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          Increasing Awareness of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender,
          Two Spirit, Queer... Suicide Issues
University of Calgary Home Page
Transgender People Generally Have The
Highest "Attempted Suicide" Incidences
Among Sexual Minority Groups
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"While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence- based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within [the LGBT] population." Marshall A (2016). Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 89: 205-213. PDF Download.

A World First! - - Jacobs R, Morris S (2016). National LGBTI Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Strategy: A New Strategy for Inclusion and Change: An Australian Government initiative. Related Article. Document PDF Download.


Talking About Suicide & LGBT Populations (2011): Suggestions & Recommendations.

Webpages
Available
At Website

Suicidality Studies Index: All Studies. - All Random & Special Sample Studies. - All American & Canadian Studies. - All European Studies. - Transgender Studies (This Page). - The Results of School-Based North American Youth Risk Behavior Surveys or Similar Surveys - Random Sampling - are Located at Another Location.

Other Pages: Homosexually Oriented People Are Generally at Greater Risk for the More Serious Suicidal Behaviors. - "Attempting Suicide" as Related To Gender Nonconformity & Transgender Issues. - Bell & Weinberg (1978) Homosexualities Study: "Attempted Suicide" Study Results.

Special Section: The 2013 Paper, "Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review," Reverses the Conclusions of Two Previously Published Papers. The Re-Analysis - Including Many Meta-Analyses & Using Unconditional Tests for Statistical Significance - Indicates that "Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Adolescents Are at Risk for Suicide." - In Addition, Expanding the "At Risk" Category to Include Adolescents Known to Only Have Been Harassed/Abused - Because They Were Assumed to be Gay/Lesbian - Produces More Conclusive Results, Especially Applying for Males. This Category Represents "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide." - Associated Pages: Constructing "The Gay Youth Suicide Myth": Thirty Years of Resisting a Likely Truth & Generating Cohen's Effect Size "h" Via Arcsin / Arcsine Transformations.

This page contain the results of Transgender studies that have reported "attempted suicide" incidences for varied samples.

Risk Ratios (RRs) or Odds Ratios (ORs) were produced when Heterosexual or Predominantly Heterosexual individuals were also a part of a study. As a rule, homosexually oriented people have been at higher risk for attempting suicide, compared to their heterosexual counterparts, and more so for males... as a rule. (Related Information)

Study Samples have been non-random and random.

Results of mostly North American suicidality studies of sexual minority street youth, psychiatric patients have been included in this web page to highlight the need for such studies to be carried out.

Qin P, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB (2003)Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: a national register-based study of all suicides in Denmark, 1981-1997. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4):765-72. (Abstract) (Full Text) - "...registered [same-sex] partners included as a separate category in the analysis had an odds ratio of 4.31 (95% CI= 2.23–8.36) in the crude analysis and 3.63 (95% CI=1.71– 7.67) in analyses with adjustment for other factors in the full model [for having committed suicide compared to opposite-sex married couples]". Note: This is a First-Time Research Result! See: Frisch M, Bronnum-Hansen H (2009). Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 133-7. Abstract. After 1995, higher risk of death in same-sex marriages occur in first 3 year of the marriage. Note: The paper does NOT mention the Qin et al (2003) suicide results (above), and suicide is only mentioned as possibly being implicated in the higher risk of death for same-sex couples.

Mathy RM, Cochran SD, Olsen J, Mays VM (2009). The association between relationship markers of sexual orientation and suicide: Denmark, 1990-2001. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. [Epub ahead of print]. From Abstract: "Using data from death certificates issued between 1990 and 2001 and population estimates from the Danish census, we estimated suicide mortality risk among individuals classified into one of three marital/cohabitation statuses: current/formerly in same-sex RDPs; current/formerly heterosexually married; or never married/registered. RESULTS: Risk for suicide mortality was associated with this proxy indicator of sexual orientation, but only significantly among men. The estimated age-adjusted suicide mortality risk for RDP men was nearly eight times greater than for men with positive histories of heterosexual marriage and nearly twice as high for men who had never married."

Frisch M, Simonsen J (2013). Marriage, cohabitation and mortality in Denmark: national cohort study of 6.5 million persons followed for up to three decades (1982-2011). International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(2): 559-578. Abstract. "Results: HRs for overall mortality changed markedly over time, most notably for persons in same-sex marriage. In 2000-2011, opposite-sex married persons (reference, HR = 1) had consistently lower mortality than persons in other marital status categories in women (HRs 1.37-1.89) and men (HRs 1.37-1.66). Mortality was particularly high for same-sex married women (HR = 1.89), notably from suicide (HR = 6.40) and cancer (HR = 1.62), whereas rates for same-sex married men (HR = 1.38) were equal to or lower than those for unmarried, divorced and widowed men. Prior marriages (whether opposite-sex or same-sex) were associated with increased mortality in both women and men (HR = 1.16-1.45 per additional prior marriage)... Of note, mortality among same-sex married men has declined markedly since the mid-1990s and is now at or below that of unmarried, divorced and widowed men, whereas same-sex married women emerge as the group of women with highest and, in recent years, even further increasing mortality.

Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe
(By Judit Takács, ILGA-Europe and IGLYO, PDF Download)





Suicide Risk: Transsexual Populations
Study
Transsexual Suicide Risk Factors
Study
Information
Asscheman
et al.
(1989)
303 Male-to-Female Transsexuals (MtF)
Suicide: 3 (0.63-8.8) vs. 0.208
Age When Hormone Treatment Began:
Median: 32.0 Years, Range: 16-67

Attempted suicide by MtF before the start of sex reassignment treatment
: 14%

122 Female-to-Male Transsexuals (FtM)
No Suicides
Age When Hormone Treatment Began:
Median: 25.4 Years, Range: 16-54

425 Transsexual Patients With Cross-Gender
Hormone Treatment (1972-1986,
Free University Hospital clinic, Amsterdam, The Netherlands).Compared With
Average Population.
"The observed and the expected mortalities in male to-female transsexuals treated with estrogens and cyproterone acetate are shown in Table 1. The total number of deaths in the treatment group represented a 2.5- to 9-fold increase over the general population. The increased mortality was in particular due to an increase of suicides and of deaths by unknown cause." "The increased number of deaths by unknown cause does raise concern. Two of these three deaths might have been suicide, according to friends and relatives."
van Kesteren
et al.
(1997)
SMR: Standard Mortality Ratio (MtF)
Suicide Risk Compared to Average Population:
13 Suicides - SMR: 4.9<9.3<15.9
.

