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Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

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Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies: The Index. - All Random & Special Sample Studies. - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies. - The Results of Additional School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors (This Page). - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues. - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results.

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.


Tremblay & Ramsay (2000, 2004) appear to be the first to have proposed the concept that gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents were, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors. This was done in conference papers titled "The Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems: Research Proposals for the Twenty First Century" (2000, Table 2) and "The Changing Social Construction of Western Male Homosexuality: Associations With Worsening Youth Suicide Problems" (2004, Table 5). At presentation time, the papers were made available online at what continues to be the only website (began in 1996) focused on gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender suicidality: "Youth Suicide Problems: Gay/Bisexual Male Focus!", noting that the Home Page for the Website Domain was dedicated to the presentation associated with the 2004 paper. This website then led to the creation of another Web Information Unit "Bisexual / Gay / Queer Male Suicidality" that has been housed at three locations, including at the University if Southampton from 2000 to 2003, after which it was transferred to the University of Calgary where it has remained to this day. In 2007, the webpage you are now reading (an ongoing project) was constructed as a part of the website: "Increasing Awareness of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Two Spirit, Queer... Suicide Issues". The recently published paper referenced below now confirms, via meta-analysis, that sexual minority adolescents have been at increasing risk for the more serious forms of suicidal behaviors:
Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-23. Full Text. Abstract: "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'.


On the basis of suicidality data from American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys carried out in the 1990s, homosexually oriented adolescents in public schools (males and females combined for analysis) are generally at increasing risk for more serious suicide behaviors, compared to their heterosexually oriented counterparts.  The same also applies for homosexual/bisexual self-identified males and females (and more so for males) in a 1992 Canadian study of British Columbia adolescents in schools.  Unfortunately, the incidences for adolescents reporting that they had attempted suicide multiple times are most often never reported in spite of the fact that Youth Risk Behavior Surveys do solicit such information (Note 1).
Furthermore, no one has yet considered the option of making a composite "higher risk" attempted suicide variable - especially when the suicidality counts are low for homosexually oriented adolescents - by combining those who attempted suicide multiple times (an "at risk" behavior for both future suicide attempts as youths [Goldston et al., 1999; Hultén et al., 2001; Lewinsohn et al., 1994; Miranda et al., 2008; Pfeffer et al., 1993; Wichstrøm, 2000] and likely in adulthood [Pagura et al., 2008], and also for future suicides [Brent et al., 1999 - noting that previous single and multiple attempters were not separated for analysis]) with those for whom one or more of their suicide attempts resulted in having received medical care. Bryan et al. (2008) summarizes the "at risk" situation for multiple attempters:
"It is now well established that multiple suicide attempters, compared with suicide ideators (i.e., zero attempters) and single attempters, are a clinically distinct group with greater levels of pathology and risk for future suicide attempts and death by suicide (e.g., Forman, Berk, Henriques, Brown, & Beck; 2004; Lewinsohn, Rohde, & Seeley, 1996; Rudd, Joiner, & Rajab, 1996; Walker, Joiner, & Rudd, 2001). Past suicidal behavior has a direct and robust relationship with future suicidal behavior, above and beyond the contribution of other well-established suicide-related variables such as depression, hopelessness, personality pathology, and certain demographic variables (Joiner et al., 2005)."
In a 2009 online survey carried out in Dane County Wisconsin schools (Robinson & Espelage, 2011: Tabled Results), LGBQT as a group, and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students individually (not including questioning students), were more at risk for attempting suicide multiple times than once, when compared to straight (heterosexual) students.

In the Robinson & Espelage (2011) study, the results for suicidal ideation in the past 30 days (Tabled Results: Any Suicidal Ideation, Rarely, Sometimes, and Almost All The Time: "During the Past 30 Days, have you seriously thought about killing yourself?") ... also produced similar results. Compared to straight (heterosexual) students,
LGBQT as a group, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning and transgender students individually, were at increasing risk for more ongoing suicidal ideation. It is possible that experiencing increasing levels of suicide ideation, and especially 'seriously thinking about killing oneself' "almost all the time" for a month, may place an adolescent at increasing risk for attempting suicide, maybe multiple times, but this potential association is not reported on. It is also possible that experiencing higher levels of suicidality (high suicide ideation levels and suicide attempts) are, individually or combined, high risks for adolescent suicide.
In 2011, the CDC - via its MMWR  publication - reported the suicidality results for all the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - each as a grouped data set from 2001 to 2009 (2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, but not all these years are represented in some cases) - from both states and cities - that had solicited sexual orientation information, such as identity and/or the sex of one's sexual partner(s). The "In the Past Year"  suicidality results are re-tabulated here to show that sexual minority adolescents (males and females, combined) are, as a rule (or generally - See results using median variable incidences for the studies ***), at increasing risk - relative to their heterosexual counterparts - for the more serious suicidal behaviors or outcomes. This fact would suggest that sexual minority adolescents are also more at risk for suicide. The Suicidality Variables Data Tables are:

A. State Study Results Generated on the Basis of Sexual Identity: Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont.
  1. Gay / Lesbian Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  2. Bisexual Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  3. "Not Sure" 'Identity' vs. Heterosexual Identity.
B. City Study Results Generated on the Basis of Sexual Identity: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco.
  1. Gay / Lesbian Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  2. Bisexual Identity vs. Heterosexual Identity.
  3. "Not Sure: 'Identity' vs. Heterosexual Identity.
C. State Study Results Generated on the Basis of the Sex of One's Sexual Partner(s): Connecticut, Maine, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin.
  1. Only Same-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
  2. Both-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
D. City Study Results Generated on the Basis of the Sex of One's Sexual Partner(s): Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, New York, San Diego.
  1. Only Same-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.
  2. Both-Sex Sex Partners vs. Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partners.

***
The median incidences
used in the referenced data table are from the 2011 CDC document that were calculated on the basis of both the statewide Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - that have majority White populations - and city Youth Risk Behavior Surveys - where the majority population is Black and Hispanic, except in the San Francisco survey where the majority population (60.7%) is given as "Other" that is mostly Asian (about 43%) and about 18% other races and multi-race. Because of this major difference in population make-up, median incidence values for suicidality variables were calculated and tabled separately for State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. On the basis of data presented in the two tables, as well as in other tables, the following is concluded:
1. As a rule, adolescents who identify as Gay/Lesbian, Bisexual, or "Not Sure" are at increasing risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors, compared to their heterosexual identified counterparts.

2. As a rule, in (1), adolescents who identify as Gay/Lesbian, Bisexual, or "Not Sure" - who are in mostly White statewide populations - are at the greatest risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors such as "having attempted suicide" and "having attempted suicide that also resulted in having received medical attention" when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Those at lesser risk for these suicidal behaviors are the predominantly Black and Hispanic adolescent populations who live in cities and also identify as Gay/Lesbian, Bisexual, or "Not Sure".
[In Youth Risk Behavior Surveys used in large American cities generally with large Hispanic and African American populations (Boston, Chicago, New York, San Diego, San Francisco), the "more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors" often does not apply, also depending on the sexual minority group being described and the sex of individuals. See: Stone DM, Luo F, Ouyang L, Lippy C, Hertz MF, Crosby AE (2014). Sexual orientation and suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts: evidence from local youth risk behavior surveys, 2001-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 262-71. Abstract.]

[The 'rule' - "Being More At Risk For The More Serious Suicidal Behaviors" - for sexual minority youth - would likely often not apply for sexual minority racial/ethnic minority youth. This can be observed from scanning the results
- by race/ethic categories - of a 2014 suicidality analysis of the 2005 to 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys carried out by Bostwick et al. (2014), with results placed in a table below.]
  • This proposition was also the conclusion in the following paper: Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download. "Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition." [Note: Effects do vary. See # 3.]
  • This phenomenon was first reported more than ten years ago, on the basis of  data from Youth Risk Behavior Surveys in the following document: Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2000). The Social Construction of Male Homosexuality and Related Suicide Problems; Research Proposals for the Twenty First Century. Paper Presented at The 11th Annual Sociological Symposium: "Deconstructing Youth Suicide," San Diego State University, March, 2000. Full Text. See:  "Table 2 - GLB Youth: Increasing "At Risk" Status For The More Serious Suicide Problems: Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results."

3. Sexual minority adolescents manifesting the least risk for suicidality - that also includes no trend to be at increasing risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors when compared to their heterosexual counterparts - belong to a City population category (Mostly Black and Hispanic) who report having had Only Same-Sex Sex Partners with the majority identifying as heterosexual (Possibly meaning "Normal"), as in generally NOT identifying as Gay/Lesbian, Bisexual, or "Not Sure" (Likely meaning "Not Normal"). The suggestion is: It is likely NOT enjoying same-sex sex that places some adolescent at risk for suicidality, but that it is the highly stigmatized 'believed-to-be' sexual minority status (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual) identification (or pending identification likely applying for those in the "Not Sure" category) that is implicated in adolescents being at great risk for suicidal behaviors. This concept was proposed in a 2000, 2004 paper by Tremblay & Ramsay. The first author experienced this non-suicidality outcome for males while growing up in an environment where about 80% of adolescent males enjoyed homo-sex on a regular basis but obviously could NOT identify as minority 'anything' given that they formed the great majority of adolescent males. See related published account of such a North American - Canadian - adolescent male environment existing in the 1960s and 1970s.

Note: Although the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data makes possible the reporting of results for "Multiple Suicide Attempts," the CDC 'policy' for YRBS reporting has been to ignore this 'At Risk" suicidality attribute/factor in their publications of results. Researchers who have published "At Risk" related papers based on Youth Risk Behavior Survey data seem to have also done the same.

Similar results - being at greater risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors - have been produced for American homosexually oriented adult males in the NHANES Survey, in the Netherlands' NEMESIS Survey, for male twins discordant for sexual orientation in the Population-Based Vietnam Era Twin Registry, for all homosexually oriented males versus all heterosexually oriented males in the Population-Based Vietnam Era Twin Registry, and for the suicidality of homosexually versus heterosexually oriented adults in an Austrian studyHowever, the same pattern of risk was not reported for homosexually oriented females in the Netherlands' NEMESIS Survey, but the Odds Ratios are also statistically non-significant (ns). A similar outcome applies for homosexually oriented females in a New Zealand Birth Cohort study (to the age of 26 years), while homosexually oriented males generally show the expected pattern. In Austria, the Plöderl & Fartacek (2009) data reveals that homosexually oriented males and females are more at risk for the more serious suicide attempts than they are for less serious aborted suicide attempts, compared to their heterosexual counterparts.

