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Social Work: Emergence of a Holistic Design Science - Profession

The Art and Science of Social Well-Being

 

A. Discipline/Profession development

            area-domain

                        describes unique nature of science/profession

                        where the work of the science/profession is done

 

            ontological view (nature of reality)

                        divided wholeness

                                    modern science

                                    up to the 20th century

                        undivided wholeness

                                    postmodern science

                                    20th century and beyond

 

            underlying perspectives

                        psychodynamical

                                    informed early 20th C social work practice

                        ecological systems

                                    shallow

                                                informed mid 20th C social work practice

                                    deep

                                                emergent perspective for late 20th C social work practice

                        holistic systems

                                    deep interconnectedness

                        ecological-holistic

                                    “ecoholism”

                                                biopsychospiritualsocial/anibiopsychosocial

                                                environment (natural and social)

 

            person-in-environment/situation/context/network

                        pioneer (early 20th century) conception

                                    Richmond, Social Diagnosis

                        mid century transformation

                                    Bartlett, Common Base of Social Work

                        central focus of change effort

                                    interactions/relationships/interconnections

                        primary units of attention/analysis

                                    entities

                                                dual purpose

                                                early to mid 20th C

                                    networks

                                                unifying purpose

                                                late 20th C and early 21st C

                                                possible new domain; person-environment network (PEN)

 

            profession influences

                        distinguishing features

                                    applied through human delivery

                                    value-guided

                                    ethical expectations

                                    standards of practice

                                    altruistic motives

            science influences

                        Newtonian - basic research; knowledge development science

                                    pure/basic science

                        Baconian - applied research; knowledge application through tools

                                    applied science-profession

                        Jeffersonian - social problem research; social caring science

                                    generally unfamiliar to social workers

                                    social design science-profession

                                                influenced by Fuller’s geometric thinking

- sees environment and human condition relationships as being ever improvable

                                                            - structuring of environments to advantage all

                                                            humanity without harm to environment                  

                                                            - method is premised on (w)holism - one of always

                                                            starting with the whole and working toward the

                                                            particular

 

B. Discipline/Profession consensus - Thomas Kuhn

            consolidation

            folding to a status of exclusivity

            separateness

            specialisation

 

C. Discipline/Profession boundary

            paradigm adherents - Thomas Kuhn

- a community of like minded people adhere around common question(s):      

                        - declared domain; articulated problems of concern; value declarations;

- declared ethical principles and standards; methods of service; curriculum, content, sanctions, knowledge base, etc..           

            ontological perspective -  determining the nature of reality

                        divided wholeness (Cartesian)

                                    independence in 3-D space-time

                                    part - to - whole understanding of reality

                                    observer - 3-D space separateness

                        undivided wholeness (Bohm)

                                    interdependence in 4-D space-time

                                    whole-to-part understanding of reality (Fuller)

                                    4-D observer - space interrelationships

 

            epistemological base - determining the nature of knowledge

                        linear, predictable, proportional

                                    17th - 20th C science; modern science

                                                reductionist

                                                analytical

                                                central tendency norms/averages

                                                sum of behavior of parts equals behavior of whole

                        nonlinear, unpredictable, disproportional

                                    20th C science; postmodern science-

holistic                      

                                                synthetical

                                                skewed tendency norms

                                                whole cannot be predicted from behavior of parts

           

            philosophy

                        ancient

                                    charitable

                        philanthropic

                                    humanistic

                        scientific

                                    professional

                        value-guided

                                    primary values

                                    instrumental values

 

            history

                        Feudal -  Industrial systems

                                    New order dependency: self-reliant & independence norms

                                    Moral classifying: helpless, worthless, homeless children

English Poor Laws - state emergence over church & family responsibilities

                        Malthusian economics  (early 1800s)

                                    scarcity of resources are unable to advantage all

                                    rights of privileged few

                                    right to life has to be earned

                        Darwian natural selection

                                    local environment adaptation

                                    culturally pressured to endorse evolutionary progress

                        Social Darwianism (late 1800s)

                                    Spencer

                                                survival of the socially fit

                                                elimination of social misfits

                        Applied philanthropy - charitable treatment of dependency

                                    Charity Organization Systems (COS)

