The work of Roland Barthes (1915-80), the cultural theorist and analyst, embraces a wide range of cultural phenomena, including advertising, fashion, food, and wrestling. He focused on cultural phenomena as language systems, and for this reason we might think of him as a structuralist. In these notes, I provide a short profile of this influential figure, together with a synopsis of his seminal essay, "Rhetoric of the Image," a model for semiological analysis of all kinds. See also my notes on semiology.
This cultural theorist and analyst was born in Cherbourg, a port-city northwest of Paris. His parents were Louis Barthes, a naval officer, and Henriette Binger. His father died in 1916, during combat in the North Sea. In 1924, Barthes and his mother moved to Paris, where he attended (1924-30) the Lycee Montaigne. Unfortunately, he spent long periods of his youth in sanatoriums, undergoing treatment for TB. When he recovered, he studied (1935-39) French and the classics at the University of Paris. He was exempted from military service during WW II (he was ill with TB during the period 1941-47). Later, when he wasn't undergoing treatment for TB, he taught at a variety of schools, including the Lycees Voltaire and Carnot. He taught at universities in Rumania (1948-49) and Egypt (1949-50) before he joined (in 1952) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he devoted his time to sociology and lexicology.
Barthes' academic career fell into three phases. During the first phase, he concentrated on demystifying the stereotypes of bourgeois culture (as he put it). For example, in Writing degree Zero (1953), Barthes examined the link between writing and biography: he studied the historical conditions of literary language and the difficulty of a modern practice of writing. Committed to language, he argued, the writer is at once caught up in particular discursive orders, the socially instituted forms of writing, a set of signs (a myth) of literature--hence the search for an unmarked language, before the closure of myth, a writing degree zero.
During the years 1954-56, Barthes wrote a series of essays for the magazine called Les Lettres nouvelles, in which he exposed a "Mythology of the Month," i.e., he showed how the denotations in the signs of popular culture betray connotations which are themselves "myths" generated by the larger sign system that makes up society. The book which contains these studies of everyday signs--appropriately enough, it is entitled Mythologies (1957)--offers his meditations on many topics, such as striptease, the New Citroen, steak and chips, and so on. In each essay, he takes a seemingly unnoticed phenomenon from everyday life and deconstructs it, i.e., shows that the "obvious" connotations which it carries have been carefully constructed. This account of contemporary myth involved Barthes in the development of semiology.
During the second phase, the semiotics phase dating from 1956, he took over Saussure's concept of the sign, together with the concept of language as a sign system, producing work which can be regarded as an appendix to Mythologies. During this period, Barthes produced such works as Elements of Semiology (1964), and The Fashion System (1967), adapting Saussure's model to the study of cultural phenomena other than language. During this period, he became (in 1962) Directeur d'Etudes in the VIth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, where he devoted his time to the "sociology of signs, symbols, and representations."
The third phase began with the publication of S/Z (1970), marking a shift from Saussurean semiology to a theory of "the text," which he defined as a field of the signifier and of the symbolic. S/Z is a reading of Balzac's novel Sarrasine, plotting the migration of five "codes," understood as open groupings of signifieds and as points of crossing with other texts. The distinction between "the writable" and "the readable," between what can be written/rewritten today, i.e., actively produced by the reader, and what can no longer be written but only read, i.e., passively consumed, provides a new basis for evaluation. Barthes extends this idea in The Pleasure of the Text (1973) via the body as text and language as an object of desire. During this period, he wrote books as fragments, suggesting his retreat from what might be called the discourse of power, as caught in the subject/object relationship and the habits of rhetoric. He tried to distinguish "the ideological" from "the aesthetic," between the language of science, which deals with stable meanings and which is identified with the sign, and the language of writing, which aims as displacement, dispersion. He offers a "textual" reading of himself in Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes (1975). In 1976, he became professor of "literary semiology" at the College de France. In his last book, Camera Lucinda (1980), he reflects on the levels of meaning of the photograph.
Barthes died on 26 March 1980, having been knocked over by a laundry van (reports suggest that the driver was drunk).
As we have seen, Barthes' work ranged widely, but always it exerted an enormous impact on modern critical thought, on literary studies and semiotics especially. What follows is a synopsis of his essay, "The Rhetoric of the Image" (1964), which provides a conceptual framework for studying word-and-image relations in cultural artifacts.
