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Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

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Available
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Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies: The Index. - All Random & Special Sample Studies. - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies. - The Results of Additional School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors. - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues (This Page). - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results.

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.

 
A recipe for suicidality & suicides... by our historical highly sexist female-hating society? Even by our presently socially constructed 'gay' communities? ....

Why Can’t You Just Butch Up? Gay Men, Effeminacy, and Our War with Ourselves!

Read More!
- Straight or gay, we're all just acting.


Crozier PW (2001)
. Forcing boys to be boys: the persecution of gender non-conforming youth. Boston College Third World Law Journal, 21(1). Full Text. Full Text.




Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
To Age 17 Years
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
4.9%
28 / 575
13.8
(1.9, 101.1)
14.5
(2.0, 107.0)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
0.35%
  1 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
11.7%
7 / 111
--
--
0.062
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
0.0%
  0 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
5.2%
  12 / 229
1.1
(0.38, 2.9)
1.1
(0.36, 3.1)
0.913
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
5.0%
  5 / 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
6.2 %
4 / 64
0.79
(0.19, 3.3)
0.78
(0.16, 3.8)
0.751
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
7.9%
  3 / 38
-
-
-
All information calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.



Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
To Age 20 Years
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
9.4%
54 / 575
13.3
(3.3, 54.3)
14.6
(3.5, 60.4)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
0.7%
  2 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
11.7%
13 / 111
6.2
(0.83, 46.2)
6.9
(0.88, 54.2)
0.035
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
1.9%
1 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
10.5%
  24 / 229
1.8
(0.74, 4.2)
1.8
(0.73, 4.7)
0.186
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
5.9%
6 / 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
9.4%
6 / 64
1.2
(0.31, 4.5)
1.2
(0.28, 5.1)
0.874
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
7.9%
3 / 38
-
-
-
All count & results calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.


Childhood (To Age 17) Femininity / Masculinity Self-Rating Categories & 
Suicidality of White Predominantly Homosexual Males: First Time 
Suicide Attempts to Age 20 and After Age 20 - Bell et al. (1981) Data
Femininity / Masculinity
Categories
Fem.
0 - 1
Feminine / Masculine
2 - 3
Masc.
4 - 6
% of Males
in Category
9.6%
(55/573)
47.8%
274/573
42.6%
(244/573)
Attempted Suicide
Percent
21.6%
(12/55)
10.9% 1
(30/274)
4.9% 2, 3
(12/244)
Attempted Suicide
To Age 20
12.8%
(42/329)
4.9% 4
(12/244)
Attempted Suicide
After Age 20
7.6%
(25/329)
10.6% 5
(26/244)
Calculations from Data Set (Tremblay & Ramsay, 2002): Femininity to Masculinity Scale: 0 to 6

Greater risk (95% Confidence Intervals) for attempting suicide: 1. "0-1" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.1<2.0<3.6 (χ2 = 4.8, p = .027); 2. "0-1" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 2.1<4.4<9.3 (χ2  = 17.4, p < .0000); 3. "2-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.2<2.2<4.2 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012); 4. "0-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.4<2.6<4.8 (χ2 = 10.1, p = .001); 5. "0-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = .42<.71<1.2 (χ2 = 1.6, p = .20). See Note 2 for Odds Ratios.




BEM: Femininity / Masculinity Categories & Suicidality
Gay And Bisexual Male Youth: Age 14 - 21 Years
Remafedi, Farrow & Deisher (1991)
Femininity / Masculinity
Categories
Feminine
Androgynous: 31%
Undifferentiated: 26%
Masculine
% of Males
in Category
23%
(31/137)
31% + 26% = 57%
(42/137) / (35/137)
20%
(28/137)
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
48%
(15/31)
Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(23/77 = 30% ) 1
11%
(3/28) 2, 3
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
Feminine = 48%, Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(38/108 = 35.2% )
11%
(3/28) 4
Bem Sex Role Inventory: Feminine: High F, Low M scores- Masculine: Low F, High M scores

Androgynous High F & M scores - Undifferentiated: Low F & M scores

Greater risk (95% Confidence Intervals) for attempting suicide: 1. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = .98<1.6<2.7 (χ2 = 3.3, p = .068); 2. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.4<4.5<14.0 (χ2 = 9.8, p = .002); "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = .91<2.8<8.6 (χ2 = 4.0, p = .044); 4. "Feminine / Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.1<3.3<9.9 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012). See Note 3 for Odds Ratios





