 0.64
0.73*
0.66*
0.84
OR: La LGB vs. W Hetero 2 1.8 2.9 2.7 3.6
Multiracial (M)

M LGB
M Heterosexual
104 (24.4)
461 (9.8)
97 (22.7)
306 (6.5)
94 (22.1)
346 (7.3)
31 (7.3)
59 (1.3)
OR: M LGB vs. M Hetero1 3.0*
4.2*
3.6*
5.8*
OR: M LGB vs. W LGB1 1.1
1.4*
1.3
2.3*
OR: M LGB vs. W Hetero 2 3.2 5.7 5.2 9.8
Other (Ot)

Ot LGB
O Heterosexual
20 (23.0)
74 (6.5)
20 (23.3)
72 (6.3)
18 (20.9)
90 (7.8)
6 (7.0)
19 (1.7)
OR: Ot LGB vs. Ot Hetero1 4.3* 4.5*
3.1*
4.3*
OR: Ot LGB vs. W LGB1 1.0
1.4
1.2
2.2
OR: Ot LGB vs. W Hetero 2 2.9 5.9 4.8 9.3
White, Non-Hispanic (W)

W LGB
W Heterosexual
634 (22.1)
5,717 (9.2)
500 (17.3)
3,039 (4.9)
529 (18.3)
3,257 (5.2)
94 (3.3)
518 (0.8)
OR: W :LBG vs. W Hetero1 2.8*
4.1*
4.1*
4.2*

Data Source: Lytle et al. (2014)


Study Sample: 89,199 Students - Data are compiled from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessment and limited to respondents within emerging adulthood (ages 18–24) who indicated their sexual orientation and racial/ethnic identities.

1. Related percentages and related general statistical significances given by study authors but Odd Ratios (OR) not reported. Calculated by webpage authors.
2. Not mentioned or calculated by study authors, but important to compare results of race/ethic minority LGB groups with the great majority of heterosexual individuals who are white, forming about 70% of the student population and having traditionally benefited from ongoing white heterosexual privilege.

3. The only ORs produced by the study authors are ORs with control variables that report on differences between percentage results for different variables, including all racial minority LGB compared to white LGB. Variables are: Age, Sex (male), Depression, Black, Asian, Latino, Multiracial, Other which, respectively, have the following ORs for having attempted suicide in past year: 0.78*, 1.20, 6.35*, 2.34*, 1,98*, 0.89, 2.07*, 2.07
* Reported to be statistically significant.
†  Likely be statistically significant. Estimated from given percentages data given OR size and n's that would be in calculation..
For Whites, Non-Hispanic, LGB account for 15.4% of suicide attempters.
For Blacks,
LGB account for 19.5% of suicide attempters.
For Asians,
LGB account for 13.8% of suicide attempters.
For Latinos,
LGB account for 15.8% of suicide attempters.
For Multiracials,
LGB account for 38.78% of suicide attempters.
For Others,
LGB account for 24.0% of suicide attempters.
For All Students, LGB account for 21.2% of suicide attempters.

471 Race / Ethnic / Sexual Minority Suicide Attempters = 46.7% of Suicide Attempters. 518 White, Non-Hispanic Heterosexual Suicide Attempters.





Cornell University's "Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being" 1
Undergraduate Students: Cornell University & Princeton University 2
"Attempted Suicide" Risk: GLBQ vs. Heterosexual Identified Young Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Whitlock
& Knox
(2007)

63 Gay/Lesbian
(MF*)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
Web Survey, Random, Undergraduates
at Cornell & Princeton University
Appears like only gay & lesbian students are at significantly greater risk for having attempted suicide in lifetime:  Adjusted OR: 1.2<4.2<14.1 3
Mostly Self-Injury & General Suicidality Analyzed. See Table Below.
See also: Whitlock et al. (2006), but no relevant GLBT results are given.
84 Bisexual
(MF)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
76 Questioning
(MF)
2,632
Heterosexual
??
Lifetime
1. The Survey: Related Informaton & Related Publications. - 2. Three other universities appear to be also involved in this survey: MIT, Harvard, and the University of Rochester. See: "College Mental Health Issues and Suicide-Prevention Program Discussed". 3. The OR results from a logistic regression analysis with a control variable (Self-Injury) that is a powerful predictor of "Attempting Suicide" (5.4<9.6<17.1), controlling for demographic variables, including sexual orientaton. It is possible that both bisexual and questioning students were also significantly more at risk for having attempted suicide, but that such significant ORs were driven to insignificance by the aforementioned variable being present in the regression, given that such students are at high risk for self-injury. Nothing in this respect was mentioned by the authors. Counts or incidences related to "attempting suicide" were not given. Related ORs - GLBQ groups vs. heterosexual students - with/without controlling demographic variables - were also not given. Nonetheless, bisexual and questionning students remained more at risk for "planning suicide" in a regression: AOR = 2.1<4.0<7.6.
* M = Males - F = Females




"Survey of College Mental Health and Well Being"
Lifetime Self-Injury Behavior (SIB) & Suicidality: Undergraduate Students
Cornell & Princeton Universities: Whitlock & Knox (2007)
Raw Counts: Data Not Weighted 1

Category /
Sexual
Orientation
SIB
Only
SIB &
Suici-
dality 5
Suicidality
Only
All
SIB
2 All
Suicidality
2 SIB or
Suicidality

No SIB / Suici-
dality
 "N" Totals
Given: 2,875
292
196
227
488
423
715
2,160
"N" Totals
Sexuality
N = 2,845
281 (9.8%)
196 (6.9%)
225 (7.9%)
477 (16.7%)
421 (14.7%)
702 (24.6%)
2,143
(74.3%)
Heterosexuality
n = 2,632 [92.2%]
256 (9.7%) 3
155 (5.9%)
194 (7.4%)
411 (15.6%)
349 (13.3%)
605 (23.0%)
2,027
[93.8%]

Gay / Lesbian
n = 63 [2.2%]
7 (11.1%)
5 (7.9%)
9 (14.3%)
12 (19.0%)
14 (22.2%)
21 (33.3%)
42
[1.9%]
Odds Ratio 4
0.52<1.2<2.6
0.54<1.4<3.5
1.02<2.1<4.3
0.67<1.3<2.4
1.02<1.9<3.4
0.98<1.7<2.8

X2 , p 4
0.13, 0.71
0.46, 0.50
4.2, 0.04
0.55, 0.46
4.2,  0.04
3.7, 0.05


Bisexual
n = 84 [2.9%]
17 (20.2%)
21 (25.0%)
14 (16.7%)
38 (45.2%)
35 (41.7%)
52 (61.9%)
32
[1.5%]
Odds Ratio 1.4<2.3<4.1
3.2<5.3<9.0
1.4<2.5<4.5
2.9<4.5<6.9
3.0<4.7<7.3
1.3<2.1<3.2

X2 , p 9.9, 0.002
49.0, 0.0000
9.9, 0.002
51.8, 0.0000
54.1, 0.0000
10.3, 0.001


Questioning
n = 76 [2.7%]
11 (14.5%)
15 (19.7%)
8 (10.5%)
26 (34.2%)
23 (30.3%)
34 (44.7%)
42
[1.9%]
Odds Ratio 0.82<1.6<3.0
2.2<3.9<7.1
0.70<1.5<3.1
1.7<2.8<4.6
1.7<2.8<4.7
1.7<2.7<4.3

X2 , p 1.9, 0.17
24.1, 0.0000
1.06, 0.30
18.9, 0.0000
18.0, 0.0000
19.4, 0.0000

1. An "added to" version of Table 1 in the Whitlock & Knox (2007) paper. 2. Columns added, via count additions from other columns. 3. Counts & Incidence. 4. Odds Ratios: Compared to heterosexual students in same category. Calculated by web page author (PJT) using the given counts. 5. Suicidality: Students reporting suicidal ideation, plan, gesture, or having attempted suicide.