Generally, major surveys of adults that have suicidality variables have had subsamples of less than 100 homosexually oriented males or females, meaning that there were few counts for those who had attempted suicide, and even fewer for variables that indicate more serious suicide behaviors such as for those who attempted suicide multiple times, for those reporting serious suicide attempts, or for those who received medical attention related to their suicide attempt(s).

For example, in reference to
the Netherlands' NEMESIS Survey, de Graaf et al. (2006) note that the four question on suicidality were: "death ideation (thoughts of death) (“Have you ever had a period of 2 weeks or more during which you were preoccupied with your own death, others’ death or dying in general?”), death wishes (“Have you ever had a period of 2 weeks or more during which you wanted to be dead?”), suicide contemplation (suicide ideation) (“Have you ever been so down that you thought of committing suicide?”), and actual deliberate self-harm (suicide attempt) (“Have you ever attempted suicide?”). These questions were asked on a lifetime basis. These suicide items were the same questions that were used in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey (Weissman, Klerman, Markowitz, & Ouellette, 1989) and the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey (Kessler et al., 1999)."

What is not mentioned, however, is that the
U.S. National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) has additional suicidality variables indicating degrees of higher severity related to one or more suicide attempt(s) (Table 1). However, as noted above, the problem with using such variables for comparisons between a subset of homosexually oriented individuals and heterosexual individuals is count related. That is, given that there are less than 100 male or female study participants who are homosexually oriented, with a smaller percentage who attempted suicide, and even fewer with high levels of severity for their suicide attempt(s), generating statistically significant Odds Ratio comparisons become impossible or near impossible. To Illustrate this, results from the 1990-92 NCS are given in Table 2.  Most results - the Odds Ratios - are statistically non-significant (ns).


Replication of the "More at Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behavior" has also been reported in a 2005 Austrian study of GLB adults matched with heterosexual adults on the basis of sex, age and education.


To Note: Problems have been reported with respect to whether or not study participants who report that they have attempted suicide actually attempted suicide (Moscicki, 1989; Moscicki et al., 1989; Meehan et al (1992); de Wilde & Kienhort, 1994; and O'Carroll et al., 1996Moscicki et al. (1989) highlighted the nature of the problem in a part of the discussion of their epidemiologic catchment area study results under the title "Limitations": 
"Suicide attempt" could thus have been interpreted by the respondent as an act of deliberate self-harm without the intention of dying, a genuine (and failed) attempt to end one's life, or as something else (perhaps an "accident" had been explained to them by a physician that had seen it as an unconscious suicide attempt). Suicide ideation, similarly, may mean different things to different people. (p. 122)

Meehan et al (1992) explored the problem by studying a sample of university students. The results were:
Of the 694 respondents, 374 (54%) reported having ever considered suicide and 181 (26%) had considered suicide during the preceding 12 months. Thirteen (2%) students reported having attempted suicide during the preceding 12 months, and 72 (10%) reported ever having attempted suicide. The number of students answering affirmatively to questions about injuries sustained, medical care sought, and hospitalization as a result of attempted suicide decreased progressively: only 18 (3%) students reported having ever sought medical care due to a suicide attempt, and seven (1%) were ever hospitalized... The prevalence of self-reported attempted suicide is not representative of the prevalence of self-injury and provides little information concerning the seriousness of the attempt. The use of specific questions similar to those used in this study should be considered in future surveys. (p. 41)

de Wilde & Kienhort (1994)
reviewed a number of Dutch studies (1988 - 1993) and some of the interpretation problems were discussed.
Was this behavior a suicide attempt? This decision is heavily dependent upon the idea the respondent has about a suicide attempt (p. 267). ...one does not have to want to die in order to attempt suicide (268). To answer these problems in both methods of sampling, more fundamental research is necessary. To establish a reliable frequency of attempted suicide, the investigation should not be made bigger and bigger, but perhaps more experimental, or qualitative. Studies should investigate the decision process of labelling a behavior as an attempted suicide, one should design a manual that every person can handle in the same way, and also, desperately, a common concept of attempted suicide. Only then, safe estimates and reliable statements about this thermometer of well-being of our youth can be made (p. 269).
O'Carroll et al. (1996) noted that a number of published classifications existed for suicides and suicidal behaviors, dating back to 1974, but also noted: "Unfortunately, at this writing, neither these or any other classification efforts have been widely adopted" (p. 26). They then proposed their own nomenclature (p. 34) that included a definition of "suicide attempt" and related issues:
A potentially self-injurious behavior with a non fatal outcome, for which there is evidence (either explicit or implicit) that the person intended at some (non-zero) level to kill himself-herself. A suicide attempt may or may not result in injuries. A "suicidal act" includes all suicide attempts plus all acts resulting in suicide. "Suicide-related behavior" is also defined: Potentially self-injurious behavior for which there is explicit or implicit evidence either that (a) the person intended at some (non-zero) level to kill himself/herself, or, the person wished to use the appearance of intending to kill himself/herself in order to attain some other end. Suicide-related behavior comprises suicidal acts and instrumental suicide-related behavior.
The earliest research work carried out in this respect, however, was by Ramsay & Bagley (1985) & by Bagley & Ramsay (1985) as noted by Moscicki (1989):
This is the only known community survey that has addressed the important distinction between deliberate self-harm without intent to die, which the authors called "parasuicide," and a lethal suicide attempt [defined by the intent to die]. (p. 136)
Moscicki (1989) noted that, in the Ramsay & Bagley (1985) study, "respondents were asked in a semi structured interview about sociodemographic characteristics, childhood history, social ties, religiosity, stress, health, "suicidal behaviors," and "suicidal actions"," and she listed the 6 questions related to suicidality that are located in the Appendix of the 1985 Ramsay & Bagley paper (p. 165), with the emphasis being placed on the last two items:

1. Have you ever felt that life was not worth living?

2. Have you wished that you were dead - for instance, that you could go to sleep and not wake up?

3. Have you ever thought of taking your life, even if you would not really do it?

4. Have you ever reached the point where you seriously considered taking your own life and perhaps made plans how you would go about doing it?

5. Have you ever deliberately harmed yourself, but in a way that stopped short of a real intent to take your life?

6. Have you ever made an intentional attempt to take your life?

These questions were asked of the 750 young adult male participants (age = 18 to 27 years, stratified random sample) in the Bagley & Tremblay (1997) study, with additional information solicited about the suicide attempt reported by those affirmatively replying to the question: "Have you ever made an intentional attempt to take your life?" Only one out of 8 males in this category had not made a very serious attempt at killing himself. The results also showed what was noted above: homosexually oriented males are more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors.

Stratified Random Sample: 750 Young Adult Calgary Males
Lifetime Suicidality Risk: Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Males
Variable
Homosexually
Oriented *
Heterosexually
Oriented *
Odds
Ratio

All Self-Harm
13 / 82
37 / 668
3.2
(1.6, 6.3)
Self-Harm, No Intent to Die
8 / 82
34 / 334
2.0
(0.90, 4.5)
Attempted Suicide,
Intent to Take One's Life
5 / 82
3 / 668
14.4
(3.4, 61.4)
* Homosexually Oriented: Study participants described themselves as "homosexual" or "bisexual", or reported having at least one same-sex sex partner in the past 6 months.
Data Source: Bagley & Tremblay (1997)



Table 1: U.S. National Comorbidity Survey
Questions After: "
Have you ever attempted suicide?"
Variable
Number
Question
Number
Question
V6310 U41a How many times has Event 15 [attempting suicide] happened to you in your lifetime?
V6311 U41b How old were you the first time?
V6312


U41c


There are three statements lettered A, B, and C under Event 15. Which of these statements best describes your situation when you were (AGE IN U41b) years old and Event 15 happened--A, B, or C?
(A) I made a serious attempt to kill myself and it was only luck that I did not succeed.
(B) I tried to kill myself, but I knew the method was not fool-proof.
(C) My attempt was a cry for help, I did not want to die.
V6313 U41d When (did/was the last time) Event 15 happen(ed)--in the past month, past six months, past year, or more than a year ago?
V6314 U41e How old were you [the last time (Event 15 happened)]?
V6315 U41f Did this result in an injury or poisoning (the last time it happened)?  Yes/No
V6316 U41g Did it require medical attention? Yes/No
V6317 U41h Did it require overnight hospitalization? Yes/No
"Event 15" = Ever Attempted Suicide
Information Source: 
Kessler RC (2000-2006, 2000)

 


Table 2: Lifetime Suicide Symptoms Risk
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Males & Females
National Comorbidity Survey
Variables
Men
Women
Odds
Ratio
95%
CI
Odds
Ratio
95%
CI
Thought About Suicide
2.2*
1.2, 4.2
2.0*
1.0, 3.9
Made a Plan for Committing Suicide
1.6
0.6, 4.3
2.6
1.0, 6.9
Attempted Suicide
2.4
1.0, 5.8
1.5
0.7, 3.4
Data Source: Gilman et al. (2001), * p < .05
Homosexual Males = 74,
Heterosexual Males = 2,310
Homosexual Females = 51, Heterosexual Females = 2,475



Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
Gay / Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Delaware
2003, 05, 07, 09

Gay / Lesbian
(n = 133, 1.3%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
Maine
2007,
2009
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 186, 1.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

Massachusetts
2001 to
2009
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 196, 1.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

Rhode Island
2007,
2009
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 91, 1.7%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

Vermont
2005,
07, 09
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 264, 1.0%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
35.3% vs.
10.9%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 4.5
29.5% vs.
10.1%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.7
43.4% vs. 
13.2%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 5.0
20.5% vs.
9.9%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.3
N/A
Suicide
Planned
36.8% vs.
8.5%
RR: 4.3,
OR: 6.3
31.1% vs.
15.7% 
RR: 2.6,
OR: 3.3
37.1% vs.
10.7%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 4.9
15.8% vs.
9.6%
RR: 1.6,
OR: 1.8
31.7% vs.
8.0%
RR: 4.0,
OR: 5.3

Attempted
Suicide
27.0% vs.
5.7%
RR: 4.7,
OR: 6.1
22.3% vs.
5.1%
RR: 4.4,
OR: 5.3
33.1% vs. 
6.4%
RR: 5.2,
OR: 7.2
25.8% vs.
6.3%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 5.2
25.4% vs.
3.8%
RR: 6.7,
OR: 8.6

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
12.9% vs.
1.5%
RR: 8.6,
OR: 9.7
N/A
15.1% vs.
2.2%
RR: 6.9,
OR: 7.9
12.4% vs.
3.9%
RR: 4.3,
OR: 4.7
13.4% vs.
1.1%
RR: 12.2,
OR: 13.9

       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     %Hispanic
     % Other

56.7%
28.4%
8.8%
6.1%

95.3%
0.7%
1.3&
2.8%

74.7%
8.7%
11.5%
5.2%

69.4%
9.2%
17.6%
3.8%

95.2%
0.7%
1.2%
2.9%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.



Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  Bisexual vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Delaware
2003, 05,
07, 09

Bisexual
(n = 396, 3.8%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
Maine
2007,
2009

Bisexual
(n = 432, 3.4%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

Massachusetts
2001 to
2009

Bisexual
(n = 536, 3.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

Rhode Island
2007, 09
Bisexual
(n = 287, 5.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

Vermont
2005,
07, 09

Bisexual
(n = 941, 3.7%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
46.1% vs.
10.9%
RR: 4.2,
OR: 7.0
36.4% vs.
10.1%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 5.1
46.2% vs. 
13.2%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 5.6
40.2% vs.
9.9%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 6.1
N/A
Suicide
Planned
34.0% vs.
8.5%
RR: 4.0,
OR: 5.5
37.0% vs.
15.7% 
RR: 2.4,
OR: 3.1
36.4% vs.
10.7%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 4.8
35.7% vs.
9.6%
RR: 3.7,
OR: 5.2
37.7% vs.
8.0%
RR: 4.7,
OR: 7.0

Attempted
Suicide
29.3% vs.
5.7%
RR: 5.2,
OR: 6.9
20.6% vs.
5.1%
RR: 4.0,
OR: 4.8
28.0% vs. 
6.4%
RR: 4.4,
OR: 5.7
32.0% vs.
6.3%
RR: 5.1,
OR: 7.0
26.7% vs.
3.8%
RR: 7.0,
OR: 9.2

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
11.3% vs.
1.5%
RR: 7.5,
OR: 8.4
15.9% vs.
0.9%
RR: 17.7,
OR: 20.8
11.2% vs.
2.2%
RR: 5.1,
OR: 5.6
10.1% vs.
3.9%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 2.8
10.8% vs.
1.1%
RR: 9.8,
OR: 10.9

       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
   %Hispanic
     % Other

56.7%
28.4%
8.8%
6.1%

95.3%
0.7%
1.3&
2.8%

74.7%
8.7%
11.5%
5.2%

69.4%
9.2%
17.6%
3.8%

95.2%
0.7%
1.2%
2.9%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  "Not Sure" vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Delaware
2003, 05, 07, 09
 "Not Sure"
(n = 136, 1.3%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 9,801, 93.5%)
Maine
2007,
2009

"Not Sure"
(n = 324, 2.1%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =9,513, 93.3%)

Massachusetts
2001 to
2009

"Not Sure"
(n = 377, 2.1%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =15,780, 93.6%)

Rhode Island
2007, 09
"Not Sure"
(n = 137, 2.5%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =4,836, 90.7%)

Vermont
2005,
07, 09

"Not Sure"
(n = 610, 2.3%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n =21,466, 93.0%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
40.4% vs.
10.9%
RR: 3.7,
OR: 5.5
27.6% vs.
10.1%
RR: 2.7,
OR: 3.4
29.1% vs. 
13.2%
RR: 2.2,
OR: 2.7
18.6% vs.
9.9%
RR: 1.9,
OR: 2.1
N/A
Suicide
Planned
30.1% vs.
8.5%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 4.6
31.7% vs.
15.7% 
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.5
24.6% vs.
10.7%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.7
20.0% vs.
9.6%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.3
22.4% vs.
8.0%
RR: 2.8,
OR: 3.3

Attempted
Suicide
26.7% vs.
5.7%
RR: 4.7,
OR: 6.0
20.7% vs.
5.1%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 4.9
20.9% vs. 
6.4%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 3.9
16.1% vs.
6.3%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 3.8
16.6% vs.
3.8%
RR: 4.4,
OR: 5.0

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
12.0% vs.
1.5%
RR: 8.0,
OR: 8.9
16.8% vs.
0.9%
RR: 18.7,
OR: 22.2
10.2% vs.
2.2%
RR: 4.6,
OR: 5.0
5.6% vs.
3.9%
RR: 1.4,
OR: 1.5 ns
10.8% vs.
1.1%
RR: 7.6,
OR: 8.2

       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
   %Hispanic
     % Other

56.7%
28.4%
8.8%
6.1%

95.3%
0.7%
1.3%
2.8%

74.7%
8.7%
11.5%
5.2%

69.4%
9.2%
17.6%
3.8%

95.2%
0.7%
1.2%
2.9%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
Gay / Lesbian vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Boston
2001 to
2009

Gay / Lesbian
(n = 79, 1.1%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
Chicago
2003, 05, 07, 09
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 102, 2.6%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

New York
2005, 07, 09
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 468, 1.4%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

San Francisco
2001, 05, 07, 09
Gay / Lesbian
(n = 121, 1.4%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
20.4% vs.
11.7%
RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9 ns
30.0% vs. 
11.9%
RR: 2.5, OR: 3.2
29.7% vs.
11.8%
RR: 2.5, OR: 3.1
18.8% vs.
12.1%
RR: 1.5, OR: 1.7 ns
Suicide
Planned
20.2% vs.
10.7%
RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
18.8% vs.
9.4%
RR: 2.0, OR: 2.2
21.2% vs.
10.0%
RR: 2.1, OR: 2.4
20.6% vs.
11.9%
RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9
Attempted
Suicide
34.3% vs.
8.9%
RR: 3.8, OR: 5.3
32.6% vs. 
9.6%
RR: 3.4, OR: 4.5
21.5% vs.
7.2%
RR: 3.0, OR: 3.5
15.1% vs.
7.3%
RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
15.7% vs.
3.0%
RR: 5.2, OR: 6.0
9.9% vs.
3.4%
RR: 2.9, OR: 3.1
7.8% vs.
2.1%
RR: 3.7, OR: 3.9
7.0% vs.
2.2%
RR: 3.2, OR: 3.3
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

15.4%
46.4%
29.1%
9.2%

9.9%
50.4%
35.5%
4.2%

11.9%
34.9%
36.1%
17.1%

8.1%
11.4%
19.8%
60.7%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
Bisexual vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Boston
2001 to 2009
Bisexual
(n = 215, 2.9%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
Chicago
2003, 05, 07, 09
Bisexual
(n = 148, 3.7%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

New York
2005, 07, 09
Bisexual
(n = 1,353, 4.3%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

San Francisco
2001, 05, 07, 09
Bisexual
(n = 296, 3.7%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
40.5% vs.
11.7%
RR: 3.5, OR: 5.2
35.4% vs. 
11.9%
RR: 3.0, OR: 4.1
40.5% vs.
11.8%
RR: 3.4, OR: 5.1
38.8% vs.
12.1%
RR: 3.2, OR: 4.6
Suicide
Planned
34.5% vs.
10.7%
RR: 3.2, OR: 4.4
30.0% vs.
9.4%
RR: 3.2, OR: 4.1
34.8% vs.
10.0%
RR: 3.5, OR: 4.8
35.8% vs.
11.9%
RR: 3.0, OR: 4.1
Attempted
Suicide
28.9% vs.
8.9%
RR: 3.2, OR: 4.2
26.3% vs. 
9.6%
RR: 2.7, OR: 3.4
30.5% vs.
7.2%
RR: 4.2, OR: 5.7
24.7% vs.
7.3%
RR: 3.4, OR: 4.2
Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
13.0% vs.
3.0%
RR: 4.3, OR: 4.8
11.3% vs.
3.4%
RR: 3.3, OR: 3.6
8.3% vs.
2.1%
RR: 3.9, OR: 4.2
12.1% vs.
2.2%
RR: 5.5, OR: 6.1
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

15.4%
46.4%
29.1%
9.2%

9.9%
50.4%
35.5%
4.2%

11.9%
34.9%
36.1%
17.1%

8.1%
11.4%
19.8%
60.7%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
"Not Sure" vs. Heterosexual Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Boston
2001 to 2009
"Not Sure"
(n = 184, 2.5%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 6,792, 93.4%)
Chicago
2003, 05, 07, 09
"Not Sure"
(n = 115, 3.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 3,534, 90.5%)

New York
2005, 07, 09
"Not Sure"
(n = 786, 3.2%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 24,553, 91.2%)

San Francisco
2001, 05, 07, 09
"Not Sure"
(n = 368, 4.7%) vs. 
Heterosexual (n = 7,546, 90.3%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
19.8% vs.
11.7%
RR: 1.7, OR: 1.9
20.9% vs. 
11.9%
RR: 1.8, OR: 2.0
26.5% vs.
11.8%
RR: 2.2, OR: 2.7
17.5% vs.
12.1%
RR: 1.4, OR: 1.5
Suicide
Planned
19.9% vs.
10.7%
RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
20.9% vs.
9.4%
RR: 2.2, OR: 2.5
20.7% vs.
10.0%
RR: 2.1, OR: 2.3
17.8% vs.
11.9%
RR: 1.5, OR: 1.6
Attempted
Suicide
21.8% vs.
8.9%
RR: 2.4, OR: 2.8
18.5% vs. 
9.6%
RR: 1.9, OR: 2.1
18.3% vs.
7.2%
RR: 2.5, OR: 2.9
13.0% vs.
7.3%
RR: 1.8, OR: 1.9
Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
10.3% vs.
3.0%
RR: 3.4, OR: 3.7
6.8% vs.
3.4%
RR: 2.0, OR: 2.1 ns
6.7% vs.
2.1%
RR: 3.2, OR: 3.3
4.4% vs.
2.2%
RR: 2.0, OR: 2.0 ns
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

15.4%
46.4%
29.1%
9.2%

9.9%
50.4%
35.5%
4.2%

11.9%
34.9%
36.1%
17.1%

8.1%
11.4%
19.8%
60.7%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  "Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OSSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Conn.
2007,
09

