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Bell & Weinberg (1978) Study
Homosexualities
"Attempted Suicide" Study Results
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Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

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Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies: The Index. - All Random & Special Sample Studies. - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies. - The Results of Additional School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors. - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues. - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results (This Page).

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.


First Time "Attempt Suicide" Results - Black/White, Males/Females - From the Bell & Weinberg (1978) Study:




Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
Lifetime
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
18.3%
105 / 575
5.7
(3.0, 11.2)
6.8
(3.4, 13.7)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
3.2%
9 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
19.8%
22 / 111
10.5
(1.4, 75.9)
12.8
(1.7, 98.2)
0.002
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
1.9%
1 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
25.3%
58 / 229
2.6
(1.4, 4.8)
3.1
(1.5, 6.3)
0.001
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
9.9%
10 / 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
17.2%
11 / 64
0.93
(0.39, 2.2)
0.92
(0.32, 2.6)
0.874
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
18.4%
7 / 38
-
-
-
All information calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.




Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
To Age 17 Years
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
4.9%
28 / 575
13.8
(1.9, 101.1)
14.5
(2.0, 107.0)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
0.35%
  1 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
11.7%
7 / 111
--
--
0.062
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
0.0%
  0 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
5.2%
  12 / 229
1.1
(0.38, 2.9)
1.1
(0.36, 3.1)
0.913
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
5.0%
  5 / 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
6.2 %
4 / 64
0.79
(0.19, 3.3)
0.78
(0.16, 3.8)
0.751
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
7.9%
  3 / 38
-
-
-
All information calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.



Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
To Age 20 Years
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
9.4%
54 / 575
13.3
(3.3, 54.3)
14.6
(3.5, 60.4)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
0.7%
  2 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
11.7%
13 / 111
6.2
(0.83, 46.2)
6.9
(0.88, 54.2)
0.035
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
1.9%
1 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
10.5%
  24 / 229
1.8
(0.74, 4.2)
1.8
(0.73, 4.7)
0.186
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
5.9%
6 / 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
9.4%
6 / 64
1.2
(0.31, 4.5)
1.2
(0.28, 5.1)
0.874
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
7.9%
3 / 38
-
-
-
All count & results calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.



Attempted Suicide, First Time: Homosexual vs. Heterosexual
White/Black Males and Females,
To Age 25 Years
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Bay Area, San Francisco
Category
Incidence
% (n / N)
Risk Ratio*
(95% CI)
Odd Ratio*
(95% CI)
p
White Homosexual
Males, n = 575
14.3%
82 / 575
5.8
(2.7, 12.3)
6.6
(3.0, 14.4)
0.000
White Heterosexual
Males, n - 284
2.5%
 7 / 284
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Males, n = 111
16.2%
18 / 111
8.6
(1.2, 62.7)
10.1
(1.3, 77.6)
0.007
Black Heterosexual
Males, n = 53
1.9%
1 / 53
-
-
-
White Homosexual
Females, n = 229
17.9%
41 / 229
2.3
(1.1, 4.6)
2.5
(1.1, 5.6)
0.019
White Heterosexual
Females, n = 101
7.9%
  8/ 101
-
-
-
Black Homosexual
Females, n = 64
14.1%
9 / 64
0.89
(0.34, 2.3)
0.87
(0.28, 2.7)
0.812
Black Heterosexual
Females, n = 38
15.8%
6 / 38
-
-
-
All information calculated from information given in
Bell & Weinberg (1978): Tables 21.14 & 21.15, pages 453-454.
* Compared with heterosexual counterpart.




Suicidality of White Predominantly Homosexual Males by Age Categories:
Bell & Weinberg (
1978): Bay Area, San Francisco, 1969 Sample Data 1
Age Groups /
Categories
All
Ages

N = 575
> 46
Years

n = 132
37-46
Years

n = 146
27-36
Years

n = 142
16-26
Years

n = 155
First Attempt
by Age 20 2
9.4%
54/575
1920-69
2.3%
3/132
1920-42
5.5%
8/146
1936-52
10.6%
15/142
1946-62
18.1%
28/155
1956-69
First Attempt
Age 21-25
4.9%
28/575
1926-69
2.3%
3/132
1926-47
3.4%
5/146
1941-57
9.8%
14/142
1951-67
15-16%3
Attempts to
Age 16-26
First Attempt
Age > 25
4.0%
23/575
1931-69
(>) 6.8%
9/132
Attempts to
Ages 46 +
(>) 6.2%
9/146
Attempts to
Ages 37-46
(>) 14%4
Attempts
Only to Ages
27 to 36
Attempts
Only to
Age
26
First Attempt
Age > 20
% Attempters
48.6%
51/105
> 80.0% 5
12/15
>>63.6% 5
14/22
>>52.3%
???
>15

