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Research Procrastination Publications

A lot has been written on procrastination from a wide variety of perspectives. Economics studies it as a form of temporal discounting, examining its effects on behaviors such as retirement savings. Decision theorists have investigated its effects, trying to determine why we put put off some decisions and not others. Motivational psychologists have looked at why we pursue some courses of action later instead of now. In total, over 500 publications including over 100 academic theses have been written on the topic.

To see what has been written, click on any letter below to jump to the appropriate section. To return to the top, click on the bolded letter heading each section.

There are a few articles bolded in red. These are the ones that I have not been able to track down. If you have access to them or know of another reference missing here, please contact Dr. Piers Steel as your help acquiring them would be greatly appreciated.

This list was last updated August 1st, 2005.

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A

Abry, D. (1998). The relationships among procrastination, perceived course demands, and course satisfaction. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.

Abry, D. A. (1999). A structural model of self-regulatory behavior and college student achievement. Unpublished PHD, Florida State University.

Aguilar, J. V., & Valencia, A. C. (1995). Development of a structural model of procrastination. Revista Mexicana de Psicologia, 12(1), 15-21.

Aguilar, V., Javier, & Valencia, C., Alejandra. (1994). Measurement of the interrelationships between fear of failure and procrastination. Revista de Psicologia Social y Personalidad, 10(2), 145-155.

Ainslie, G. (1975). Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 463-496.

Aitken, M. E. (1982). A personality profile of the college student procrastinator. Unpublished PHD, University of Pittsburgh.

Akerlof, G. A. (1991). Procrastination and obedience. American Economic Review, 81(2), 1-19.

Aldarondo, F. (1993). A preliminary investigation of a two-motive theory of procrastination. Unpublished MS, Mississippi State University.

Amyx, D., & Mowen, J. C. (1995). Advancing Versus Delaying Payments and Consumer Time Orientation - a Personal Selling Experiment. Psychology & Marketing, 12(4), 243-264.

Anderson, E. M. (2001). The relationships among task characteristics, self-regulation and procrastination. Unpublished PhD, Loyola University of Chicago.

Anderson, R. (1987). Envy and jealousy. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 1, 49-81.

Anderson, G. M., & Block, W. (1995). Procrastination, obedience, and public policy: The irrelevance of salience. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 54(2), 201-215.

Ariely, D., & Wertenbroch, K. (2002). Procrastination, deadlines, and performance: Self-control by precommitment. Psychological Science, 13(3), 219-224.

Arthur, N., & Hayward, L. (1997). The relationships between perfectionism, standards for academic achievement, and emotional distress in postsecondary students. Journal of College Student Development, 38(6), 622-632.

Arthur, N. M. (2003). When perfectionism gets in the way of performance. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55, 163-164.

Arvey, R. D., Rotundo, M., Johnson, W., & McGue, M. (draft copy). The determinants of leadership: The role of genetics and personality. Unpublished manuscript, Minneapolis.

Assur, A. M. (2003). The relationship of academic procrastination to affective and cognitive components of subjective well-being. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering, 63(8-B), 3968, US Univ Microfilms International.

B

Beall,B. I. (1998). 'Are other teachers doing this?': Profiling student resistance to the implementation of ethnography in the first year composition research class. A case study. Unpublished PHD, Indiana University.

Beck, B. L., Koons, S. R., & Milgrim, D. L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 3-13.

Bernstein, P. (1994). Procrastination - a value or a cost. Journal of Portfolio Management, 20(2), 1.

Berzonsky, M. D., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Identity orientation and decisional strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(5), 597-606.

Beswick, G., & Mann, L. (1994). State orientation and procrastination. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation (pp. 391-396). Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23(2), 207-217.

Bijou, S. W., Morris, E. K., & Parsons, J. A. (1976). A PSI course in child development with a procedure for reducing student procrastination. Journal of Personalized Instruction, 1, 36-40.

Binder, K. (2000). The effects of an academic procrastination treatment on student procrastination and subjective well-being. Unpublished MA, Carleton University, Canada.

Birner, L. (1993). Procrastination: Its role in transference and countertransference. Psychoanalytic Review, 80(4), 541-558.

Blatt, S. J., & Quinn, P. (1967). Punctual and procrastinating students: A study of temporal parameters. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 169-174.

Blunt, A., & Pychyl, T. A. (1998). Volitional action and inaction in the lives of undergraduate students: State orientation, procrastination and proneness to boredom. Personality & Individual Differences, 24(6), 837-846.