No Suicide: Female to Male (FtM) Transsexuals.

Attempted suicide by MtF before the start of sex reassignment treatment: ? %. After?
Suicide Risk in 816 Male-to-Female Transsexuals
Treated With Oestrogens and Anti-Androgens at Free University Hospital clinic (Amsterdam,
The Netherlands) from 1977 to 1994.

Mean Age (MtF): 41 (18-860 Years
Mean Age (FtM, N = 282): 34 (17-70) Years
Dhejne
et al.
(2011)


Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR)
Suicide: 19.1 (5.8–62.9) - 1973 to 2003

Attempted Suicide
4.9 (2.9–8.5) - 1973 to 2003
7.9 (4.1–15.3) - 1973 to 1988
2.0 (0.7–5.3) - 1989 to 2003
324 sex-reassigned persons (191 male-to-females: MtF,
133 female-to-males: FtM) in Sweden, 1973–2003.
Study Entry Age: MtF: 36.3 (10.1, 21–69),
FtM: 33.3 (8.7, 20–62)
Random population controls (10:1) matched for birth year and sex (Table 2).
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment
Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003
Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR), 95% CI
Suicide
MtF (N=191): 13.9 (3.9-49.6)
FtM (N=133) 40.0 (4.5-357.9)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 19.1 (6.5-55.9)

Attempted Suicide
MtF (N=191): 15.4 (7.9-30.2)
FtM (N=133) 2.9 (1.3-6.8)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 7.6 (4.7-12.4)
Matched With Birth Sex and Birth Year: Table S1
(Separate Download)
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment


Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003

Adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR), 95% CI
Suicide
MtF (N=191): 60.0 (7.2-498.4)
FtM (N=133) 5.4 (1.6-18.6)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 12.1 (4.8-30.8)


Attempted Suicide
MtF (N=191): 10.9 (5.9-20.0)
FtM (N=133) 4.9 (2.0-12.1)
MtF & MtF (N=324) 8.4 (5.1-13.8)
Matched With Final Sex and Birth Year: Table S2
(Separate Download)
Outcomes: Post Sex-reassignment

Hazard Ratios Calculated on basis of Outcome incidence
rates per 1000 person-years, 1973–2003

Asscheman
et al.
(2011)
SMR (Standard Mortality Rate) for Suicide:

MtF: n = 17 Suicides
SMR: 5.70 (4.93–6.54), 95% CI

FtM: n = 1 Suicide
SMR: 2.22 (0.53–6.18), 95% CI

( Related Article)
Netherlands: VU University Medical Center
All transsexual subjects referred to our
outpatient department since 1975.
966 (72.6%) MtF transsexuals, with a mean
age of 31.4 years at the start of cross-sex hormones (range: 16–76 years), with 18 678 patient-years of follow-up, and 365 (27.4%) FtM transsexuals, with a mean age 26.1 years (range: 16–57 years) at the start of hormone therapy with 6866 patient-years of follow-up.
Blosnich
et al.
(2014a)
"The study population consisted of VHA patients identified as having any one of four diagnosis codes indicating transgender status (n = 5,117) gathered from the VA National Patient Care Database. Mortality data were gathered from the National Death Index from 2000–2009 for 1,277 veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses."
"Approximately 9.3% (n = 309) veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses died across the study period... The crude suicide rate among veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses across the 10-year period was approximately 82/100,000 person-years, which approximated the crude suicide death rates for other serious mental illness in VHA (e.g., depression, schizophrenia). The average age of suicide decedents was 49.4 years... The crude suicide rate among veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses is higher than in the general population, and they may be dying by suicide at younger ages than their veteran peers without transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Future research, such as age-adjusted rates or accounting for psychiatric co-morbidities, will help to better clarify if the all-cause and suicide mortality rates are elevated for veterans with transgender-related ICD-9-CM diagnoses."
* MtF: Male to Female - FtM: Female to Male




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks
Transgender (TG) Populations: 2000 to 2016
Study
Sample
Size (N)
TG
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Risk Ratio,
p
Odd Ratios, Specified
Xavier
(2000)
Washington
D.C.
252
*MTF: 189
None
16%
70% African-American,
22% Latino/a, 8% Others.
Age Range: 13 to 61 Years
Nearly 80% = 36 years and under
** Nemoto (2001)
San
Francisco

MTF: 245
None
32%
MTF Of Color
?
51%
African American
?
31%
Latina
?
18%
Asian / Pacific Islander
Nemoto
et al.
(2002)
San
Francisco

MTF: 332
None
29%
MTF Of Color ***8
112
41%
African American - Mean Age: 36.5***
110
45%
Latina - Mean Age: 32.9
110
15%
Asian/Pacific Islander - Mean Age: 32.9
Mathy
(2002b)

Additional
Results

North
American
73 TG

61 TG =
Canadians
12 TG =
Americans
1,083
23.3% vs
11.4%
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Females
2.9, p
< .01
1,077
23.3% vs
5.0
TG vs. Random Heterosexual Males
4.7, p
< .001
73
23.3% vs
11.0%
TG vs. Matched Females
2.1, p
< .05
73
23.3% vs
4.1%
TG vs. Matched Males
5.7, p < .001
256
23.3% vs
16.0%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Females
1.5, ns
356
23.3% vs
8.7%
TG vs. Random Homosexual Males
2.7, p < .001
Kenagy
(2005)
Philadelphia
All MTF: 182
None
30.1% Volunteers: Face-to-Face Interview
or Questionnaire - 41.3: African American, 33.0% white, 10.1% multiracial, 6.1& Hispanic, 5.6% biracial, 3.9% others.
See also: Kenagy (1998)
MTF: 113
32.4%
* FTM: 69
26.2%
Operario
& Nemoto
(2005)
San
Francisco
MTF: 110
Asian
Pacific
Islanders
None
15%
Same Sample
as in
Nemoto et al.
(2002)
Volunteers: San Francisco ****
Mean Age: 33, Range: 18 to 57 Years
46% of FTM = Filipino, 9% Laotian, 7% Vietnamese, 4% Hawaiian, remainder identifying as other Asian/PI ethnicities.
Clements-
Nolle et al.
(2006)
San
Francisco