To begin with (Barthes points out), the most important problem facing the semiology of images is: Can analogical representation (the "copy") produce true systems of signs? Can we think of an analogical "code" (as opposed to a digital one)? It must be remembered that any system constitutes a language only if it is doubly articulated (Barthes, 1977, p. 32). Let's start with an advertising image: the signification of the image is undoubtedly intentional. Doubtless, the signs are full, formed with a view to optimum reading.
Here we have an advertisement for Panzani pasta: some packets of pasta, a tin [of concentrate], a sachet, some tomatoes, and onions, peppers, and mushrooms, all emerging from a half-open string bag, in yellows and greens on a red background. We begin by skimming off the different messages it contains.
1. the linguistic message
This (first) message is made up of all the words in the advertisement, i.e., the caption and the labels, these being inserted into the scene (p.33):
The denotational message: The code from which this message has been taken is that of the French language.
The connotational message: The sign "Panzani" yields by its assonance another signified, i.e., "Italianicity."
2. The literal image
This message yields a series of discontinuous signs. It should be remembered that the order of these signs (outlined below) is not important; they are not linear.
The first sign: the scene represents the idea of a return from the market, a signified which implies two values: that of the freshness of the products and that of the domestic preparation for which they are destined. Its signifier is the half open bag, which lets the contents spill out over the table, "unpacked" as it were. To read this sign, we have to understand the widespread culture of "shopping for yourself," as opposed to the "stocking up" of a more technological civilization.
The second sign: its signifier is the bringing together of red (tomato), green (pepper), and yellow, the colors of the poster, i.e., the red, green, and yellow of Italy or rather "Italianicity." This sign stands in a relation of redundancy with the connoted sign of the linguistic message, i.e., the assonance of the name Panzani. The knowledge it draws on is specifically French. An Italian would barely notice the connotation of the name because it is based on a familiarity with certain tourist stereotypes (p. 34).
The third sign: the serried collection of objects which transmits the idea of a total culinary service, as though (i) Panzani furnishes everything that is needed for a balanced meal and (ii) the concentrate in the tin were equivalent to the natural produce surrounding it (pp. 34-35).
The fourth sign: the composition of the image conveys an aesthetic signified, namely, the still life. Note: some signs tell us that this is an advertisement, i.e., place of the image in the magazine and the emphasis of the labels, not to mention the caption (p. 35).
Thus, four signs comprise this image. We will assume that together they form a coherent whole. After the linguistic message, then, we see a second, iconic message.
3. The Symbolic Image
The symbolic message is in fact the second "iconic" message. The signifiers of this (the third) message are constituted by the real objects in the scene: the signifiers have been photographed. The sign of this message is not drawn from a institutional stock: it is not coded (p. 36). Here were we confront the paradox of a message without a code. All the knowledge we need to read this message is bound up with our perception: We need to know what an image is and what the objects are. The first message is literal; the second message is symbolic (p. 36).
If this reading is adequate, we can say (by way of summary) that the photograph yields three messages: (1) a linguistic message, all the words in the advertisement; (2) a coded-iconic message, the visual connotations derived from the arrangement of photographed elements; and (3) a non-coded iconic message, the "literal" denotation, the recognition of identifiable objects in the photograph, irrespective of the larger societal code. Notice that the linguistic message (1) can be detached from messages (2) and (3); that messages (2) and (3) share the same (iconic) substance.
However, it should be obvious that the distinction between (2) and (3) is not easily made. The viewer receives at one and the same time the perceptual message and the cultural message. This confusion in reading these iconic images corresponds to the function of the mass image (pp. 36-37).
This distinction has an operational validity, analogous to that which allows the distinction in the linguistic sign of a signifier and a signified.
What is at issue at this point is not a naive analysis but a structural description of the messages, one which grasps the principle tying the elements together: the linguistic, the literal (denoted), and the symbolic (connoted). We are thus interested in the inter-relationships of the three messages. The first (literal) iconic image is in some way imprinted on the second (iconic) image.
1. The linguistic message
Since the appearance of the book, text and image have been linked. Today, the linguistic message is present in every image, as title, caption, accompanying press article, film dialogue, comic strip balloon, and so on. It would seem that we are still a civilization of writing (p. 38). What are the functions of the linguistic message with regard to the (twofold) iconic message? We can identify two:
All images are polysemous: they imply a "floating chain" of signifieds. Every society develops techniques to fix the floating chain of signifieds in such a way as to counter the terror of uncertain signs. The linguistic message serves as one of these techniques (pp. 38-39).
