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.What are Two-Spirits/Berdaches? : "Alternative gender roles were among the most widely shared features of North American societies. Male berdaches have been documented in over 155 tribes. In about a third of these groups, a formal status also existed for females who undertook a man’s lifestyle, becoming hunters, warriors, and chiefs. They were sometimes referred to with the same term for male berdaches and sometimes with a distinct term—making them, therefore, a fourth gender. (Thus, “third gender” generally refers to male berdaches and sometimes male and female berdaches, while “fourth gender” always refers to female berdaches.) Each tribe, of course, had its own terms for these roles, such as boté in Crow, nádleehí in Navajo, winkte in Lakota, and alyha: and hwame: in Mohave. Because so many North American cultures were disrupted (or had disappeared) before they were studied by anthropologists, it is not possible to state the absolute frequency of these roles. Those alternative gender roles that have been documented, however, occur in every region of the continent, in every kind of society, and among speakers of every major language group. The number of tribes in which the existence of such roles have been denied (by informants or outsider observers) are quite few. Far greater are those instances in which information regarding the presence of gender diversity has simply not been recorded. .." - 'Two spirit' people greatly respected. - Two-Spirit. - Berdache Origin Myth. - The Berdache Tradition. - The Berdaches. - Berdaches N/A. - Berdaches ... and Assumptions About Berdaches. - The Berdache Spirit by Wendy Susan Parker. (Alternate Link) - Same-Sex Marriages with Berdaches. - What's the problem with 'Berdache'? - Two-spirited history. - We'wha (1849-1896). - We-wha of Zuni. - Zuni Berdache. - Le Berdache 20 ans après: Colloque et exposition, Université du Québec à Montréal 13 novembre 1999. - Model for Change: Two-Spirit Population (2013).
The Disappearance of the Two-Spirit Traditions in Canada (2009). - Acceptance is crucial for two-spirit people
(2008): After more than two decades of living mostly in Vancouver, Evan
Adams has returned home to his Sliammon band reserve near Powell River.
A prominent gay actor who finished a medical degree and is now British
Columbia’s first aboriginal-health physician adviser, Adams is settling
in with his partner and their son in their own house. “It was a big
homecoming,” Adams, 41, told the Georgia Straight about the warm
welcome he and his family received from band members when they moved in
on April 4. It was quite a different world for Adams, who, like many
young Natives, had to leave his ancestral community for an urban area
because he felt his sexuality wasn’t accepted by his own people. For
many, acceptance is hard to come by even in the cities, where they also
face discrimination because they’re aboriginal. These are the
challenges that Adams and other Native leaders hope to bring to the
forefront through a conference held in Vancouver (April 6 to 8) that
organizers described as the first-ever national aboriginal gay,
lesbian, bisexual, transgender, queer, two-spirit (GLBTQT) summit... - Native identity & tribal sovereignty (2008): The
Two Spirit Society of Denver works with non-Native LGBT audiences to
understand Native traditions and Two Spirit realities, and with Native
populations to establish stronger relationships. Crisosto Apache
(Mescalero Apache) and Richard Lafortune (of the Two Spirit Press Room
in Minneapolis, MN) discuss Native/Two Spirit history and the dearth in
foundation dollars to Native people...
Sense and Sensuality - Two-Spirit: Alternative Sexuality in Native Culture (2008). - Native American concepts of gender and sexual orientation. - A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out (2006). - Berdach to Two-Spirit: The Revival of Native American Traditions (2007). - Oregon tribe to allow same-sex marriages (2008): Likely the first American Indian tribe to sanction them, specialists say. - Two Spirit and Queer Liberation Movements: From Radical Revolt to Freedom Fighting Justice (2009). - Gay Native Americans Reclaim Two-Spirit Culture (2009). - Two-Spirit: A Look into Aboriginal Queer Issues (2010). - More on gender, Part 2: “Two-Spirit” (2010). - Understanding Two-Spirit: An Expository of Gender, Sexuality and Identity in Native America (2011). - Lost souls: The myths, murders and mysteries of 'two-spirit' people.
people: "The Two-spirited person is a native tradition that anthropologists have
been able to date to some of the earliest discoveries of Native
artifacts. Much evidence indicates that Native people, prior to
colonization and contact with European cultures, believed in the
existence of three genders: the male, the female and the male-female
gender, or what we now call the Two-spirited person. The term
Two-spirited, though relatively new, was derived from interpretations
of Native languages used to describe people who displayed both
characteristics of male and female..." - What's
the problem with 'Berdache'?: "While 'berdache' is in common
use among white gays, Native Americans find the term offensive as
it comes ultimately from the Arabic where it means roughly, 'male prostitute'.