Additional
Results

All TG: 515
None
32.2%
63.7% Non-White, 36.3% White
MTF: 391
MTF vs.
FTM
32.5%
OR = 1.04 (0.67, 1.6) ns, No Controls
OR = 1.1 (0.59, 1.9),  9 Controls
FTM: 123
31.7%
White: 188
White vs.
Non-
White

37.8% OR = 1.5 (1.02, 2.2), No Controls
OR = 1.5 (0.92, 2.4),  9 Controls
Others: 323
28.8%
< 25 Yrs: 66
< 25 vs
25 + Yrs

47.0%
OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), No Controls
OR = 2.17 (1.17, 4.01),  9 Controls
25+ Yrs: 449 30.1%
Zians
(2006)

TG: 136
None
17.6%
(24 / 136)
San Diego, California
Mean Age: 38.3 (SD: 13.1)
Age Range: 9 to 79 Years
48.3% White, 16.2% Latino,
14% African  American, 10.3% Biracial
Kim et. al.
(2006)

MTF: 43
49 Matched
non-FTMs
62.8%
(27 / 43)
Presenting at compulsory military service in 3 Korean Cities.
Age Range: 19 to 23 Years
Taylor
(2006)

TG: 73
None
28%
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
49 Born Male, 21 Born Female, 3 Intersexed. 20 Aboriginal
Age Range: 18 to 60+
Grossman &
D'Augelli
(2007)
31 MTF
Mean Age: 17.5
None
6 / 31
19.3%
Volunteer Sample via two New York City GLBT Community Service Organizations. Age: 15-21 years
Suicide Attempters were asked where, how, why, and lethality of suicide attempt(s) also determined.
50% Attempted at Age 15-16 years, Age Range: 10-17 Years. Note: These are serious suicide attempts as determined for GLB youth by D'Augelli et al. (2005): For NYC similarly sampled GLB Individuals, Attempted Suicide Incidence = 14.8%
24 FTM
Mean Age: 19.5
None
8 / 24
33.3%
Xavier
et al.
(2007)
MTF &
FTM
N = 350
None
25.4%
'With participants from 60 of the 136 cities and counties in the State of Virginia, this is the first truly statewide needs assessment survey of a transgender population in the U.S.'
*Not given and cannot be calculated exactly from given results.
Note: Same sample as Testa et al. (2012)
& Goldblum et al (2012) below
MTF
n = 229
None
< 25.4%*
FTM
n = 121
None
> 25.4%*
Malavé
Lebrón &
González
Rivera
(2009)
MTF
n = 31
None
8 / 31 =
25.8%
Puerto Rico Volunteer transgender -
transsexual (masculine to feminine). Ages of 20-45 years (MD= 29 years).
McNeil
et al.
(2012)
MTF, FTM +
N = 581 ?
None
35% Once.
25% More
Than Once.
See Information Table Below.
Testa
et al.
(2012)

MTF &
FTM
N = 350
Study Sample: 271
None
-
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to physical violence:
FTM OR: 5.1 -- MTF OR: 3.5
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to physical violence:
FTM OR: 5.0 -- MTF OR: 3.6
Note: Same online sample as Xavier et al. (2007) above & Goldblum et al (2012) below.
State of Virginia study sample.
MTF
n = 179
None
26.3%
FTM
n = 92
None
34.0%
Goldblum
et al.
(2012)
MTF &
FTM
N = 350
Study Sample: 290
None
28.5%
Odds Ratio, having attempted suicide if also exposed to in-school gender-based victimization (GBV).:
FTM OR: 4.5 -- MTF OR: 3.1
Note: Same online sample as Xavier et al. (2007) & Testa et al (2012) above.
State of Virginia study sample.

MTF
None
26.5%
FTM
None
31/2%
Nuttbrock
et al.
(2010)

All MTF
N = 571
-
-
MTFs recruited in conjunction with the baseline component of the New York Transgender Project, a large ongoing study of this population in the New York Metropolitan Area. Ages = 19 to 59, mean age = 37.
Younger:
19-39
Years
None
31.2%
Older:
39-59
Years
None
28.0%
Maguen &
Shipherd
(2010)

All: 153
None
18%
27 / 153
American Transgender participants (N = 153), 18-75 years, recruited at First Event, a regional transgender conference sponsored by the Tiffany Club of New England on January16 and 17, 2004.
Trans Men
MTF
None
41%
9 / 22
Trans Women
FTM
None
20%
12 / 60
Bigender
None
9%
3 of 32
male crossdressers
None

7%
2 / 28
Grant et al.
(2010)

All: 6,450
Transgender
None
41%
American: Internet Sample
"Attempted Suicide" Results by Age Groups, Employment Status and Race/Ethnicity
See Table Below.
Discrimination Results by
Herman et al (2014): Table Below.
For suicidality results related to many demographic factors, see: Haas et al (2014).
Scanlon et al.
(2010)

Bauer
et al.
(2013)
All: 433
Transgender
None

Attempted
Suicide:

Lifetime:
43%
Past year:
10%
Ontario, Canada Sample:
Trans PULSE Survey.
See Additional Suicidality Results, Including :"Attempted Suicide" Incidences as related to age and having experienced verbal or physical assault: Table Below.
Bauer
et al.
(2015)
All: 380
Transgender
None
Attempted
Suicide:
Past year:
11,2%
Same  non-random study sample as above: Scanlon et al (2010) & Bauer et al. 2013). Analysis to identify suicidality related factors that could be targeted in suicide prevention efforts.
Terada
et al.
(2011)