Blunt, A. K. (1998). Task aversiveness and procrastination: A multi- dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. Unpublished MA, Carleton University, Canada.

Blunt, A. K., & Pychyl, T. A. (2000). Task aversiveness and procrastination: A multi-dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. Personality & Individual Differences, 28(1), 153-167.

Boice, R. (1989). Procrastination, busyness and bingeing. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 27(6), 605-611.

Boice, R. (1996). Procrastination and blocking: A novel, practical approach. Westport, CT, USA: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group Inc.

Born, D. G., & Moore, M. C. (1978). Some belated thoughts on pacing. Journal of Personalized Instruction, 3, 33-36.

Borsato, G. N. (2001). Time perspective, academic motivation, and procrastination. Unpublished MA, San Jose State University.

Braam, C. A. (1994). 'I'll do it tomorrow'. a radical behavioral analysis of procrastination. Unpublished PHD, Western Michigan University.

Brackin, T., Ferguson, E., Skelly, B., & Chambliss, C. (2000). College students' use of electronic communication technology: Introverts versus extraverts: Ursinus College.

Bradford, C. E. (1982). The impact of continuing contact. Unpublished Masters, Virgina Commonwealth University.

Brannon, L. A., Hershberger, P. J., & Brock, T. C. (1999). Timeless demonstrations of Parkinson's first law. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(1), 148-156.

Bridges, K. R., & Roig, M. (1997). Academic procrastination and irrational thinking: A re-examination with context controlled. Personality & Individual Differences, 22(6), 941-944.

Briody, R. (1980). An exploratory study of procrastination. Unpublished PHD, Southern Illinois University.

Brocas, I., & Carrillo, J. D. (2000). The value of information when preferences are dynamically inconsistent. European Economic Review, 44(4-6), 1104-1115.

Brocas, I., & Carrillo, J. D. (2001). Rush and procrastination under hyperbolic discounting and interdependent activities. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 22(2), 141-164.

Brooke, R. R., & Ruthven, A. J. (1984). The effects of contingency contracting on student performance in a PSI class. Teaching of Psychology, 11, 87-89.

Brown, J. E., & Mann, L. (1990). The relationship between family-structure and process variables and adolescent decision-making. Journal of Adolescence, 13(1), 25-37.

Brown, J. E., & Mann, L. (1991). Decision-making competence and self-esteem - a comparison of parents and adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 14(4), 363-371.

Brown, R. T. (1991). Helping students confront and deal with stress and procrastination. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 6(2), 87-102.

Brownlow, S., & Reasinger, R. D. (2000). Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 15-34.

Buffone, G. (2003). The myth of tomorrow: Seven essential keys for living the life you want today. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill.

Buehler, R., & Griffin, D. (2003). Planning, personality, and prediction: The role of future focus in optimistic time predictions. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 92(1-2), 80-90.

Burges, J. B. (1824). An enquiry into the cause of the procrastination & delay attributed to the judicial proceedings of the House of Lords and the Court of Chancery. London: W. Reynolds.

Burka, J. B., & Yuen, L. M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Burnett, P. C. (1991). Decision-making style and self-concept. Australian Psychologist, 26(1), 55-58.

Burns, L. R., Dittmann, K., Nguyen, N.-L., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2000). Academic procrastination, perfectionism, and control: Associations with vigilant and avoidant coping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 35-46.

Busko, D. A. (1998). Causes and consequences of perfectionism and procrastination: A structural equation model. Unpublished MA, University of Guelph, Canada.

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Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Feinstein, J. A., Blair, W., & Jarvis, G. (1996). Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 197-253.

Campbell, J. P. (1999). The definition and measurement of performance in the new age. In D. R. Ilgen & E. D. Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development (pp. 399-429). San Francisco: Josey-Bass Publishers.

Carr, N. G. (2001). Curbing the procrastination instinct. Harvard Business Review, 79(9), 26.

Carrillo, J. D., & Brocas, I. (1999). On Rush and Procrastination: Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper: 2237.

Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 270-295.

Cheek, C. J. R. M. (2001). Identity style and employment histories among women receiving public assistance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(1), 76-88.

Chissom, B., & Iran-Nejad, A. (1992). Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies. Psychological Reports, 71(3), 1001-1002.

Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 43-54.

Clark, J. L., & Hill, O. W. (1994). Academic procrastination among African-American college students. Psychological Reports, 75(2), 931-936.

Clehouse, R. E. (2000). Determining persistence indicators of students enrolled in for-profit postsecondary institutions. Unpublished EdD, Northern Illinois University.