University of Michigan's 2005 / 2007 "Healthy Minds Study"
Sexual Minority Results From a Presentation & Related Papers 1
Eisenberg
et al.
(2006)
Study results given at a symposium. 2,828 completed surveys, 56.3% response rate (48% for undergrads, 65% for grad students), all results are weighted for non-response. In a list of the "most prominent risk factors for mental health problems": "Bisexual or gay/lesbian/queer (Depression and self-injury)". The intake queston for "attempting suicide" in the past 4 weeks only produced one suicide attempter, thus precluding this study from having any value in exploring or understanding more serious forms of suicidality. "Between 3-4% reported suicidal thoughts in the past 4 weeks, and less than 1% reported plans for suicide."
Note
: It is possible (likely?) that those planning to commit suicide in the past 4 weeks, and especially those who attempted suicide in the past 4 weeks, may have been in a state of mind that would not be conducive to participating in a survey.
Eisenberg
et al. (2007a)
Some of the demographic data given in Table Below. "Self-identified bisexual students were more likely to screen positive for depression than self-identified heterosexual students": OR = 2.1<3.9<7.3, from a regression analysis with many control variables. Similar regression analyses do not reveal sexual minority students to be significantly more at risk for depression, anxiety disorders, or suicidal thoughts in the past 4 weeks. However, the low N's may have compromised detecting such "at risk" status. See sexual minority N's in Table Below. The sampling representation for sexual minority undergraduates is poor (the worst being only one undergraduate lesbian in the study sample), and the same applies for the bisexual male representation for both graduate and undergraduate students: 8 students each.
Eisenberg
et al. (2007b)
"... multivariate logistic regression estimates of predictors of perceiving a need for mental health services in the past year... reporting oneself to be bisexual (relative to heterosexual, OR = 2.09, p = 0.03) or gay/lesbian (relative to heterosexual, OR = 2.04, p = 0.03)."
Gollust
et al.
(2008)

"For the full student population, we found no significant associations between self-injury and age, international student status, sexual orientation, graduate or undergraduate student status, or year in school, controlling for all covariates. Logistic regression models, which we estimated separately for male and female students, revealed several notable differences in the predictors of self-injury... Bisexual men (OR = 4.75, CI = 0.98-23.01, p = .053) and lesbians (OR = 5.52, CI = 1.80-16.9, p = .003) were more likely to report self-injury than were heterosexual students..." Alert: Many researchers in suicidology, and especially in sexual minority suicidology, have recognized that males and females should NOT be analysed together, if it is at all possible to do otherwise. The same applies within a sex group for the different sexual minority groups. That is, when analyzed together, a significant "at risk" association for only one group may be greatly reduced (as in being spread over other groups), or even eliminated as the result of non-associations in other groups.
Golberstein
et al.
(2008)
Sexual minority students are not mentioned in the paper titled "Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking."
Cranford
et al.
(2009)
In the paper "Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students," "sexual orientation" is only mentioned to be a control variable in multivariate analyses, with the related results are not reported.
Eisenberg
et al.
(2009)
In the unpublished paper, "Mental health and academic success in college," sexual minority students are not mentioned.
Zivin
et al.
(2009)
This study, 'Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population," is longitudinal in nature, using a subset of students who completed the first survey in 2005. "In the fall of 2007, all students who had completed the baseline survey in 2005 and were still enrolled at the university (N=1272) were asked to complete a two-year follow-up survey, with a nearly identical set of measures. Of those re-contacted, 763 (60%) of students completed the second survey. The present study examines data from these 763 students who completed both the 2005 and the 2007 survey." There were 45 GLBT students (5.44% of students) in the 2007 survey. Sexual orientation (GLBT) is a control variable in multivariable logistic regression models but the GLBT results are not reported.
1. Papers related to the Healthy Minds Study.



University of Michigan's 2005 "Healthy Minds Study"
Some Demograhic Highlights, N = 2,843
Categories /
Variable

Undergraduates
Weighted Percentages
Graduates
Weighted Percentages
Female
n = 677
Male **
n = 504
Female
n =  819
Male
n = 843
Age: 18 to 22 Years
95.1%
93.0%
10.0%
7.1%
White / Caucasian
Non-Hispanic / Non-Arab
68.6%
68.1%
56.5%
53.9%
Asian /
Pacific Islander
15.0%
15.9%
24.4%
30.8%
International
Students
4.3%
6.9%
16.3%
27.3%
Heterosexual
97.2%
96.0%
92.6%
93.6%
Gay / Lesbian /
Queer
0.1%
n = 1 *
2.5%
n = 13
3.2%
n = 26
4.5%
n = 38
Bisexual
2.6%
n = 18
1.5%
n = 8
3.6%
n = 29
1.0%
n = 8
Data Source: Eisenberg et al. (2007a)* The n's are estimated from weighted percentages. Raw counts & percentages are not given, except for the total male and female numbers in the study sample. ** The "504" counts is reported to be "604" in the paper but that would be an error. See Gollust et al. (2008). The representation of sexual minority students in this study sample is generally poor, the worst being "one lesbian" representing lesbian undergraduate students. Why there would be about 30-times more lesbians in graduate school sample, compared to the undergraduate sample, is food for thought.
Eisenberg et al. (2007b) - Weighted Demongraphic Summary: "The results, weighted for nonresponse, reflect a population composed of 60.6% white (non-Hispanic), 6.3% black, 19.9% Asian or Asian-American, 3.5% Hispanic (any race), 5.4% multiracial, and 3.6% students who identified some other race. Forty-eight percent were female, 11.8% were international students, and 33.9% were graduate students. This student population was roughly similar in demographic characteristics to the national population of college students." Therefore, weighting would, in many cases, radically change what were the raw counts, especially for females, and for gaduate students. 




The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey
Depression & Suicidality: GLBT Results 1

Study
GLBT
Hetero-
sexual
Depression
Diagnosis 3
Seriously
Considered Suicide,
Past Year
3
Attempted
Suicide
Past Year 4
Leino &
Kisch
(2005)

n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
<
14,711 2
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odd Ratio:
1.4<1.8<2.4 - Lifetime
27 Control Variables
% Depression All: 10.3%
-
-
n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
< 14,711 2
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odd Ratio:
1.2<1.8<2.7 - Past Year
27 Control Variables
% Depression All: 6.1%
-
-
Kisch
et al.
(2005)

n = ? (MF)
< 479 2
n = ?
< 14,711 2
-
GLBT vs. Heterosexual
Odd Ratio:
2.0<2.6<3.3
27 Control Variables
% Consider... All: 9.5%
?
% Attempted...
All = 1.47%
Are GLBT Students
More at risk?
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for males in the past year: 1.59% = 88 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 85 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the GBT male category (n = 208) would produce statistically significan results. For 7 (incidence = 3.4%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.0<2.2<4.8. For 8 (Incidence = 3.8%), the OR would be 1.2<2.5<5.3. Counts Given in Table Below.
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for females in the past year: 1.40% = 126 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 122 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the LBT female category (n = 224) would produce statistically significant results.. For 7 (incidence = 3.1%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.1<2.4<5.1. For 8 (Incidence = 3.6%), the OR would be 1.3<2.7<5.7. Counts Given in Table Below.
The Attempted Suicide Incidence for males & females in the past year: 1.47% = 214 Suicide Attempters. But not all reported their sexual orientation, leaving about 207 Suicide Attempters for analysis. It is 'roughly estimated that 7 or more Suicide Attempters in the GLBT category (n = 439) would produce statistically significant results.. For 12 (incidence = 2.7%), the unadjusted OR would be 1.04<1.9<3.4.  For 13 (Incidence = 3.0%), the OR would be 1.2<2.0<3.6. Counts Given in Table Below.
Note: Kirsh et all (2005) did not mention whether or not GBT males, LBT females, or GLBT individuals were more at risk for having attempted suicide in the past year. 89.6% Undergraduate Students and 10.4% Graduate Students are in the study sample.
1. Data Set Results for the "Sexual Orientation" Categories & Depression / Suicidality are Given in Table Below.
2. Numbers from Table Below. The would be less "<" because of Non-Responders to questions. M = "Male". F = "Female". Also less because of non-responders to depression and suicidality questions.
3. The Odd Ratio(s) reported would likely be higher if only the Demographic control variables had been used in the regression.
4. The Possible - Likely? - greater risk for GLBT students having attempted suicide is not mentioned. Related data is not given. Hints about such a greater likelihood for GLBT students having attempted suicide - at least in the 2003 ACHA-NCHA survey at one American university - NYU - is given in a Table Below.



The USA Spring 2000 National College Health Assessment Survey
Sexual Orientation Demographics & Depression / Suicidality Results
Depression / Suicidality Results For GLBT Students Are Not Given
Categories /
Variables
Male
n (%)
Female
n (%)
Unknown
n (%)
Total
N (%)
Which of the following
best describes you?
Question # 32
-
-
-
-
Heterosexual
5,151 (94.5%)
8,510 (96.1%)
1,050 (94.1%)
14,711 (94.5%)
Heterosexual
'Sex Unknown" Removed
5,151 (94.5%)
8,510 (96.1%) Removed
13,661 / 14,100
96.9%
Gay / Lesbian
136 (2.5%)
69 (0.78%)
16 (1.4%)
221 (1.4%)
Bisexual
70 (1.3%)
147 (1.7%)
19 (1.7%)
236 (1.5%)
Trangendered
9 (0.17%)
8 (0.09%)
5 (0.45%)
22 (0.14%)
GBT, LBT, GLBT:
'Sex Unknown" Removed
215 (3.94%)
224 (2.53%)
Removed
439 / 14,100
(3.1%)
Unsure
84 (1.5%)
121 (1.4%)
26 (2.3%)
231 (1.5%)
Totals
% of Sample [%]