We do not appreciate having our sacred people referred to in this way.
The consensus of opinion is that 'berdache' should not be used and the
tribal name should be used when known. There is no consensus of opinion
on a generic term, it is safest to refer to lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgendered Native Americans. However, some use the term GAI (Gay American
Indian) or Two Spirit..." - Appropriate
Peoples. - Two
spirited. - Two-Spirit Identity Theory. - Evolution
of identity for a `Berdache Boy' N/A. - Two
Spirited People of the First Nations. - Native
American Berdache as Mediator: Towards a Culturally Specific Understanding.
about "Two-Spirited People" in the American Indians Studies Library. -
Queer American Indians from New York to San Francisco are showing both their spirits (2004). - A life of Two-Spirits (2006):
"I’ve been thinking a lot lately about what it means to be a gay man
and native American. We were once revered on the reservation. Can we
find the same respect again?' (More Articles) - Native vs. White Sex Cosmologies: Sex and Gender Variability vs. Variance in Inter- vs. Intracultural Perspective (1998). - First Nations and American Indian Societies and Gender: a primer for whites. - Two-Spirited People’s Struggles. - Gay Native Americans Rediscover 'Two-Spirit' Identity (2005): Young,
gay American Indians are rediscovering tribal heritages that often
revered "Two-Spirits," people who manifested both masculine and
feminine traits. - Two Spirit: One World With Multiple Possibilities: Centering the Self in ones Spirit (2009, by Cameron Greensmith, Download Page).
traditional concept of Two-Spirited people: A First Nations perspective (2004): "Historically, Native communities have thought of Two-Spiritedness as a
gift. It was not necessary to define or impose roles on members of the
community. Rather than imposing strictly binary gender roles, it was
more important that everyone perform their specific role in relation to
the overall survival of the community. This social philosophy led to a
respect for T-S people, which allowed them to have unrestricted
relationships—a respect which was spoiled by colonization. As Sue-Ellen
Jacobs, a professor at the University of Washington, explains: "North Americans fit into their own varying categories of sexual
identity until the strict social and gender structure of the colonies
imposed a gender hierarchy rather than a continuum." Unfortunately, negative treatment of T-S people still occurs both
inside and outside of Native communities. Whether Two-Spiritedness is a
genetic or a psychological state of being is still a topic of debate.
This thinking arises from the Western social values and discrimination
that have been normalized through the North American colonization and
assimilation of First Nations People. Eurocentric values tend to be
black and white—a person is assigned one of two genders at birth,
determined by their physiology. In doing so, the predetermined identity
of female or male is expected to become reality. However, in Native
communities that have maintained their unique philosophies on gender,
these rigid concerns are not important. The role of T-S people in
Native communities was at one time respected but, upon colonization,
this respect was largely destroyed. - A
place of honour: Two-Spirited people in our communities (This article was once available online from: Metis
Voyageur magazine) - Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture (2005). - Two Spirits, Two Cultures: Shifting Navajo Gender Identity N/A. - Directions in gender research in American Indian societies: Two spirits and other categories (2002). - Two-Spirit & Two-Spirit like identities outside of North America N/A. - Making the American berdache: Choice or constraint? - Third Genders: A Sampler. - Locating Third Sexes. - Two spirits, one purpose: Gay and lesbian American Indians look to the past to shape a better future on the reservation (2009). - Gay First Nations Canadian Says House Burning Was Hate Crime (2010). - Home blaze a hate crime: gay man (2010).
