The following text is from Irving Hexham's Concise Dictionary of Religion, first published by InterVarsity Press, Carol Stream, USA, 1994, second edition, Regent College Press, Vancouver, 1999.
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Copyright © Irving Hexham 1994, 1998.
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For further information about the book and the sources used to compile this text see the PREFACE.
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Cross-references are indicated by the use of CAPITAL LETTERS.
HACHIMAN: SHINT war GOD who is also a protector of human life and a God of agriculture who gives peace and happiness to Japan.
HADES: the name of the LORD of the underworld, or the House of Hades: in Greek mythology it means "To where the dead descend."
ADTH: a TRADITION, communication, narrative, which in ISLAM has the particular meaning of a record of actions or sayings of the PROPHET and his Companions. The whole body of the SACRED Tradition of the MUHAMMADANS is called "the ADTH.
HAGGADAH: a HEBREW term meaning "Narrative" which is used in RABBINIC studies to describe the exposition or interpretation of SCRIPTURE and reflection on its ETHICAL and THEOLOGICAL import.
HAGIN, Kenneth (1934-). PENTECOSTAL religious leader who developed "WORD OF FAITH" DOCTRINES.
AJJ: PILGRIMAGE to MECCA and its environs in the month of RAMADAN. This is the Fifth PILLAR OF ISLAM.
HAKUIN (1685-1768): the greatest Japanese ZEN master after DOGEN. He led a major religious REVIVAL and laid the foundations for modern Zen. His doctrine can be summed up in terms of a progression through MEDITATION from the Great DOUBT, to the Great ENLIGHTENMENT to the Great JOY.
HALDANE, Robert (1764-1842): Scottish writer and philanthropist whose CONVERSION led him to give away his fortune to become an EVANGELIST. During a stay in Geneva (1816) his private BIBLE studies for theological students led to a religious REVIVAL which greatly influenced the European revival movement known as The Reveil. His works include Evidences and Authority of Divine Revelation (1816) and A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1818).
HALAKHAH: JEWISH law which forms part of the MIDRASH.
HALAL: the ISLAMIC equivalent of Kosher which involves strict dietary laws and regulations for the slaughter of animals.
HALEVY, Elie (1870-1937): French historian and social philosopher whose work on English history led him to argue that METHODISM saved England from a REVOLUTION in 1815. His thesis, known as "the Halevy thesis" is similar to that of WEBER in emphasizing the role of ideas and religious convictions in shaping SOCIAL REALITY.
HALO: a circle of light surrounding the head or even the entire body. The use of halos in art is found in Greek RELIGION and was taken over by the Romans. In the third century it was adopted by CHRISTIANS in representations of CHRIST and the SAINTS.
HAMANN, Johann George (1730-1788): contemporary of KANT who rejected the RATIONALISM of his age and, following a religious CONVERSION, became a leader of the "Storm and Stress" movement which stressed the immediacy of religious experience. In many ways he is a forerunner of SCHLEIERMACHER and RITSCHL.
HAMMURABI, CODE OF: one of the most ancient legal codes composed by the Babylonian King Hammurabi around 2,000 B.C. consisting of 282 laws.
HANDEL, George Frederick (1685-1759): German musician who became a British citizen in 1726. He is the author of "The Messiah" and many other religious and SECULAR works.
ANF: in ISLAM a seeker after TRUTH such as ABRAHAM who was opposed to IDOLATRY before the coming of the PROPHET MUHAMMAD.
HARDY, Thomas (1840-1928): English novelist and poet whose works contain biting attacks on CHRISTIAN ORTHODOXY.
HARE KRISHNA MOVEMENT: the INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS (ISKCON), founded on his arrival in America in 1965 by His Divine Grace SWAMI A. C. Bhaktivedanta PRABHUPADA, and one of the most visible of the NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS. Devotees sing, dance, sell records, books, or the magazine Back to Godhead, and wear saffron colored robes. The young men have their heads shaved, apart from a topknot with which they believe KRISHNA will pluck them up by when he rescues them at the time of the deliverance of the world. It is through the frequent chanting of their MANTRA--Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna--that the devotees have become popularly known as Hare Krishnas. The theological basis of the movement is the BHAGAVAD-GTA as translated by their Master.