5,450 (100%)
[35.3%]
8,855 (100%)
[57.4%]
1,116 (100%)
[7.2%]
15,421 (100%)
[100%]  1
Depression Diagnosis,
Ever. n / N (%)
340 / 5,504
(6.2%)
1,146 / 8,985
(12.8%)
123 / 1,087
(11.3%)
1,609 / 15,576
(10.3%)
Depression Diagnosis,
In The Past year? Yes
125 / 326: 38%
125 / 5,504 ?
(2.3%)
685 / 1,114: 61.5%
685 /
8,985 ?
(7,6%)
71 / 118: 60.2%
71 / 1,087 ?
(6.5%)
957 / 1,558: 61.4%
957 /
15,576 ?
(6.1%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide 1-2 Times, Past Year
300 / 5,528
(5.4%)
613 / 8,999
(6.8%)
73 / 1,109
(6.6%)
986 / 15,636
(6.3%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide >2 Times, Past Year
181 / 5,528
(3.3%)
280 / 8,999
(3.1%)
38 / 1.109
(3.4%)
499 / 15,636
(3.2%)
Seriously Considered
Suicide, Past Year
481 / 5,528
(8.7%)
893 / 8,999
(9.9%)
111 / 1,109
(10.0%)
1485 / 15,636
(9.5%)
Attempted Suicide 1-2
Times, Past Year
43 / 5,528
0.78%
96 / 8,999
(1.07%)
12 / 1,108
(1.08%)
151 / 15,635
(0.97%)
Attempted Suicide > 2
Times, Past Year
45 / 5,528
0.81%
30 / 8,999
(0.33%)
14 / 1,108
(1.26%)
89 / 15,635
(0.57%)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
88 / 5,528
1.59%
126 / 8,999
(1.40%)
26 / 1,108
(2.34%)
240 / 15,635
(1.53%)
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
"Sex Unknown" Removed
88 / 5,528
1.59%
126 / 8,999
(1.40%)
Removed
214 / 14,527
(1.47%)
Data Source: ACHA-NCHA (2000)
1. Total Survey: 16,024.
15,421 = 96.2% of Surveys.
Percentages often given with more precision that in original document, using the given counts for calculations.



Sexual Orientation Results From The Spring 2003
NYU American College Health Associaton
National College Health Assessment

General Information: Fist Year New York University Students - 1,035 surveys returned - Average age = 18.5 Years - 70% Females. 30% Males - 11% Self-Identified Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or Unsure Students (GLBU, n = 109). Note: The counts are low, therefore likely statistical non-significance of result differences for males and females analysed separately. Trends nonetheless indicated that are consistent with results in other studies of university students. A Student Presentation by Smith (2006).
Category /
Variable

Males
Females
GBU
n = ?
Hetero-
sexual
LBU
n = ?
Hetero-
sexual
Depression Diagnosis, Ever?
Question asked twice.
17%
19%
7%
8%
43%
43%
14%
15%
Depression Diagnosis, Past Year?
11%
3%
18%
7%
Anxiety Diagnosis, Ever?
15%
5%
20%
9%
Anorexia Diagnosis, Ever?
8%
< 1%
6%
5%
Seriously Considered Suicide,
Past year, One to 11+ Times?

26%
15%
25%
15%
Attempted Suicide, Past Year,
One to Two Times? 1
6%
!%
6%
1%
Attempted Suicide, Past Year,
More Than Two Times?
?
?
?
?
1. Assuming that about 100 GLBU students and 900 Heterosexual students responded to the "Attempted Suicide" question, this would mean that there are 6 GLBU suicide attempters and about 9 Heterosexual suicide attempters. The Odds Ratio, with such numbers would be: 2.2<6.3<18.1, X2 = 15.2 , p = 0.002. However, not all those who attempted suicide may have been counted, meaning those who attempted suicide more than 2 times in the past year. Also interesting that, of the students who attempted suicide one- to two-times in the past year, about 40% of them (6/15) would be GLBU students.





Suicidality Results: University of Washington Students, Seattle
Murphy (2007): PhD Dissertation Study

Suicidal Behavior 1
/ Sexual Identity
Sex
Suicide
Seriously
Considered
Suicide
Planned
Attempted
Suicide
Medical
Attention
Received
Heterosexual: No
Same-Sex Attraction
or Behavior: n= 404
n: %
M: 153
15: 9.8% 13: 8.5% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
F: 251
15: 6.0% 9: 3.5% 5: 2.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 404
30: 7.4% 22: 5.4% 5: 1.2% 0: 0.0%
Heterosexual: Some
Same-Sex Attraction
or Behavior: n = 79
n: %
M: 16
4: 25.0% 4: 25.0% 1: 6.3% 0: 0.0%
F: 63
13: 20.6% 10: 15.9% 5: 7.9% 2: 3.2%
MF: 79
17: 21.5% 14: 17.7% 6: 7.6% 2: 2.5%
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual, Queer
n = 38 2
n: %
M: 21
1: 4.8% 2: 9.5% 1: 4.8% 0: 0.0%
F: 15
5: 33.3% 2: 13.3% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 36
7: 18.4% 5: 13.2% 1: 2.6% 0: 0.0%
Not  Sure
n = 7
n: %
M: 4
2: 50.0% 1: 25.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
F: 3
0: 0.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
MF: 7
2: 28.6% 1: 14.3% 0: 0.0% 0: 0.0%
χ2 = - - . - -  df = ( )
ρ = 0. - - - (From Study)

M & F: 14.60 (6), < 0.05
MF: 19.06 (3), < 0.001
M&F: 12.0 (6), 0.06
MF: 15.6 (3), < 0.01
M & F: 6.00 (2), 0.05
MF: 12.21 (3), < 0.01
1.67 (1), 0.20
All With Same-Sex
Sexual Attraction
/ Behavior

MF:
121
26: 21.7%
20: 16.7%
7: 5.8%
2: 1.6%
All Same-Sex, Compared
With Heterosexual (n = 406)
(From Study)
χ2 (1) = 19.5, < 0.001
χ2 (1) = 15.7, < 0.001
χ2 (1) = 8.7, < 0.01
χ2 (1) = 1.4,
0.20 4
Odds Ratio: Same-Sex
vs. Heterosexual 3

1.9<3.4<6.0
1.8<3.4<6.5
1.5<4.9<15.7
- 5
Sample: Mostly From First Year Psychology Classes, Some From the Q Center: GLBTQ Services
M = Male, F = Female -- 1. In the Past Year. -- 2. Gender Identity: Transgender = 1, Other = 1
3. Calculated by Web Page Author (PJT) Using the Given Counts. 4. In Error. Should be: χ2 (1) = 6.7, ρ = 0.009
5. Risk Ratio, measures based on alpha: 3.8<4.4<5.2.  If there was one suicide attempters (who had received medical attention) in the heterosexual category, the OR would be: 0.61<6.8<75.7




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Colorado
Homosexually Oriented Adolescents or Youth
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2005)
5.6% GLBU
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified +
Unsure
92.5%
Heterosexual
Identified
44.0%
vs.
13.5%
Past Year
RR : 3.3
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Colorado. White (81.2, 74.3%), Hispanic/Latino (10.9, 21.6%), Asian (5.4, 2.6%), Black (1.8, 0.9%), Native American (0.7. 0.7%). N = 1,960, Grade 9 to 12
44.0% (95%CI: 38.3, 49.7)
13.5% (95%CI: 12.6, 14.4)
** OR = 3.5 (2.4, 5.2)
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2006)
5.5%
GLBU
89.2%
Heterosexual
23.6%
vs.
6.3%
Past Year
RR : 3.7
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2005
Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
2,956 Students, Grade 9 - 12. 0.07% Gay/Lesbian, 3.6% Bisexual, 2.2% Unsure. White (72.1%), Hispanic/Latino (17.3%), Asian (4.1%), Black (1.6%), Native American (1.3%). Seriously consider suicide: 45.9% (GLBU) vs. 15.0% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.1
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2008)
7.5%
GLBU
89.0%
Heterosexual
28.1%
vs. 12.5%
Past year
RR: 2.2
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,106 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
89.0% Heterosexual, 1.5% Gay/Lesbian, 3.7%
Bisexual, 2.3% Unsure, 2.3% None of The Above.
White (74.0%), Other ? (13.5%), Others ?
Seriously consider suicide: 49.7% (GLBU) vs.
14.1% (Heterosexual), RR: 3.5

Boulder
County Public
Health
(2010)
9.3%
GLBU
90.7%
Heterosexual
20.3%
vs. 4.2%
Past Year
RR: 4.8
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,491 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
Additional Suicidality Results.
Boulder
County Public
Health
(2012)
8.2%
GLBU
91.8%
Heterosexual
31.8%
vs. 4.2%
Past Year
RR: 7.6
Boulder, St. Vrain School Districts: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 2,197 Students. Grade 9 - 12.
Additional Suicidality Results.
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio
** Not Given. Calculated by assuming 110 GLBU (48 Suicide Attempters),
and 1813 Heterosexual Identified Adolescents (329 Suicide Attempter).




