From what time can the Shema' (Deuteronomy 6:4-9) be read in the evening?
From the time when the priests enter to eat their heave-offering, until the end of the first watch. These are the words of Rabbi Eliezer.
And the Sages say: Until midnight.
Rabban Gamaliel says: Until dawn [literally: until the pillar of dawn rises].
It once happened that his children returned from a feast. They said to him: We have not recited the Shema'.
He said to them: If it is not yet dawn, you are obligated to recite it.
And not only this, but in all places where the Sages have said"until midnight," the commandment applies until dawn.
The burning of fats and limbs-- the commandment applies until dawn.
Anything that must be eaten within one day-- the commandment applies until dawn.
If that is so, then why did the Sages say:"Until midnight?"
In order to keep a person farther from transgression.
Said Rabbi Joshua ben Qorhah:
Why does the Shema' come before the "And it shall come to pass" (Deuteronomy 11:13-21).
Rather, so that one should first accept upon oneself the yoke of the sovereignty of Heaven, and afterwards one should accept upon oneself the yoke of commandments.
And [why does] "And it shall come to pass"come before "And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying" (Deuteronomy 37:41)?
Because"And it shall come to pass," applies by day and by night; while"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying" applies only in the day.
10. Shema'yah and Avtalyon received from them.
Shema'yah says: Love labour, hate power, and do not make yourself known to the authorities.
11. Avtalyon says: Sages, be cautious of what you say. Lest you incur upon yourself a penalty of exile and you are exiled to a place of bad waters, and the students who come after you will drink and die, and the name of Heaven will come to be profaned.
12. Hillel and Shammai received from them.
Hillel says: Be one of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving the creatures and bringing them close to the Torah.
13. He used to say: He who increases his name [=reputation], loses his name
And one who does not add, will perish.
And one who does not learn deserves death.
And one who makes use of the crown will perish.
14. He used to say: If I an not for myself, who will be for me?
And when I am for myself, what am I?
And if not now, when?
15. Shammai says: Make your Torah fixed.
Say little and do much.
And receive every person with a pleasant countenance.
8. A permanent threshing-floor must be distanced from the town fifty cubits.
A person should not make a fixed threshing-floor within his own property unless there are fifty cubits in each direction.
And he must maintain a distance from his neighbour's plantings and his fallow field, in order to prevent damage.
9. Carcasses and graves and tanneries must be kept fifty cubits away from the town.
A tannery may only be set up to the east of the town.
Rabbi Akiva says: One may set it up in any direction, except for the west.
And it must be kept at a distance of fifty cubits.