 OSSSP
(n = 104, 2.5%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,229,
52.9%)

Del.
2003 to 09
OSSSP
(n = 100, 1.0%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 5,497, 53.6%)

Maine
2001 to 07
OSSSP
(n = 137, 2.4%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,668, 51.7%)

Mass.
2001 to 09
OSSSP
(n = 340, 2.1%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 8,634, 53.3%)

R.I.
2007,
09
OSSSP
(n = 159, 2.7%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,915,
56.0%)

Vt.
2001 to 09
OSSSP
(n = 246, 0.7%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 13,638,
39.0%)

Wis.
2007,
09
OSSSP
(n = 82,
1.9%) vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,436,
54.7%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
22.1% vs.
14.4%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.7 ns
27.8% vs.
13.7%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.4
19.7% vs.
15.9%
RR: 1.2,
OR: 1.3 ns
25.3% vs.
16.4%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.7
19.4% vs. 
12.4%
RR: 1.6,
OR: 1.7
---% vs.
---%
RR: ---,
OR: ---
30.8% vs.
15.6%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.4
Suicide
Planned
20.9% vs.
9.8%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.4
28.2% vs.
10.6%
RR: 2.7,
OR: 3.3
16.9% vs.
14.3%
RR: 1.2,
OR: 1.2 ns
19.2% vs.
13.2%
RR: 1.4,
OR: 1.6
20.0% vs.
10.9%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.0
32.5% vs.
14.1%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.9
24.9% vs.
10.7%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.8
Attempted
Suicide
19.5% vs.
8.2%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.7
19.0% vs.
8.0%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.7
13.1% vs.
7.7%
RR: 1.7,
OR: 1.8 ns
21.1% vs.
8.5%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 2.9
16.5% vs. 
8.2%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.2
20.4% vs.
8.3%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 2.8
19.8% vs.
6.7%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.4
Suicide
Attempt(s) &
Medical Care
3.3% vs.
3.0%
RR: 1.1,
OR: 1.1 ns
8.4% vs.
2.6%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 3.4
4.2% vs.
2.7%
RR: 1.6,
OR: 1.6 ns
8.5% vs.
3.1%
RR: 2.7,
OR: 2.9
11.6% vs.
3.6%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 3.5
9.2% vs.
2.9%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 3.4
8.1% vs.
2.1%
RR: 3.9,
OR: 4.1
OSSSP,Identity=

 %Heterosexual
 % Gay/Lesbian
 % Bisexual
 % Unsure
NA


17.0%
60.0%
19.3%
3.7%


74.3%
10.8%
14.2%
0.7%


66.5%
19.0%
11.4%
3.2%


59.5%
24.1%
11.3%
5.1%


24.5%
46.7%
22.3%
6.5%
NA
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

68.2%
13.7%
14.4%
3.7%

56.7%
28.4%
8.8%
6.1%

95.3%
0.7%
1.3%
2.8%

74.7%
8.7%
11.5%
5.2%

69.4%
9.2%
17.6%
3.8%

95.2%
0.7%
1.2%
2.9%

79.8%
9.4%
5.8%
5.1%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
American States That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  "Both-Sex Sex Partners" (BSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Conn.
2007,
09

 BSSP
(n = 215, 4.8%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,229,
52.9%)

Del.
2003 to 09
BSSP
(n = 293, 2.8%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 5,497, 53.6%)

Maine
2001 to 07
BSSP
(n = 178, 3.0%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,668, 51.7%)

Mass.
2001 to 09
BSSP
(n = 563, 3.4%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 8,634, 53.3%)

R.I.
2007,
09

BSSP
(n = 258, 4.9%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 2,915,
56.0%)

Vt.
2001 to 09
BSSP
(n = 827, 2.0%) vs. OOSSP
(n = 13,638,
39.0%)

Wis.
2007,
09

BSSP
(n = 167,
3.6%) vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,436,
54.7%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
43.3% vs.
14.4%
RR: 3.0,
OR: 4.5
44.7% vs.
13.7%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 5.1
44.3% vs.
15.9%
RR: 2.8,
OR: 4.2
46.4% vs.
16.4%
RR: 2.8,
OR: 4.4
38.0% vs. 
12.4%
RR: 3.1,
OR: 4.3
---% vs.
---%
RR: ---,
OR: ---
45.6% vs.
15.6%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 4.5
Suicide
Planned
37.2% vs.
9.8%
RR: 3.8,
OR: 5.4
35.3% vs.
10.6%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.6
35.4% vs.
14.3%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 3.3
37.9% vs.
13.2%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 4.0
35.8% vs.
10.9%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.6
45.8% vs.
14.1%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 5.1
35.2% vs.
10.7%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.5
Attempted
Suicide
29.7% vs.
8.2%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 4.7
35.7% vs.
8.0%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 6.4
28.9% vs.
7.7%
RR: 3.7,
OR: 4.9
30.7% vs.
8.5%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 4.8
29.9% vs. 
8.2%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 4.8
40.7% vs.
8.3%
RR: 4.9,
OR: 7.6
27.7% vs.
6.7%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 5.3
Suicide
Attempt(s) &
Medical Care
12.8% vs.
3.0%
RR: 4.3,
OR: 4.7
15.6% vs.
2.6%
RR: 6.0,
OR: 6.0
15.9% vs.
2.7%
RR: 5.9,
OR: 6.8
13.5% vs.
3.1%
RR: 4.3,
OR: 4.9
8.2% vs.
3.6%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.4 ns
21.9% vs.
2.9%
RR: 7.5,
OR: 9.4
14.7% vs.
2.1%
RR: 7.0,
OR: 8.0
BSSP, Identity =

 %Heterosexual
 % Gay/Lesbian
 % Bisexual
 % Unsure
NA


17.3%
14.7%
61.9%
6.1%


63.4%
2.3%
24.9%
9.4%


36.5%
9.9%
44.0%
9.6%


32.1%
5.5%
51.8%
10.6%


27.3%
10.2%
51.9%
10.7%
NA
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

68.2%
13.7%
14.4%
3.7%

56.7%
28.4%
8.8%
6.1%

95.3%
0.7%
1.3%
2.8%

74.7%
8.7%
11.5%
5.2%

69.4%
9.2%
17.6%
3.8%

95.2%
0.7%
1.2%
2.9%

79.8%
9.4%
5.8%
5.1%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  "Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OSSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Boston
2001 to 09

 OSSSP
(n = 183, 2.7%)
 vs. OOSSP

(n = 3,834,
57.3%)

Chicago
2003 to 09
OSSSP
(n = 119, 3.2%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,195,
56.5%)

Milwaukee
2007, 09
OSSSP
(n = 133, 3.9%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,145,
60.9%)

New York
2005, 07, 09
OSSSP
(n = 743, 2.5%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 13,815, 49.3%)

San Diego
2001, 03, 05
OSSSP
(n = 83, 1.7%)
 vs. OOSSP

(n = 1,904,
37.2%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
17.8% vs.
11.7%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.6
27.5% vs.
12.8%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.6
17.3% vs.
11.8%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.6
27.5% vs.
14.3%
RR: 1.9,
OR: 2.3
45.5% vs. 
23.6%
RR: 1.9,
OR: 2.7
Suicide
Planned
19.5% vs.
11.1%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 1.9
11.4% vs.
10.5%
RR: 1.1,
OR: 1.1 ns
19.4% vs.
10.5%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.0
19.2% vs.
12.1%
RR: 1.6,
OR: 1.7
31.5% vs. 
18.7%
RR: 1.7,
OR: 2.0
Attempted
Suicide
22.8% vs.
9.6%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.8
23.3% vs.
11.2%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.4
15.8% vs.
10.6%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.6
18.7% vs.
9.6%
RR: 1.9,
OR: 2.2
26.0% vs. 
14.4%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.1
Suicide
Attempt(s) &
Medical Care
7.8% vs.
3.3%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.5 ns
6.5% vs.
4.3%
RR: 1.5,
OR:1.5 ns
5.3% vs.
4.2%
RR: 1.3,
OR: 1.3 ns
6.6% vs.
2.7%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.5
6.3% vs.
4.6%
RR: 1.4,
OR: 1.6 ns
OSSSP, Identity=
  %Heterosexual
  % Gay/Lesbian
  % Bisexual
  % Unsure

77.8%
13.4%
6.6%
2.3%

49.4%
33.4%
10.6%
6.6%
NA

63.9%
19.3%
10.3%
6.5%
NA
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other

15.4%
46.4%
29.1%
9.2%

9.9%
50.4%
35.5%
4.2%

13.4%
63.5%
17.7%
5.4%

11.9%
34.9%
36.1%
17.1%

27.5%
14.1%
40.4%
18.0%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Sex of Sex Partner(s) 
American Cities That Solicited Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined *
  "Both-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (BSSP) vs. "Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s)" (OOSSP) Incidences: Males & Females, Combined

Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
Boston
2001 to 09
 BSSP
(n = 193, 2.8%)
 vs. OOSSP

(n = 3,834,
57.3%)

Chicago
2003 to 09
BSSP
(n = 129, 3.1%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,195,
56.5%)

Milwaukee
2007, 09
BSSP
(n = 189, 4.9%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 2,145,
 60.9%)

New York
2005,
07, 09

BSSP (n =
1,169,4.0%)
vs. OOSSP

(n = 13,815,
49.3%)

San Diego
2001, 03, 05
BSSP
(n = 100, 1.9%)
 vs. OOSSP

(n = 1,904,
37.2%)

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
38.3% vs.
11.7%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.7
36.0% vs.
12.8%
RR: 2.8,
OR: 3.8
47.9% vs.
11.8%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 6.9
36.5% vs.
14.3%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 3.4
56.4% vs. 
23.6%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 4.2
Suicide
Planned
28.0% vs.
11.1%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 3.1
26.3% vs.
10.5%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 3.0
36.9% vs.
10.5%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 5.0
33.5% vs.
12.1%
RR: 2.8,
OR: 3.7
48.8% vs. 
18.7%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 4.1
Attempted
Suicide
27.7% vs.
9.6%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.6
20.2% vs.
11.2%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.0 ns
43.7% vs.
10.6%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 6.5
27.7% vs.
9.6%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.6
42.9% vs. 
14.4%
RR: 3.0,
OR: 4.5
Suicide
Attempt(s) &
Medical Care
17.6% vs.
3.3%
RR: 5.3,
OR: 6.3
7.4% vs.
4.3%
RR: 1.7,
OR:1.8 ns
14.2% vs.
4.2%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 3.8
9.8% vs.
2.7%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 3.9
20.3% vs.
4.6%
RR: 4.4,
OR: 5.3
  BSSP, Identity =
  % Heterosexual
  % Gay/Lesbian
  % Bisexual
  % Unsure