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Other Studies
Canadian Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Rein
(1998)
Thesis

Gay, n = 32
(M)
6,811 (M)
Estimated
13 / 32
40.6%
vs. 3.7%
252 / 6,811
British Columbia 1992
Adolescent Health Survey: Grade 7 to 12
More Related Information
OR = 8.6<17.7<36.2
Bisexual, n = 110
(M)
6,811 (M)
Estimated
18 / 110
16.4%
vs. 3.7%
252 / 6,811

OR = 3.0<5.1<8.5
Lesbian, n = 30
(F)
6,802 (F)
Estimated
16.7%
(2 / 30)
vs.
9.6%
(653 / 6,802)
OR = 0.41<1.9<8.6
Bisexual, n = 96
(F)
6,802 (F)
Estimated
20.8%
(21 / 96)
vs.
9.6%
(653 / 6,802)
OR = 1.5<2.5<4.0
McCreary
Centre
Society
(1999
)
77
Mostly Gay,
Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified
None
46%
1997 BC Survey, Volunteers From
Greater Vancouver, Fraser Valley, Victoria, Nanaimo and Prince George. Age Range: 13 to 19 Years
Average Age of First Suicide Attempt:
13 Years-Old
McCreary
Centre
Society
(2009)
(MF)
3% of Sample
GLB
n =
850
Approximately
(MF)
86% of Sample
Heterosexual
n =
24,940
Approximately
28% vs.
4%
Past 12
months
More than 29,000 British Columbia public school students in grades 7-12 completed the Adolescent Health Survey: February to June 2008. "86% of students identified as heterosexual, 7% as mostly heterosexual, 2% as bisexual, and less than 1% as either mostly homosexual or homosexual (gay or lesbian). The remaining 4% were “not sure.” GLB more at risk for having attempted suicide than other groups noted to be at risk: Aboriginal youth (11% vs. 4% others),  obese youth (10% vs. 4% healthy weight) and youth with a health condition or disability (16% vs. 4% without a disability)... physically abused (15% vs. 3%) or sexually abused (22% vs. 4%).
Zhao
et al.
(2010)

Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual Identi-
fied. N = 58
29.3%
ORs:
4.65 (2.57–8.41)
2.23 (1.15–4.35)
Heterosexual,
no Same-Sex
Attraction
or Behavior

N = 1,624

8.2%,
Past 12
Months
2004 Montreal Youth Risk Behavior Survey.
with additional items related to sexual orientation.
N = 1,856
Cited ORs, Top: Unadjusted, No Control Variables.
Below: Adjusted, With All Possible Control Variables

Unsure, N = 59
20.3%
ORs:
2.86 (1.48–5.53)
1.61 (0.77–3.36)
Heterosexual,
same-sex Attrac- tion or Behavior, N =115
13.0%
ORs:
1.68 (0.95–2.98)
1.03 (0.55–1.91)
Langille
et al.
(2012)
Bisexual to
100%
Homosexual
n = 81


Sexual Orientation: Attraction
100%
Heterosexual
to Mostly
Heterosexual
n = 1,516

Sexual Orientation: Attraction
Unadjusted  OR:
3.43 (1.74–6.79)

Adjusted OR:
2.27 (1.08–4.79)

Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
2006 Random Survey, 3 High Schools (Grades 10 - 12), Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada.

N = 1,597
Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR):
Controlling for age and school site.

Attempted Suicide Incidences not given for both compared groups.

Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
Males: 3.6%
Females: 6.1%
* M = Males - F = Females - RR = Risk Ratio - RR = Odds Ratio




1992 to 2008 Adolescent Health Surveys: British Columbia Schools
Grades 7 to 12 - By The McCreary Centre Society
Attempted Suicide Results, Past 12 Months

Categories /
Studies
Sex
Sexual
Minorities
n's
Hetero-
sexual
Counter-
part
n's
Attempted
Suicide - %
Sexual Minority
vs. % heterosexual
Comments,
Sampling Information
Odds Ratio (95% CI)

1992 Survey
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)

Rein (1998)
Thesis Data 1
15,549 Students
GLB = 1.9%
Appriximately
Male
Gay
[n = 32]
1
Estimated
?
[n =
6,811] 1
Estimated
44% vs ?
40.6% vs 3.7% 1
13 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 8.6<17.7<36.2 1
Bisexual
[n = 110]
1
Estimated
12% vs ?
16.4%  vs. 3.7% 1
18 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 3.0<5.1<8.5 1
Female
Lesbian
[n = 12]
1
Estimated
[n = 6,802] 1
Estimated
19% vs. ?
16.7% vs
9.6% 1
2 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 0.41<1.9<8.6 1
Bisexual
[n = 110]
1
Estimated
13% vs. ?
20.8% vs 9.6% 1
21 Suicide Attempters 1
OR = 1.5<2.5<4.0 1
1998 Survey
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)
GLB = ? %
Male
Gay
n = ?
n = ?
22% vs. ? [4%] 5
RR = 5.5
Bisexual
n = ?
n = ? 18% vs. ? [4%] 5 RR = 4.5
Female Lesbian
n = ?
n = ? 24% vs. ? [9%] 5 RR = 2.7
Bisexual
n = ?
n = ? 26% vs. ? [9%] 5 RR = 2.9
2003 Survey
30,588 students
Saewyc
et al.
(2007)
GLB = 2.4%
2
Male
Gay
n = 881 [93]
2
n = ? 9% vs. ?
8.8% vs. 3.3%
3
The percentage of gays increased by about 50% since the 1992 survey
RR =  2.7
Bisexual
n = 1,231 [130] 2
n = ? 13% vs. ?
12.8% vs. 3.3% 3
The percentage of  bisexuals decreased by about 40%
since the 1992 survey
RR =  3.9
Female
Lesbian
n = 465 [49]
2
n = ? 39% vs. ?
38% vs. 8.2%
3
The percentage of lesbians
doubled since the 1992 survey 4
RR =  4.6
Bisexual
n = 4,328 [457]
2
n = ? 30% vs. ?
30.4% vs. 8.2%
3
The percentage of   bisexuals
doubled since the 1992 survey
4
RR =  3.7
2003 Survey
GLB = 2.4% 2
Males /
Females
n = 729
GLB
< 29,859
24.8% (181 / 729)
vs. 5.7%
Approximately
RR = 4.3
Approximately
2008 Survey
n = >29,000
GLB = 3%
McCreary Centre
Society (2009)
Males /
Females
n = ?
< 870
n = ?
< 28,130
28% vs.
4%
Compared to heterosexuals, the
risk for attempting suicide has increased for GLB individuals
since 2003: RR = 7, Approximately.
Sexual minority groups most at risk =
Unknown! Not Reported!
1. This information is given or estimated from the Rein (1998) thesis study.
2. Counts estimated from counts and percentages given by Poon & Saewyc (2009). The first number given is weighted (resulting from a sample of 30,588 students being made to represent 290,000BC students in Grade 7 to 12. The second number approximately represents what the original sample counts would be. The GLB percentage given as 2.4%.
3. Information made available in the media (Bohn, 2006 and Gorham, 2006), reporting on the 2003 BC Adolescent Health Survey results presented by Elizabeth Saewyc at the 2006 Canadian Public Health Conference held in Vancouver, BC.
4. The doubling of the lesbian and bisexual female representation may be implicated in their rising Attempted Suicide incidence. It is possible that many more, for some reason, have been identifying at a younger age than before (1992), that is reported to be implicated in higher levels of suicidality for GLB youth.
5. Attempted Suicide incidences given in
McCreary Centre Society (2001).

Note: Not a word was mentioned about GLB youth in the May et al. (2004) McCreary Centre report on the 2003 survey.



"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: New Zealand &
Australian
Homosexually Oriented Youth or Adults
Random Study Samples
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Fleming
 et al. (2007)
2001 Random
School Sample
New
Zealand
N = 9,570
Not Given
Also NOT Given
 is Number of same-sex and
both-sex attracted individuals, that is somewhat equivalent to GLB
Not Given
For all Males: 4.7%
For all Females:
10.5%
Not Given
OR: 1.3<1.7<2.4
For Having Attempted Suicide, Past Year, Non-Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual. with 20 Control Variable!
"Non-heterosexual orientation was defined as being attract to the same sex (as oneself), both sexes, neither sex or not sure."
The Existence of the LeBrun et al (2004) Report - below - is not mentioned by Fleming et al. (2007)
GLB Results Estimates: Table Below.
Le Brun et al. (2004)
2001 Random
School Sample
New Zealand
N = 8,997
701
7.8% of Sample
8,696
92.2% of Sample
15.3% vs.
7.2%
(Approx.)
Past Year
Question Asked: "Which of the following are you sexually attracted to…?" Non-Heterosexual: Same-Sex (68, 0.75%), Both-Sex (277, 3.1%), Unsure (206, 2.3%), Neither (150, 1.7%)
9,570 - 8,997 = 573 - The Non-Responders to the "Sexually Attracted" Question = 6.0% of Sample
GLB Results Estimates: Table Below.
Rossen et al. (2009) Same-Sex
Attracted
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
20% vs.
4.0%
The New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey:
Additional Tabled Results.
Lucassen et al.
(2011)

Same-Sex
Attracted
Only
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
13.9% vs.
4.0%
The New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey:
Additional Tabled Results.


