MSS RealizationXML TranscriptionJunicode TranscriptionTransliteration
a

a

a

A double-compartment a, executed with two vertical strokes and a cross-stroke. The top is often open. The left vertical stroke is usually slightly shorter than the right stroke, and curves to the right near the baseline. The cross-stroke is usually executed at an angle upwards to the right.

&a;

a

a

A two-lobed letter a, whose compartments are often left open or slightly open. The first (left stroke) forms the angular shaped compartments, and then is joined to a right stroke that is more or less vertical.

b

b

b

The scribe's usual b, except when preceding a vowel with a curved left stroke (a, e, o). The ascender is upright or leans slightly to the left and often has a lozenge off the top of the stem. The compartment varies between fully open and mostly closed.

&b;

b

The scribe's usual b with an additional narrow stroke angling upwards from the ascender above the compartment.

c

c

c

The usual form of c, executed in two strokes. The horizontal headstroke begins at, or just below, the top of the curved left stroke.

d

d

d

The usual form of d; the compartment varies between fully open and mostly closed. The ascender has a pronounced negative incline.

e

e

e

The usual form of e; the compartment is closed with a cross-stroke that angles upward and frequently extends above the body of the letter to the right.

f

f

f

Minuscule f, executed in three strokes. The vertical stroke appears much like the scribe's 'long s'. The horizontal stroke begins within the vertical stroke, only rarely extending beyond it leftward, and frequently extends past the headstroke to the right.

g

g

g

Minuscule g, in 'arabic-8' form leaning leftwards. The bottom compartment is frequently open. A serif extends off the right curve of the top compartment.

&yogh; or z

ȝ

3 or z

This glyph signifies more than one vocal sound. When the form represents post-vocalic velar or alveolar spirants or initial semivowel /j/, we transcribe as yogh. When the form represents the voiced sibilant, we transcribe z. When in final position, or occurring after t (perhaps representative of unvoiced -s) the onset of the form is often very angular.

h

h

h

The scribe's usual form of h, executed in two separate strokes that are not always joined. The ascender has a serif at its base, and the right shouldered stroke extends below the baseline.

&h;

h

A variant of h with a narrow additional stroke angling upwards from the ascender above the shoulder of the descender.

&h2;

ħ̀

h

A variant of h with an additional comma- shaped stroke touching the top of the ascender and usually extending above the ascender.

i

i

i

The usual form of i, a regular undotted minim stroke, often with a slight foot.

&i;

í

i

The dotted variant of i, composed of a regular minim stroke with an additional slanted stroke above and slightly right of the minim.

j

j

j

The scribe's long-i, composed of a stroke that begins slightly above regular minim height, is seriffed, and descends below the baseline. This graph is similar to the graph we transliterate as I, but is usually smaller.

k

k

k

Minuscule k, composed with an ascender similar to that of l, often with a serif off the top. The second stroke (shaped like the scribe's 'Arabic-2' r) closes the compartment and continues back out from the stem, above the baseline.

&k;

k

The usual minuscule k, but ornamented with a thin stroke that begins below the serif of the shaft and extends up and right at about a 45 degree angle to the horizontal.

l

l

l

The scribe's usual l; the vertical often has a serif off the top and a slight foot on the bottom.

&l;

ĺ

l

A variant of l with an additional narrow stroke angling upwards from (or near to) the top of the vertical stroke.

m

m

m

Minuscule m, comprised of three separate minims. The minims are often not completely joined, and the first minim is often slightly taller than the others, and may be distinguished by a more pronounced serif at the top of the minim.

&m;

ɱ

m

A variant of minuscule m, executed in three strokes. The first originates at minim height and curves in a c shaped curve as it approaches the baseline. The second is a regular minim stroke that is usually seriffed. The third stroke (usually) touches the second, curves inward, and trails well past the baseline.

n

n

n

Minuscule n, comprised of two separate minims. The minims are not always completely joined. Occasionally the first minim shows a serif at the top. This letter is usually indistinguishable from u.

o

o

o

Minuscule o, executed by two curved strokes that close the bowl.

&o;

ɵ

o

A variant of o, executed in one cursive stroke. The bowl of the letter is crossed.

p

p

p

The scribe's usual p when not junctured to another letter, executed in three strokes. The stem of the descender is serifed. The compartment is open, and the cross-stroke crosses the descender at the baseline.

q

q

q

Minuscule q, written in two strokes. The first curves left and usually ends at the baseline. The descender extends slightly below the baseline and is often serifed.

r

r

r

Minuscule r, comprised of a minim stroke that stands on the baseline and a short stroke that is usually joined to the stem.

&r;

r

'Arabic 2'-shaped r, most often used after o and slightly leaning.

s

s

'Long'-s, the usual form of the letter except at final position. A straight ascender with a curve at the top of the ascender.

&s;

s

s

'Short'-s, used only in final position. It stands on the baseline.

t

t

t

Minuscule t. The stem is only minim height, while the headstroke crosses the stem at the top, or just below the top, of the vertical stroke. The crossing stroke may originate within the vertical stroke rather than to its left, allowing confusion with minuscule c.

þ

þ

þ

Minuscule thorn, executed in two strokes. The stem is usually seriffed off the top and extends only slightly past the minim baseline. The second stroke often leaves a slightly open compartment, but meets the stem at, or near, the baseline.

u

u

u

Minuscule u, comprised of two minims. This letter is usually indistinguishable from n.

v

v

v

The scribe's minuscule v, executed in two strokes. The first stroke is hooked or seriffed, leans to the left and is taller than the second. The second stroke curves to meet the first at the baseline.

w

w

w

The scribe's usual minuscule w, executed in three strokes and similar to anglicana formata w. The first two strokes have a negative incline and are seriffed to the right at the top. The first two strokes often join at the baseline. The third stroke resembles a small yogh.

x

x

x

Minuscule x. The body of the letter often resembles minuscule 'standing' r, with a seriffed vertical stroke originating at minim height. A crossing stroke is executed to the right of the vertical stroke. Another flourish-like narrow stroke hooks to the left,off the bottom of the vertical stroke.

y

y

y

Minuscule y, made with two strokes, leaving an open compartment. The first stroke is a minim-like stroke, seriffed at the top, and leaning leftwards. The descender is usually longer than that of thorn, trailing well below the baseline, and meets the base of the first stroke at the baseline.

&y;

y

A variant of minuscule y, made with two strokes, leaving an open compartment. The first stroke is a minim-like stroke, seriffed at the top, and leaning leftwards. The descender trails below the baseline and has a pronounced c-shaped hook at its bottom.