35.5%
8.3%
49.0%
7.2%

22.0%
11.6%
50.5%
15.9%
NA

27.5%
6.6%
51.4%
14.6%
NA
       'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     % Hispanic
     % Other


15.4%
46.4%
29.1%
9.2%

9.9%
50.4%
35.5%
4.2%

13.4%
63.5%
17.7%
5.4%

11.9%
34.9%
36.1%
17.1%

27.5%
14.1%
40.4%
18.0%
Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, Years Specified.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
RR & OR Statistical Significance Determination: If the Given 95% Confidence Intervals - Not Shown - for Two Compared Incidences do not Overlap. Not Statistically Significant RR & OR Indicated with "ns"
.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year **
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Using Median Incidence Estimates For
American States & Cities That Solicited Sexual Orientation Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined * - Males & Females, Combined
Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
 Gay/Lesbian
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences For
5 State and
4 City Surveys
Bisexual
vs. Hetero-
sexual:
Median
Incidences For

  5 State and 4 City Surveys
"Not Sure"
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences For
  5 State and 4 City Surveys

*** OSSSP vs.
OOSSP:
Median
Incidences For
  7 State and 5 City Surveys

*** BSSP
vs.

OOSSP:
Median
Incidences For
  7 State and 5 City Surveys

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
29.6% vs.
11.7%
RR: 2.5,
OR: 3.2

40.3% vs.
11.7%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 5.1

23.7% vs. 
11.7%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.3

25.3% vs.
14.3%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.0
44.3% vs.
14.3%
RR: 3.1,
OR: 4.8
Suicide
Planned
21.2% vs.
10.0%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.4

35.7% vs.
10.0% 
RR: 3.6,
OR: 5.0

20.9% vs.
10.0%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.4

19.7% vs.
11.0%
RR: 1.8,
OR: 2.0
35.6% vs.
11.0%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 4.5

Attempted
Suicide
25.8% vs.
6.4%
RR: 4.0,
OR: 5.1
28.0% vs.
6.4%
RR: 4.4,
OR: 5.7

18.5% vs. 
6.4%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.3

19.7% vs.
8.4%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.7
29.8% vs.
8.4%
RR: 3.5,
OR: 4.6

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
12.6% vs.
2.2%
RR: 5.7,
OR: 6.4

11.3% vs.
2.2%
RR: 5.1,
OR: 5.7

8.4% vs.
2.2%
RR: 3.8,
OR: 4.1

7.2% vs.
3.0%
RR: 2.4,
OR: 2.5
14.5% vs.
3.0%
RR: 4.8,
OR: 5.5


Data Source:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 - Not All Years May be Represented.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
** Note:  These results - obtained via using the median incidence values reported by the CDC - represent a 'ballpark' estimate. The most appropriate method available to average incidences in many studies - and also produce 95% Confidence Intervals - is by using meta-analyses.
*** OSSSP: Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s). - OOSSP: Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s). -  BSSP: Both-Sex Sex Partners.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year **
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Using Median Incidence Estimates For
American States That Solicited Sexual Orientation Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined * - Males & Females, Combined
Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
 Gay/Lesbian
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences
For 5 State Surveys
Bisexual
vs. Hetero-
sexual:
Median
Incidences
For
5 State Surveys
"Not Sure"
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences
For 5 State Surveys

*** OSSSP vs.
OOSSP:
Median
Incidences
For 7 State Surveys

*** BSSP
vs.

OOSSP:
Median
Incidences
For 7 State Surveys

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
32.4% vs.
10.5%
RR: 3.1,
OR: 4.1
43.1% vs.
10.5%
RR: 4.1,
OR: 6.5
28.3% vs. 
10.5%
RR: 2.7,
OR: 3.4
22.1% vs.
15.0%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.6
44.3% vs.
15.0%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 4.5
Suicide
Planned
31.7% vs.
9.6%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.4
36.4% vs.
9.6
RR: 3.8,
OR: 5.4
24.6% vs.
9.6%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 3.1
20.9% vs.
10.9%
RR: 1.9,
OR: 2.2
35.4% vs.
10.9%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 4.5

Attempted
Suicide
25.8% vs.
5.7%
RR: 4.5,
OR: 5.7
28.0% vs.
5.7%
RR: 4.9,
OR: 6.4
20.7% vs. 
5.7%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 4.3
19.5% vs.
8.2%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.7
29.9% vs.
8.2%
RR: 3.6,
OR: 4.8

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
12.1% vs.
1.5%
RR: 8.1,
OR: 9.0
11.7% vs.
1.5%
RR: 7.8,
OR: 8.7
6.7% vs.
1.5%
RR: 4.5,
OR: 4.7
8.4% vs.
2.9%
RR: 2.9,
OR: 3.1
14.7% vs.
2.9%
RR: 5.1,
OR: 5.8

Identity =
  %Heterosexual

  % Gay/Lesbian


  % Bisexual


  % Unsure

Does Not Apply
5 of 7 States
17.0% -
74.3% - 66.5% -
59.5% - 24.5%
60.0% -
10.8% - 19.0% - 24.1% - 46.7%
19.3% -
14.2% - 11.4% - 11.3% - 22.3%
3.7% -
0.7% - 3.2% - 5.1% - 6.5%
5 of 7 States
17.3% -
63.4% - 36.5% - 32.1% -
27.3%
14.7% -
2.3% - 9.9% - 5.5% - 10.2%
61.9% -
24.9% - 44.0% - 51.8% - 51.9%
6.1% -
9.4% - 9.6% - 10.6% - 10.7%
      'Race' =
     % White

     % Black

     %Hispanic

     % Other



'Race' - 5 States
56.7% - 95.3% - 74.7% - 69.4% - 95.2%

28.4% - 0.70% - 8.70% - 9.20% - 0.70%

8.80% - 1.30% - 11.5% - 17.6% - 1.20%

6.10% - 2.80% - 5.20% - 3.80% - 2.90%

Delaware, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont
Mostly White
'Race' - 7 States
68.2% - 56.7% - 95.3% - 74.7% - 69.4% - 95.2% - 79.8%
13.7% - 28.4% - 0.70% - 8.70% - 9.20% - 0.70% - 9.40%
14.4% - 8.80% - 1.30% - 1.5% - 17.6% - 1.20% - 5.8%
3.70% - 6.10% - 2.80% - 5.20% - 3.80% - 2.90% - 5.10%
Conn., Del., Maine, Mass., R.I., Vt., Wis.
Mostly White

Data Source:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 - Not All Years May be Represented.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
** Note:  These results - obtained via using the median incidence values for American states - represent a 'ballpark' estimate. The most appropriate method available to average incidences in many studies - and also produce 95% Confidence Intervals - is by using meta-analyses.
*** OSSSP: Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s). - OOSSP: Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s). -  BSSP: Both-Sex Sex Partners.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year **
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results: Using Median Incidence Estimates For
American Cities That Solicited Sexual Orientation Related Data in 2001-2009 Surveys, Combined * - Males & Females, Combined
Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior
Category
 Gay/Lesbian
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences
for
4 City Surveys
Bisexual
vs. Hetero-
sexual:
Median
Incidences for

  4 City Surveys
"Not Sure"
vs. Hetero-
sexual: Median
Incidences For
  4 City Surveys

*** OSSSP vs.
OOSSP:
Median
Incidences For
  5 City Surveys

*** BSSP
vs.

OOSSP:
Median
Incidences For
  5 City Surveys

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
25.0% vs.
11.8%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.5
37.9% vs.
11.8%
RR: 3.2,
OR: 4.6
20.3% vs. 
11.8%
RR: 1.7,
OR: 1.9
27.5% vs.
12.8%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.6
38.3% vs.
12.8%
RR: 3.0,
OR: 4.2
Suicide
Planned
20.4% vs.
10.3%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.2
34.6% vs.
10.3
RR: 3.4,
OR: 4.6
20.3% vs.
10.3%
RR: 2.0,
OR: 2.2
19.4% vs.
11.1%
RR: 1.7,
OR: 1.9
33.5% vs.
11.1%
RR: 3.0,
OR: 4.0

Attempted
Suicide
27.0% vs.
8.1%
RR: 3.3,
OR: 4.2
27.6% vs.
8.1%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 4.3
18.4% vs. 
8.1%
RR: 2.3,
OR: 2.6
22.8% vs.
10.6%
RR: 2.1,
OR: 2.5
27.7% vs.
10.6%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 3.2

Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
8.8% vs.
2.6%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 3.6
11.7% vs.
2.6%
RR: 4.5,
OR: 5.0
6.7% vs.
2.6%
RR: 2.6,
OR: 2.7
6.5% vs.
4.2%
RR: 1.5,
OR: 1.6
14.2% vs.
4.2%
RR: 3.4,
OR: 3.8

       Identity =
 %Heterosexual

  % Gay/Lesbian

  % Bisexual

  % Unsure
Does Not Apply
Does Not Apply Does Not Apply OSSSP Identity
77.8%- 49.4%- 63.9%
13.4% - 33.4% - 19.3%
6.60% - 10.6% - 10.3%

2.30% - 6.60% - 6.50%
BSSP Identity
35.5% - 22.0% - 27.5%
8.30% - 11.6% - 6.60%
49.0%- 50.5%- 51.4%
7.20% - 15.9% - 14.6%

      'Race' =
     % White
     % Black
     %Hispanic
     % Other



'Race' - 4 Cities
15.4% - 9.90% - 11.9% - 8.10%
46.4% - 50.4% - 34.9% - 11.4%
29.1% - 35.5% -
36.1% - 19.8%
9.20% - 4.20% - 17.1% - 60.7%
Boston -  Chicago - New York - San Francisco

Mostly Black / Hispanic, SF Anomaly: High Asian Population
'Race' - 5 Cities
15.4% - 9.9%  - 13.4% - 11.9% - 27.5%
46.4% - 50.4% - 63.5% - 34.9% - 14.1%
29.1% - 35.5% - 17.7% -
36.1% - 40.4%
9.20% - 4.20% - 5.40% - 17.1% - 18.0%
Boston - Chicago - Milwaukee -
New York - San Diego
Mostly Black / Hispanic

Data Source:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011)
* Combined Surveys: 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 - Not All Years May be Represented.
Basic RRs (Risk Ratios) & ORs (Odds Ratios): Calculated from Given Percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
** Note:  These results - obtained via using the median incidence values for American Cities - represent a 'ballpark' estimate. The most appropriate method available to average incidences in many studies - and also produce 95% Confidence Intervals - is by using meta-analyses.
*** OSSSP: Only Same-Sex Sex Partner(s). - OOSSP: Only Opposite-Sex Sex Partner(s). -  BSSP: Both-Sex Sex Partners.




Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, Kinchen S, Chyen D, Harris WA, Wechsler H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release 2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w.  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6007a1.htm



Youth Risk Behavior Surveys: 2005 to 2007 1
Sexual Minority Suicidality & Self-Harm Results

Cate-
gories 2

Feel
Sad
Suicide
Ideation
Planned
Suicide
Attempted
Suicide
Attempt,
Medical
Attention
Self-
Harm

Sexual Minority % vs. Heterosexual % (Weighted), Odds Ratio:
Almost All Differences/Ratios Would Be Statistically Significant. 3
Males &
Females
48.1 vs 24.5
2.9
32.2 vs 11.7
3.6
27.4 vs 9.7
3.5
22.8 vs 6.6
4.2
8.3 vs 2.0
4.4
39.1 vs 14.2
3.9







Males
37.6 vs 18.1
2.7
25.4 vs 8.6
3.6
22.4 vs 8.0
3.3
20.9 vs 5.4
4.6
9.1 vs 2.0
4.9
30.9 vs 10.1
4.0
Females
54.7 vs 31.2
2.7
36.4 vs 14.9
3.4
30.5 vs 11.4
3.4
23.9 vs 7.7
3.8
7.8 vs 2.1
3.9
44.6 vs 18.4
3.6
Males & Females
American
Indian, PI
53.8 vs 33.4
2.3
33.6 vs 18.1
2.3
36.5 15.6
3.1
32.2 vs 14.5
2.8

12.8 vs 4.4
3.2
59.9 vs 14.8
8.6
Asian
42.9 vs 24.5
2.3
25.2 vs 13.2
2.2
22.4 vs 11.5
2.2
21.1 vs 6.4
3.9
8.7 vs 1.8
5.2
31.3 vs 13.7
2.9
Black
38.7 vs 26.4
1.8
26.0 vs 11.3
2.9
22.1 vs 9.8
2.6
20.7 vs 7.8
3.1
5.3 vs 2.7
2.0
18.3 vs 8.2
2.5
White
48.0 vs 20.5
3.6
33.9 vs 10.9
4.2
27.5 vs 8.7
3.6
21.1 vs 4.9
5.2
8.8 vs 1.4
6.8
42.5 vs 15.4
4.1
Hispanic/
Latino
55.2 vs 32.3
2.6
34.5 vs 11.8
3.9
25.9 vs 9.7
3.2
26.9 vs 9.0
3.7
7.4 vs 2.5
3.1
35.0 vs 11.7
4.1
Multi-
racial
59.4 vs 31.2
3.2
37.3 vs 14.9
3.4
34.6 vs 13.1
3.5
26.9 vs 9.8
3.4
8.2 vs 3.2
2.7
41.7 vs 16.3
3.7
Males
American
Indian, PI
42.6 vs 25.3
2.2
25.8 vs 12.4
2.5
36.9 vs 12.0
4.3
32.7 vs 11.7
3.7
10.9 vs 5.4
2.1
55.1 vs 12.6
8.5
Asian
34.8 vs 20.7
2.0
22.1 vs 10.4
2.4
18.0 vs 9.2
2.2
19.0 vs 4.2
5.3
11.4 vs 1.7
7.4
17.7 vs 9.7
2.0
Black
28.9 vs 18.9
1.7
20.7 vs 8.1
3.0
17.6 vs 8.2
2.4
21.7 vs 7.7
3.3
6.9 vs 2.9
2.5
23.3 vs 6.3
4.5
White
34.8 vs 14.9
3.0
26.2 vs 8.1
4.0
20.7 vs 7.3
3.3
18.5 vs 5.9
3.6
8.1 vs 1.2
7.3
28.6 vs 10.7
3.3
Hispanic/
Latino
53.6 vs 24.1
3.6
27.6 vs 8.6
4.0
19.9 vs 8.0
2.9
20.2 vs 7.0
3.4
7.5 vs 2.3
3.4
34.9 vs 9.7
5.0
Multi-
racial
51.3 vs 22.7
3.6
34.2 vs 9.8
4.8
32.9 vs 9.7
4.6
25.0 vs 7.8
3.9
12.2 vs 2.8
4.8
46.0 vs 12.6
5.9
Females
American
Indian, PI
65.5 vs 43.4
2.5
42.9 vs 25.2
2.2
36.1 vs 20.0
2.3
30.8 vs 17.9
2.0
14.5 vs 3.1
5.3
64.0 vs 19.7
7.2
Asian
51.6 vs 29.0
2.6
28.6 vs 16.5
2.0
27.1 vs 14.3
2.2
23.6 vs 8.7
3.2
5.9 vs 1.9
3.2
42.3 vs 18.5
3.2
Black
45.1 vs 33.2
1.6
29.5 vs 14.1
2.5
25.0 vs 11.0
2.7
20.1 vs 7.9
2.9
4.5 vs 2.5
1.8
11.7 vs 10.1
1.2
White
55.5 vs 26.6
3.4
38.4 vs 13.8
3.9
31.6 vs 10.2
4.1
22.6 vs 5.9
4.7
9.3 vs 1.6
6.3
50.4 vs 20.4
4.0
Hispanic/
Latina
56.4 vs 40.3
1.9
38.5 vs 14.9
3.6
29.4 vs 11.4
3.2
30.4 vs 10.8
3.6
7.3 vs 2.6
2.9
36.0 vs 13.7
3.5
Multi-
racial
63.3 vs 40.0
2.6
38.2 vs 20.1
2.5
35.0 vs 16.7
2.7
27.4 vs 11.5
2.9
6.2 vs 3.2
2.0
39.0 vs 18.8
2.8

Data Source: Bostwick et al. (2014)
1. Pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 14 states & cities. There are 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the analysis out of a total sample of 72 691 adolescents, 33,028 being White, 11,274 Black, 9,626 Hispanic/Latino, 7,905 Multiracial, 7,028 Asian, and 2,057 Native American/Alaska Native/Pacific Islanders. Respectively, sexual minority adolescents have the following counts in the race-ethnic groups: 2,372, 1,019, 834, 975, 566, 276. The sexual minority variable was "constructed from self-reported sexual identity, behaviors, and attractions." Participants were classifiable as sexual minority versus sexual majority if they "reported a nonheterosexual identity, any same-sex behavior, or any same-sex attractions."  All others were coded sexual majority: heterosexual.

2. Feeling Sad - is for at least a 2 week period in the past year. All suicidality variables are for the past year. Self-Harm information (may or may not exist in association with being suicidal) was solicited only in a minority of studies.

3. The Odds Ratios were not given in the study paper. They were calculated by the webpage author using the given incidence percentages at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html. It would have been too time consuming to generate approximate confidence intervals for the ORs but the counts suggest that almost all the ORs (maybe minus 2 of the smaller ones) would be statistically significant.

Note: From a meta-analysis, Marshal et al. (2011, below) reported that sexual minority adolescents have generally been more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors. The above data supports this, but also shows that, in many race/ethnic groups, and depending on gender, this 'rule' does to apply.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-23. Full Text. Abstract: "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'.




Increasing Risk for the More Serious Suicide Problems in the Past Year 
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Based on Self-Identification 
as Gay / Lesbian / Bisexual, and/or Same-Sex Sexual Behavior
Survey ->
/ Suicide
Behavior Category
Mass. 95 1
GLBN* (Gay,
Lesbian, Bi- 
sexual, Not 
Sure) vs.
Non-GBLN*
Mass. 97 1
GLB
and/ or Homo-sex 

Active vs. 
Heterosexual
-Identified
Seattle 95
GLB-

Identified vs. Hetero-
sexual
identified
Vermont 951
Males &
Females:
Homo-sex vs. Hetero-sex
active.
Mass. 931
Males &
Females:
Homo-sex vs. Hetero-sex
active.
Mass. 01
GLB
and/ or
Homo-sex 

Active vs. 
Heterosexual
-Identified

Suicide 
Seriously
Considered
46.4% vs.
24.6%
**RR: 1.9
54% vs.
22%
RR: 2.5
34.2% vs.
16.7%
RR: 2.1
59.2% vs. 
37.1%
RR: 1.6
41.7% vs.
28.6%
RR: 1.5
47% vs.
19%
RR: 2.5
Suicide
Planned
40.5% vs.
17.5%
RR: 2.3
41% vs.
18%
RR: 2.3
31.1% vs.
15.7% 
RR: 2.0
52.8% vs.
28.7%
RR: 1.8
29.7% vs.
24.5%
RR: 1.2
37% vs.
14%
RR: 2.6
Attempted
Suicide
36.0% vs.
8.9%
RR: 4.0
37% vs. 
8%
RR: 4.6
20.6% vs.
6.7%
RR: 3.1
40.7% vs. 
15.2%
RR: 2.7
27.5% vs.
13.4%
RR: 2.1
31% vs.
8%
RR: 3.9
Multiple
Attempts
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
16.1% vs. 2.0%
RR: 8.0
>= 4 Times
N/A
Suicide
Attempt(s)
& Medical Care
N/A
19% vs.
3%
RR: 6.3
9.4% vs.
2.2%
RR: 4.3
26.5% vs.
6.2%
RR: 4.3
20% vs.
4.7%
RR: 4.2
16% vs.
3%
RR: 5.4
1. The superscript indicates that the studies with some results were published in peer-reviewed journals, but relevant data / results cited may not have been given in these papers. The information references for all the cited surveys are given in a Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results Web Page. "Mass." = Massachusetts.

*GLB = Gay, lesbian, or bisexual self-labelling and/or Identification; N = "Not Sure of one's sexual orientation." N/A = Not Available.