Rising Historically, Native American Tribes Thought Gays Were Great! (Alternate Link): "
Recently, there has been a rekindling of Two-Spirit traditional
practices, but the effort has not been without the slings and arrows of
controversy... Not only is there a rift between Native and Non-Native
people, many "straight" Native Americans take a familiar
post-colonialism posture (see Missionary Position), and wish the
Two-Spirits would shut up and go away altogether. Hall believes, even
though there is a long-standing tradition of
Two-Spiritedness among Native American tribes, and that Two-Spirits
once enjoyed set and honored roles in tribal structure, "Nowadays, they
don't have that role." "I (will) always remember when Randy Burns and
the group out in
San Francisco established Gay American Indians, and I think they're
celebrating something like their 25th anniversary. They set up their
little table with their information on gay and lesbian activities and
information on things, and a lot of the Indian people wouldn't accept
it. They'd say, 'Oh, you people are an embarrassment. Why don't you
leave?' and they'd spit on you and cuss at you. And that was from our
own people! That homophobia still pervades most reservations. It isn't
'hello la-la land' out there." Bo Young is quick to note that any
current Native American
bigotry against gays and lesbians is a direct and lingering result of
post-colonialism's cultural destructive influence. He believes
anti-homosexual sentiments have been shoved down their throats. - A Walker Between Two Worlds. - A
History of 2-Spirited People: PDF Download. - Sacred
Circles A Group For Two Spirit Native Americans and Their Companions. - The Tragedy of the Holy Two-Spirited Fag. - Background & Recent developments in Two-Spirit organizing N/A. - Two-Spirit Drag King is None of the Above. - Rainbow and red: Queer American Indians from New York to San Francisco are showing both their spirits. - Shaking Our Shells: Cherokee Two-Spirits Rebalancing the World (by Qwo-Li Driskill) . - Two-Spirits: the original phoenix of Sacramento (2010). - Two-Spirits in ancient Sacramento (2010).
Two Spirit Gatherings: - International Two Spirit Gathering. - Two-Spirit Gatherings (YouTube Videos). - Chrystos on Queer Native America:
"Though queer Native Americans, or two-spirit people, as we call
ourselves, have huge gatherings every year, we don't tend to be as
cohesive as other queer communities, which is more typical of the way
native people are in general. We aren't as institutionalized. A lot of
what happens is based on personal relationships. I'm in the process of
making a film about two-spirited women, and we'll be filming this
summer out on the reservation. One of the women we'll be focusing on is
called Smiley. She lived for years as a butch-identified dyke in
Seattle. Hopefully, the film will make our lives more visible. You
don't see native people on the 6 o'clock news, and queer native people
are entirely invisible even in the gay community where, I have to tell
you, I thought it would be different... We don't have access to media
power. There is no national native news anchor, for instance, when
there are Asian, Latino and black anchors. We don't have a history
month. We do not have the ear of the American public, for specific
reasons: because the original intent of the "Founding Fathers" was to
eradicate native people from the earth. There was never any intention
to eradicate African people, though they were treated as property,
which is horrible enough. But they weren't systematically murdered
because they were in the way... And having all the known queers being
white is also repulsive to me. I don't think mainstream queer culture
has even noticed that yet. Not too long ago they had some show on TV
about lesbians, a women's program, maybe Vanessa Redgrave was in it. In
the paper ad, all of them were white, all blond. That really scares me,
the German Reich values." - Two-spirit people and sexual diversity (Aboriginal Nuse, 2002).
Building a stronger two-spirited community:
Groundbreaking event aims to bring queer aboriginals together (2006)...
Next week, Mack, who is two-spirited, will don the regalia of a pow-wow
dancer for Embracing Our Spirits: A Gathering of Two Spirit, Family,
and Friends. It's the first-ever gathering of its kind in the Vancouver
area. - There are no closets in a tipi
(2006): A gathering of two-spirit people celebrated their unique
journey through life and saw the society take its spiritual place in
the circle during the Fourth Annual Elders and Two Spirit Gathering
held in Edmonton on Oct. 20 to 22. It was the culmination of a
three-year ceremonial process of reclamation Reclamation A claim
for the right to return or the right to demand the return of a security
that has been previously accepted as a result of bad delivery or other
irregularities in the delivery and settlement process. The Two Spirit
Society called upon Elders to remember how to be true to their spirit
and reclaim their role in the Aboriginal community as spiritual
leaders. . - 19th Annual International Two Spirit Gathering “Returning To the Land” (2007). - Sacred Rights of the International Two Spirit Gathering (2009). - Making Traditional Spaces: Cultural Compromise at Two-Spirit Gatherings in Oklahoma. - Two-spirited gathering aims to heal (2010). - A celebration of the spirit
(2010): A group of two-spirited people and their supporters named the
Wabanaki Two-Spirit Alliance is organizing the first regional gathering
of its kind for next July . The alliance is comprised mostly of
First Nations people from the Maritimes, Quebec and New-England who
identify as two-spirited. Its Facebook group has 44 members. First
Nations people that embody both traditional male and female roles who
also identify as part of the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender
community are considered to be two-spirited...