MTF
N = 189
None
31.7%: See
"Suicidality
Variable"
Study Sample: 500 consecutive Japanese GID patients without any other psychiatric comorbidity at outpatient GID Clinic of Okayama University Hospital.
GID: Gender Identity Disorder.
"Suicidality Variable": Self-mutilation including suicide attempts.
Risk Factors: Early onset and less education.
FTM
N = 311
None
31.8%: See
"Suicidality
Variable"
Effrig
et al.
(2011)
Transgender,
Combined,
2 Study
Samples:
32 Clinical,
65
Nonclinical.
Total = 97
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
8.4%, men & Women,
Clinical
Sample.
4.9%, men & Women,
Nonclinical
Sample.
Transgender
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
25.7%
27 / 97

Nonclinical Participants: random national sample of 21, 686 college students. Average age of participants:  22 years (SD = 9.52).
Clinical Sample Participants: 27,616 college students who sought counseling services at one of 66 CCMH counseling centers.
Singh
(2012)
48 GID Males (of
139 GID
Males) who
had related
data.
None
Attempted
Suicide
Since the Age
of 13 Years:

15 / 48
31.2%
The participants were biological males referred to and then assessed in the Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in Toronto, Ontario during their childhood and were adolescents or adults at the time of follow-up. Data collection occurred over three decades, 1986-2011.
Jones &
Hillier
(2013)
91 Trans-spectrum
Youth.
1,265
Cisgender
SSAY: Same
Sex Attracted
Youth.

Age Range:
14 to 21
Average:
17 Years

Cisgender
30.12%
Trans-
Spectrum
Lifetime
Self-Harm
46.15%
p < 0.01
Writing Themselves In” 2010: an Australian online survey. 91 trans-spectrum youth: 43 elected
their sex as “Gender Queer,” 21 as “Transgender f-m,” 18 as “Trans-gender m-f,” and 9 as “Other.” The 3,043 cisgender SSAY youth: 1,265 were males (vast majority described themselves as gay/homosexual), 1,766 females with identifications more evenly divided between bisexual and gay/homosexual).
Cisgender
16.10%
Trans-
Spectrum

Lifetime
Attempted
Suicide
27.47%
p < 0.01
Blosnich
et al.
(2013)

GID
Diagnosed
VHA
Population.

General VHA Population.
[USA Veteran
Health
Adminis-tration]
GID:
Suicide-
Related
Events =
Planning
Suicide,
Attempting
Suicide
.
"GID prevalence in the VHA is higher (22.9/100 000 persons) than are previous estimates of GID in the general US population (4.3/100 000 persons). The rate of suicide-related events among GID-diagnosed VHA veterans was more than 20 times higher than were rates for the general VHA population."
Moody &
Smith
(2013)
133
Transgender
Adults
None
26.3%
35 / 133
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Internet Sampling: Recruitment e-mails sent to possible participants via LGBT and trans LISTSERVs and organizations: September 2010 to February 2011. 133 Volunteer Canadian Participants, self-identified as trans adults, ranging in age from 18 to 75 years (M=36.75, SD=13.01).
Boza &
Perry
(2014)
255
Transgender
Adults
None
43.6%
106 / 243
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Internet Non-Random Sampling; Online Study Advertisements & Snowballing for Australian Transgender Residents.
Sample: 87 Born Female. 168 Born Male. Mean Age: 38.15 years (SD = 13.56, range = 18–73). Participants were predominantly of Oceanic (60.9%) or European (33.3%) ethnicity.
Clark
et al.
(2014)
Transgender
n = 83 to 95.

Non-
Transgender:
Attempted
Suicide:

315 / 7,678
= 4.1%
Transgender:
Attempted
Suicide:
19 / 95 =
19.8%

Odds Ratio:
5.0 (2.9-8.8)
Youth’12: a national, crosssectional, population-based survey: secondary school youth health, New Zealand.
Self-Harm: 45.5% vs. 23.4%.
OR: 2.7 (1.7-4.3).
Depression: 41.3% vs. 11,8%
OR: 5.7 (3.6-9.2)
Reisner
et al.
(2014)
Transgender
n =31
Cisgender
n = 2,622

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
8.5%
Transgender
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
29.0%
Results from the Core Data Project survey of patients engaged in medical care from 2001–2002 at Fenway Community Health Center (FCHC) in Boston, Massachusetts.
Reisner
et al.
(2015)
Transgender
n =31
Cisgender
n = 180

Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
6.1%
Transgender
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime:
17.2%
RR, With Controls:
3.2 (1.5-6.7)
A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen between 2002 and 2011 at at the Fenway Community Health Center (FCHC) in Boston, Massachusetts. Transgender compared with matched cisgender (nontransgender) youth patients.
Veale
et al.
(2015)
923
Trans
Youth:

14 to 25
Years Old

None
Suicidality, past 12 months,
younger youth
(14-18 years old):

Attempted suicide: 37%   

Had seriously considered suicide: 65%   

Lifetime
suicidality
, older youth (19-25 years old):

Attempted suicide:
37%

Had seriously considered suicide:
65%
Youth could participate in the study if they were between 14 and 25 years old, lived in Canada, and identified as trans or genderqueer, or felt their gender didn’t match their body. The survey was open from October 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014.Volunteer study participant: 923 youth, average age = 20 years old, 70% white. Overall, 1 in 10 participants identified as Aboriginal, which included First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. This number was much higher in the Prairie Provinces.
Guzmán-
Parra
(2015)
MTF
n=101

FTM
n = 96
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
21.8%, MTF

Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
24.0%, FTM

Study of the sociodemographic characteristics and the psychological adjustment of transsexuals in Andalusia (Spain), with an analysis of the differences between
female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals.

