INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1700-1789


GREAT NORTHERN WAR, 1700-1721

Swedish control of the Baltic leads to coalition of Russia (Peter the 
Great), Denmark, Poland vs. Sweden (Charles XII) 1700

Sweden defeats Danes 1700, Russians in Estonia at Narva
Sweden defeats Poles, Stanislas Leszczynski displaces Augustus II 
(Saxony) until 1709 when Russians restore Augustus

1704-1706 Poles vs. Russians now, Peter of Russia takes over 
Estonia, Livonia by 1710

1708 Swedes invade Ukraine -catastrophic loss at Poltava, 1709, 
capture of Charles XII

1710-Turks, with Swedish pressure, declare war against Russia

1711-Peter defeated by Turks at Prut River on Moldavian front-
Russians give up Charles XII, Azov on Black Sea

1714 - Turks attack Venice, take Morea in Greece, Aus. attacks Turks 
1716-Aus. conquers Belgrade 1717 at Passarowitz Treaty 1718-gets 
rest of Hungary, N. Serbia, sections of Wallachia and Bosnia all lost 
in war vs. Turks in 1736-39

1716-Prussia, Electorate of Hanover(British King) join against 
Swedes -Danes and British attacking Sweden-
Russia occupies Mecklenburg to 1717, when British and Danish 
hostility force withdrawal - British now against Russia
1718-Charles XII dies in battle in Norway (fighting Danish forces)
1719-Prussia gets w. Pomerania from Sweden

1721-Treaty of Nystad - Russia paid sum for Estonia and Livonia, 
got part of Carelia in Finland, restored rest of Finland to Sweden

1721-Treaty of Stockholm- Prussia took Stettin from Sweden and 
Pomeranian territory - Denmark restored some territory, took 
Schleswig from Holstein - Hanover took Swedish Bremen (Danes 
had conquered


INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1715-1740

Ambitions of Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain for her sons (Carlos 
and Philip) in her native northern Italy - Parma, Piacenza, Tuscany

1717-Britain, France, Holland ally vs. Spanish ambitions, Aus. joins

Spain vs. Austria  - overrun Aus. garrison in Sardinia
1718-Spain conquers Sicily  - Br. fleet cuts off Sp., transports Aus. 
there to help Savoy-Piedmont forces

1719-France joins war against Spain

1720-Peace of the Hague - Aus. exchanges Sardinia for Sicily with 
Piedmont-Savoy - Spain evacuates Sicily, Sardinia -  Philip V of 
Spain renounces French throne, recognized by Aus.-Don Carlos one 
day will get as Imperial fiefs Parma, Piacenza, Tuscany

1724-French break off marriage negotiations with Spain
1724-Congress of Cambrai-no Spanish troops yet in Tuscany and 
Parma
1724-Little Diplomatic Revolution - Spain allies with Aus. to 1729
	Britain, France, Holland counter-alliance League of Hanover
1727-England vs. Spain over Gibraltar to 1729 Seville Treaty-
asiento to Britain, no Aus. Ostend Co. - Sp. troops in Tuscany and 
Parma - but 1730-Aus. in Parma-evacuated for Sp. recognition of 
unity of Habsburg domains (Pragmatic Sanction)

WAR OF POLISH SUCCESSION 1733-1738

Augustus II dies-France wants Stanislas in Poland and Habsburgs 
out of Lorraine-
Russia, Aus., Prussia, Saxony, Hanover back Augustus III of Saxony 
(Wettin)
1733-Spain joins France for northern Italy ambitions

Savoy and Sweden help capture Lorraine for France
Russian corps joins Austrians

1734-Aus. losses in Italy - Lombardy -Spanish army and fleet conquer 
Naples and Sicily - Francis of Lorraine gets Tuscany

New eastern war also - Russians in Poland upset Turks, Aus. and 
Russia vs. Turkey--Russians take Azov - Turks roll back Aus. and 
Russians - 
1739 Peace of Belgrade-Aus. loses Belgrade, n. Serbia- Russians keep 
Azov unfortified, Russians advance to Jassy River-

1738-Treaty of Vienna for War of Polish Succession - Aus. gets Parma 
and Piacenza to 1748, Francis of Lorraine(Habsburg) gets Tuscany , 
Habsburgs get Milan, Stanislas (pretender in Poland) gets Lorraine
Don Carlos gets Naples and Sicily - Bourbons in southern Italy, 
Savoy gets towns in n. Italy from Aus.

WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 1740-1748

Britain, Aus., Savoy, Sweden, United Provinces (Dutch) vs. Prussia, 
France, Spain

Preliminary War of Jenkins's Ear - Britain against Spain on colonial 
issues-Central and South American trading rights for Britain - 
Florida - France to help Spain?