"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks
Transgender (TG) Populations
Study
Sample
Size (N)
TG
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Risk Ratio,
p
Odd Ratios, Specified
Xavier
(2000)
Washington
D.C.
252
*MTF: 189
None
16%
70% African-American,
22% Latino/a, 8% Others.
Age Range: 13 to 61 Years
Nearly 80% = 36 years and under
** Nemoto (2001)
San
Francisco

MTF: 245
None
32%
MTF Of Color
?
51%
African American
?
31%
Latina
?
18%
Asian / Pacific Islander
Nemoto
et al.
(2002)
San
Francisco

MTF: 332
None
29%
MTF Of Color ***8
112
41%
African American - Mean Age: 36.5***
110
45%
Latina - Mean Age: 32.9
110
15%
Asian/Pacific Islander - Mean Age: 32.9
Mathy
(2002b)

Additional
Results

North
American
73 TG

61 TG =
Canadians
12 TG =
Americans
1,083
23.3% vs
11.4%
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Females
2.9, p
< .01
1,077
23.3% vs
5.0
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Males
4.7, p
< .001
73
23.3% vs
11.0%
TG vs. Matched Females
2.1, p
< .05
73
23.3% vs
4.1%
TG vs. Matched Males
5.7, p < .001
256
23.3% vs
16.0%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Females
1.5, ns
356
23.3% vs
8.7%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Males
2.7, p < .001
Kenagy
(2005)
Philadelphia
All MTF: 182
None
30.1% Volunteers: Face-to-Face Interview
or Questionnaire - 41.3: African American, 33.0% white, 10.1% multiracial, 6.1& Hispanic,
5.6% biracial, 3.9% others.
See also: Kenagy (1998)
MTF: 113
32.4%
* FTM: 69
26.2%
Operario
& Nemoto
(2005)
San
Francisco
MTF: 110
Asian
Pacific
Islanders
None
15%
Same Sample
as in
Nemoto et al.
(2002)
Volunteers: San Francisco ****
Mean Age: 33, Range: 18 to 57 Years
46% of FTM = Filipino, 9% Laotian, 7% Vietnamese, 4% Hawaiian, remainder identifying as other
Asian/PI ethnicities.
Clements-
Nolle et al.
(2006)
San
Francisco

Additional
Results

All TG: 515
None
32.2%
63.7% Non-White, 36.3% White
MTF: 391
MTF vs.
FTM
32.5%
OR = 1.04 (0.67, 1.6) ns, No Controls
OR = 1.1 (0.59, 1.9),  9 Controls
FTM: 123
31.7%
White: 188
White vs.
Non-
White

37.8% OR = 1.5 (1.02, 2.2), No Controls
OR = 1.5 (0.92, 2.4),  9 Controls
Others: 323
28.8%
< 25 Yrs: 66
< 25 vs
25 + Yrs

47.0%
OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), No Controls
OR = 2.17 (1.17, 4.01),  9 Controls
25+ Yrs: 449 30.1%
Zians
(2006)

TG: 136
None
17.6%
(24 / 136)
San Diego, California
Mean Age: 38.3 (SD: 13.1)
Age Range: 9 to 79 Years
48.3% White, 16.2% Latino,
14% African  American, 10.3% Biracial
Kim et. al.
(2006)

MTF: 43
49 Matched
non-FTMs
62.8%
(27 / 43)
Presenting at compulsory military service in 3 Korean Cities.
Age Range: 19 to 23 Years
Taylor
(2006)

TG: 73
None
28%
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
49 Born Male, 21 Born Female, 3 Intersexed. 20 Aboriginal
Age Range: 18 to 60+
* MTF: Male to Female - FTM: Female to Male
** The
Nemoto (2001) Study Sample is Likely a Subset of  Nemoto et al. (2002) Study Sample.
*** Mean Ages are from Nemoto et al. (2004). **** Face-to-Face Interviews.



The Mathy (2002b) Study of Transgender Suicidality
North America: Internet Survey
Categories
TG
Random
Heterosexual
Matched
Homosexual
Gender *
TG
F
M
F
M
F
M
N's
73
1,083
1,077
73
73
256
356
Mean Age
SD
Age Range
36.9
(10.0)
19-58
30.1
(9.3)
18-76
33.7
(11.0)
18-80
36.0
(9.8)
19-53
37.0
(10.0)
19-56
33.7
(8.9)
18-69
33.0
(9.7)
18-70
Attempted Suicide /
Self-Harm **
23.3%
11.4%
5.0%
11.0%
4.1%
16.0%
8.7%
*** Risk Ratio: TG vs.
Specified Category

2.9
4.7
2.1
5.7
1.5
2.7
p
< .01
< .001
< .05
< .001
ns
< .001
* TG = Transgender - M = Males - F = Females -- *** Not Given in Mathy (2002b)
** Suicide Question: "I have made a serious suicide attempt or gesture." Yes/No
Sampling: News Web Site: MSNBC - Every 1000th visitor: USA, Canada - A Sexuality Survey
Using mostly counts from random sample, but also from volunteer sample.
TG (Transgender) Sample: N = 73, 61 Canadian, 12 American, with 12 / 73 from random sample.