The sample was selected from patients attending theTGIU [Transsexuality and Gender
Identity Unit (TGIU) at the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga] who met the Transsexualism criteria for the ICD-10 (F64.0) standards and did not meet any of the exclusion criteria
for sex reassignment set by the unit.
Marshall
et al.
(2015-16)
Transwomen
n = 438
Transwomen
n = 44
N = 482
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:

Transwomen
141 / 438 = 25,1%
Transmen
18/ 44 = 40.9%
All:
159 / 482 = 33.0%
Non-random - as representative as possible - nation-wide, cross-sectional 2013 survey of transgender individuals living in Argentina.
Median Age = 30 Years
Perez-Brumer
et`al.
(2015)
MTF
n = 697
FTM
n = 532
All:
N = 1,229
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
355 / 1,097
= 32.4%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
51 / 796
= 6.4%
2003 cross-sectional Internet-based health assessment of American transgender adults.
Only 1,097 transgender individuals supplied lifetime suicidality information.
Only 796 transgender individuals supplies past-year suicidality information.
Olsen
et al.
(2015)
MTF
n = 50
FTM
n = 51
All:
N = 101
None
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
Transfeminine
27%
Transmasculine
33%
Baseline Characteristics, Trans-gender Youth Seeking Care for Gender Dysphoria in Los Angeles. Mean Ages: Transfeminine (19.8 Years), Transmasculine (18.6 Years).
Brown
et al.
(2015)
Transgender
n = 5,135
Non-
transgender
n = 15,405

Suicide Ideation and/or
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:

4.5%
Suicide Ideation and/or
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
19.4%
ORs, Not Adjusted /
Adjusted:
5.22 (4.7–5.8)
4.10 (3.7–4.6)
Study of a cohort of 5,135 TG veterans treated in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) between 1996 and 2013. A matched 1:3  case–control design used to determine medical and/or mental health disparities existing in the TG veteran population.
See Brown et al. (2014) for Transgender White / Black
Veterans' Suicide Ideation and/or Attempted Suicide  Incidences: 19.2% / 21.2%
Su et al.
(2016)
Transgender
n = 85
LGB
Nontrans-
gender
n = 665
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
15.9%
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime:
37.6%
2010 online survey over the large geographical area of Nebraska, USA.
Participants were self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender persons over the age of 19. A multipronged recruitment strategy was used. 770 LGBT Nebraskans in the study
* MTF: Male to Female - FTM: Female to Male
** The
Nemoto (2001) Study Sample is Likely a Subset of  Nemoto et al. (2002) Study Sample.
*** Mean Ages are from Nemoto et al. (2004). **** Face-to-Face Interviews.




The Mathy (2002b) Study of Transgender Suicidality
North America: Internet Survey
Categories
TG
Random
Heterosexual
Matched
Homosexual
Gender *
TG
F
M
F
M
F
M
N's
73
1,083
1,077
73
73
256
356
Mean Age
SD
Age Range
36.9
(10.0)
19-58
30.1
(9.3)
18-76
33.7
(11.0)
18-80
36.0
(9.8)
19-53
37.0
(10.0)
19-56
33.7
(8.9)
18-69
33.0
(9.7)
18-70
Attempted Suicide /
Self-Harm **
23.3%
11.4%
5.0%
11.0%
4.1%
16.0%
8.7%
*** Risk Ratio: TG vs.
Specified Category

2.9
4.7
2.1
5.7
1.5
2.7
p
< .01
< .001
< .05
< .001
ns
< .001
* TG = Transgender - M = Males - F = Females -- *** Not Given in Mathy (2002b)
** Suicide Question: "I have made a serious suicide attempt or gesture." Yes/No
Sampling: News Web Site: MSNBC - Every 1000th visitor: USA, Canada - A Sexuality Survey
Using mostly counts from random sample, but also from volunteer sample.
TG (Transgender) Sample: N = 73, 61 Canadian, 12 American, with 12 / 73 from random sample.



The Clements-Nolle et al. (2006) Study of Suicidality*
In The San Francisco Transgender Population
Categories
Attempted Suicide
Lifetime: % (n / n)
Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Unadjusted **
Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Adjusted
All, N = 515
32.2%
(166 / 515)


MTF, n = 391
Male-to-Female
32.5%
(127 / 391)
1.04 (0.67, 1.6)
ns
1.1 (0.59, 1.9)
Controls: 9 Variables
FTM, n = 123
Female-to-Male
31.7%
(39 / 123_
White
37.8%
(71 / 188)
1.5 (1.02, 2.2)
p = 0.036
1.5 (0.92, 2.4)
Controls: 9 Variables
Non-White
28.8%
(93 / 323)
< 25 Years-Old
47.0%
(31 / 66)
2.1 (1.2, 3.5)
p = 0.006

2.17 (1.17, 4.01)
Controls: 9 Variables
25 + Years-Old
30.1%
(135 / 449)
Volunteers Interviewed. 37% White, 23% Black, 23% Latino/a, 11% Asian/PI, 5% Native American
Median Age: 34, Age Range: 18 to 67 Years
The "Attempted Suicide" 32% Lifetime Incidence was First Reported by Clements-Nolle et al. (2001)
** Odds Ratios Not Given. Calculated From Given Counts





Transgender and Transsexual People in Sweden
An Internet Sample, N = 374 *

Age Group
Attempted Suicide Incidence,  Lifetime
16 - 29 Years
27%, n = ?
30 - 44 years
28%, n = ?
45 - 54 years
12%,  n = ?
55 - 64 Years
21%,  n = ?
* Web Survey Data: Reported in National Public Health Survey, 2005.
Results also reported by Winzer &
Boström (2007)
For comparison of Transgender Suicidality results to GLB & Heterosexual Results, See Table.



Transgender and Transsexual People in France
An Internet Sample, N = 90

Group
16 to 26 Years-Old
Attempted Suicide Incidence,  Lifetime
All
N = 90
34%
FTM
n = 60 Approximately
34%
MTF
n = 30 Approximately
32%
Data Source:
L’équipe Trans du MAG / La Commission Trans d’HES (2009)




Irish Transgender Study
An Internet Sample: N = 106

Frequency
Attempted Suicide, Lifetime
n = 85
Once
12%
Two to Five Times
22%
More Than Five Times
6%
One or More Times
40%
Data Source: TENI: Transgender Equality Network Ireland (2012)
Additional Suicidality & Self-Harm Data is Given




Transgender and Transsexual People in the United Kingdom
An Internet Sample, N = 872**

Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
14%
Twice
7%
Three or More Times
14%
One or More Times
34.4%

*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.