                                                Friendly visitors

                                    Settlement Houses

                                                live-in-neighbors

                                    Social Reform

                                                dedicated social activists

                                    Womens Movement

                                                dedicated equal rights advocates

 

                        Scientific philanthropy

                                    “socialization work” becomes “social work”

                                                open to career minded women

                                                focus on social functioning

                                                disciplined effort instead of self-interest charity

                                                apprenticeship training

                                                social medicine advocate Rene Sand

                                                first school of social work in U.S., NYSS,1905

                                                first school of social work in Canada, U of T, 1914

 

                                    social casework

                                                skill based method

                                                aspiring for profession status

                                                Flexner’s critique (1915)

                                                Flexner’s racist, paternalistic attitudes (Ernest Just)

                                                Einstein’s theory of relativity (1915)

                                                Richmond - Addams divisive rivalry (1910-1920)

                                                Richmond’s “Social Diagnosis” (1917)

                                                U.S. Red Cross “firing” of social work (1923)

                                                Freud’s psychoanalytical human development

 

                                    fields of practice leading to specialized casework methods

                                                medical                                   psychiatric

                                                school                                     family

                                                child welfare                          corrections

 

                                    generic social casework method

                                                Milford Conferences (1925-1929)

 

                                    dominant social casework methods

                                                Diagnostic School

                                                            Freudian foundation

                                                                        deterministic science roots (pre-20thC)

                                                                        systematic stages

                                                                        study - diagnose - treat methodology

                                                Functional School

                                                            Rankian foundation

                                                                        quantum science roots (early 20thC)

                                                                        systemic patterns

                                                                        relationships - functions - time

 

                                    professional identity through differential methods (before 1970s)                   

                                                social casework

                                                            social groupwork

                                                            community organization

                                                                        added later

                                                            social administration

                                                            social research

                                    micro-macro dichotomies (1960s)

                                                Clinical (direct)

                                                            individual

                                                            family

                                                            small groups

                                                Community (indirect)/Social reform

                                                            locality development

                                                                        participatory action research

                                                            social planning

                                                            social action

 

                                    professional identity transforms to scope of practice (after 1970s)

                                                person-in-environment domain

                                                            Hamilton (1951) - organismic

                                                            Boehm (1958) - interactions

                                                            NASW definition (1958) - social functioning

                                                            CSWE curriculum study (1959) - central focus

 

                                                common triangular base of social work (1970) - Bartlett

                                                            social functioning (domain)

                                                            orientation (broad-based profession)

                                                            intervention repertoire (methods)

 

                                                systems models of social work

                                                            developers

                                                                        Pincus and Minahan (1973)

                                                                        Goldstein (1973)

                                                                        Compton and Galway (1975)

                                                                        Meyer (1976, 1983)

                                                                        Germain and Gitterman (1980)

                                                                       

                                                knowledge foundations

                                                            general systems (von Bertalanffy)

                                                                        Hearn, Gordon (social work application)

                                                                        Smalley, Ruth (social work application)

 

                                                            ecological systems (Handler)

                                                                        Germain & Gitterman (social work)

 

                                                            natural whole systems (Fuller)

                                                                        Ramsay (social work)

 

                                                minimum whole/tetrahedral system framework                                        

                                                Common whole of social work (1994)

                                                                                    Domain of practice

                                                                                    Paradigm of the profession

                                                                                    Domain of practitioner

                                                                                    Method(s) of practice

 

                        theory

                                    modern

                                                reductionist science

classical, initial condition, cause & effect determinism

                                                                        psychoanalytical theory

                                                                        counselling theory

                                    postmodern

                                                complexity science

                                                            sensitive dependence conditions, cause & effect

                                                            probability

                                                                        chaos theory

                                                                        synchronicity

                                                indigenous science                                                   

Blackfoot physics

 

                        social assignment (Popple, 1988)

                                    dependency problems 

                                                domain perspective; problems issue

                        problematica (Tucker, 1996)

                                    social caring profession perspective; solution issue

 

                        comprehensive conceptual framework/model (Ramsay, 1994)

                                    holistic scope- common whole of social work

 

                                    Domain of practice

                                                social well-being/social functioning objective

                                                            dimension of health (WHO) -shared domain

                                                                        ani (anima, spiritual)