** "RR" is the Risk Ratio: "More at risk" factor for the indicated "homosexual orientation" category compared to other adolescents. The Chi Squared statistical significance for the cited incidences was given in data sources as p < .05.

Suicide Attempt Incidences (12 month period), Massachusetts YRBS (GLB or GLB / Homo-Sex Active vs. Others): 1999 (29%, RR = 6.0), 2003 (32%, RR = 4.6), 2005 (24.8%, RR = 4.4). 




Dane County, Wisconsin: Grades 7 to 12 In-School 2009 Online Survey - Attempted Suicide, Past Year:
Once, More Than Once
Categories
Attempted
Suicide
(%)
Chi Squared
p
1
RR &
OR
2
Attempted
Suicide
Once
(%)
Chi Squared
p
1

RR &
OR 2
Attempted
Suicide More
Than Once (%)
Chi Squared
p
1

RR &
OR 2
Straight
94.3%
n = 13,267
3.0%
Ref.
2.1%
Ref.
0.9%
Ref.
LGBTQ 2
5.7%
n = 803
15.3%
p < 0.0001
5.1
5.8
8.8%
p < 0.0001
4.2
4.5

6.5%
p < 0.0001
7.2
7.6

Gay
0.6%
n = 79
16.1%
p < 0.0001
5.4
6.3
5.8%
p = 0.0552 ns
2.8
2.9

10.3%
p < 0.0001
11.4
12.6

Lesbian
0.6%
n = 82
16.2%
p < 0.0001
5.4
6.2
10.1%
p < 0.0001
4.8
5.2

6.1%
p = 0.0002
6.8
7.1

Bisexual
2.8%
n = 397
21.2%
p < 0.0001
7.1
8.7
12.3%
p < 0.0001
5.9
6.5
8.9%
p < 0.0001
9.9
10.8
Questioning
1.8%
n = 249

14.6%
p < 0.0001
4.9
5.5
10.4%
p < 0.0001
4.9
5.4
4.2%
p < 0.0001
4.7
4.8
Transgender
0.8%
n = 108
16.6%
p < 0.0001
5.5
6.4
3.1%
p = 0.4337 ns
1.5
1.5
13.7%
p < 0.0001
15.2
17.5

Data Source: Robinson & Espelage (2011)

LGBTQ Students account for 23.6% of the suicide attempters & 20.4% of the Multiple Suicide Attempters.
1. Chi Squared "p" as given by study authors: GLBTQ Categories vs. Straight.
2. Approximate Risk Ratios (RR) &
Odds Ratios (OR) Calculated on the basis  of given percentages at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
3. LGBTQ = 803, but L + G + B + T + Q = 915. Reason: For some (n = 112), More than One Identification.




Dane County, Wisconsin: Grades 7 to 12 In-School 2009 Online Survey - Suicidal Ideation, Past 30 Days: Rarely, Sometimes, All The Time
Categories

Suicide
Ideation,
Yes (%)
Chi Squared
p
1
RR &
OR
2
Suicide
Ideation,
Rarely (%)
Chi Squared
p
1
RR &
OR
2
Suicide
Ideation,
 Sometimes
(%)
Chi Squared
p
1
RR &
OR2
Suicide
Ideation,
Almost Always
(%)
Chi Squared
p
1
RR &
OR2
Straight
94.3%
n = 13,267
8.8%
Ref.
6.3%
Ref
1.9%
Ref.
0.6%
Ref.
LGBTQ 3
5.7%
n = 803
33.5%
p < 0.0001
3.8
5.2
19.1%
p < 0.0001
3.0
3.5
8.6%
p < 0.0001
4.5
4.9

5.8%
p < 0.0001
9.7
10.2

Gay
0.6%
n = 79
30.7%
p < 0.0001
3.5
4.6
13.4%
p = 0.0017
2.1
2.3
9.2%
p = 0.0003
4.8
5.2

8.0%
p < 0.0001
13.3
14.4

Lesbian
0.6%
n = 82
24.7%
p < 0.0001
2.8
3.4
11.7%
p = 0.0301
1.9
2.0
8.7%
p = 0.0009
4.6
4.9

4.3%
p < 0.0001
7.2
7.4

Bisexual
2.8%
n = 397
44.0%
p < 0.0001
5.0
8.1
24.8%
p < 0.0001
3.9
4.9
12.2%
p < 0.0001
6.4
7.2
7.0%
p < 0.0001
11.7
12.5
Questioning
1.8%
n = 249

32.1%
p < 0.0001
3.6
4.9
18.7%
p < 0.0001
3.0
3.4
9.0%
p < 0.0001
4.7
5.1
4.5%
p < 0.0001
7.5
7.8
Transgender
0.8%
n = 108
22.7%
p < 0.0001
2.6
3.0
7.9%
p = 0.2387 ns
1.2
1.3
2.9%
p = 0.3113 ns
1.5
1.5
11.9%
p < 0.0001
19.8
22.4

Data Source: Robinson & Espelage (2011)\

LGBTQ Students account for 37.0% of students seriously thinking about
killing themselves almost all of the time in the past 30 days.

1. Chi Squared "p" as given by study authors: GLBTQ Categories vs. Straight.
2. Approximate Risk Ratios (RR) &
Odds Ratios (OR) Calculated on the basis  of given percentages at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
3. LGBTQ = 803, but L + G + B + T + Q = 915. Reason: For some (n = 112), More than One Identification.




New York City 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey:
 Grades 9 to 12
Suicidality, Past Year: Non-Heterosexual vs. Heterosexual 1
Categories /
Variables
Heterosexual
% Incidence
GLBU
% Incidence
Risk
Ratio 2
Seriously Considered
Suicide
14%
37%
2.6
Planned Suicide
10%
29%
2.9
Attempted Suicide
8%
31%
3.9
Injured, Poisoned, or
Overdosed in an Attempt
2%
9%
4.5
Data Source: Farley et al (2008)

Results are reported to be similar in three New York City neighborhoods with high rates of illness and premature death: East and Central Harlem, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Bushwick, and the South Bronx. See Noyes et al. (2008).

1. Males & Females analysed together, but differences possible/expected. All 'Race' groups analyzed together, but differences possible/expected. All Non-Heterosexual Students (GLBU = Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure) analyzed together, but differences are possible/expected.
2. The counts are not given for populations or incidences. It is therefore not possible to calculate confidence intervals and statistical significance values. However, it can be assumed that differences are statistically significant.



British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey
12-Month Suicidality Risks: Males, Grade 7 to 12
Data Source: Rein (1998), Table 8, p. 124.
Note 1: Suicidality Questions


British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey
12-Month Suicidality Risks: Males, Grade 7 to 12

Categories
Homosexual
Bisexual
Homosexual & Bisexual
Incidences *
Risk Ratio
95% CI
Incidences *
Risk Ratio
95% CI
Incidences * /
Related
Counts
Odds
Ratio
95% CI
Risk
Ratio
95% CI
Consider /
Planned
Suicide
48.5 vs. 11.2%
4.3
(3.0, 6.2)
30.3 vs. 11.2%
2.7
(2.0, 3.6)
34.5%
(49 / 142).
vs. 11.2%
(752 / 6,714)
4.2
(2.9, 6.0)
3.1
(2.4, 3.9)
Attempted
Suicide
40.6 vs. 3.7%
11.0

(7.1, 17.0)
16.4 vs. 3.7%
4.4
(2.8, 6.9)
21.8%
(31 / 142)
vs. 3.7%
(252 / 6,559)
7.3
(4.8, 11.0)
5.9
(4.2, 8.2)
Attempted
Suicide & Related
Injury
19.4 vs. 1.3%
14.9
(7.0, 31.4)
5.6 vs. 1.3%
4.3
(1.9, 9.6)
13.1%
(19 / 145)
vs. 1.3%
(91 / 7,000)
11.4
(6.8, 19.4)
10.1
(6.3, 16.1)
* Incidences: Homosexual / Bisexual / Homosexual & Bisexual versus Heterosexual
Counts for Combined "Homosexual & Bisexual Males" Calculated From Given Information.
Minor Errors Are Expected in Counts and Generated Risk/Odds Ratios.
Data Source: Rein (1998) -
Note 1: Suicidality Questions



British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey
12-Month Suicidality Risks: Females, Grade 7 to 12
Data Source: Rein (1998), Table 9, p. 125.
Note 1: Suicidality Questions



British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey
12-Month Suicidality Risks: Females, Grade 7 to 12

Categories
Homosexual
Bisexual
Homosexual & Bisexual
Incidences *
Risk Ratio
95% CI
Incidences *
Risk Ratio
95% CI
Incidences * /
Related
Counts
Odds
Ratio
95% CI
Risk
Ratio
95% CI
Consider /
Planned
Suicide
33.3 vs. 21.8%
1.5
(0.69, 3.4)
24.8 vs. 21.8%
1.14
(0.75, 1.8)
25.7%
(29 / 113).
vs. 21.8%
(1,478 / 6,780)
1.2
(0.81, 1.9)
1.18
(0.86, 1.6)
Attempted
Suicide
16.7 vs. 9.6%
1.7

(0.49, 6.2)
20.8 vs. 9.6%
2.2
(1.5, 3.2)
20.4%
(23 / 113)
vs. 9.6%
(653 / 6,802)
2.4
(1.5, 3.8)
2.1
(1.5, 3.1)
Attempted
Suicide &
Related
Injury
8.3 vs. 2.4%
3.5
(0.53, 28.8)
12.9 vs. 2.4%
5.4
(3.2, 9.1)
12.4%
(14 / 113)
vs. 2.4%
(165 / 6,875)
5.8
(3.2, 10.3)
5.2
(3.1, 8.6)
* Incidences: Homosexual / Bisexual / Homosexual & Bisexual versus Heterosexual
Counts for Combined "Homosexual & Bisexual Females" Calculated From Given Information.
Minor Errors Are Expected in Counts and Generated Risk/Odds Ratios.
Data Source: Rein (1998) -
Note 1: Suicidality Questions




USA NHANES Survey: 17 - 39 Years Old Males
Risk, Lifetime: Suicide Related Behaviors
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Males

Category
Odd Ratios, 95% CI
No Control Variables
Odd Ratios. 95% CI
Control Variables**
Thoughts of Death
** 38.6% vs. 24.3%
RR: 1.6