Note: Data was solicited on suicidality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. In Whittle et al. (2008), the incidence in this category was reported to be also 34%. ** Sample may include duplicates?
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2007)



Transgender and Transsexual People in Europe
An Internet Sample, N = 985 (UK = 322)**

Frequency
Attempted Suicide / Self-Harmed in Adulthood*
Once
?
Twice
?
Three or More Times
?
One or More Times
29.9%

*Resulting from being a crossdresser, transgender/transsexual person or because of other people’s reactions to them being trans.

Note: Data was solicited on suicidality before the age of 21 years, but the results were not reported. ** Duplicates Removed.
Data Source: Whittle et al. (2008)





National Transgender Discrimination Survey Report On
Health and Health Care (USA, 2010): Attempted Suicide

Categories
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
Categories
(% of Sample)
Attempted
Suicide,
Lifetime
All: 6,450
41%
White (76%)
38%
Age: 18-44
45%
Asian (2%)
39%
Age: > 65
16%
Latino/Latina (5%)
44%
Employed
37%
African American (5%)
45%
Unemployed
51%
Multi-Racial (11%)
54%
Lost Job Due to Bias
55%
Native American (1%)
56%
Street Economy
60%


Data Source: Grant et al. (2010)
See More Results Below:
By Herman et al. (2014)



National Transgender Discrimination Survey:
Some Discrimination Related Attempted Suicide Results
Categories
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime Incidence
All: 6,456
41%
Family chose not to speak/spend time with them.
57%
Harassed or bullied at school: any level.
50-54%
Experienced discrimination or harassment at work.
50-59%
Doctor or health care provider refused to treat them.
60%
Suffered physical or sexual violence at work.
64-65%
Suffered physical or sexual violence at school (any level).
63-78%
Disrespected or harassed by law enforcement officers.
57-61%
Suffered physical or sexual violence by law enforcement officers.
60-70%
Experienced homelessness. 69%
Data Source: Herman et al. (2014)





Ontario’s Trans Communities and Suicide (Canada, 2010): Seriously Considered Suicide & Attempted Suicide
Categories
Age:
16-24
Years
Age:
25 +
Years
Experienced
Physical or
Sexual
Assault
Experienced
Verbal
Harassment
or Threats
No Assaults
or Verbal
Harassment
or Threats
All
N =
433
Attempted Suicide,
Lifetime
-
-
-
-
-
43%
Seriously Considered
Suicide, Lifetime
-
-
-
-
-
77%
Seriously Considered
Suicide, Lifetime,
Because of Being trans
-
-
-
-
-
50%
Attempted Suicide,
Past Year
19%
7%
29%
8%
4%
10%
Seriously Considered
Suicide, Past Year
47%
27%
47%
33%
26%
32%
Data Source: Scanlon et al. (2010)
'The information was collected using a unique research method that allowed us to take the
most statistically accurate picture of trans people possible in Ontario.'




"Attempted Suicide" Incidences/Risks: Street Youth
Homosexually vs. Heterosexually Oriented
Study
Sample
Size (N)
GLB
Compa-
rison
Group
Attempted
Suicide
% (n / N)
Sampling Information
Age
Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Kruks
(1991)
53 (M*)
Gay
Identified
None
53%
(28 / 33)
Lifetime
Los Angeles: Gay Identified
Street Youth
Reporting on unpublished part of
Schneider et al (1989) study sample..
Noell
& Ochs
(2001)

141 (MF*)
GLBU
391 (MF)
H-MH
49.6% vs.
35.8%
Lifetime
Large Northwest American City
Mean Age: 17.7 (SD: 1.9), 13 to 20 Years: Street Youth
OR = 1.8 (1.2, 2.7)
44 (M)
GBU
272 (M)
H-MH
44.2% vs.
33.0%
Lifetime
GLBU: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Unsure: Street Youth
 OR = 1.5 (0.80, 2.9)
97 (F)
LBU
119 (F)
H-MH
52.6% vs.
41.9%
Lifetime
H-MT: Heterosexual, Mostly Heterosexual: Street Youth
 OR = 1.5 (0.89, 2.6)
McCreary
(2002)

59 (M)
1 to 100%
Homosexual
141 (M)
100%
Heterosexual
21% vs.
13%
Past Year
Volunteers: Vancouver, BC, Canada
Street Youth
 Age: < 25 Years-Old
Clatts
et al.
(2005)

83 (M)
Mostly (72%)
Gay, Bisexual
Identified
None
43.4%
Lifetime
Sampling: Popular Gay Venues,
New York:
Street Youth
4.6%
White: See Tabulated Information
Mean Age: 21.4 (SD: 2.9), 17 to 28 Years
van Leeuwen
et al.
(2006)
150 (MF)
Gay, Lesbian,
Bisexual
Identified
520 (MF)
Hetero-
sexual
Identified
62.4%
(93 / 149)
vs.
28.8%
(148 / 513)
Lifetime
USA: 8-Cities, One-Day Sample:
Street Youth
Age Range: 14 to 24 Years
OR = 4.1 (2.8, 6.0)
Cull
et al.
(2006)

44 (MF*)
None
67+ %
(30 / 44 ?)
Lifetime
Volunteers: Brighton & Hove, England
23 men, 17 women, 4 Transsexual (Male to Female). Age Range:
16 to 25 Years:
Street Youth
 GLB Orientation = 43
Frederick
et al.
(2012)
47
LGBTQ
103
Heterosexual
17%
vs.
15%
Past year
Toronto: Youth Pathways Project
Data Collection:
January 2005 to June 2006.
50% Female (n = 75)

Age Range: 16 to 21 years.
Gattis
(2013)
66
GLBT
81
Hetero-
sexual
27% (18 / 66)
vs. 8% (6 / 81)
p < .01
Street Youth, Toronto, Canada: Volunteers, Interviews, 2009.
69% male, 60% white: 16-24 Years
Attempted Suicide, Past Year
OR: 4.7 (1.6, 14.3), 95% CI, p = .0021
15% (10 / 66)
vs. 2% (2 / 81)
p < .01
Attempted Suicide, Past Year;
Resulted in treatment
by doctor or nurse.
OR: 7.0 (1.4, 48.6), p = .006
1
* M = Males - F = Females - T = Transsexual -
** FTM: Female-to-Male, MTF: Male-to-Female
1. ORs generated by webpage authors at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html using given counts.