1740-Death of Charles VI (HRE) - Maria Theresa cannot succeed-
and death in Russia of Anna - Intrigue for Charles Albert of Bavaria 
(Wittelsbach) to succeed as HRE by France, Spain, Saxony

Frederick II of Prussia claims Silesia for Hohenzollerns-weakens 
Saxony - defeats Aus. 1741
France sends two armies allying with Frederick
1741-Spain joins vs. Aus. for duchies of north, Sardinia wants Milan 
- British threaten Sp. to stop attacking Aus. - Sp. invade Savoy 
which is now helping Aus. for part of Milanese (Piacenza and Milan 
west of Ticino River) - Savoy signs Worms Treaty 1743 with Aus.
Neutrality of Hanover
French and Prussians into Bohemia but 1742-Frederick makes peace-
French and Bavarians driven out of Bohemia, Aus. captures Munich
1742-Charles Albert HRE
Aus. Neth. campaign of Br., Dutch, Aus. vs. France

Prussia re-starts war in wake of Aus. offensive, 1744, again makes 
separate peace 1745 when deserted by French
1745-Francis of Lorraine elected HRE after death of Charles Albert 
of Bavaria - Bavaria out of war

1745-Jacobite uprising in Scotland to 1746-French transport

1745-8 fighting in Italy, Aus. Neth. (Fontenoy French - de Saxe- 
defeat Br.-Aus.-Dutch forces)- Dutch Orangist revolution in 1747 
against possible French invasion

1746-Br. lost Madras, French traded it for Louisbourg - Britain to build Halifax
1748-Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle - Prussia keeps Silesia, Aus. 
unhappy, Don Philip gets Parma, Aus. keeps Tuscany - Pragmatic 
Sanction assured for Maria Theresa of Habsburgs



DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION 1756

Wenzel von Kaunitz-Rietzberg backs French designs on Poland, 
promises governorship of Aus. Neth. to Don Philip of Spain (son-in-
law of Louis XV), bases for France in Ostend, Nieuport

Aus. will not defend Hanover by Aus. Neth.-
Sept. 1755-Anglo-Russian Convention - for subsidy, Russia will 
attack "common enemy" if assault on Hanover - Russia to keep 
55,000 in Baltic provinces - English colonial goods to Russia for naval 
stores to England

Jan. 1756-Convention of Westminster-Frederick of Prussia and 
Britain - Prussia guarantees neutrality in future Anglo-French war-
no foreign troops in Hanover or Holland, excludes Aus. Neth.

France driven into Aus. arms
1 May 1756-1st Treaty of Versailles -France and Aus. to supply other 
if attacked with 24,000 troops or cash equivalent-mutual assistance if 
attacked by power other than Britain - neutralized Aus. Neth., Dutch 
proclaimed neutrality

Aug. 1756-Prussian invasion of Saxony

1 May 1757 -2nd Treaty of Versailles-France to field 105,000 in 
German states +10,000 Ger. mercenaries-annual subsidy to Aus. of 
12 mil, florins - to receive four cities of Aus. Neth., governorship for 
Don Philip conditional on reconquest of Silesia

SEVEN YEARS' WAR 1756-1763

Britain, Prussia against France, Austria and HRE, Russia

Colonial war began in America, 1755 - British subsidize Prussia 
+Anglo-Hanoverian army
French capture Minorca in Med.-Adm. Byng late
1757-Convention of Closter-Zeven- surrender of Anglo-
Hanoverians to French-promise not to fight again, repudiated by 
Pitt 1758

Prussia defeated Saxons, invaded Bohemia with Saxon help - siege 
of Prague failed - loss at Kolin, temporary loss of Berlin
1757 -Rossbach - Prussian defeat of French and Imperial army, 
defeated Austrians at Leuthen

1758-Anglo-Germans in Westphalia tie down French

1759-naval defeats for French at Lagos and Quiberon Bay
	Frederick desperate after Dresden defeat by Aus.-Russians
3rd Treaty of Versailles-French cut subsidies by half, only 100,000 
soldiers-no provisions on Silesia or Don Philip - separate peace 
allowed

1761-Spain joins France - Br. capture of Havana and Manila, 
repulse Sp. attack on Portugal

1762-Miracle of House of Hohenzollern- death of Elizabeth and 
accession of Peter III - recall of Russian army

British end subsidies to Prussia, vs. Russian designs on Denmark

1763-Peace of Hubertusburg - Saxony restored, Silesia kept by 
Frederick - Frederick in 1764 allied with Russia

1763-Peace of Paris - French loss of Canada and all territory east of 
Mississippi - cede Grenada, Saint Vincent, Tobago in West Indies-
lose some India stations except Pondicherry, lose GorŽe and Saint-
Louis in Senegal
Spain cedes Florida to recover Havana and Manila-takes Louisiana 
west of Mississippi from France
Britain gets Bay of Honduras logging

France keeps Newfoundland fishery, keeps Martinique and 
Guadeloupe, restores Minorca to Britain

1770-Franco-Aus. alliance sealed by marriage of Louis(XVI) and 
Marie-Antoinette
 
COLONIAL WAR OF 1756-1763

1754-already Actions of British vs. French in Ohio valley

1755-Br. deportations of Acadians after seizure of Fort BeausŽjour

1756-French capture Oswego, New York, then Fort William Henry 
north of Albany, New York

1758-French lose Forts Duquesne (Pittsburgh) and Frontenac 
(Kingston), and Louisbourg (to Amherst, Boscawen)