The Clements-Nolle et al. (2006) Study of Suicidality*
In The San Francisco Transgender Population
Categories
Attempted Suicide
Lifetime: % (n / n)
Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Unadjusted **
Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Adjusted
All, N = 515
32.2%
(166 / 515)


MTF, n = 391
Male-to-Female
32.5%
(127 / 391)
1.04 (0.67, 1.6)
ns
1.1 (0.59, 1.9)
Controls: 9 Variables
FTM, n = 123
Female-to-Male
31.7%
(39 / 123_
White
37.8%
(71 / 188)
1.5 (1.02, 2.2)
p = 0.036
1.5 (0.92, 2.4)
Controls: 9 Variables
Non-White
28.8%
(93 / 323)
< 25 Years-Old
47.0%
(31 / 66)
2.1 (1.2, 3.5)
p = 0.006

2.17 (1.17, 4.01)
Controls: 9 Variables
25 + Years-Old
30.1%
(135 / 449)
Volunteers Interviewed. 37% White, 23% Black, 23% Latino/a, 11% Asian/PI, 5% Native American
Median Age: 34, Age Range: 18 to 67 Years
The "
Attempted Suicide" 32% Lifetime Incidence was First Reported by Clements-Nolle et al. (2001)
** Odds Ratios Not Given. Calculated From Given Counts



Transgender and Transsexual People in Sweden
An Internet Sample, N = 374 *
Age Group
Attempted Suicide,  Lifetime
16 - 29 Years
27%, n = ?
30 - 44 years
28%, n = ?
45 - 54 years
12%,  n = ?
55 - 64 Years
21%,  n = ?
* Web Survey Data: Reported in National Public Health Survey, 2005.
For comparison of Transgender Suicidality results to GLB & HeterosexualResults, See Table.



Transgender and Transsexual People in the United Kingdom
An Internet Sample, N = 872**
Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
14%
Twice
7%
Three or More Tmes
14%
One or More Times
34.4%
*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.
Note: Data was solicited on suicdality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. In Whittle et al. (2008), the incidence in this category was reported to be also 34%. ** Sample may include duplicates?
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2007)



Transgender and Transsexual People in Europe
An Internet Sample, N = 985 (UK = 322)**
Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
?
Twice
?
Three or More Tmes
?
One or More Times
29.9%
*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.
Note: Data was solicited on suicdality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. ** Duplicates Removed.
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2008)



Note 1

The Sampling for Bell & Weinberg (1978): The largest sample pool was of white predominantly homosexual males obtained via the following venues: Public Advertising (914), Bars (994), Personal Contacts (617), Gay Baths (249), Public Areas such as parks rest rooms, and streets (137), Homophile Organizations (222), Mailing Lists - with mail back cards (200), and private Bars (220). The total sample of white homosexual males (N = 3533) was then subjected to random sampling within contact cells to produce the final study sample of 575 white predominantly homosexual males. Obtaining a good (likely highly representative) study sample was accomplished because the researchers applied their great knowledge of homosexually oriented males to the sampling process. Therefore, the final study sample represented, as best as possible, the great majority of homosexually oriented males living in the San Francisco Bay Area. The sampling method also likely produced the most representative sample taken to the 1990s of white homosexually oriented males living in a North American city. The matching sample of predominantly heterosexual males (N = 284) was obtained via stratified random sampling in the same area.

Note 2

For the Bell et al. (1981) data (1969 sample, mean age = 37 years) generated by Tremblay and Ramsay (2002), and using the 2 X 2 Table located at - http://home.clara.net/sisa/twoby2.htm, the following Risk Ratios (RR) and Odds Ratios OR) for attempting suicide were calculated with 95% Confidence Intervals. 1. "0-1" F-M Category vs. "2-3" F-M Category - RR = 1.1<2.0<3.6, RR = 1.1<2.3<4.8 (χ2 = 4.8, p = .027); 2. "0-1" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 2.1<4.4<9.3, OR = 2.3<2.4<12.8 (χ2 = 17.4, p < .0000); 3. "2-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 1.2<2.2<4.2, OR = 1.2<2.4<4.8 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012); 4. "0-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 1.4<2.6<4.8, RR = 1.4<2.8<5.5 (χ2 = 10.1, p = .001); 5. "0-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = .42<.71<1.2, OR = .39<.69<1.2 (χ2 = 1.6, p = .20). Categories: Feminine (0) to Masculine (6) Self-Rating on 7-point scale for childhood and adolescence (to the age of 17 years).