Suicide/Suicidality Risk: Psychiatric Patients
Homosexuality & Bisexuality
Study
Homosexuality As
Suicide/Suicidality
Risk Factor
Study
Information
Motto
et al.
(1985)
High Risk For Suicide:
Being bisexual and sexually
 active, or homosexual
and inactive (celibate)
Follow-up USA study of  2,753 adults "hospitalized
due to a depressive or suicidal state" USA
Marten
et al.
(1985)

Homosexuals accounted
for one-third of
the suicide deaths
A prospective USA study of 500 randomly
selected psychiatric outpatients during
a mean follow-up period of seven years.
Pretorius
(1992)
Thesis
For males, subsequent
suicide attempts were
associated with:
Being Single,
Homosexuality,
and Other Factors
All cases of attempted suicide referred to the Department
of Psychiatry at the University of Pretoria were studied
over a period of a year.
A total of 307 patients, 86 males
and 221 females, were evaluated. After 5 years, as many
as possible were traced: 59 males and 205 females.
Note: After 1985, homosexuality issues have generally been ignored
in studies of the suicide & suicidality of psychiatric patients.





Review & Meta-Analysis Papers
Sexual Minority Suicidality & Mental Disorders

Review Papers
Saunders JM, Valente SM (1987). Suicide risk among gay men and lesbians: A review. Death Studies, 11(1): 1-23. Abstract.
Remafedi G (1999). Suicide and sexual orientation: nearing the end of controversy? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10): 885-6. PDF Download.
Bagley C, Tremblay P (2000). Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian and bisexual youth. Crisis, 21(3): 111-17. (Review) Internet draft of the paper: Full Text. PubMed Abstract.
Tremblay P, Ramsay R (2000). Orientations homosexuelles ou bisexuelles chez les jeunes présentant des problème suicidaires: recherche, problématique et propositions. Le Vis-À-Vie, 10(2): 5-8. (Review) Internet English version of the paper: Full Text. Full Text (French). Translation.
Kulkin HS, Chauvin EA, Percle GA (2000). Suicide among gay and lesbian adolescents and young adults: a review of the literature. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(1): 1-29. (Review) PubMed Abstract.
Morrison LL, L'Heureux J (2001). Suicide and gay / lesbian / bisexual youth: implications for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1): 39-49. PubMed Abstract. Full Text: PDF Download. PDF Download

McDaniel JS, Purcell DW, D'Augelli AR (2001). The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: research findings and future directions for research and prevention.. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31(Suppl.): 84-105. (Review)  In: DHHS / CDC (2001). Suicide Prevention Now: Linking Research to Practice, pp. 190-218.  PDF Download. PubMed Reference.

Lebson M (2002). Suicide among homosexual youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(4): 107-17. Abstract.
Meyer, IH (2003). Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5): 674–697. SummaryAbstract. Full Text.
Russell ST (2003). Sexual minority youth and suicide risk. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(9): 1241-1257. Abstract. PDF Download.
McAndrew S, Warne T (2004). Ignoring the evidence dictating the practice: sexual orientation, suicidality and the dichotomy of the mental health nurse. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(4): 428-34. PubMed Abstract.
Julien D, Chartrand E (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon probabiliste sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 46(4): 235-250. Abstract. Summary / Extract (French). Translation.
Schlatter J, Irala J, Escamilla I (2005). Psicopatología asociada a la homosexualidad [Psychopathology related to homosexuality.]. Revista de Medicina de la Universidad de Navarra, 49(3): 69-79. PDF Download. Translation.

Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Prepared by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center for the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Download: http://www.sprc.org/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf. Download Page.

King M, Semlyen J, Tai SS, Killaspy H, Osborn D, Popelyuk D, Nazareth I (2008). A Systematic Review of Mental Disorder, Suicide, and Deliberate Self Harm in Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. BMC Psychiatry. Full Text. Full Text. Abstract.
Leu, Christian (2008). Orientation sexuelle et comportements suicidaires: Une enquête sur les résultats de la recherche internationale et nationale sur les facteurs de risque et de protection pour les adolescents homosexuels et bisexuels. Berne, La Suisse / Switzerland: Le collectif Formation de PINK CROSS, LOS et fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Translation N/A. Download Page N/A. Full Text. Download Page. Translation.

Leu, Christian (2008). Sexuelle Orientierung und Suizidalität: Eine Untersuchung der internationalen und nationalen Forschungs-ergebnisse der Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren für adoleszente Homo- und Bisexuelle. bern, Switzrland: PINK CROSS, LOS und fels. Full Text N/A. Download Page N/A. Word Download. Download Page N/A. Translation N/A. PDF Download N/A. Translation N/A. Full Text. Download Page Translation.

Lhomond B, Saurel-Cubizolles MJ (2009). Orientation sexuelle et santé mentale: une revue de la littérature [Sexual orientation and mental health: a review]. Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, 57(6): 437-50. Abstract. Download Page: In two Documents: Text & Tables. Download Page. Word Download.
Haas AP, Eliason M, Mays VM, Mathy RM, Cochran SD, D'Augelli AR, Silverman MM, Fisher PW, Hughes T, Rosario M, Russell ST, Malley E, Reed J, Litts DA, Haller E, Sell RL, Remafedi G, Bradford J, Beautrais AL, Brown GK, Diamond GM, Friedman MS, Garofalo R, Turner MS, Hollibaugh A, Clayton PJ (2011). Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1): 10-51. Abstract. Full Text: Open Access. Full Text.
Meta-Analyses
Plŏderl M, Wagenmakers EJ, Tremblay P,  Ramsay R, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2013). Suicide Risk and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(5): 715-727. Includes a meta-analysis. Download Page for Paper Draft PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website. ResearchGate Full Text.