HARMONIC CONVERGENCE: an idea said to have originated with Jose Arguelles in his book The Transformative Vision (1975) based on "prophecies" from ancient Mayan writings which predicted the release of COSMIC ENERGIES due to a cyclic alignment of various stars and planets. He argued that this would occur on August 16 and 17th, 1987. Many people in the NEW AGE MOVEMENT latched onto this idea which since then has been closely linked with the GAIA HYPOTHESIS and an expectation of imminent SPIRITUAL and SOCIAL change.
HARNACK, Adolph von (1851-1930): one of the greatest German LIBERAL theologians and CHURCH historians. He saw RELIGION reconciling CULTURE and CHRISTIANITY for the proper ordering of daily life. To him DOGMA in the EARLY CHURCH obscured the practical thrust of JESUS' teachings. He argued that we must separate the permanently valid kernel of the Gospel from the culturally conditioned husk. In What is Christianity? (1901) he argues Jesus' message was his ethical preaching about "the KINGDOM OF GOD." His other works include: The History of Dogma (1894-1899 7 Vols.), The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries (1904-1905, 2 Vols.), and The Constitution and Law of the Church in the First Two Centuries (1910).
HARRINGTON, Michael (1928-1989): leading American SOCIALIST economist and political commentator whose The Other America (1963) was a stunning indictment of poverty in America. One of his last books, Politics at the Funeral of God: The Spiritual Crisis of Western Civilization (1983) is a remarkable cultural critique of Western society and a lament for the loss of SPIRITUAL values.
HASAN, Ali (died 669): grandson of MUHAMMAD who succeeded as CALIPH after the assassination of his Father but abdicated in favor of Mu'wiyah ibn Ab Sufyn.
HASAN al-BASR (died 728): influential ISLAMIC religious scholar whose name became associated with many later religious movements due to his great reputation for PIETY and learning.
HASIDIC JEWS: followers of HASIDISM or Hasidic practices.
HASIDISM: Hebrew term for "PIETY" or "the pious." In the eighteenth century it became associated with an Eastern European JEWISH sect founded by RABBI ISRAEL ben Eliezer. It reacted against what it saw as the arid interpretation of the TALMUD by RABBIS and drew upon the CABBALA to develop a rich MYSTICAL TRADITION. Union with GOD was sought through ECSTATIC PRAYER and the coming of the MESSIAH was earnestly desired. Today Martin BUBER is the best known interpreter of Hasidism even though many scholars question his understanding of the tradition.
HATHA YOGA: that branch of YOGA which seeks to establish conscious control over the automatic processes of the body. This is the most POPULAR FORM of Yoga in the West where it is taught in terms of physical health and exercise. It is often mistakenly thought, by Westerners, to be the only form of Yoga.
HEART: in many CULTURES the heart is regarded as the center of emotional life. In the philosophy of DOOYEWEERD it is the concentration point of the human existence or self-hood.
HEAVEN: many religions separate the heavens and the earth making the heavens the realm of the GODS. In HINDU MYTHOLOGY there are many heavens in a multi-layered UNIVERSE. Similarly in JAINISM and BUDDHISM many heavens exist although the aim of SALVATION is to avoid REBIRTH even in heaven. JUDAISM, ISLAM and CHRISTIANITY share a common conception of heaven as the REALM of GOD and destiny of believers after the LAST JUDGMENT.
HEBREW: the ancient language of the JEWISH people in which almost all of the HEBREW BIBLE (OLD TESTAMENT) is written.
HEBREW BIBLE: the ancient SCRIPTURES of the JEWISH people known as the OLD TESTAMENT by CHRISTIANS.
HEBREWS: members of the JEWISH people who called themselves ISRAELITES.
HEDONISM: a word derived from the Greek meaning pleasure or enjoyment. Ethically the term is used to refer to ETHICAL systems which understand pleasure to be the ultimate GOOD.