Note 3

For the Remafedi et al. (1991) data (Age Range 14-21 years), and using the 2 X 2 Table located at - http://home.clara.net/sisa/twoby2.htm, the following Risk Ratios (RR) and Odds Ratios (OR) for attempting suicide were calculated with 95% Confidence Intervals. 1. "Feminine" Category vs. "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category - RR = .98<1.6<2.7, OR = .93<2.2<5.2 (χ2 = 3.3, p = .068); 2. "Feminine" Category vs. "Masculine" Category - RR = 1.4<4.5<14.0, OR = 1.9<7.8<31.3 (χ2 = 9.8, p = .002; 3. "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. "Masculine" Category - RR = .91<2.8<8.6, OR = .97<3.5<12.9 (χ2 = 4.0, p = .044); 4. "Feminine / Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. "Masculine Category - RR = 1.1<3.3<9.9, OR = 1.3<2.9<16.0 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012). Categories: Bem (1981) Sex Role Inventory. 


Note 4

Harry J (1983a).Abstract: The hypotheses that gender-role nonconformity during childhood is associated with social isolation, which in turn is related to subsequent suicidal feelings and attempts, were tested. These ideas were explored in a four-group sample of homosexual and heterosexual men and women living in San Francisco. The data indicated that there was support for the hypotheses; however, childhood gender-role nonconformity was more consequential for the later suicidality of men than of women. The data indicated consistently that gender deviance was more benign in women than in men.


D'Augelli, A.R., Grossman, A.H., & Starks, M.T. (2005), Parents' awareness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' sexual orientation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 474-482. Have

Grossman, A.H., & D'Augelli, A.R. (2006). Transgender youth: Invisible and vulnerable. Journal of Homosexuality,51(1), 111-128. PubMed Abstract.

Grossman, A.H.,, D'Augelli, A.R., Salter, N.P. (2006). Male-to-Female Transgender Youth: Gender Expression Milestones, Gender Atypicality, Victimization, and Parents' Responses. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 2(1), 71-91.

Grossman, A.H., D'Augelli, A.R., Salter, N.P., Hubbard, S.M. (2005). Comparing gender expression, gender nonconformity, and parents' responses of female-to-male and male-to-female transgender youth: Implications for counseling. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 1(1), 41-59.

D'Augelli, A.R., Grossman, A.H., & Starks, M.T. (2006). Childhood gender atypicality, victimization, and PTSD among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(11), 1462-1482. have

Grossman, A. H., O’Connell, T. S., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2005). Leisure and recreational “girl-boy”activities: Studying the unique challenges provided by transgendered young people. Leisure: Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 29 (1), 5-26

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, Vol. 18(1): 3-16. 2005 Haworth Abstract.
Parents’ Reactions to Transgender Youths’ Gender Nonconforming Expression and Identity
Arnold H. Grossman
Anthony R. D’Augelli
Tamika Jarrett Howell
Steven Hubbard


Williams, W. (1996). Two-spirited persons: Gender nonconformity among Native American and Native Hawaiian youths. In R.Savin-Williams & K. Cohen (Eds.), The Lives of Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals (pp. 416-435). New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

The Gay Male Gaze: Body Image Disturbance and Gender Oppression Among Gay Men
Page Range: 43 - 62
DOI: 10.1300/J041v17n02_03
Copyright Year: 2004
Contributors:     Mitchell J. Wood MDiv, MSW, New York University Ehrenkranz School of Social Work, Columbia University Center for Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, Brooklyn, NY 11215, mjw245@nyu.edu
Abstract:
This article examines body image disturbance among gay men from various sociocultural perspectives. A review of the empirical literature on body image disturbance indicates that gay males experience greater body dissatisfaction than other groups due to their higher levels of gender nonconformity. The impact of gendered power relations on body image is considered in light of feminist, postmodernist, queer, and disability theories of the body. The history of gay bodily beauty is also examined, along with contemporary critiques of gay body politics. The author concludes that gender oppression constitutes a distinct mode of psychosocial oppression among gay men that is no less disabling than heterosexism, and therefore deserves greater attention in gay affirmative theory, research, and practice.

Self-Perceived Gender Typicality and the Peer Context During Adolescence

    * Tara E. Smith11University of California Santa Cruz and
    * Campbell Leaper11University of California Santa Cruz 2006

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Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Guzman R, Katz M (2001). HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 915-21. PubMed Abstract. Full Text.

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