we are still here": from berdache to two-spirit people (1999). (Alternate Link): "As
we begin to unpack
the great diversity of genders in Native North America and the ways in
which sexuality informs performance of gender roles, we are drawn back
to the original definition of berdache. Our research shows that there
indeed individuals today appropriately called berdache by researchers.
We refer specifically to feminine boys and young males living on
and in urban places, both in Native and non-Native communities, who are
passive sexual consorts of heterosexual and homosexual adult men. The
in these relationships is sex.... On some reservations, feminine boys
are used sexually by married men.
In studies of male juvenile prostitutes in Seattle, Washington, it is
heterosexual adult males who seek out boys for passive anal and oral
In both Seattle and on reservations, such behavior is negatively
It is not glamorous; it is not romantic; it is "sex for survival."
boys (aged nine to seventeen) are berdaches in the literal, original
of the word: boys used for sexual purposes. The married "heterosexual"
men on reservations who engage in sex with boys retain their
status; they are never considered to be bisexual or homosexual. In some
urban gay settings, these men are commonly called "Men who have Sex
Men (MSMs)." Reference: "Debra Boyer, "Male Prostitution: A Cultural
Expression of Male Homosexuality,"
Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation (Seattle: University of Washington,
1986). Related Note: "We are not referring to all intergenerational
but only to exploitative pedophilia, which falls in the legal domain of
child abuse: the "children" are not of legal sexual consent age. We are
also not describing or referring to relationships that teenage boys
with older men as they are discovering and testing their homosexuality;
that is the subject of another paper." Source: American
Indian Culture and Research Journal. 23(2): 91-107. - The
'berdache'/'two-spirit': a comparison of anthropological and native constructions
of gendered identities among the Northern Athapaskans N/A (Reference). - Berdach to Two-Spirit: The Revival of Native American Traditions (2007). - Culture
taboos has made the discovery of the Illinois berdache a extraordinary
encounter. - The Two-spirited Rebirth of Indigenous Nations: An Interview with Waawaate Fobister (2009). - Summit gives voice to queer aboriginal priorities, TWO-SPIRIT / 'We're not here simply asking for a role': Adams. - Lost souls: The myths, murders and mysteries of 'two-spirit' people.
and Spirit: Native American Lesbian Identity: "Native
American and First Nations lesbians have to deal with unique
issues as a result of their history, cultural status, and perceptions
as Natives. They come out of a history of genocide; their people have
been persecuted, killed, kidnapped, and assimilated for hundreds of
years and still face lingering aspects of genocide. They face
homophobia and sexism from their own people; racism from lesbians; and
racism, homophobia, and sexism from the dominant society, not to
mention the classism many Native Americans have to deal with. It is
important to remember that Native lesbians today are not the same
as the Natives that lived before the arrival of the white man.
Interaction with whites and the cultural genocide perpetrated on
Natives has changed Native Americans’ perception of gender and
sexuality. Though it is interesting to speculate about how two-spirits
were treated in traditional Native American cultures, a focus on such
speculation can hide the lives of Native American lesbians today.
Unfortunately, despite the encouraging things written about the
acceptance and honor of the "berdache" of the past, Native lesbians
today face homophobia in their own communities. This is not a
traditional Native American value, but a result of the forcing of
European culture and religion on Natives. The attempts of whites to
destroy any tolerance and respect for female two-spirits is well
reported. Writings exist from missionaries about how Native women were
told not to have sexual relations with other women (Katz 298). Also,
one can find how Native stories about lesbians change from positive to
very negative, depending on where and when the story came from. Allen
and Cavin cite creator stories in which women have the most important
roles. Cavin argues that these are lesbian stories, or at the very
least non-heterosexual stories (45). According to Cavin’s sources,
lesbians were described in origin myths positively as being in control
of the wealth and were in charge of the household and property. They
were considered an asset to her family and community. Later, after
Native Americans where pushed onto reservations, stories are found
where relations between lesbians end in tragedy..." - MyStory: Two-Spirits, One Woman.