HEGEL, George Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831): German philosopher whose system is commonly known as "HEGELIANISM." His complex idealist philosophy contains many elements the most influential of which are: (1) the DIALECTIC which is generally interpreted to mean that all reasoning is dialectical proceeding from a CONCEPT to a new and contradictory concept which gives way to a third concept that transcends and synthesizes both earlier concepts. This is usually stated as thesis-antithesis and synthesis; (2) the theory of self-realization by which the dialectical process in the individual leads to a determinate "SELF" which is "for itself;" (3) the theory of history which is a dialectical process leading to the manifestation of the ABSOLUTE SPIRIT and arguing that in every specific age the spirit manifests itself in the Zeitgeist or the "spirit-of-the-age" which determines social and political life, knowledge, religion and art. Hegel's work strongly influenced such people as FEUERBACH and MARX. Critics contend that it leads to TOTALITARIANISM and is so obscure as to bewitch the intellect.
HEIDEGGER, Martin (1884-1976): a central figure in contemporary continental PHILOSOPHY, the development of EXISTENTIALISM and new directions in HERMENEUTICS. In Being and Time (1927) he characterized everyday existence as unauthentic because we are "thrown" into our world, or mental UNIVERSE, which makes our SELF inseparable from our world and as a result genuine being remains undiscovered. Although his philosophy was deeply spiritual, he attacked CHRISTIANITY for contribution to our self-betrayal and contributing to the destruction of genuine CULTURE. As early as 1946 Karl Lowith pointed out Heidegger's enthusiasm for the Nazis: this was vigorously denied by his followers but now seems established beyond all doubt.
HEIDELBERG CATECHISM: a CALVINIST confession of FAITH written in 1562 in Heidelberg.
HEILSGESCHICHTE: a German term meaning "SALVATION HISTORY." It is used to express the idea that GOD declares His purposes through His actions in HISTORY.
HEISENBERG, Werner (1901-1976): German physicist who developed the principle of indeterminacy and worked on the QUANTUM THEORY. His principle, known as the "Heisenberg" or Uncertainty Principle, says that at the sub-atomic level one cannot know both the speed and position of a particle.
HELL: an old English term used to translate the HEBREW terms SHE'OL and GEHENNA. In most religions Hell--or the Hells--is the place of the dammed. In the YOGIC religions, however, escape from Hell is ultimately possible through eventual REBIRTH. In traditional ABRAMIC religions Hell appears to be the permanent state of the wicked and implies eternal separation from GOD.
HENOTHEISM: from the Greek words henos meaning "one" and theos or "God" this term was coined by Max MULLER for a FORM of RELIGION which accepts the WORSHIP of one GOD by a particular individual or GROUP but does not deny the existence of different GODS worshiped by other people. It is sometimes described as "one-God-at-a-timeism." Müller suggested that originally the ancient HEBREWS and many other peoples were henotheists.
HENRY VIII (1491-1547): English King who was declared "Defender of the Faith" by the POPE for his critique of LUTHER in 1521. He was excommunicated in 1533 as a result of his divorce--an act which led to the English REFORMATION.
HERACLITUS, of Ephesus (540-475 B.C.): Greek philosopher who withdrew from SOCIETY and in obscure terms attacked the Ephesians and men in general for their stupidity. He argued that the unity of the world rested in its structure not its material and that fire was the primary element. FLUX characterizes existence and strife is necessary for the continued unification of opposites.
HERBERT, Edward, Lord of Cherbury (1583-1648): one of the intellectual sources of DEISM he rejected REVELATION and taught that RELIGION is based on a BELIEF in GOD who should be WORSHIPED through virtuous action. Humans are responsible to REPENT for SIN and should BELIEVE in life after death.
HERBERT, George (1593-1633): English ANGLICAN Clergyman, poet and HYMN writer. He is the author of such popular hymns as "The King of Love my Shepherd is."
HERDER, Johann Gottfried von (1744-1803): German LUTHERAN scholar and leader of the ROMANTIC movement who was influenced by the philosophy of KANT. His studies of the Synoptic Gospels (1796) and the Gospel of John (1797) led him to conclude that they could not be harmonized and helped launch German BIBLICAL CRITICISM. His philosophy of language argued that the language of a people encapsulates its HISTORICAL identity and underlying unity. This view greatly influenced German NATIONALISM and although Herder was essentially LIBERAL, this led to REACTIONARY politics and RACISM. His most influential works were his Outlines of a Philosophy of History of Man (1800) and Treatise upon the Origin of Language (1827).
