Until then the groups were united in their support of the traditional religion against the reforms of the radical Hellenists.
After the revolt, disagreements became more pronounced. All the groups upheld the Torah, but they disagreed about its correct interpretation, and about who was authorized to interpret it.
The previous leadership--the priests descended from Zadok"--were now replaced by the Hasmonean priestly family.
The Sadducees were the supporters of the former leadership.
The Pharisees may have opposed any expansion of priestly authority, especially the usurpation of kingship, which belonged to the House of David.
The political stakes were now much higher than before. For the first time in centuries, Judea was a fully independent state with control over army, taxes, foreign policy, etc.
Josephus does not mention the parties before this time.
Ezra had been both a Zadokite priest and a "scribe," a teacher of the Torah.
Two models of religious authority appear to have coexisted throughout the Persian period:
Scant documentation about this period.
Apparently it was a peaceful, uneventful time.
Centrality of the Temple and priesthood.
Probable influence of Persian religious ideas and institutions:
The nature and historical origins of "Hellenism."
Ptolemies and Seleucids
Material, cultural and religious manifestations.
|Social Class:||Priests, aristocrats||Common people||?|
|Figures of Authority:||Priests||"Disciples of the Wise"||"Teacher of Righteousness"|
|Attitude to Hellenism:||For||Selective||Against|
|Attitide to Hasmoneans:||Opposed usurpation of priesthood by non-Zadokites||Varied?
Opposed usurpation of monarchy?
Personally opposed to Jonathan ("Wicked Priest")?
|Attitude to Bible:||Literalist||Sophisticated scholarly interpretations||"Inspired Exegesis"|
|Attitude to Oral Torah:||No such thing||Equal to Written Torah||"Inspired Exegesis"|
|Practices:||Emphasis on priestly obligations (for priests)||Application of priestly laws to non-priests (tithes and purity rules)||"Inspired Exegesis"|
Luni-solar (perhaps only under popular pressure?)
|Luni-solar||Solar: 364-day year|