Both-Sex
Attracted
Opposite-Sex
Attracted
21.7% vs.
4.0%
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007)
Homosexual/
Bisexual
Heterosexual
12.6% vs.
3.1%
[National] Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, but information said to be from an "additional analysis" by Queensland Association for Healthy Communities (2010).
Additional Tabled Results.
* M = Males - F = Females





The New Zealand Youth 2001 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey
GLB / Non-Heterosexual Results Given & Estimated -
Almost "Everything" About Same-Sex Attracted Youth & Suicidality Was NOT reported!
Data Used for Estimates: Fleming et al. (2007) & Le Brun et al. (2004)
Sexually Attracted
To? -->
Categories
Opposite
-Sex
Same-
Sex
Both-
Sex
Unsure
Neither
All Non-
Hetero-
sexual
All
n
8,296
68
277
206
150
701
8.997
%
92.2%
0.7%
3.1%
2.3%
1.7%
7.8%
100%
Depression
?
22.9%. n = 156
(683 X 0.229 = 156) 1
22.9%
n = 156
8,997
- 2.6%
= n =
8,763 2
Depression
?
98 / 336: 29.2%
n = 68 + 277 = 345
Non-Responders:
9 = 2.6%



1,071 /
8,763 =
14.0%
Depression
1,071 - 156 =
915
915 / 8,062 =
11.3% 4
98 / (345 - 9 = 336)
= 29.2%
Depressed = 156 - 98 = 58
58 / (356 - 9 = 347)
= 16.7%

1,071 /
8,763 =
14.0%
Attempters, n
% Attempting Suicide,
Past Year
?
15.3% (.153 X 701) = 107

739 /
9,450 =
7.8% 3
Attempters, n
% Attempting Suicide,
Past Year
620
620 /
(9,321 - 701 =
8,620)
7.2%
15.3% (.153 X 701) = 107
Approx. RR: 1.7<2.1<2.6
Approx. OR: 1.9<2.3<2.9
15.3%
727 /
9,321
7.8%
5
(Suicide Attempter Count Distribution) 6
Estimated % Attempting Suicide, Past Year
620 / 8,620
7.2%
(62.8% of 107 = 67) 6
67 / 336 = 19.9%
Approx. RR: 2.2<2.8<3.5
Approx. OR: 2.4<3.2<4.2

(37.2%  of 107 = 40) 6
40 / 356 = 11.5%
Approx. RR: 1.1<1.6<2.1
Approx. OR: 1.2<1.6<2.3


727 /
9,321
7.8%
6
What Might the Results
be for Males????
< 4.7%
Would the OR & RR
be Higher for Males???
Would the OR & RR
be Higher for Males???

4.7%
1. Estimated by Web Page Author (PJT), percentage given. Assuming a 2.6% Non-Responder incidence. Therefore n = 701 - 18 = 683
2. Depression % given separately for males (9.0% for 46.2% of sample = 4,048 X .09 = 364) and females (18.3 % for 53.8% of sample = 4714 X .183 = 863)
3. Number of Male/Female Suicide Attempters given by Fleming et al. (2007): 739, with male (46.2% of sample) incidence being 4.7% and females (53.8% of sample) incidence being 10.5%. Responders to "Attempted Suicide" question = approx. 9,450. Average "attempted suicide incidence for males and females combined = approx. 7.8%. Question Non-Responder: 9,570 - 9,450 = 120
4. Estimated given the other information in the row.  5. Numbers reduced given that only 97.4% of sample responded to "Sexual Attraction" question. 6. Giving a usually strong relationship between depression and attempting suicide, "attempted suicide" counts given the same distribution as "Depression" counts. Same Sex attracted adolescents had 98/156 = 62.8% of the "Depression" counts for all Non-Heterosexual adolescents. ORs and RRs, "Attempting Suicide" in the Category compared to their  Heterosexual Counterpart.



The New Zealand 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey
GLB / Non-Heterosexual Adolescents. Suicidality Results Below.

Sexually Attracted
To? -->
Categories
Opposite
Sex
Same
Sex
Both
Sex
Unsure
Neither
All
Non-
Hetero
All
All: n, %,
(95% Confidence Interval)
9,098 Males & Females
Non-Responders, Sexual Attraction:
1,096 / 9,098 = 12.05%
7,370
92.10%
(91.4 - 92.9)
343
4.28%
(3.7 - 4.8)
289
3.61
(3.0 - 4.2)

632
7.9%
8,002
100%
All: Attempted Suicide n, %
Non-Responders, Suicide Question:
Approx:
311 / 9,098 = 3.4%
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 413, 4.7%
(4.1 - 5.3)
N ~ = 8,787 *
All: Attempted Suicide, Required Medical Treatment.
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 114, 1.3%, (1.0 - 1.5)
114 / 413 = 26.7% of
Attempters
N ~ = 8.769 *
Male: 4,911, 54.0%
Non-Responders, Sexual Attraction:
666 / 4,911 = 13.56%
3,968
93.47%
(92.7 - 94.4)
165
3.89%
(3.2 - 4.5)
112
2.64%
(2.0 - 3.2)
277
6.52%
4,245, 100%
53% of Sample
Males:
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 138, 2.9%
(2.4 - 3.5)
N ~ = 4,758 *
Males: Attempted Suicide,
Required Medical Treatment.
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 47, 1.0%, (0.7 - 1.3). 47 / 138
 =
34.1% of Male
Attempters
N ~ = 4,700 *
Māori Males:
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 4.4%
Pākehā/NZ European Males:
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 2.4%
Female: 4,187, 46.0%
Non-Responders, Sexual Attraction:
430 / 4,187 = 10.27%
3,402
90.55%
(89.6 - 91.6)
178
4.74%
(4.0 - 5.3)
177
4.71%
3.9 - 5.5
355
9.45%

3,757, 100%
47% of  Sample
Females
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 275, 6.7%
(5.9 - 7.5)
N ~ = 4.104 *
Females: Attempted Suicide,
Required Medical Treatment.
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 67, 1.6% (1.2 - 2.0). 67 / 275
= 24.36 of Female
Attempters
N ~ = 4,187 *
Māori Females:
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 9.6%
Pākehā/NZ European Females:
Attempted Suicide: n, %
n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? n, % ? 5.1%

*
Estimates From the Number as Related to Percentage Given. E.G. 413 / 0.047 = 8,787.
But correct N could be from about 8,713 (413 / 0.0474) to 8.862 (413 / 0.0466)
Data Sources: Adolescent Health Research Group (2008) & Clark et al. (2008)




The New Zealand Youth 2007 National Secondary School Youth Health Survey
GLB / Non-Heterosexual Results Given & Estimated
Categories /
Variables
Same-Sex Attracted
% Incidence
Heterosexual
% Incidence

Risk
Ratio 4
Significant depressive symptoms 1
35%
15%
2.3
Seriously thought
about attempting suicide
1
29%
12%
2.4
Plan to kill myself  1 30%
8%
3.8
Attempted Suicide 2 20%
4%
5.0
2001 Study: Attempted Suicide 3 22%
7%
3.1

Data Source: Rossen et al. (2009)
1. Percentages Estimated From Bar Graphs - 2. Percentages Given
3. 2001 Study
Percentages Given & Included for Comparison
4. Estimated From Incidences.





The New Zealand Youth 2007 National Secondary
School Youth Health Survey: Random Survey
Sexual
Attraction / ->
Risks 1

Opposite
Sex
Same
Sex
Both
Sex
Not
Sure
Significant
Depressive
Symptoms:
Males / Females
n = 7212
687 (9.5%)
n = 70
16 (23.3%)
3 OR: 1.9 (1.1–3.1)
n = 261
86 (32.3%)
OR: 3.7 (2.8–4.7)
n = 136
30 (21.8%)
OR: 2.1 (1.3–3.3)
Seriously
Considered
Suicide:
Males 2
n = 3920
329 (8.4%)
n =  45
13 (28.9%)
OR: 4.5 (2.3–8.7)
n = 114)
39 (34.2%)
OR: 5.8 (3.9–8.8)
n = 55
4 (7.4%)
OR: 0.9 (0.3–2.3)
Seriously
Considered
Suicide:
Females 2
n = 3396
636 (18.6%)
n = 27
5 (19.1%)
OR: 1.0 (0.4–2.7)
n = 151
75 (48.3%)
OR: 4.4 (3.2–6.0)
n= 88
25 (28.3%)
OR: 1.6 (0.8–2.9)
Attempted
Suicide:
Males / Females
n = 7313
291 (4.0%)
n = 72
10 (13.9%)
OR: 4.8 (2.4–9.6)
n = 265
59 (21.7%)
OR: 7.0 (5.2–9.4)
n = 142
14 (10.1%)
OR: 2.4 (1.1–5.1)
Deliberately
Self-Harmed
n = 7329
1426 (19.4%)
n = 73
27 (36.9%)
OR: 2.8 (1.8–4.4)
n = 268
156 (57.9%)
OR: 5.8 (4.4–7.6)
n = 142
44 (30.4%)
OR: 1.8 (1.1–2.7)

Data & Results Source: Lucassen et al. (2011)
1. All Risk behaviors are for "the last 12 months".
2. Males and Females calculated separately because of significant differences between the sexes for this risk behavior.
3. All ORs (Odds Ratios) are comparisons of results in a caterory with heterosexual results.