HERESY: in its loose sense it refers to the conscious, willful, rejection of any doctrine held to be normative by a GROUP or institution. ROMAN CATHOLICISM defines a heretic as any BAPTIZED person who, wishing to call himself a CHRISTIAN, denies the TRUTH REVEALED to the CHURCH. Until the nineteenth century, PROTESTANTS generally regarded heresy as the willful rejection of any truth taught in the BIBLE. With the rise of BIBLICAL CRITICISM, defining heresy became a problem because the notion of a CANON and ORTHODOXY itself came under increasing criticism. Although originally a religious term, it is common today to talk about political, scientific and other forms of heresy to mean deviation from the status quo or accepted ORTHODOXY.
HERMAS (2nd century): unknown CHRISTIAN author who wrote the influential Shepherd which recorded VISIONS about the CHURCH.
HERMENEUTICS: an inquiry concerning the PRESUPPOSITIONS and rules of interpretation of a text which is usually a written document although it could be some FORM of artistic or social expression.
HERMETIC LITERATURE (Hermes Trismegistus): a series of GNOSTIC type writings probably dating from the second century which claimed an ancient Egyptian origin. Today they are appealed to by many NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS seeking to LEGITIMIZE themselves historically.
HERMIT: a word ultimately derived from the Greek word for "desert" which was used to describe people who, for religious reasons, went into the desert to dwell alone. It was later applied to anyone who lived a solitary life.
HEROD ANTIPAS (died 39): ruler, or Tetrach, of Galilee and Peraea who ordered the execution of JOHN THE BAPTIST.
HESIOD (8th century): Greek poet whose Works and Days gives vivid insights into traditional Greek RELIGION. He ascribes the wretchedness of life to the enmity of ZEUS and offers an interpretation of HISTORY as a process of decline in five stages or ages.
HESSE, Herman (1877-1962): German poet and novelist born of a MISSIONARY family in India. Deeply influenced by KIERKEGAARD, NIETZCHE and BUDDHISM he rejected CHRISTIANITY. His works became CULT readings among the West Coast HIPPIES in America during the 1960s. The hallmark of his work is a desire for experience untrammeled by the inhibitions of institutionalized society to elicit a LIBERATION of thought and behavior. His most famous works are: Siddhartha (1922 translated 1951), Steppenwolf (1927 translated 1929) and The Glass Bead Game (1943 translated 1970).
HIERARCHY: an organized body of PRIESTS or CLERGY with specialized offices and a recognized AUTHORITY structure.
HIFZ AL-QUR'N: the reciting of the QUR'N and memorizing its text on the part of the believer as a way of participating in the God-given words.
HIGH CHURCH: a term used to identify PROTESTANTS--usually ANGLICANS--with leanings towards ROMAN CATHOLICISM.
HIGH GODS: many scholars argue that a PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM lies behind most religious movements even though the people concerned appear, at first sight, to WORSHIP many GODS. The idea is that behind the lesser Gods of everyday life lies a more remote High God who is the true God and source of their religious ideas. This CONCEPT originated as a FORM of CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS and is particularly associated with the work of Father Wilhelm SCHMIDT whose ideas are generally rejected by modern scholars.
HIGHER CRITICISM: that part of BIBLICAL CRITICISM which seeks to discover the "sources" used by Biblical authors and in doing so trace the ideas involved to non-scriptural roots. In general it is a highly RATIONALISTIC practice which removes all SUPERNATURAL events from the BIBLE.
HIJRAH: the emigration of MUHAMMAD and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622. This marked a turning point in his career and marks the date from which the ISLAMIC calendar begins.
HILLEL (1st century): JEWISH Rabbi whose disciples taught a LIBERAL and less austere interpretation of the TORAH in opposition to the school of Shammai.
HNYNA: literally the "lesser vehicle." One of the major schools of BUDDHISM which stresses intellectual understanding. It thrives in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia where it places its emphasis upon the role of the priesthood and attainment of ENLIGHTENMENT through strenuous spiritual exercises within the MONASTIC community. It first became known in the West during the late nineteenth century giving the false impression that Buddhism is simply a FORM of HUMANISM devoid of SUPERNATURAL BELIEFS and other religious overtones.
HINDRANCES: those mental stages in BUDDHISM which prevent TRANCE.