Waters KL, et al. (2006). "My Spirit in My Heart": Identity Experiences and Challenges Among American Indian Two-Spirit Women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 10(1/2): 125-149. PDF Download.
their sexuality and gender expression. By analyzing the narratives of
five two-spirit women who are Native activists, we explored
contemporary understandings of the concept and what it means for Native
communities. The incorporation of the identity within indigenous
worldviews, its manifestation in terms of (be)coming out, and the
triple stressors of heterosexism, racism, and sexism emerged as key
themes. Many Native women embrace the term two-spirit to capture...
Historically, Native societies incorporated gender roles beyond male
and female (Brown, 1997; Lang, 1998; Little Crow, Wright, & Brown,
1997). Individuals embracing these genders may have dressed; assumed
social, spiritual and cultural roles; or engaged in sexual and other
behaviors not typically associated with members of their biological
sex. From the community’s perspective, the fulfillment of social or
ceremonial roles and responsibilities was a more important defining
feature of gender than sexual behavior or identity. Although there were
exceptions, many of the individuals who embodied alternative gender
roles or sexual identities were integrated within their community,
often occupying highly respected social and ceremonial roles. Western
colonization and Christianization of Native cultures, however, attacked
traditional Native conceptions of gender and sexual identity. The
colonizing process succeeded in undermining traditional ceremonial and
social roles for two-spirits within many tribal communities, replacing
traditional acceptance and inclusivity with shaming condemnation (Tinker, 1993)...
Cruz. Louis Esme (2011). Medicine Bundle of Contradictions: Female-man, Mi’kmaq/Acadian/Irish Diasporas, Invisible disAbilities, masculine-Feminist. In: Feminism for REAL edited by Jessica Yee. PDF Download.
Similarly, Two-Spirit people are not allowed to participate in societies as our full selves and then we are shamed and blamed for the ways we are hurt by this. When people say that a space is "women-only" they are assuming that women are always sensitive to each others’ needs, are always able to understand each others’ experiences, these experiences are always the same and women are not violent. Explicity, this says that all women are safe; all men are unsafe. The inclusion of Two-Spirit people in women-only space is arbitrary, shifting with who has the power to define this space. This person in power is rarely Native. From what I have seen, women who parade feminist ideals are the ones who decide who experiences gender oppression. Two-Spirit people can talk about our oppression only when it parallels women’s experiences. When our lives get too complicated we are judged, ignored, punished, humiliated. Whether it’s women-only or men-only space, the naming of a space as only one gender encourages invasion and conquest because they don’t allow people to be the complex creatures we are. This pushes Two-Spirit people to the margins simply because we are not one thing or another.We need liberation from the confines of gender baggage, too. This parallels the larger call from Indigenous sovereignty movements asking for our Native Nations to be recognized as distinct, sovereign entities. We are necessarily unique and complex for a reason.
Queer American Indians from New York to San Francisco are showing both their spirits:
"What surprised Sabrina Wolf, when she came out to her American Indian
grandmother, was the older woman’s lack of surprise. “I started by
telling her, ‘I’m different,’” the white-haired, soft butch activist
recalls. And she had this look of, ‘Yeah, I know.’ And then she said,
‘There’s people like you at home [among Indians], and it’s a good
thing.” In addition, her grandmother advised her, “You’re gonna hear …
a lot in your life, that’s it’s a bad thing, here (among white people),
but it’s not a bad thing, and you’ll know about it later.’” Wolf, a
lifelong San Franciscan and “urban Indian” of both white and Native
ancestry, was taken aback by her grandmother’s nonchalant response — a
response which, she later learned, was representative of many Native
groups. The idea that various American Indian tribes historically
recognized and even gave special roles to untraditionally gendered
tribe members was written about in 1968, in an academic article by
Professor Sue-Ellen Jacobs. But its wider acceptance has come about
more recently with the development of vocal groups of queer Indians
who, in addition to mining Indian history for traces of their presence,
have created a modern name for people like themselves: “two-spirit.”..."