National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing:
Australian Men & Women
Categories
Heterosexual
Homosexual/
Bisexual
Have had suicidal thoughts.
12.9%
34.7%
Have had suicidal plans.
3.7%
17.1%
Have attempted suicide.
3.1%
12.6%

Secondary Data Source:
Data said to be reported - by Queensland Association for Healthy Communities (2010) - in an "additional analysis" associated with the National Survey of Wellbeing report by Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007).





"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Street Youth
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Kruks
(1991)
53 (M*)
Gay
Identified
None
53%
(28 / 33)
Lifetime
Los Angeles: Gay Identified
Street Youth
Reporting on unpublished part of
Schneider et al (1989) study sample..
Noell
& Ochs
(2001)

141 (MF*)
GLBU
391 (MF)
H-MH
49.6% vs.
35.8%
Lifetime
Large Northwest American City
Mean Age: 17.7 (SD: 1.9), 13 to 20 Years: Street Youth
OR = 1.8 (1.2, 2.7)
44 (M)
GBU
272 (M)
H-MH
44.2% vs.
33.0%
Lifetime
GLBU: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure: Street Youth
 OR = 1.5 (0.80, 2.9)
97 (F)
LBU
119 (F)
H-MH
52.6% vs.
41.9%
Lifetime
H-MT: Heterosexual, Mostly Heterosexual: Street Youth
 OR = 1.5 (0.89, 2.6)
McCreary
(2002)

59 (M)
1 to 100%
Homosexual
141 (M)
100%
Heterosexual
21% vs.
13%
Past Year
Volunteers: Vancouver, BC, Canada
Street Youth
 Age: < 25 Years-Old
Clatts
et al.
(2005)

83 (M)
Mostly (72%)
Gay, Bisexual
Identified
None
43.4%
Lifetime
Sampling: Popular Gay Venues,
New York:
Street Youth
4.6%
White: See Tabulated Information
Mean Age: 21.4 (SD: 2.9), 17 to 28 Years
van Leeuwen
et al.
(2006)
150 (MF)
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified
520 (MF)
Hetero-
sexual
Identified
62.4%
(93 / 149)
vs.
28.8%
(148 / 513)
Lifetime
USA: 8-Cities, One-Day Sample:
Street Youth
Age Range: 14 to 24 Years
OR = 4.1 (2.8, 6.0)
Cull
et al.
(2006)

44 (MF*)
None
67+ %
(30 / 44 ?)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Brighton & Hove, England
23 men, 17 women, 4 Transsexual (Male to Female). Age Range:
16 to 25 Years:
Street Youth
 GLB Orientation = 43
Frederick
et al.
(2012)
47
LGBTQ
103
Heterosexual
17%
vs.
15%
Past year
Toronto: Youth Pathways Project
Data Collection:
January 2005 to June 2006.
50% Female (n = 75)
Age Range: 16 to 21 years.
Gattis
(2013)
66
GLBT
81
Hetero-
sexual
27% (18 / 66)
vs. 8% (6 / 81)
p < .01
Street Youth, Toronto, Canada: Volunteers, Interviews, 2009.
69% male, 60% white: 16-24 Years
Attempted Suicide, Past Year
OR: 4.7 (1.6, 14.3), 95% CI, p = .0021
15% (10 / 66)
vs. 2% (2 / 81)
p < .01
Attempted Suicide, Past Year;
Resulted in treatment
by doctor or nurse.
OR: 7.0 (1.4, 48.6), p = .006
1
Kidd
et al.
(2017-18)
319
LGBTQ2S
752
Cisgender  &
Heterosexual
70% vs.
39%
The 2015 National Canadian
Homeless Youth Survey
N = 1,103
LGBTQ2S (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit)
See related data below.
* M = Males - F = Females - T = Transsexual -
** FTM: Female-to-Male, MTF: Male-to-Female
1. ORs generated by webpage authors at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html using given counts.



The 2015 National Canadian
Homeless Youth Survey 1

Categories
n, %
of Sample
Lifetime
Attempted  Suicide
Cisgender
Males
620, 56%
39%
Cisgender
Females
390, 35%
59%
Cisgender  &
Heterosexual
752, 68%
39%
Sexual & Gender
Identities
319, 28%
70% 3
Aboriginal /
First Nations 2
314, 29%
54%
Black
142, 13%
Black, Latin
American + Other
Racial Minorities
41%

Latin
American
38, 3.5%
Indigenous /
White

51%
White
676, 61%
?

Data Source: Kidd et al. (2017-18)

1. "A total of 1161 youth completed the survey, and after cleaning, 1,103 were retained (cases with key demographic data and measures omitted were excluded). Data were collected from the Nunavut territory and all provinces except for Prince Edward Island... The largest amounts of data were collected from Ontario (n = 482; 44%), British Columbia (n = 238; 22%), and Alberta (n = 154; 14%) and the least from Nunavut (n = 2; 0.2%) and Manitoba (n = 16; 1.4%). Data were primarily gathered in large urban centres such as Toronto (n = 193; 18%), Vancouver (n = 167; 15%), Edmonton (n = 82; 7.4%), Ottawa (n = 67; 6.1%), and St. John’s (n = 67; 6.1%)."
2. The attempted suicide incidence for aboriginal LGBTQ2S (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit) individuals is not reported. Aboriginal youth are overrepresented in the Canadian homeless youth population as is also the case for the general LGBTQ2S population that is overrepresented in the suicide attempter population
3. The "attempted suicide" Risk Ratio & Odds Ratio relationship between sexual & gender identity minorities and cisgender & heterosexual homeless youth (70% vs.39%) is RR = 1.8, OR =  3.6. RR / OR generated at http://statpages.info/ctab2x2.html 




Suicide/Suicidality Risk: Psychiatric Patients
Homosexuality & Bisexuality
Study
Homosexuality As
Suicide/Suicidality
Risk Factor
Study
Information
Motto
et al.
(1985)
High Risk For Suicide:
Being bisexual and sexually
 active, or homosexual
and inactive (celibate)
Follow-up USA study of  2,753 adults "hospitalized
due to a depressive or suicidal state" USA
Marten
et al.
(1985)

Homosexuals accounted
for one-third of
the suicide deaths
A prospective USA study of 500 randomly
selected psychiatric outpatients during
a mean follow-up period of seven years.
Pretorius
(1992)
Thesis
For males, subsequent
suicide attempts were
associated with:
Being Single,
Homosexuality,
and Other Factors
All cases of attempted suicide referred to the Department
of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria were studied
over a period of a year.
A total of 307 patients, 86 males
and 221 females, were evaluated. After 5 years, as many
as possible were traced: 59 males and 205 females.
Note: After 1985, homosexuality issues have generally been ignored
in studies of the suicide & suicidality of psychiatric patients.





Suicide Risk: Transsexual Populations
Study
Transsexual Suicide Risk Factors
Study
Information
Asscheman
et al.
(1989)
303 Male-to-Female Transsexuals (MtF)
Suicide: 3 (0.63-8.8) vs. 0.208
Age When Hormone Treatment Began:
Median: 32.0 Years, Range: 16-67

Attempted suicide by MtF before the start of sex reassignment treatment
: 14%

122 Female-to-Male Transsexuals (FtM)
No Suicides
Age When Hormone Treatment Began:
Median: 25.4 Years, Range: 16-54

425 Transsexual Patients With Cross-Gender
Hormone Treatment (1972-1986,
Free University Hospital clinic, Amsterdam, The Netherlands).Compared With
Average Population.
"The observed and the expected mortalities in male to-female transsexuals treated with estrogens and cyproterone acetate are shown in Table 1. The total number of deaths in the treatment group represented a 2.5- to 9-fold increase over the general population. The increased mortality was in particular due to an increase of suicides and of deaths by unknown cause." "The increased number of deaths by unknown cause does raise concern. Two of these three deaths might have been suicide, according to friends and relatives."
van Kesteren
et al.
(1997)
SMR: Standard Mortality Ratio (MtF)
Suicide Risk Compared to Average Population:
13 Suicides - SMR: 4.9<9.3<15.9
.

No Suicide: Female to Male (FtM) Transsexuals.