HINDUISM: the religion which has come to be called Hinduism by Westerners is an amalgamation of various CULTS and BELIEFS within the common social framework of India's CASTE system. It acquired its characteristic form in the period after the UPANISHADS with increasing importance of popular GODS like VSUDEVA, VISHNU, iva, as objects of devotion. This represented an amalgamation of VEDIC and BRAHMNICAL religion, mediated by a priestly class, the BRAHMINS. One can distinguish the following periods: (1) the VEDIC, during which Vedic HYMNS were composed and collected, lasting from the latter part of 2nd millennium B.C. to about 800 B.C; (2) the UPANISADIC in which a MONISTIC and MONOTHEISTIC RELIGION developed;( 3) the classical period, during which Hinduism acquired its typical form. This period lasted from 500 B.C.to 500 A.D; (4) the MEDIEVAL period which was important for the evolution of BHAKTI cults; (5) finally, the modern period during which Hinduism came to terms with the impact of the West as mediated by the British. Typically this last period is identified with VEDNTA although other movements flourished in India and elsewhere. Hinduism is not usually thought of as a MISSIONARY religion though organizations like the RAMAKRISHNA and HARE KRISHNA increasingly make UNIVERSAL claims and seek non-Indian CONVERTS.
HIPPOCRATES (460?-370? B.C.): Greek physician and "Father" of medicine.
HIPPOLYTUS (165-236): Roman theologian who was an exponent of the LOGOS doctrine in the EARLY CHURCH.
HISTORY: the study of the past. As an academic discipline, history emerged in the late nineteenth century although great historians have reoccurred in Western civilization since the early Greeks. The ABRAMIC RELIGIONS are essentially historical and encourage the study of history which is disregarded by YOGIC RELIGIONS. Fundamentally history involves a process of interpreting the past based on evidence available in the present and accounts inherited from earlier times. Although each generation re-interprets history in light of contemporary questions, history claims a scientific status through its careful use of sources and weighing of evidence.
HITTITES: an ancient Indo-European people who settled in Asia Minor prior to 2000 B.C. and came to play an important role in the HEBREW BIBLE.
HO YEN (3rd century): Chinese TAOIST philosopher, CONFUCIAN scholar and author of Treaties on the Tao.
HOBBES, Thomas (1588-1679): English philosopher and author of the Leviathan (1651), a work dedicated to both political theory and the interpretation of SCRIPTURE. For practical purposes he developed a doctrine of mechanistic MATERIALISM and defended the theory of social contract as a basis for political obligation. Although a monarchist, he rejected DIVINE RIGHT doctrines of the State. Often described as a DEIST, he considered himself a CHRISTIAN and wrote at length about GOD'S PROVIDENTIAL care for humans.
HODGE, Charles (1797-1878): PRESBYTERIAN theologian who taught at Princeton University. As editor of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (founded 1825), he expounded his own version of CALVINISM which exercised a great influence over American PROTESTANTISM. His Systematic Theology (1972-1873, 3 Vols.) is still a standard work in many conservative theological schools and his small but influential text Counterfeit Miracles (1918), is by far the best LOGICAL and Biblical ARGUMENT against the CHARISMATIC MOVEMENT and PENTECOSTALISM.
HOLBACH, Paul Henri Thirty, baron d' (1723-1789): French RATIONALIST philosopher and Encyclopaedist.
HOLINESS: the essential character of GOD. In humans and human institutions holiness is a quality conveyed by God upon His creatures and creation.
HOLINESS MOVEMENT: any religious movement within CHRISTIANITY which seeks to promote personal HOLINESS. Such movements became particularly important in the late nineteenth century and contributed to the growth of both EVANGELICAL and FUNDAMENTALIST CHRISTIANITY.
HOLISM: a term used by General Jan SMUTS in his book Holism and Evolution (1926) to express his BELIEF in emergent EVOLUTION. The idea comes from IDEALIST PHILOSOPHY and expresses the notion of wholeness. In recent years it has become a buzz word in various "alternate health" movements and the so-called NEW AGE MOVEMENT.
HOLMES, John Haynes (1879-1959): American LIBERAL churchman and one of the founders of the AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION.
HOLY: what is set apart and belongs to GOD because it possesses the character of HOLINESS.