Coglizer, A. L. (1988). Profiles of procrastination and self-concept in college students and implications for counseling practice. Unpublished PHD, Seattle University.

Conti, R. (1996). Procrastination: a social psychological perspective. Unpublished PHD, Brandeis University.

Conti, R. (2000). Competing demands and complimentary motives: Procrastination on intrinsically and extrinsically motivated summer projects. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 47-60.

Cook, P. F. (2000). Effects of counselors' etiology attributions on college students' procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 352-361.

Cook, J. L., & Jones, R. M. (2002). Congruency of identity style in married couples. Journal of Family Issues, 23(8), 912-926.

Coote, E. A. (1987). Procrastination in the workplace: a study of the dispositional and situational determinants of delay behavior at work. Unpublished PHD, Tulane University.

Coote-Weymann, E. (1988). Procrastination in the workplace: Dispositional and situational determinants of delay behavior at work. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.

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Dalton, M., Rothblum, E. D., & Solomon, L. J. (1984). Fear of failure, test anxiety and task performance as predictors of academic procrastination. Unpublished manuscript, University of Vermont.

Davis, J. K. (1999). The effects of culture on high school academic procrastination. Unpublished PHD, University of Southern California.

Davis, R. A. (2003). Problematic Internet use: Structure of the construct and association with personality, stress, and coping. Unpublished PhD, York University, Canada.

Davis, R. A., Flett, G. L., & Besser, A. (2002). Validation of a new scale for measuring problematic Internet use: Implications for pre-employment screening. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5(4), 331-345.

Davis, S. L. (1985). Predicting outcome of paradoxical and self-control interventions from resistance and freedom of the target behavior among procrastinators. Unpublished PHD, Iowa State University.

Day, V., Mensink, D., & O'Sullivan, M. (2000). Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30(2), 120-134.

Depreeuw, E. (1992). On the fear of failure construct: Active and passive test anxious students behave differently. In K. A. Hagtvet & T. B. Johnsen (Eds.), Advances in test anxiety research (Vol. 7, pp. 32-46). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

DeSimone, P. (1993). Linguistic assumptions in scientific language. Contemporary Psychodynamics: Theory, Research & Application, 1, 8-17.

DeRoma, V. M., Young, A., Mabrouk, S. T., Brannan, K. P., Hilleke, R. O., & Johnson, K. Y. (2003). Procrastination and student performance on immediate and delayed quizzes. Education, 124(1), 40-48.

DeVore, W. A. (1986). Paradoxical intervention: Effects in a short-term counseling situation.. Unpublished PHD, University of Northern Colorado.

Dewitte, S. (2000). Action identification as codeterminant of self-control. Know what you do so you can do what you want. Unpublished PHD, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

Dewitte, S., & Lens, W. (2000). Exploring volitional problems in academic procrastinators. International Journal of Educational Research, 33(7), 733-750.

Dewitte, S., & Lens, W. (2000). Procrastinators lack a broad action perspective. European Journal of Personality, 14(2), 121-140.

Dewitte, S., & Schouwenburg, H. (2002). Procrastination, temptations, and incentives: The struggle between the present and the future in procrastinators and the punctual. European Journal of Personality,, 16(6), 469-489.

Diamond, P. (1999). Procrastination in Preparing for Retirement: Comment. In Behavioral dimensions of retirement economics (pp. 157-160). Washington, D.C.

Disch, W. B., Harlow, L. L., Campbell, J. F., & Dougan, T. R. (2000). Student functioning, concerns, and socio-personal well-being. Social Indicators Research, 51(1), 41-74.

Donovan, J. M. (1995). Relating psychological measures to anthropological observations: Procrastination as a field proxy for death anxiety? Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 10(2), 465-472.

Dowd, E. T., Hughs, S. L., Brockbank, L., Halpain, D., & et al. (1988). Compliance-based and defiance-based intervention strategies and psychological reactance in the treatment of free and unfree behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35(4), 370-376.

Duniz, P. R. (1999). The little things in life: Project nesting and procrastination. Unpublished Honours Bachelor of Arts, Carleton University, Ottawa.

Dunn, G. (2000). Procrastination, stress, and coping: An investigation of the relationship between procrastination and hardiness. Unpublished Honours Bachelor of Arts, Carleton University, Ottawa.

Durden, C. A. (1997). Life satisfaction as related to procrastination and delay of gratification. Unpublished MS, Angelo State University.

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Effert, B. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Decisional procrastination: Examining personality correlates. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 4(1), 151-161.