1759-1st Battle of Quebec-Wolfe and Montcalm
	British capture Guadeloupe, Goree and Fort Saint-Louis in 
	Senegal, then Martinique 1762

INDIA -Calcutta captured by Bengal ruler, retaken by Robert Clive-
Bengal ruler French ally defeated at Plassey, 1757-French fail to take 
Madras, 1759, lose Pondicherry 1761-British de facto take over 
Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa

1770-France plans to challenge Britain, defend Spain  over 
Falklands-Choiseul falls, though



WAR OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE 1775-1783

1778 -French alliance with U.S. after victories of U.S.
1779-Spain joins against Britain for Gibraltar, Minorca, Florida, 
abandonment of British Honduras, wants Newfoundland fishing 
rights
1780-League of Armed Neutrality against British search -Dutch and 
Russians join-France-Denmark and Norway, Aus., Prussia, Portugal 
eventually

1780-Rochambeau expeditionary force and French fleet help turn 
tide at Yorktown, Virginia 1781 surrender of British under 
Cornwallis

1779-82-Gibraltar survives Spanish siege
1782-Adm. Rodney victory near Guadeloupe saves Jamaica
Br. East India Co. consolidates in Deccan
1783-Treaty of Versailles - British lose 13 colonies, Tobago and 
Minorca to Spain, cede east Florida to Spain, Senegal back to 
France, French guaranteed Newfoundland fishing, retention of 
Saint-Pierre, Miquelon

POLAND AND EASTERN QUESTION

1764-Catherine's ex-lover Stanislas Poniatowski succeeds Augustus 
III of Saxony-Poles resented Russian domination, Russians wanted 
guarantees for Orthodox, Prussians for Protestants

1768-Confederation of Bar of Polish nobles vs. Russia, civil war

1768-Turkish discontent with Russian incursion into territory, 
Crimea, Caucasus-declare war on Russia - Prussia subsidizes 
Russians, France sides with Turks without war

1769-71- Russia takes Moldavia, Wallachia in Balkans, Crimea-
foments revolt of Greeks in Morea
	Turkish fleet defeated at Chesme off  Turkish coast
	Aus. moves into Polish county of Zips formerly in Hungary, 
annexes it 1771
1771-Russia and Prussia plot first partition of Poland-Aus. agrees, 
gets largest share 1772

Aus., Prussia worried on Russian defenses

1774-Peace of Kutschuk Kainardzhi -(village on Danube near 
Silistria, Bulgaria) - Turks restored in Moldavia and Wallachia on 
condition of Russian influence in choice of governor
Turks lose n. Black Sea coast-Azov, Kerch, etc.-free navigation on 
Black Sea-protection of Christians in Constantinople
Crimea ind. state under Turkish Sultan - in 1783 annexed by Russia

RUSSO-TURKISH WAR 1787-1791
Russia invaded Georgia and Armenia (ruled by 
 and Persians in part)-Russians captured Turkish fort in Dnieper 
Ochakov
1788-Aus. joined against Turks--Sweden attacked Russia 1788, 
Finnish officers' mutiny halted invasion-then Denmark declared war 
against Sweden

Turks devastated Banat-captured towns in Croatia and Slavonia-
1789-Prussia planning to ally with Turkey and Poland, invade Aus.

Aus.-Russians defeated Turks in Moldavia-
1789-Turks lost Belgrade and Bucharest-

1790-Russo-Swedish Treat at Verela-no change in situation
1790-Aus. returned Belgrade for strip of N. Bosnia at Reichenbach 
Treaty

1791-Russia left on own made treaty of Jassy extending frontier to 
Dniester, guaranteeing Crimean annex.-returned Moldavia and 
Bessarabia, abandoned Greek revolt or designs on Constantinople

Polish constitution led to Russian-inspired Confederation of nobles
Aus. excluded from 1793 partition of Poland by Prussia and Russia

1794-Kosciuszko revolt in Poland led to Russian and Prussian 
invasion-slaughter or civilians by Russians in Praga suburb of 
Warsaw-20,000 deaths in autumn

1795-3rd Partition of Poland by Russia, Austria, Prussia 

WAR OF BAVARIAN SUCCESSION 1778-1779

Bavarian Elector to get Aus. support would surrender one-third 
Bavaria for Aus. Neth.-
Aus. marched into Bavaria after agreement made, then Heir to 
Electorate protested-Prussia and Saxony opposed Aus. designs-
Frederick II invaded Bohemia-plundered potatoes
Aus. got no help from France
1779 Peace of Teschen-Aus. got small strip of Bavaria along Inn 
River(Innviertel)
Karl Theodor of Wittelsbach Palatines-took Bavaria-Prussia did not 
get part of Saxony in trade for Ansbach-Bayreuth succession 
guarantee to Aus. candidate-Russia and France guarantors of peace

1780-Prussian-Russian alliance scrapped for 1781 Aus.-Russian 
alliance-Aus. helped Turks accept ind. of Crimea

1784-5 Failure of Joseph II of Aus. to trade Aus. Neth. for Bavaria-
Prussia and HRE opposed

M. S. Staum - History 329 - University of Calgary