Attempted suicide by MtF before the start of sex reassignment treatment: ? %. After?
Suicide Risk in 816 Male-to-Female Transsexuals
Treated With Oestrogens and Anti-Androgens at Free University Hospital clinic (Amsterdam,
The Netherlands) from 1977 to 1994.

Mean Age (MtF): 41 (18-860 Years
Mean Age (FtM, N = 282): 34 (17-70) Years
Dhejne
et al.
(2011)


Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR)
Suicide: 19.1 (5.8–62.9) - 1973 to 2003

Attempted Suicide
4.9 (2.9–8.5) - 1973 to 2003
7.9 (4.1–15.3) - 1973 to 1988
2.0 (0.7–5.3) - 1989 to 2003
324 sex-reassigned persons (191 male-to-females: MtF,
133 female-to-males: FtM) in Sweden, 1973–2003.
Study Entry Age: MtF: 36.3 (10.1, 21–69),
FtM: 33.3 (8.7, 20–62)
Random population controls (10:1) matched for birth year and sex (Table 2).
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment
Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003
Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR), 95% CI
Suicide
MtF (N=191): 13.9 (3.9-49.6)
FtM (N=133) 40.0 (4.5-357.9)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 19.1 (6.5-55.9)

Attempted Suicide
MtF (N=191): 15.4 (7.9-30.2)
FtM (N=133) 2.9 (1.3-6.8)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 7.6 (4.7-12.4)
Matched With Birth Sex and Birth Year: Table S1
(Separate Download)
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment


Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003

Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR), 95% CI
Suicide
MtF (N=191): 60.0 (7.2-498.4)
FtM (N=133) 5.4 (1.6-18.6)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 12.1 (4.8-30.8)


Attempted Suicide
MtF (N=191): 10.9 (5.9-20.0)
FtM (N=133) 4.9 (2.0-12.1)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 8.4 (5.1-13.8)
Matched With Final Sex and Birth Year: Table S2
(Separate Download)
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment

Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence
rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003

Asscheman
et al.
(2011)
SMR (Standard Mortality Rate) for Suicide:

MtF: n = 17 Suicides
SMR: 5.70 (4.93–6.54), 95% CI

FtM: n = 1 Suicide
SMR: 2.22 (0.53–6.18), 95% CI

( Related Article)
Netherlands: VU University Medical Center
All transsexual subjects referred to our
outpatient department since 1975.
966 (72.6%) MtF transsexuals, with a mean
age of 31.4 years at the start of cross-sex hormones (range: 16–76 years), with 18 678 patient-years of follow-up, and 365 (27.4%) FtM transsexuals, with a mean age 26.1 years (range: 16–57 years) at the start of hormone therapy with 6866 patient-years of follow-up.
Blosnich
et al.
(2014a)
"The study population consisted of VHA patients identified as having any one of four diagnosis codes indicating transgender status (n = 5,117) gathered from the VA National Patient Care Database. Mortality data were gathered from the National Death Index from 2000–2009 for 1,277 veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses."
"Approximately 9.3% (n = 309) veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses died across the study period... The crude suicide rate among veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses across the 10-year period was approximately 82/100,000 person-years, which approximated the crude suicide death rates for other serious mental illness in VHA (e.g., depression, schizophrenia). The average age of suicide decedents was 49.4 years... The crude suicide rate among veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses is higher than in the general population, and they may be dying by suicide at younger ages than their veteran peers without transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Future research, such as age-adjusted rates or accounting for psychiatric co-morbidities, will help to better clarify if the all-cause and suicide mortality rates are elevated for veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses."
* MtF: Male to Female - FtM: Female to Male







"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks
Transgender (TG) Populations: 2000 to 2017
Study
Sample
Size (N)
TG
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Risk Ratio,
p
Odd Ratios, Specified
Xavier
(2000)
Washington
D.C.
252
*MTF: 189
None
16%
70% African-American,
22% Latino/a, 8% Others.
Age Range: 13 to 61 Years
Nearly 80% = 36 years and under
** Nemoto (2001)
San
Francisco

MTF: 245
None
32%
MTF Of Color
?
51%
African American
?
31%
Latina
?
18%
Asian / Pacific Islander
Nemoto
et al.
(2002)
San
Francisco

MTF: 332
None
29%
MTF Of Color ***8
112
41%
African American - Mean Age: 36.5***
110
45%
Latina - Mean Age: 32.9
110
15%
Asian/Pacific Islander - Mean Age: 32.9
Mathy
(2002b)

Additional
Results

North
American
73 TG

61 TG =
Canadians
12 TG =
Americans
1,083
23.3% vs
11.4%
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Females
2.9, p
< .01
1,077
23.3% vs
5.0
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Males
4.7, p
< .001
73
23.3% vs
11.0%
TG vs. Matched Females
2.1, p
< .05
73
23.3% vs
4.1%
TG vs. Matched Males
5.7, p < .001
256
23.3% vs
16.0%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Females
1.5, ns
356
23.3% vs
8.7%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Males
2.7, p < .001
Kenagy
(2005)
Philadelphia
All MTF: 182
None
30.1% Volunteers: Face-to-Face Interview
or Questionnaire - 41.3: African American, 33.0% white, 10.1% multiracial, 6.1& Hispanic, 5.6% biracial, 3.9% others.
See also: Kenagy (1998)
MTF: 113
32.4%
* FTM: 69
26.2%
Operario
& Nemoto
(2005)
San
Francisco
MTF: 110
Asian
Pacific
Islanders
None
15%
Same Sample
as in
Nemoto et al.
(2002)
Volunteers: San Francisco ****
Mean Age: 33, Range: 18 to 57 Years
46% of FTM = Filipino, 9% Laotian, 7% Vietnamese, 4% Hawaiian, remainder identifying as other Asian/PI ethnicities.
Clements-
Nolle et al.
(2006)
San
Francisco

Additional
Results

All TG: 515
None
32.2%
63.7% Non-White, 36.3% White
MTF: 391
MTF vs.
FTM
32.5%
OR = 1.04 (0.67, 1.6) ns, No Controls
OR = 1.1 (0.59, 1.9),  9 Controls
FTM: 123
31.7%
White: 188
White vs.
Non-
White

37.8% OR = 1.5 (1.02, 2.2), No Controls
OR = 1.5 (0.92, 2.4),  9 Controls
Others: 323
28.8%
< 25 Yrs: 66
< 25 vs
25 + Yrs

47.0%
OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), No Controls
OR = 2.17 (1.17, 4.01),  9 Controls
25+ Yrs: 449 30.1%
Zians
(2006)

TG: 136
None
17.6%
(24 / 136)
San Diego, California
Mean Age: 38.3 (SD: 13.1)
Age Range: 9 to 79 Years
48.3% White, 16.2% Latino,
14% African  American, 10.3% Biracial
Kim et. al.
(2006)

MTF: 43
49 Matched
non-FTMs
62.8%
(27 / 43)
Presenting at compulsory military service in 3 Korean Cities.
Age Range: 19 to 23 Years
Taylor
(2006)

TG: 73
None
28%
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
49 Born Male, 21 Born Female, 3 Intersexed. 20 Aboriginal
Age Range: 18 to 60+
Grossman &
D'Augelli
(2007)
31 MTF
Mean Age: 17.5
None
6 / 31
19.3%
Volunteer Sample via two New York City GLBT Community Service Organizations. Age: 15-21 years
Suicide Attempters were asked where, how, why, and lethality of suicide attempt(s) also determined.
50% Attempted at Age 15-16 years, Age Range: 10-17 Years. Note: These are serious suicide attempts as determined for GLB youth by D'Augelli et al. (2005): For NYC similarly sampled GLB Individuals, Attempted Suicide Incidence = 14.8%
24 FTM
Mean Age: 19.5
None
8 / 24
33.3%
Xavier
et al.
(2007)
MTF &
FTM
N = 350
None
25.4%
'With participants from 60 of the 136 cities and counties in the State of Virginia, this is the first truly statewide needs assessment survey of a transgender population in the U.S.'
*Not given and cannot be calculated exactly from given results.
Note: Same sample as Testa et al. (2012)
& Goldblum et al (2012) below
MTF
n = 229
None
< 25.4%*
FTM
n = 121
None
> 25.4%*
Malavé
Lebrón &
González
Rivera
(2009)
MTF
n = 31
None
8 / 31 =
25.8%
Puerto Rico Volunteer transgender -
transsexual (masculine to feminine). Ages of 20-45 years (MD= 29 years).
McNeil
et al.
(2012)
MTF, FTM +
N = 581 ?
None
35% Once.
25% More
Than Once.
See Information Table Below.
Testa
et al.
(2012)

MTF &
FTM
N = 350
Study Sample: 271
None
-
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to physical violence:
FTM OR: 5.1 -- MTF OR: 3.5
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to physical violence:
FTM OR: 5.0 -- MTF OR: 3.6
Note: Same online sample as Xavier et al. (2007) above & Goldblum et al (2012) below.
State of Virginia study sample.
MTF
n = 179
None
26.3%
FTM
n = 92
None
34.0%
Goldblum
et al.
(2012)
MTF &
FTM
N = 350
Study Sample: 290
None
28.5%
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to in-school gender-based victimization (GBV).:
FTM OR: 4.5 -- MTF OR: 3.1
Note: Same online sample as Xavier et al. (2007) & Testa et al (2012) above.
State of Virginia study sample.