Teach Them the Moral Way of Living: The Meeting of Huron Sexuality and European Religion (Alternate Link): "There is a final sexual phenomenon that was most likely part of Huron society. This is the existence of the berdache. A berdache was a biological male who dressed, gestured, and spoke as an ‘effeminate.’ <39> The berdache served macho males by assuming the female division of labor, often including the sexual servicing of males. Evidence suggests that berdaches were aspects of most aboriginal nations and the tribes of the Great Lakes probably possessed them. Apparently, berdaches were either chosen at birth or chose the lifestyle in adulthood. Parents often gendered their males as females soon after birth because of social and cultural imperatives. These imperatives usually included the birth of all male children to a family in a society which placed a high value on women. In these situations, the decision was obviously not based on personality or behavior and in that sense Indian children were not ‘free’ to choose their sexuality. However, there is also evidence that some adult males became berdaches of their own accord or because of their tribes’ decision later in life. When an adult man became a berdache, it meant that they left their warrior status behind and assumed the position of women. The decision might have been influenced by the fact that they were no longer effective warriors. Marquette in his account of the Illinois tribes of the 1660s comments on this particular use of berdaches, "transvestites made war but they can use only clubs and not bows and arrows, which are the weapons of proper men.""
the American berdache: Choice or constraint?
(Journal of Social History, Spring, 2002, by Richard C. Trexler): "While
I obviously will not suggest that mature berdaches did not at
times act with something like free choice, the present paper will show
that, as far as the origin of any given berdache is concerned, free
choice is surely an untenable proposition if it is applied to young
boys and children below the "age of reason," while the making of
berdaches out of adolescents among the Plains nations will prove to
also be a social construction. I will try to integrate what we now know
about the origins of the berdaches encountered during the Spanish
Conquests, first with those documented only recently in the Inuit
north, including Greenland, and then with the berdaches discovered
within the borders of the present day United States from about 1800
until the present. Through the study of origins, I hope to render
transparent one or more underlying characteristics of the berdache
before the variety of time, place and conquest produced the incredible
diversity that now makes the comparative study of the berdache so
daunting.... The fundamental differences between the berdaches of the
those of Latin America are two. The first is the clear preponderance of
so-called female berdaches over the not-inconsiderable number of male
berdaches to the north, whereas to the south the historical sources
rarely mention them... The second main difference between the two
areas' berdaches is that,
while homosexual behavior was common to the south, no incontrovertible
evidence of its presence has yet emerged in the Inuit communities
surveyed by the scholars of this area, although Robert-Lamblin does
document three cases in Ammallik myth where same sexed individuals lie
together... In his recent work, Roscoe does at one point actually
force of the community in these visions. "Most tribal cultures," he
says, "and especially those in which visions are credited with
bestowing skills and inclinations," "do not view gender identities as
being chosen." Yet throughout the book, the same writer repeatedly
speaks of these same native individuals desiring an alternate gender
identity, and would have us believe, as we have shown, that
overwhelmingly, individuals did so desire. This repeated
affirmation provides the best evidence of this author's determination
to find his homosexual present in the deep American past... In the end,
there was little room for the notion of free choice, and it
was seldom enough claimed. Thus while the visions of future berdaches
among the Plains nations seem to definitely announce a (later)
departure from the infantile assignment of gender among most previous
nations, the constraint that "forced" Plains young men into the status
of berdache continued to be a dominant feature of this life "choice."