HOLY PLACES: most religions emphasize the importance of certain places which are viewed as Holy. Inevitably these places become centers of PILGRIMAGE. PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY appears unique in its rejection of holy places and insistence that the whole of life has a SACRED dimension.
HOLY SPIRIT: the Third Person in the CHRISTIAN GODHEAD or TRINITY. The Holy Spirit is believed by Christians to indwell believers and guide the CHURCH. In the twentieth century the THEOLOGY of the Holy Spirit has become a central issue in the CHARISMATIC MOVEMENT.
HOLY, THE SACRED: a basic religious CONCEPT variously understood by the HISTORY and PHILOSOPHY of RELIGION and by BIBLICAL and DOGMATIC THEOLOGY. In religious HISTORY anything men and women WORSHIP may be called HOLY but especially the powers that manifest themselves in any sphere of life.
HOMER (sometime before 700 B.C.): Greek POET to whom The Iliad and The Odyssey are traditionally attributed.
HNEN (1133-1212): founder of JOD BUDDHISM in Japan in 1175. His fundamental thesis was BELIEF in the saving power and GRACE of AMIDA the Lord of Sukhvat the Western paradise. SHINRAN was his greatest disciple.
HOOKER, Richard (1554-1600): moderate English ANGLICAN theologian who defended EPISCOPACY and attacked what he saw as the excesses of PURITAN enthusiasm. His great work is Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1593-1662, 7 Vols.).
HORT, Fenton John Anthony (1828-1892): English Biblical scholar who, with B. F. WESTCOTT, was responsible for the production of a standard GREEK text of the NEW TESTAMENT.
HORTON, Robin (1832-?): British ANTHROPOLOGIST whose work on the relationship between TRADITIONAL AFRICAN and scientific thought as well as the NATURE of CONVERSION in an African society has provoked heated debate. His major book is Kalabari Sculpture (1966).
HSAN-HSEH: "mysterious and profound learning" was the name given to a NEO-TAOIST movement that arose in China in the third century. The movement honored CONFUCIUS and taught that NON-BEING is the ultimate REALITY underlying all visible things.
HSAN T'SANT (596-664): the greatest Chinese philosopher and PILGRIM to visit India and one of the most important figures in Chinese BUDDHISM. He translated over seventy five BUDDHIST works into Chinese and published an account of his journeys, which is regarded as a classic of Chinese literature. It was translated into English as Si-yu-ki Buddhist Records of the Western World in 1884.
HUA YEN: an important school of Chinese BUDDHISM which taught that BEING and NON-BEING are equally illusory and are negated in the Void. Mind is the basis of all phenomena and permeates all things.
HUANG-LAS CHN: an important TAOIST DEITY who was believed to be the supreme instructor and Chief of the GODS.
HUBBARD, Ron L. (1911-1976): brilliant SCIENCE FICTION writer and adventurer who founded SCIENTOLOGY in 1955, after the publication of his best selling Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health in 1951.
HUBRIS: the capital SIN in Greek thought of self-assertion which was bound to arouse the anger of the GODS.
HÜGEL, Frederick, Baron von (1852-1925): Italian born ROMAN CATHOLIC theologian who settled in England where he was a close associate of various Roman Catholic MODERNIST leaders. His major work The Mystical Elements of Religion (1908), is a study of the writings of CATHERINE OF GENOA.
HUGUENOTS: French PROTESTANTS who followed John CALVIN. They suffered constant persecution and over 10,000 were slaughtered in the SAINT BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY MASSACRE. Later many more were expelled from France after the Edict of Nantes, which gave them religious FREEDOM, was revoked in 1685. Leaving their homeland, they made significant contributions to many countries where they found refuge.
HUI-NENG (628-713): known in China as Wei Lang and in Japan as Eno he was the sixth and last patriarch of CH'AN BUDDHISM in China who promoted the doctrine of spontaneous realization or sudden ENLIGHTENMENT.
HUI-YÜAN (334-417): a CONVERT from TAOISM and CONFUCIANISM to BUDDHISM. He founded the famous MONASTERY of Tung-lin and through his White Lotus Society is seen as one of the founders of PURE LAND BUDDHISM.
HUMAN SACRIFICE: although some ANTHROPOLOGISTS have attempted to deny its REALITY there seems no doubt that human sacrifice has played an important role in many religious systems and continues to this day to exercise remarkable appeal throughout both Africa and India.