MTF
None
26.5%
FTM
None
31/2%
Nuttbrock
et al.
(2010)

All MTF
N = 571
-
-
MTFs recruited in conjunction with the baseline component of the New York Transgender Project, a large ongoing study of this population in the New York Metropolitan Area. Ages = 19 to 59, mean age = 37.
Younger:
19-39
Years
None
31.2%
Older:
39-59
Years
None
28.0%
Maguen &
Shipherd
(2010)

All: 153
None
18%
27 / 153
American Transgender participants (N = 153), 18-75 years, recruited at First Event, a regional transgender conference sponsored by the Tiffany Club of New England on January16 and 17, 2004.
Trans Men
MTF
None
41%
9 / 22
Trans Women
FTM
None
20%
12 / 60
Bigender
None
9%
3 of 32
male crossdressers
None

7%
2 / 28
Grant et al.
(2010)

All: 6,450
Transgender
None
41%
American: Internet Sample
"Attempted Suicide" Results by Age Groups, Employment Status and Race/Ethnicity
See Table Below.
Discrimination Results by
Herman et al (2014): Table Below.
For suicidality results related to many demographic factors, see: Haas et al (2014)..
Scanlon et al.
(2010)

Bauer
et al.
(2013)
All: 433
Transgender
None

Attempted
Suicide:

Lifetime:
43%
Past year:
10%
Ontario, Canada Sample:
Trans PULSE Survey.
See Additional Suicidality Results, Including :"Attempted Suicide" Incidences as related to age and having experienced verbal or physical assault: Table Below.
Bauer
et al.
(2015)
All: 380
Transgender
None
Attempted
Suicide:
Past year:
11,2%
Same  non-random study sample as above: Scanlon et al (2010) & Bauer et al. 2013). Analysis to identify suicidality related factors that could be targeted in suicide prevention efforts.
Terada
et al.
(2011)

MTF
N = 189
None
31.7%: See
"Suicidality
Variable"
Study Sample: 500 consecutive Japanese GID patients without any other psychiatric comorbidity at outpatient GID Clinic of Okayama University Hospital.
GID: Gender Identity Disorder.
"Suicidality Variable": Self-mutilation including suicide attempts.
Risk Factors: Early onset and less education.
FTM
N = 311
None
31.8%: See
"Suicidality
Variable"
Effrig
et al.
(2011)
Transgender,
Combined,
2 Study
Samples:
32 Clinical,
65
Nonclinical.
Total = 97
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
8.4%, men & Women,
Clinical
Sample.
4.9%, men & Women,
Nonclinical
Sample.
Transgender
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
25.7%
27 / 97

Nonclinical Participants: random national sample of 21, 686 college students. Average age of participants:  22 years (SD = 9.52).
Clinical Sample Participants: 27,616 college students who sought counseling services at one of 66 CCMH counseling centers.
Singh
(2012)
48 GID Males (of
139 GID
Males) who
had related
data.
None
Attempted
Suicide
Since the Age
of 13 Years:

15 / 48
31.2%
The participants were biological males referred to and then assessed in the Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, Ontario during their childhood and were adolescents or adults at the time of follow-up. Data collection occurred over three decades, 1986-2011.
Jones &
Hillier
(2013)
91 Trans-spectrum
Youth.
1,265
Cisgender
SSAY: Same
Sex Attracted
Youth.

Age Range:
14 to 21
Average:
17 Years

Cisgender
30.12%
Trans-
Spectrum
Lifetime
Self-Harm
46.15%
p < 0.01
Writing Themselves In” 2010: an Australian online survey. 91 trans-spectrum youth: 43 elected
their sex as “Gender Queer,” 21 as “Transgender f-m,” 18 as “Trans-gender m-f,” and 9 as “Other.” The 3,043 cisgender SSAY youth: 1,265 were males (vast majority described themselves as gay/homosexual), 1,766 females with identifications more evenly divided between bisexual and gay/homosexual).
Cisgender
16.10%
Trans-
Spectrum

Lifetime
Attempted
Suicide
27.47%
p < 0.01
Blosnich
et al.
(2013)

GID
Diagnosed
VHA
Population.

General VHA Population.
[USA Veteran
Health
Adminis-tration]
GID:
Suicide-
Related
Events =
Planning
Suicide,
Attempting
Suicide
.
"GID prevalence in the VHA is higher (22.9/100 000 persons) than are previous estimates of GID in the general US population (4.3/100 000 persons). The rate of suicide-related events among GID-diagnosed VHA veterans was more than 20 times higher than were rates for the general VHA population."
Moody &
Smith
(2013)
133
Transgender
Adults
None
26.3%
35 / 133
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Internet Sampling: Recruitment e-mails sent to possible participants via LGBT and trans LISTSERVs and organizations: September 2010 to February 2011. 133 Volunteer Canadian Participants, self-identified as trans adults, ranging in age from 18 to 75 years (M=36.75, SD=13.01).
Boza &
Perry
(2014)
255
Transgender
Adults
None
43.6%
106 / 243
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Internet Non-Random Sampling; Online Study Advertisements & Snowballing for Australian Transgender Residents.
Sample: 87 Born Female. 168 Born Male. Mean Age: 38.15 years (SD = 13.56, range = 18–73). Participants were predominantly of Oceanic (60.9%) or European (33.3%) ethnicity.
Clark
et al.
(2014)
Transgender
n = 83 to 95.

Non-
Transgender:
Attempted
Suicide:

315 / 7,678
= 4.1%
Transgender:
Attempted
Suicide:
19 / 95 =
19.8%

Odds Ratio:
5.0 (2.9-8.8)
Youth’12: a national, crosssectional, population-based survey: secondary school youth health, New Zealand.
Self-Harm: 45.5% vs. 23.4%.
OR: 2.7 (1.7-4.3).
Depression: 41.3% vs. 11,8%
OR: 5.7 (3.6-9.2)
de Bolger
et al.
(2014)
Trans Men
n = 230
Female at
birth.
None
Attempted
Suicide:
79 / 222 =
35.1%
Self-Harm
150 / 222 =
67.6%
Australian trans men aged 16 years and over. Recruited via gender centres, gender clinics, and government and non-government organisations. Survey completed online. Age range = 16 to 64 years. Mean = 30.5 years.
Reisner
et al.
(2014)
Transgender
n =31
Cisgender
n = 2,622

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
8.5%
Transgender
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
29.0%
Results from the Core Data Project survey of patients engaged in medical care from 2001–2002 at Fenway Community Health Center (FCHC) in Boston, Massachusetts.
Reisner
et al.
(2015)
Transgender
n =31
Cisgender
n = 180

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
6.1%
Transgender
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
17.2%
RR, With Controls:
3.2 (1.5-6.7)
A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen between 2002 and 2011 at at the Fenway Community Health Center (FCHC) in Boston, Massachusetts. Transgender compared with matched cisgender (nontransgender) youth patients.
Veale
et al.
(2015)
923
Trans
Youth:

14 to 25
Years Old

None
Suicidality, past 12 months,
younger youth
(14-18 years old):

Attempted suicide: 37%   

Had seriously considered suicide: 65%   

Lifetime
suicidality
, older youth (19-25 years old):

Attempted suicide:
37%

Had seriously considered suicide:
65%
Youth could participate in the study if they were between 14 and 25 years old, lived in Canada, and identified as trans or genderqueer, or felt their gender didn’t match their body. The survey was open from October 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014.Volunteer study participant: 923 youth, average age = 20 years old, 70% white. Overall, 1 in 10 participants identified as Aboriginal, which included First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. This number was much higher in the Prairie Provinces.

Same study sample as
Veale et al. (2017).

Guzmán-
Parra
(2015)
MTF
n=101

FTM
n = 96
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
21.8%, MTF

Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
24.0%, FTM

Study of the sociodemographic characteristics and the psychological adjustment of transsexuals in Andalusia (Spain), with an analysis of the differences between
female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals.

The sample was selected from patients attending theTGIU [Transsexuality and Gender
Identity Unit (TGIU) at the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga] who met the Transsexualism criteria for the ICD-10 (F64.0) standards and did not meet any of the exclusion criteria
for sex reassignment set by the unit.
Marshall
et al.
(2015-16)
Transwomen
n = 438
Transwomen
n = 44
N = 482
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:

Transwomen
141 / 438 = 25,1%
Transmen
18/ 44 = 40.9%
All:
159 / 482 = 33.0%
Non-random - as representative as possible - nation-wide, cross-sectional 2013 survey of transgender individuals living in Argentina.
Median Age = 30 Years
Perez-Brumer
et`al.
(2015