                                                                        bio (physical)

                                                                        psychological

                                                                        social

                                                person-in-environment domain - unique boundary

person(s) - differential sizes: individual to community               

                                                roles (Karls and Wandrei, 1994)

                                                                                    family

                                                                                                parent

                                                                                                spouse

                                                                                                child

                                                                                                sibling

                                                                                    other interpersonal

                                                                                                lover

                                                                                                friend

                                                                                                neighbor

                                                                                    occupational

                                                                                                worker

                                                                                                student

                                                                                    life situation

                                                                                                consumer

                                                                                                patient/client

                                                                                                probationer

                                                                                                immigrant

                                                                                                prisoner

                                                                                    relationships types

                                                                                    dependency

                                                                                    power

                                                                                    victimization

                                                                                    isolation

                                                                                    loss

                                                                                    ambivalence

                                                            environmental strengths-problems

                                                                        social context

                                                                        validator otherness

                                                                                    resource otherness

                                                                                    personal otherness

 

                                                social functioning

                                                            person

                                                                        self validators

                                                                        life aspirations

                                                                        life tasks

                                                                        distress alleviation

                                                            environment

                                                                        otherness validators

                                                                        opportunities

                                                                        services

                                                                        resources

 

                                    Paradigm of profession: nature of discipline

                                                common boundary –common whole of social work

                                                            comprehensive framework/model

                                                                        generalist perspective - BSW

                                                                                    - professional practice framework

                                                                                    - general problem-solving method

                                                                        specialist perspective - MSW, PhD

                                                                                    - personal practice frameworks

                                                                                    - specialized fields and methods

                                                                                    - research  

                                                change perspective

                                                            planned change

                                                                        predictable interventions

                                                                        linear outcome measures

                                                            critical disturbance change

                                                                        sensitive dependence interventions

                                                                        non-linear outcome measures

                                                strategic practice options

                                                            systems

                                                                        - client - contractual

                                                                        - target - influencing others to benefit

                                                                        client/others

- action - working with others to benefit client

                                                                        - change agent system - employer of social

                                                                        worker

                                                            ecological

                                                                        micro - person centred

                                                                        messo - person-personal relationships

                                                                        mezzo - resource-resource relationships

                                                                        macro - person-public relationships

                                                            structural

                                                                        intended beneficiaries -  persons engaged

                                                                        client - other

                                                functions

                                                            linking

                                                            problem-solving

                                                            communication between

                                                            communication within

                                                            dispensing resources

                                                            social policy and humaneness

                                                            social control/monitoring

                                                            social change

                                                roles

                                                            informer/referrer

                                                            counsellor-therapist

                                                            facilitator

                                                            mediator

                                                            supporter

                                                            educator

                                                            advocate - activist

                                                            enforcer

                                                relationship stances

                                                            cooperative - enabling

                                                            collaborative - reciprocal

                                                            conflictual - adversarial

 

                                    Domain of practitioner: disciplined use of self

                                                            values

                                                                        primary

                                                                        instrumental

                                                            ecoholistic caring

                                                            disciplined self-disclosures

                                                            personal experiences of phobias and “isms”

 

                                    Method(s) of Practice: repertoire of methodologies

                                                            direct - indirect

                                                            micro, messo, mezzo, macro

                                                            micro, mid, macro, professional

                                                                        dialogue

                                                                        discovery

                                                                        development

                                                            general problem-solving/solution-seeking

                                                                        intake and engagement

                                                                        data collection and assessment

                                                                        planning and contracting

                                                                        intervention and monitoring

                                                                        evaluation and termination

                                                            function of worker-client relationship

                                                                        coempowering

                                                                        synergetic

                                                                        generates progress

                                                            pathways, phases, tasks

 

                        principles, ethics, standards of conduct, policies and procedures

                                    international - IFSW principles and definition

                                    national - CASW Code of Ethics, Scope of Practice

                                    provincial - ACSW Standards of Practice, legislation

                                    local - employment policies and procedures

 

C. Scope of Profession

            - domain and orientation

 

D. Scope of Practice

            - bounded and constrained by domain and orientation; guided by the problematica of caring; addressed through methods of teaching and development.    

 

R. Ramsay, Faculty of Social Work

University of Calgary

September 2003