Elvers, G. C., Polzella, D. J., & Graetz, K. (2003). Procrastination in online courses: Performance and attitudinal differences. Teaching of Psychology, 30(2), 159-162.

Eiser, J. R., Hannover, B., Mann, L., Morin, M., Vanderpligt, J., & Webley, P. (1990). Nuclear Attitudes after Chernobyl - a Cross-National-Study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10(2), 101-110.

Elliot, R. (2002). A ten-year study of procrastination stability. Unpublished Masters, University of Louisana, Monroe.

Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Signet Books.

Essen, T. v., Heuvel, S. v. d., & Ossebaard, M. (2004). A Student Course on Self-Management for Procrastinators. In Schouwenburg, Henri C (Ed); Lay, Clarry H (Ed); et al Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 59-73). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Farran, B. (2004). Predictors of academic procrastination in college students. Unpublished PhD, Fordham University.

Fee, R. L., & Tangney, J. P. (2000). Procrastination: A means of avoiding shame or guilt? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 167-184.

Feldman, D. C. (2003). The antecedents and consequences of early career indecision among young adults., Human Resource Management Review (Vol. 13, pp. 499): Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc.

Ferrari, J., & Beck, B. (1998). Affective responses before and after fraudulent excuses by academic procrastinators. Education, 118(4), 529-537.

Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Reliability of academic and dispositional measures of procrastination. Psychological Reports, 64, 1057-1058.

Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Self-handicapping by procrastinators: Effects of performance privacy and task importance. Unpublished PHD, Adelphi University.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). A 2nd Look at Behavioral Self-Handicapping among Women. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6(2), 195-206.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). A preference for a favorable public impression by procrastinators: Selecting among cognitive and social tasks. Personality & Individual Differences, 12(11), 1233-1237.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Procrastination and project creation: Choosing easy, nondiagnostic items to avoid self-relevant information. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6(3), 619-628.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455-458.

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Self-handicapping by procrastinators: Protecting self-esteem, social-esteem, or both? Journal of Research in Personality, 25(3), 245-261.

Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Procrastination in the workplace: Attributions for failure among individuals with similar behavioral tendencies. Personality & Individual Differences, 13(3), 315-319.

Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Psychometric validation of two procrastination inventories for adults: Arousal and avoidance measures. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 14(2), 97-110.

Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Procrastinators and perfect behavior: An exploratory factor analysis of self-presentation, self-awareness, and self-handicapping components. Journal of Research in Personality, 26(1), 75-84.

Ferrari, J. R. (1993). Christmas and procrastination: Explaining lack of diligence at a "real-world" task deadline. Personality & Individual Differences, 14(1), 25-33.

Ferrari, J. R. (1993). Procrastination and impulsiveness: Two sides of a coin? In W. G. McCown, J. L. Johnson & M. B. Shure (Eds.), The impulsive client: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 265-276). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Ferrari, J. R. (1994). Dysfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behaviors. Personality & Individual Differences, 17(5), 673-679.

Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Perfectionism cognitions with nonclinical and clinical samples. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(1), 143-156.

Ferrari, J. R. (2000). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 185-196.

Ferrari, J. R. (2001). Getting things done on time: Conquering procrastination. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping with stress: Effective people and processes (pp. 30-46). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Ferrari, J. R. (2001). Procrastination as self-regulation failure of performance: Effects of cognitive load, self-awareness, and time limits on 'Working Best Under Pressure'. European Journal of Personality, 15, 391-406.

Ferrari, J. R. (2002). Academic Procrastinators: Who Are They? Where Do They Come From? Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Chicago.

Ferrari, J. R. (2004). Trait Procrastination in Academic Settings: An Overview of Students Who Engage in Task Delays. In Schouwenburg, Henri C (Ed); Lay, Clarry H (Ed); et al (2004) Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 19-27). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (1997). Some Experimental Assessments of Indecisives-Support for a Non-Cognitive Failures Hypothesis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(2), 527-538.

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Examining behavioral processes in indecision: Decisional procrastination and decision-making style. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(1), 127-137.

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2001). Behavioral information search by indecisives. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(7), 1113-1123.

Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1994). Procrastination as revenge: Do people report using delays as a strategy for vengeance? Personality & Individual Differences, 17(4), 539-544.

Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1995). Methods of procrastination and their relation to self-control and self-reinforcement: An exploratory study. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 10(1), 135-142.