1. Analysis of Bell and Weinberg (1978) study sample data by Tremblay and Ramsay (2002). Comparison with the control sample of 284 predominantly heterosexual males used in this study was not possible given that only two of these males had attempted suicide by the age of 20 years, and only seven after the age of 20 years. .
2. The time ranges (i.e. 1956-69) given for reported attempts in each age category are approximated, the assumption being that most attempts would have occurred from the ages of 13 and 20 years. One or more of the suicide attempts could have occurred before the age of 13 years.
3. For this group ranging in age from 16 to 26 years, only about half of the group could contribute to attempts in the 21 to 25 year range, and the average age for the contributors is 22.5-years-old. This means that there is only about a 50% contribution from this group to possible "first time suicide attempts" in the 21 to 25 year range. The analysis produced 6 suicide attempters that would have occurred in and estimated 39 individuals (25% of 155 individuals), for an estimated suicide attempt incidence of 15.4%, or the 15-16% estimated given in the table.
4. For this group ranging in age from 27 to 36 years, the group could only contribute suicide attempts to the average age of 31 years, the incidence to this age already being 3.5% (5/142). Assuming a similar incidence for similar age periods to the age of about 50 years results in the conservative "14%" estimate that is given. Some first time suicide attempts would be occurring after the age of 50 years.
5. In both these cases, the actual "first time suicide attempts" incidence in the lifetime of the men studied would be greater given their ages when interviewed in 1969. For the group ranging in age from 27 to 36 years in 1969, the percentage of first time suicide attempters between the ages of 21 and 25 years (9.8%) is almost equal to the percentage of first time attempters up to the age of 20 years (10.6%). Therefore many years remain during which first time suicide attempts will occur. That such suicide attempts will occur and likely have majority status is indicated by the D'Augelli et al. (2001) suicidality results.



Femininity / Masculinity Self-Rating Categories & 
Suicidality of White Predominantly Homosexual Males: First Time 
Suicide Attempts to Age 20 and After Age 20 - Bell et al. (1981) Data
Femininity / Masculinity
Categories
Fem.
0 - 1
Feminine / Masculine
2 - 3
Masc.
4 - 6
% of Males
in Category
9.6%
(55/573)
47.8%
274/573
42.6%
(244/573)
Attempted Suicide
Percent
21.6%
(12/55)
10.9% 1
(30/274)
4.9% 2, 3
(12/244)
Attempted Suicide
To Age 20
12.8%
(42/329)
4.9% 4
(12/244)
Attempted Suicide
After Age 20
7.6%
(25/329)
10.6% 5
(26/244)
Calculations from Data Set (Tremblay & Ramsay, 2002): Femininity to Masculinity Scale: 0 to 6

Greater risk (95% Confidence Intervals) for attempting suicide: 1. "0-1" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.1<2.0<3.6 (χ2 = 4.8, p = .027); 2. "0-1" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 2.1<4.4<9.3 (χ2  = 17.4, p < .0000); 3. "2-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.2<2.2<4.2 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012); 4. "0-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.4<2.6<4.8 (χ2 = 10.1, p = .001); 5. "0-3" F-M Category vs. this Category - RR = .42<.71<1.2 (χ2 = 1.6, p = .20). See Note 2 for Odds Ratios.




BEM: Femininity / Masculinity Categories & Suicidality
Gay And Bisexual Male Youth: Age 14 - 21 Years
Remafedi, Farrow & Deisher (1991)
Femininity / Masculinity
Categories
Feminine
Androgynous: 31%
Undifferentiated: 26%
Masculine
% of Males
in Category
23%
(31/137)
31% + 26% = 57%
(42/137) / (35/137)
20%
(28/137)
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
48%
(15/31)
Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(23/77 = 30% ) 1
11%
(3/28) 2, 3
Attempted Suicide
Percent Incidence
Feminine = 48%, Androgynous = 26%, Undifferentiated = 34%
(38/108 = 35.2% )
11%
(3/28) 4
Bem Sex Role Inventory: Feminine: High F, Low M scores- Masculine: Low F, High M scores

Androgynous High F & M scores - Undifferentiated: Low F & M scores

Greater risk (95% Confidence Intervals) for attempting suicide: 1. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = .98<1.6<2.7 (χ2 = 3.3, p = .068); 2. "Feminine" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.4<4.5<14.0 (χ2 = 9.8, p = .002); "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = .91<2.8<8.6 (χ2 = 4.0, p = .044); 4. "Feminine / Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. this Category - RR = 1.1<3.3<9.9 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012). See Note 3 for Odds Ratios