At the level of the literal message, the text answers the question: What is it? This text thus helps us focus our attention, in terms of identification and interpretation. The text directs the reader through the signifieds of the image, causing him to avoid some and to receive others. Thus, the text directs the reader to a message (ideology) chosen in advance (p. 40).
In all these cases (of anchorage), language serves to elucidate (in a selective way). Language thus serves as a means of control. Note: Anchorage is the most frequent function of the linguistic message; it is commonly found in press photographs as well as advertisements (pp. 40-41).
Here (in cartoons and comic strips) text (a snatch of dialogue say) and image stand in a complementary relationship. The words, as well as the images, are fragments of a more general syntagm, and the unity of the message is realized at a higher level, namely, at the level of the story, the anecdote, the diegesis (p. 41).
This relay-text is very important in film, where dialogue serves not simply to elucidate but to advance the action by setting out (in the sequence of messages) meanings that are not to be found in the image itself. Obviously, the two functions of the linguistic message can co-exist in the iconic message, but the dominance of the one or the other is of consequence for the general economy of a work (p. 41).
2. The denoted image
We have seen that, in the image, the distinction between the literal message and the symbolic message is operational. We never encounter (at least in advertizing) a literal image in a pure state. This is "message by eviction," constituted by what is left in the image when the signs of connotation are mentally deleted. Only the photograph is able to transmit literal information without forming it by means of discontinuous signs and rules of transformation (pp. 42-43).
In its literal state, the photograph (a message without a code) must be opposed to the drawing (a message with a code). The coded nature of the drawing can be seen at three levels:
3. The Connoted image
Our interventions in the photograph (framing, distance, lighting, focus, speed) all effectively belong to the plane of connotation. The type of consciousness the photograph involves is unprecedented: having-been-there, as opposed to being-there, i.e., a new space-time category. At the level of denotation: the message without code, we can understand the real unreality of the photograph. This is the unreality of here-now.
Film should be distinguished from photograph vis-a-vis this opposition. Film can no longer be seen as animated photographs. The having-been-there gives way to being-there. This means that the denoted image naturalizes the symbolic message: it innocents the semantic artifice of connotation, which in advertizing is extremely dense. Although the Panzani poster is full of "symbols," a kind of natural being-there of objects remains (in the photograph). Nature seems spontaneously to produce the scene represented (p. 45).
The (historical) paradox is: The more technology promotes the diffusion of information (and notably of images), the more it provides the means of masking the constructed meaning under the appearance of the given meaning (p. 46).
We have seen that the signs of the third message (the symbolic or cultural message) are discontinuous. Even when the signifier seems to extend over the whole image, it is nonetheless a sign separated from the others. The composition carries an aesthetic signified, in much the same way as intonation is a separate signifier in language.
We are dealing with a normal system whose signs are drawn from a cultural code (even if the linking together of the elements of the sign appear to be analogical). What gives this system its originality is that the number of readings of the same lexical unit or lexia (of the same image) varies according to individuals.
The denoted message in the Panzani advertisement: the Mediterranean vegetables, the color, the composition, the very profusion, rise up as so many scattered blocks, at once isolated and mounted in a general scene which has its own space, its own meaning. They are "set" in a syntagm which is not theirs and which is that of the denotation (p. 51).
It is precisely the syntagm of the denoted message which naturalizes the system of the connoted message. Again: Connotation (only a system) can only be defined in paradigmatic terms: iconic denotation is only syntagmatic. The discontinuous connotators are connected, actualized, spoken through the syntagm of the denotation.
Barthes, R. 1964. "The Structuralist Activity." From Essais Critiques, trans. R. Howard. In Partisan Review 34 (Winter):82-88.
---. 1967. Writing Degree Zero, trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1953; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
---. 1967. Mytholgies, trans. A. Lavers. 1957; rptd. London: Hill and Wang.
---. 1967. Elements of Semiology, trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1964; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
---. 1974. S/Z, trans. R. Howard. 1970; rptd. Oxford: Blackwell.
---. 1975. The Pleasure of the Text, trans. R. Howard. 1973; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
---. 1977. Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes, trans. R. Howard. 1975; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
---. 1977. "The Rhetoric of the Image." In his book Image-Music-Text, trans. S. Heath. 1964; rpt. London: Wm. Collins Sons and Co., pp. 32-51.
---. 1981. Camera Lucinda, trans. R. Howard. 1980; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
---. 1983. The Fashion System, trans. M. Ward and R. Howard. 1967; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
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