Dynamic Visuals and Learning

The annotated bibliography provides details of research in visuals with a focus on more recent work by CLT researchers interested in dynamic visuals. Some key points are included in the table.


Instructional Notes


When a concept includes an element of change over time (i.e., temporal factor) and/or a visio-spatial component (e.g., objects in three dimensions) use a dynamic visual (e.g., video)

Arguel & Jamet, 2009

When teaching a procedure, use video with still images from the video of key steps as they appear and leave them in view for the duration of the video.

Arguel & Jamet, 2009

When teaching procedures that involves hand manipulations, use video of the hands performing the procedure.

Ayres, Marcus, Chan & Qian, 2009;
Wong et al., 2009.

Experienced learners should imagine the procedures and concepts they are learning. Less experienced learners should study them.

Cooper, Tindall-Ford, Chandler & Sweller, 2001

Have learners describe their solutions (self-explanation) to problems and tasks.

Kalyuga, 2009

As expertise increases, learner control should increase to improve learning and transfer. Provide choice and direction, not poorly specified goals. (Too many choices can cause cognitive overload.)

Kalyuga, 2009

Show text or play audio with the appropriate visual-separating them causes the split attention effect.

If the text or audio is redundant, then do not include it unless it is a label. Redundancy depends on background knowledge. Audio is superior to text.

Kalyuga, Ayres , Chandler. & Sweller, 2003


Mayer & Johnson, 2008, provides the support for adding labels.

Show novices worked examples, but give experts problems to solve.

Kalyuga, Ayres , Chandler. & Sweller, 2003

Break down presentations into learner controlled chunks to improve transfer (but not recall) by reducing cognitive load.

Mayer & Chandler, 2001