1.95 (1.05, 3.63)*
1.86 (0.97, 3.57)
Desire to Die
18.5% vs. 7.6%
RR: 2.4

2.18 (1.23, 6.32)*
2.47 (1.01, 6.05)*
Suicide Ideation
41.2% vs. 17.2%
RR: 2.4

3.38 (1.80, 6.32)*
3.11 (1.56, 6.19)*
Attempted Suicide
19.3% vs. 3.6%
RR: 5.4

6.45 (2.74, 15.23)*
5.36 (2.21, 12.98)*
** Control Variables: Age, Race/Ethnicity, Family Income, * p < 0.05
** Incidence For Variable, Homosexual vs. Heterosexual, RR = Risk Ratio, No Controls
Data Source: Cochran SD, Mays VM (2000)



Netherlands' NEMESIS Survey: 18 - 64 Years Old Males
Risk, Lifetime: Suicide Related Behaviors
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Males
Category Odd Ratios, 95% CI
Control Variable: Age
Odd Ratios, 95% CI
Control Variables: Age + *
Death Thoughts
** 48.8% vs. 26.7%
RR: 1.8
2.58 (1.66, 4.01)
1.82 (1.13, 2.92)
Death Wishes
26.8% vs. 5.8%
RR: 4.6

5.93 (3.55, 9.92)
3.38 (1.82, 6.67)
Consider Suicide
40.2% vs. 7.8%
RR: 5.2

7.74 (4.86, 12.32)
5.72 (3.30, 9.91)
Attempted Suicide
14.6 vs. 1.6
RR: 9.1
10.23 (5.18, 20.20)
5.57 (2.58, 12.04)
Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)
* Control Variables: age, mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, and eating disorders
** Incidence For Variable, Homosexual vs. Heterosexual, RR = Risk Ratio,  No Controls
Data Source: De Graff et al. (2006)



Netherland's NEMESIS Survey: 18 - 64 Years Old Females
Risk, Lifetime: Suicide Related Behaviors
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Females
Category Odd Ratios, 95% CI
Control Variable: Age
Odd Ratios, 95% CI
Control Variables: Age + *
Death Thoughts
1.28 (0.70, 2.34). ns
0.88 (0.46, 1.66), ns
Death Wishes
1.11 (0.47, 2.65), ns
0.61 (0.24, 1.57), ns
Consider Suicide
2.12 (1.03, 4.36)
1.32 (0.59, 2.93), ns
Attempted Suicide
1.52 (0.36, 6.39), ns
0.96 (0.22, 4.26), ns
Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)
* Control Variables: age, mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, and eating disorders
Data Source: De Graff et al. (2006)





New Zealand Birth Cohort: To 26 Years Old
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual*: Males & Females
Category
Males
Odd Ratios (95% CI)
Unadjusted
Females
Odd Ratios (95% CI)
Unadjusted
Suicide Ideation (Past Year)
3.1
(1.5, 6.6)
2.9
(1.6, 5.3)
Self-Harm (Ever) **
5.5
(2.8, 11.0)
1.9
(1.1, 3.2)
Attempted Suicide (Ever) 3.2
(1.4, 7.2)
1.4
(0.7, 2.7) n.s.
Injury (Self-Harm, Past Year) 6.4
(3.2, 13.0)
2.1
(0.8, 5.6) n.s.
* Heterosexual = 100% Heterosexual. Homosexual = All Others
** All Self-Harm, Includes Suicide Attempts.
Data Source: Skegg et al. (2003)
 



Lifetime Suicidality Risks for Sexual Orientation Discordant
American Middle-Aged Male Twins Pairs (N = 206) In
The
Population-Based Vietnam Era Twin Registry


Odd Ratio *
95% CI
Odd Ratio
95% CI
Odd Ratio
95% CI
Odd Ratio
95% CI
Odd Ratio
95% CI
Control Variables ->
None
Alcohol Abuse
/ Dependence
Drug Abuse
/ Dependence
Depressive
Symptoms
All
Three
Death Thoughts
47.6% vs. 30.1% **
RR: 1.6
2.4
(1.2, 4.6)
2.4
(1.2, 4.8)
2.2
(1.2, 4.3)
1.9
(1.0, 4.0)
2.1
(1.0, 4.5)
Want To Die
26.2% vs. 9.7%
RR: 2.7
4.4
(1.7, 11.6)
4.4
(1.6, 12.1)
3.0
(1.0, 9.3)
3.5
(1.2, 10.1)
2.5 ns
(0.7, 8.8)
Suicide Ideation
55.3% vs. 25.2%
RR: 2.2
4.1
(2.1, 8.2)
4.1
(2.0, 8.2)
3.8
(1.9, 7.9)
3.7
(1.8, 7.5)
3.6
(1.7, 7.5)
Attempted Suicide
14.7% vs. 3.9%
RR: 3.8
6.5
(1.5, 28.8)
5.6
(1.2, 25.7)
6.2
(1.4, 27.7)
25.0
(1.1, 564.8)
--
* Odds Ratios: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual Twins - All Statistically Significant, Except For "ns"
Homosexual: Males reporting having had one or more same-sex partner since the age of 18 years.
** Incidence For Variable, 103 Homosexual vs. 103 Heterosexual Males, RR = Risk Ratio
Data Source: Herrell et al. (1999)




Suicidality Related Risks for All Middle-Aged
Homosexual vs. Heterosexual American Males
The
Population-Based Vietnam Era Twin Registry


All Heterosexual Males
n = 6,537
Incidence
All Homosexual Males
n = 119
Incidence, Risk Ratio
Odd Ratio *
95% CI
Death Thoughts
22.0%
1440 / 6537
47.9%
57 / 119
RR: 2.2
3.3
(2.3, 4.7)
Want To Die
6.7%
441 / 6537
26.1%
31 / 119
RR: 3.9
4.9
(3.2, 7.4)
Suicide Ideation
15.4%
1010 / 6537
55.5%
66 / 119
RR: 3.6
6.8
(4.7, 9.8)
Attempted Suicide
2.2%
146 / 6537
15.2%
18 / 118
RR: 6.9
7.9
(4.6, 13.4)
* Odds Ratios: All Homosexual vs. All Heterosexual Males in Twin Sample, No Control Variables
Homosexual: Males reporting having had one or more same-sex partner since the age of 18 years.
Data Source: Herrell et al. (1999) - Counts / Incidences / Odds Ratios Calculated From Given Data.



Current Suicidality Risks: Austria
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adults
Variable
358 Homosexually
Oriented MF*
n (%)
267 Heterosexually
Oriented MF*
n (%)
Odds
Ratio

Suicide Ideation
98 (28%)
35 (13%)
2.5 (1.6, 3.9)
Serious Suicide Ideation 65 (18%)
18 (7%)
3.7 (1.8, 5.3)
Aborted Attempts
18 (5%)
2 (1%)
7.1 (1.6, 30.7)
Attempted Suicide
6 (2%)
0 (0.0%)
??
* M = Males - F = Females -- Mean Age = 36.2 Years
Austrian Volunteers from GLB Organizations & General Population Groups, Matched for Analysis.
Data Source: Ploderl & Fartacek (2005)



Suicidality In Homosexually and Heterosexually
Oriented Austrian Men and Women 1
Ploderl & Fartacek (2005)

Variable
358 GLB 2
Men & Women
n /  %
267 Heterosexual 3
Men & Women
n / %
Odds
Ratio

Suicide Ideation
Lifetime (Minus Last year)
250 / 70%
121 / 45%
2.9
(2.1 - 4.0)
Serious Suicide Ideation
Lifetime (Minus Last Year)
179 / 50%
58 / 22%
3.6
(2.5 - 5.2)
Suicide Attempts (Aborted Attempts Removed)
"Criterion 2" = Real Attempts
Lifetime
34 / 10%
5 / 2%
6.9
(2.4 - 19.6)
Suicide Attempts Requiring
Medical care, Lifetime
11 / 3%
1 / 0%
8.4
(1.1 - 65.7)
1. Heterosexual control group was matched on the basis of sex, age, and education.
2. GLB sample obtained via gay and lesbian community organizations.
3. The heterosexual sample was recruited from organizations such as fire departments, the Red Cross  of Salzburg, and the University of Salzburg.




"Attempted Suicide" Risks: Austria
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented Adult
Plöderl & Fartacek (2009)
Categories
Males
Females
Homo- / Bi-
Sexual
N = 70
Hetero-
Sexual
N = 75
* OR
95% CI
p
Homo- / Bi-
Sexual
N = 72
Hetero-
Sexual
N = 73
* OR
95% CI
p
Lifetime Attempted
Suicide
2
5 (7%) 0 (0%) -
0.024 (
F)
0.057 (Y)
0.029 (Y1)
10 (14%) 3 (4%) 3.8
(1.06, 13.2)
0.046 (F)
0.077 (Y)
0.038 (Y1)
Males & Females
Combined
1

Homosexual/Bisexual: 15 / 142 = 10.6% vs.
Heterosexual: 3/148 = 2.0%
*OR:  1.7<5.7<18.8 – p = .003 (F)
, 0.006 (Y), 0.003 (Y1)

Lifetime Aborted
Attempted Suicide
2
7 (10%) 1 (1%) 8.2
(1.3, 52.3)
0.029 (F)
0.055 (Y)
0.027 (Y1)
14 (19%) 7 (10%) 2.3
(0.88, 5.86)
0.104 (F)
Males & Females
Combined
1
Homosexual/Bisexual: 21 / 142 = 14.8% vs.
Heterosexual: 8 / 148 = 5.4 %
* OR:  1.3<3.0<6.7 – p = .010 (F)
p : Fisher Exact (F) - Yates, Corrected, Two-tailed (Y) - Yates, Corrected, One-tailed (Y1):
Calculation by Webpage Author at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html - http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/contingency1.cfm

All ORs (Odd Ratios)
Calculated by Webpage Author at: http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html
1. Additions & Calculation by Webpage Author
2. Counts not given in paper. Supplied by Dr. Martin Plöderl




Note 1

The suicidality related questions given to students in the 1992 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey  reported on by Rein (1998). The question
in the American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys is given below the table.

British Columbia 1992 Adolescent Health Survey
Suicidality Questions
Data Source: Rein (1998), Appendix C, p. 149.

The Youth Risk Behavior Survey question has been: #27. During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide?
                            A. 0 times. - B. 1 time. - C. 2 or 3 times. D. 4 or 5 times. - E. 6 or more times.

The questionnaire is available at the CDC website.


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