HUMANISM: that philosophic-religious system which has as its central controlling interest the values of man.
HUME, David (1711-1776): Scottish skeptical philosopher, historian and essayist whose radical empiricism has had a profound influence on modern thought. KANT claimed that Hume "awoke" him "from dogmatic slumber" through his A Treaties on Human Nature (1739). Hume's Dialogues on Natural Religion (1779), which was published posthumously, is a sustained attack on CHRISTIANITY and attempts to prove the existence of GOD. In his lesser known work The Natural History of Religion (1757), he argued that POLYTHEISM was both the natural and original RELIGION of mankind.
HUNG HSIU-CH'AN (1812-1864): influenced by CHRISTIANITY he joined the Society of God and in 1836 announced that he was a younger brother of JESUS CHRIST. In 1850 he began the T'ai P'ing rebellion to establish a theocratic State and destroy the opium trade. He denounced the IDOLATRY of BUDDHISM and TAOISM and replaced the CONFUCIAN classics with CHRISTIAN Gospels. Despite his sweeping social REFORMS and desire to co-operate with Western powers, his movement was eventually destroyed with appalling loss of life by Western armies.
HUNTINGDON, Selina, Countess [of] (1707-1791): English EVANGELICAL leader and patron of John and Charles WESLEY, and the Welsh PREACHER Howell Harris, who founded a CALVINIST branch of METHODISM known as "the Countess Huntingdon's Connection."
HUSAYN, Ibn 'Ali (626-680): grandson of MUHAMMAD and third IMAM of the SHI'A. Escaping from the CALIPH Yazd, the son of Mu'awiya, he and 200 followers were surrounded near Kufa and brutally murdered on the October 10th, 680. He is considered a MARTYR by Shi'a who see in his death sacrificial value.
HUSS, John (1372-1415): Czech religious REFORMER influenced by John WYCLIFFE who is known as the "morning star" of the PROTESTANT REFORMATION. He was burnt at the stake for HERESY after being EXCOMMUNICATED by the POPE.
HUSSERL, Edmund Gustav Alberta (1859-1938): German philosopher and founder of PHENOMENOLOGY whose complex work attempts to go beyond KANT and gain an understanding of the essential structures of human consciousness. His work greatly influenced many modern thinkers including the CHRISTIAN philosopher Herman DOOYEWEERD. His works include: Logical Investigations (1900-1901, translated 1970) and The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology (1936 translated 1970).
HUTTERITES: an ANABAPTIST SECT which emerged in Moravia in 1529 and was re-organized by Jacob HUTTER in 1553. Until 1599 they enjoyed considerable success in establishing about a hundred bruderhos or farm colonies with a membership or around 25,000. A period of persecution followed and they fled to Slovakia and Transylvania where they produced some remarkable devotional literature over the next 150 years. Renewed persecution led them to the Ukraine in 1770 where they remained until 1870 when the threat of military conscription led them to emigrate to the United States of America: some groups emigrated from America to Canada in 1917. Today there are around 10,000 Hutterites who are distinguished by their communal living, traditional dress and hostility to MODERN CULTURE.
HUXLEY, Aldous Leonard, (1894-1963). grandson of T. H. Huxley. English MYSTICAL writer novelist, essayist and poet, who experimented with drug induced states to achieve SPIRITUAL insight.
HUXLEY, Julian Sorell (1887-1975): English biologist and HUMANIST who speculated about the emergence of an evolutionary SPIRITUALITY. Among his many books is The Humanist Frame which he edited in 1964.
HUXLEY, Thomas Henry (1825-1895). English biologist and AGNOSTIC who was an advocate of scientific training to remedy the intellectual, social, and moral needs of humanity. At Oxford he had a memorable debate with BISHOP William WILBERFORCE on EVOLUTION in 1860. A fierce critic of CHRISTIAN ORTHODOXY, he extolled HUME and attacked not only the idea of MIRACLES, but also the very possibility that we can know anything about the actual teachings of JESUS.
HYMN: a religious song sung by CHRISTIANS in praise of GOD and CHRIST.
HYPOTHESIS: a judgment which the mind entertains to explain an area of REALITY.