Note 1

The Sampling for Bell & Weinberg (1978): The largest sample pool was of white predominantly homosexual males obtained via the following venues: Public Advertising (914), Bars (994), Personal Contacts (617), Gay Baths (249), Public Areas such as parks rest rooms, and streets (137), Homophile Organizations (222), Mailing Lists - with mail back cards (200), and private Bars (220). The total sample of white homosexual males (N = 3533) was then subjected to random sampling within contact cells to produce the final study sample of 575 white predominantly homosexual males. Obtaining a good (likely highly representative) study sample was accomplished because the researchers applied their great knowledge of homosexually oriented males to the sampling process. Therefore, the final study sample represented, as best as possible, the great majority of homosexually oriented males living in the San Francisco Bay Area. The sampling method also likely produced the most representative sample taken to the 1990s of white homosexually oriented males living in a North American city. The matching sample of predominantly heterosexual males (N = 284) was obtained via stratified random sampling in the same area.

Note 2

For the Bell et al. (1981) data (1969 sample, mean age = 37 years) generated by Tremblay and Ramsay (2002), and using the 2 X 2 Table located at - http://home.clara.net/sisa/twoby2.htm, the following Risk Ratios (RR) and Odds Ratios OR) for attempting suicide were calculated with 95% Confidence Intervals. 1. "0-1" F-M Category vs. "2-3" F-M Category - RR = 1.1<2.0<3.6, RR = 1.1<2.3<4.8 (χ2 = 4.8, p = .027); 2. "0-1" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 2.1<4.4<9.3, OR = 2.3<2.4<12.8 (χ2 = 17.4, p < .0000); 3. "2-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 1.2<2.2<4.2, OR = 1.2<2.4<4.8 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012); 4. "0-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = 1.4<2.6<4.8, RR = 1.4<2.8<5.5 (χ2 = 10.1, p = .001); 5. "0-3" F-M Category vs. "4 to 6" Category - RR = .42<.71<1.2, OR = .39<.69<1.2 (χ2 = 1.6, p = .20). Categories: Feminine (0) to Masculine (6) Self-Rating on 7-point scale for childhood and adolescence (to the age of 17 years).

Note 3

For the Remafedi et al. (1991) data (Age Range 14-21 years), and using the 2 X 2 Table located at - http://home.clara.net/sisa/twoby2.htm, the following Risk Ratios (RR) and Odds Ratios (OR) for attempting suicide were calculated with 95% Confidence Intervals. 1. "Feminine" Category vs. "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category - RR = .98<1.6<2.7, OR = .93<2.2<5.2 (χ2 = 3.3, p = .068); 2. "Feminine" Category vs. "Masculine" Category - RR = 1.4<4.5<14.0, OR = 1.9<7.8<31.3 (χ2 = 9.8, p = .002; 3. "Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. "Masculine" Category - RR = .91<2.8<8.6, OR = .97<3.5<12.9 (χ2 = 4.0, p = .044); 4. "Feminine / Androgynous / Undifferentiated" Category vs. "Masculine Category - RR = 1.1<3.3<9.9, OR = 1.3<2.9<16.0 (χ2 = 6.3, p = .012). Categories: Bem (1981) Sex Role Inventory. 


Note 4

Harry J (1983a).Abstract: The hypotheses that gender-role nonconformity during childhood is associated with social isolation, which in turn is related to subsequent suicidal feelings and attempts, were tested. These ideas were explored in a four-group sample of homosexual and heterosexual men and women living in San Francisco. The data indicated that there was support for the hypotheses; however, childhood gender-role nonconformity was more consequential for the later suicidality of men than of women. The data indicated consistently that gender deviance was more benign in women than in men.

Bibliography


Bell AP, and Weinberg MS (1978).
Homosexualities: a study of diversity among men & women. Simon and Schuster, N.Y. Research Highlights.

Bell A, Weinberg M, Hammersmith S (1981). Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Bell A, Weinberg M, Hammersmith S (1981). Sexual Preference: Statistical Appendix. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

Harry J (1985). Defeminization and social class. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14(1): 1-12. PubMed Abstract.

Harry J (1983a). Parasuicide, gender, and gender deviance. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4): 350-61. PubMed Reference. Abstract.

Harry J (1983b). Defeminization and adult psychological well-being among male homosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12(1): 1-19. PubMed Abstract.

Remafedi G, Farrow JA, Deisher RW (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87(6): 869-75. PubMed Abstract.

Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2002). Statistical results generated via SPSS-10 by Thomas G. Albright, Systems Analyst/Programmer at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Research. January 9 and 11, 2002.

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