Online Additions to the Paper: "A Critical Examination of the Shaffer et al. (1995) & Renaud et al. (2010) Psychological Autopsy Studies of Adolescent Suicides" & "An Expanded Homosexuality Factor in Adolescent Suicide."
Stone DM, Luo F, Ouyang L, Lippy C, Hertz MF, Crosby AE (2014). Sexual orientation and suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts: evidence from local youth risk behavior surveys, 2001-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 262-71. Abstract. Suicidality results for 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys used in large American cities generally with large Hispanic and African American populations: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Diego, San Francisco. The "more at risk for the more serious suicidal behaviors" often does not apply, also depending on the sexual minority group being described and the sex of individuals.
For more on this issue see related webpage.

Marshal MP, Dietz LJ, Friedman MS, Stall R, Smith HA, McGinley J, Thoma BC, Murray PJ, D'Augelli AR, Brent DA (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2): 115-123. Abstract. PDF Download. "SMY [Sexual Minority Youth] reported significantly higher rates of suicidality (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and depression symptoms (standardized mean difference, d = .33) as compared with the heterosexual youth. Disparities increased with the increase in the severity of suicidality (ideation [OR = 1.96], intent/plans [OR = 2.20], suicide attempts [OR = 3.18], suicide attempts requiring medical attention [OR = 4.17]). Effects did not vary across gender, recruitment source, and sexual orientation definition.'

Kann L, Olsen EO, McManus T, Kinchen S, Chyen D, Harris WA, Wechsler H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011). Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001- 2009. MMWR Early Release 2011; 60. June 6: 1-113. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss60e0606a1.htm?s_cid=ss60e0606a1_w.  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6007a1.htm. Results, problem and related issues are presented in another webpage. A major problem seems to exist when combining sexual minority Youth Risk Behavior Survey suicidality results from large cities and states.
Plöderl M, Kralovec K, Fartacek C, Fartacek R (2009). Homosexualität als Risikofaktor für Depression und Suizidalität bei Männern. Blickpunkt DER MANN: 7(4): 28-37. PDF Download. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.
Plöderl M, Sauer J,  Reinhold FR (2006). Suizidalität und psychische Gesundheit von homo- und bisexuellen Männern und Frauen – Eine Metaanalyse internationaler Zufallsstichproben. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(2): 283-302. Abstract. Related Conference Presentation PDF. Translation. Download Page for Paper PDF @ Dr. Martin Plöderl's Website.
Dennert G (2006). Die psychische Gesundheit von Lesben und Schwulen - eine Übersicht europäischer Studien. Verhaltenstherapie & psychosoziale Praxis, 38(3): 559-576.



Note 1

Study (France): Homosexual males are 13 times more likely to have attempted suicide, compared to heterosexual males. Result for the sample of 993 men - sampled in 3 locations - were generated by controlling for age, living area, education level, professional status, parental status, marital/partner status.

Homosexual/Heterosexual Male Study Results Reported by Chemin (2005) in Le Monde: "Les résultats préliminaires du travail de Marc Shelly, médecin de santé publique et responsable du centre de dépistage anonyme et gratuit de l'hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal, font apparaître que, "toutes choses égales par ailleurs" ­ - âge, lieu de résidence, niveau d'études, catégorie socioprofessionnelle, structure familiale parentale, modes de vie (couple ou célibat) ­-, les jeunes homosexuels ont treize fois plus de risque de faire une tentative de suicide que les jeunes hétérosexuels. Ces résultats confirment les chiffres issus des études américaines, canadiennes et australiennes : elles aboutissent, chez les homosexuels, à des chiffres de "sursuicidalité" variant de six à treize.

Les chiffres français ont été obtenus à partir d'un échantillon de 993 hommes âgés de 16 à 39 ans. Tous ont raconté leur trajectoire "socio-biographique" en remplissant un long questionnaire informatisé installé, de 2000 à 2004, sur trois sites : le festival de lutte contre le sida Solidays, qui a lieu tous les ans en région parisienne, le Centre d'information et de documentation pour la jeunesse (CIDJ), à Paris, et le centre de sélection des appelés du contingent de Blois, dans le Loir-et-Cher."

Preliminary Results for a subsample of the above study (Shelly et al. 2002): Homosexual males are 6 times more that risk for having attempted suicide than are heterosexual males. Suicide Attempt incidence for homosexual males: 30%.

The Same Study: Homosexual males more at risk for having been sexually abused as children. Internet Reference: http://www.thewarning.info/IMG/doc/aremedia_abus.pdf .

Summary of Study Status: "Menée entre 1998 et 2003 auprès de 933 hommes, âgés de 16 à 39 ans, l'étude réalisée par Marc Shelly (médecin en santé publique à l'hôpital parisien Fernand-Widal ) et David Moreau (ingénieur de recherche à l'association de prévention Aremedia) a été préparée et validée par Pascale Tubert-Bitter, directrice de recherche à l'Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) à l'unité biostatistique et épidémiologie. Les résultats de cette enquête menée en dehors des associations et chercheurs LGBT sont encore en cours d’étude, seuls les résultats sur les homos et les bisexuels masculins étant actuellement totalement traités. " Internet Reference:  http://v2.e-llico.com/article-retro.htm?articleID=4003&rubrique=actu&oldRubrique=actu .

Bibliography: European Studies


Adam P (2001). Depression, tentatives de suicide et prise de risque parmi les lecteurs de la presse gay française. Presented at “Vulnerabilite Des Jeunes Gays Et Lesbiennes Et Risque De Suicide: État de la question et pistes de prevention” - Synthèse de la journée d’étude organisée le 17 juillet 2001: http://centres.fusl.ac.be/OBSERVATOIRE/document/Nouveau_site/Publications/Suicide/suicide.pdf .

Asscheman H, Giltay EJ, Megens JA, de Ronde W, Van Trotsenburg M, Gooren LJ (2011). A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology,
164(4): 635-42.
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