Ferrari, J. R., Harriott, J. S., Evans, L., Lecik-Michna, D. M., & Wenger, J. M. (1997). Exploring the time preferences of procrastinators: Night or day, which is the one? European Journal of Personality, 11(3), 187-196.

Ferrari, J. R., Harriott, J. S., & Zimmerman, M. (1999). The social support networks of procrastinators: Friends or family in times of trouble? Personality & Individual Differences, 26(2), 321-331.

Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J. L., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. New York, NY, USA: Plenum Press.

Ferrari, J. R., Keane, S. M., Wolfe, R. N., & Beck, B. L. (1998). The antecedents and consequences of academic excuse-making: Examining individual differences in procrastination. Research in Higher Education, 39(2), 199-215.

Ferrari, J. R., & McCown, W. (1994). Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(2), 162-167.

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1993). Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females. Adolescence, 28(112), 963-970.

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1994). Parental authority and the development of female dysfunctional procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 28(1), 87-100.

Ferrari, J. R., & Patel, T. (2004). Social comparisons by procrastinators: Rating peers with similar or dissimilar delay tendencies. Personality & Individual Differences, 37(7), 1493-1501.

Ferrari, J. R., Parker, J. T., & Ware, C. B. (1992). Academic procrastination: Personality correlates with Myers-Briggs types, self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 7(3), 495-502.

Ferrari, J. R., & Scher, S. J. (2000). Toward an understanding of academic and nonacademic tasks procrastinated by students: The use of daily logs. Psychology in the Schools, 37(4), 359-366.

Ferrari, J. R., & Specter, M. (1999). Speed-accuracy tradeoffs by procrastinators: Effects of cognitive load and self-awareness. Unpublished manuscript, Chicago, DePaul University.

Ferrari, J. R., & Tice, D. M. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(1), 73-83.

Ferrari, J. R., Wesley, J. C., Wolfe, R. N., Erwin, C. N., Bamonto, S. M., & Beck, B. L. (1996). Psychometric properties of the revised Grasha-Riechmann student learning style scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(1), 166-172.

Ferrari, J. R., Wolfe, R. N., Wesley, J. C., Schoff, L. A., & Beck, B., L. (1995). Ego-identity and academic procrastination among university students. Journal of College Student Development, 36(4), 361-367.

Fischer, C. (1997). Deadlines and dead mines: Essays on time and other exhaustible resources. Unpublished PHD, University of Michigan.

Fischer, C. (1999). Read This Paper Even Later: Procrastination with Time- Inconsistent Preferences: Resources for the Future Discussion Paper: 99/20.

Fischer, C. (2001). Read this paper later: Procrastination with time-consistent preferences. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 46(3), 249-269.

Fisher, J. (1994). Procrastination Assesment Scale - Student. In Measures for clinical practice (2 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 446-452). New York: Free Press.

Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., Hewitt, P. L., & Koledin, S. (1992). Components of perfectionism and procrastination in college students. Social Behavior & Personality, 20(2), 85-94.

Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Procrastination, negative self-evaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review and preliminary model. In J. R. Ferrari & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology (pp. 137-167). New York, NY, USA: Plenum Press.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Davis, R. A., & Sherry, S. B. (2004). Description and Counseling of the Perfectionistic Procrastinator. In Schouwenburg, Henri C (Ed); Lay, Clarry H (Ed); et al. Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 181-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Dimensions of perfectionism and procrastination. In J. R. Ferrari & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology (pp. 113-136). New York, NY, USA: Plenum Press.

Forsyth, N. L. (1983). An investigation of theoretical accounts for effectiveness of paradoxical directives. Unpublished Masters, Virgina Commonwealth University.

Francis-Smythe, J., & Robertson, I. (1999). Time-related individual differences. Time & Society, 8(2), 273-292.

Friedman, I. A. (1996). Deliberation and resolution in decision-making processes: A self-report scale for adolescents. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(5), 881-890.

Friedman, I. A., & Mann, L. (1993). Coping Patterns in Adolescent Decision-Making - an Israeli- Australian Comparison. Journal of Adolescence, 16(2), 187-199.

Fritzsche, B. A., Young, B. R., & Hickson, K. C. (2003). Individual differences in academic procrastination tendency and writing success. Personality & Individual Differences, 35(7), 1549-1557.

Froehlich, R. A. (1987). A descriptive study of general procrastination in a group-oriented treatment setting. Unpublished PHD, United States International University.

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The Dimensions of Perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449-468.

Frost, R. O., & Shows, D. L. (1993). The Nature and Measurement of Compulsive Indecisiveness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(7), 683-692.

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