MAJOR BLOOD VESSELS OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION OF THE HUMAN BODY

ARTERIAL SYSTEM

DIVISIONS AND BRANCHES OF THE AORTA (Fig. 14-12)

1. ascending aorta

    • right and left coronary arteries arise as the aorta leaves the heart and carry blood into the coronary circuit.

2. arch of the aorta

    • left and right common carotid arteries
    • subclavian arteries.

3. descending aorta

    1. thoracic aorta ® the wall and organs of the thorax, and the diaphragm
    2. abdominal aorta (See Major Branches of the Abdominal Aorta, below.)

 

 

ARTERIES OF THE SHOULDER AND UPPER LIMB (Fig. 14-13)

1. right or left subclavian artery (under clavicle)

2. axillary artery ® axilla, lateral chest, shoulder joint

3. brachial artery

a) radial artery

b) ulnar artery

 

ARTERIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK (Fig. 14-15)

NOTE: There are two routes that supply arterial blood to the head. Branches from both of these routes connect to the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis), a ring of blood vessels on the inferior surface of the brain.

1. right or left common carotid artery

Each of these arteries branches near the angle of mandible into:

a) external carotid artery ® scalp, face, throat, thyroid, tongue, ear]

b) internal carotid artery (Each of these joins the cerebral arterial circle.)

® brain, eyes, forehead, nose

2. right and left vertebral arteries

    • These arteries arise from the subclavian artery, ascend through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae, enter the skull through the foramen magnum, and then fuse together to form the basilar artery that joins the cerebral arterial circle.

MAJOR BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA (Fig. 14-16.)

1. celiac trunk ® liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, spleen

2. superior and inferior mesenteric arteries ® pancreas, small and large intestine

3. renal arteries ® kidneys

4. gonadal (ovarian or testicular) arteries

5. common iliac arteries (at L5 level)

 

ARTERIES OF THE PELVIS AND LOWER LIMB (Fig. 14-12)

1. r. or l. common iliac artery

2. femoral artery ® genitals, abdominal wall, thigh muscles

3. posterior tibial artery ® knee, leg

4. anterior tibial artery ® knee, leg

VENOUS SYSTEM

VEINS ENTERING THE RIGHT ATRIUM (Fig. 14-17)

1. coronary sinus ß walls of heart

2. superior vena cava ß head, neck, upper limbs, thorax

3. inferior vena cava ß thorax, abdomen, pelvis, lower limbs

 

VEINS OF THE HEAD AND NECK (Fig. 14-18)

1. external jugular vein ß parotid gland, facial muscles, scalp

2. internal jugular vein ß brain

3. vertebral vein ß skull, cervical spinal cord

 

VEINS OF SHOULDER AND UPPER LIMB (Fig. 14-19)

In the region of the axilla, the subclavian vein becomes known as axillary vein which receives blood from the several veins of the upper limb, including the following:

1. cephalic vein ß lateral arm and forearm

2. basilic vein ß medial arm and forearm

3. brachial vein (deep vein)

4. radial vein

5. ulnar vein

VEINS OF ABDOMEN AND PELVIS (Fig. 14-19)

The inferior vena cava receives veins from many organs and structures, including the following:

1. hepatic veins ß liver

    • Note: The liver also receives venous blood via the hepatic portal system. See section titled HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM.

2. renal veins ß kidneys

3. gonadal veins

4. right and left common iliac veins ß rectum, internal and external genitalia, gluteus muscles, urinary bladder, medial side of thigh

VEINS OF LOWER LIMB (Fig. 14-17)

The external iliac vein continues into the thigh as the femoral vein, which receives blood from the following veins:

1. great saphenous vein ß medial side of leg and thigh

    • longest blood vessel in the body

2. anterior tibial vein (deep vein)

3. posterior tibial vein (deep vein)

HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM (Fig. 14-21)

Definition: A portal system begins and ends in capillaries; in this case blood from capillaries in the digestive organs is carried to capillaries (sinusoids) in the liver.

The hepatic portal vein, which enters the liver, receives blood from the digestive organs through the following veins:

1. mesenteric veins ß small intestine, large intestine and stomach

2. gastric veins ß stomach

3. cystic vein ß gall bladder