Proof of these three summary points will of course rest in their
validation or refutation by subsequent documentation and analyses. The
present essay is one persons attempt to recontextualize the study of
the berdache.." - Homosexuality:
In Search of the "Berdache": Multiple Genders and Other Myths (Alternate Link): "Rediscovered and reclaimed as an ancestor to the queer tradition in North America, the "berdache" has come to symbolize an American past of tolerance and respect for queers. Rather than being shunned or hated, the "berdache" was often a powerful and valued member of the community; not simply male nor female, he or she was of a third or perhaps even a fourth distinctly different gender, free from the ordinary confines of a strictly male or strictly female "gender box" (Bullough and Bullough 1993:312) and at liberty to behave in concert with his or her own desires, to associate romantically and sexually with same-sex partners in relationships that were supposedly free of social stigma. Put simply, it was a wonderful life in a more enlightened age. Homosexuality was "institutionalized" (Benedict 1934:74; Devereaux 1937:498), cross-dressing was supernaturalized (Hauser 1990), and cross-gender role behavior was normalized. hese are indeed attractive propositions, for in presenting a past more pleasant than the present, they hold out positive hope for the future. In the spirit of willful belief, then, this paper set out to seek confirmation; to assess, through an anthropological lens, the relative truth or untruth of the view put forth above. Sadly, the critical re-reading it required revealed a tapestry of sweeping generalizations and mistakenly conflated, unrelated assumptions. But, while separating the strands that had been woven together revealed a fabric that was not quite as beautiful as at first imagined, its value had increased by virtue of its closer proximity to the truth... Conclusions: The cultural role of "berdache" was not, as Devereaux would have it, "institutionalized homosexuality," nor was it necessarily related to sexual orientation. As an "institution" it legitimized only the transformation of gender, but it did not even begin to address issues of homosexuality among women, homosexuals who did not cross-dress, or people whose sex assignment and gender identity were unified. The "berdache" did not constitute a distinctive "third gender" or "third sex," but rather was viewed in the main as an ambiguous combination of both male and female, the one manifesting itself biologically while the other found social expression. Many accounts cite parental reticence to allow a child to make the gender assignment transformation to "berdache," and while most children were likely cajoled into accepting their gender assignments, adults were virtually barred from questioning theirs. Once transformed, the "berdache" may have gained the limited protection of legitimization, but as Devereaux pointed out, it did not free him or his partner from the taunts and abuse of others. Homosexuality was never, in itself, validated, because the "berdache" was in fact not an homosexual; his or her gender was transformed precisely in order to avoid that designation. This must be the case if heterosexual men were able to engage in sexual activity with male "berdaches" under the auspices of heterosexuality. The sexual partner of a male "berdache" engaged in sexual activity with someone of his own biological sex, but neither his behavior nor his partner's was considered to be homosexual because they were of different genders, i.e., heterogendered. By a definition based solely on biological sex assignment, homosexuality was indeed legitimized; the problem is that such a definition is completely inapplicable. A EuroAmerican conception of "homosexuality" which equates biological sex with gender is totally incompatible with the far more complex native reality. The fact is that cultures providing a "berdache" status likely did so in order to avoid the designation of homosexuality by shifting genders, and did in most cases prohibit the equivalent of "homosexual" behavior: Homogendered sexual activity was not acceptable, and two males who both identified as men could not freely engage in sexual activity under any circumstance. Therefore, if homosexuality has ever been "institutionalized," and if there have ever been more than two genders, it has apparently not been among the peoples native to North America. - Genero y homosexualidad entre los Zapotecos del istmo de Tehuantepec. El caso de los muxe. - Metagender.
MA, McAllen-Walker R (2001). One Man's Story of Being Gay and Diné
(Navajo): A Study in Resiliency. In: Bernstein M & Reimann R
Queer families, queer politics: Challenging culture and
the state: 87-103. New York: Columbia University Press. (PDF
Page access for PDF Download):
"What is it to be gay in an American Indian family? We begin our
discussion by emphasizing that the terms “Native American family” or
“American Indian family” are misleading and obscure the truths about
actual family realities. In the United States there are approximately
660 federally recognized tribes–360 located in the forty-eight
[contiguous] states and another 300 in Alaska...As a Navajo man in a
large city, Teles must navigate within a hostile dominant culture.
Rather than finding an oasis in the urban gay subculture, he finds
another context of marginalization. Accordingly, he looks to his Navajo
family as his most important source of social support...
Romanticization and Appropriation of American Indian Sexualities: The
current fascination with “two-spiritedness” in the dominant gay
community may be yet another instance of distortion, exotification, and
exploitation of Native traditions by European Americans... Jacobs
(1997) suggests that contemporary romanticization of Native American
sexuality and gender diversity may be an “adventure of white homosexual
males who are either appropriating cultural elements from Native
cultures or imputing to Native cultures characteristics that would
resolve their heartfelt desires to be recognized fully as productive
and important members of their own society”(p.21). Of course, the same
may be said of white lesbian researchers... Euro-centric
romanticization and appropriation of Native beliefs and practices has
become a psychological as well as physical health hazard to sexual
minority American Indians, both on the reservation and in the city.
Wright, Lopez, and Zumwalt (1997) point out that the discontinuity
between Indian and dominant culture worldviews creates a sense of
disorientation for many urban-dwelling Indians that is further
exacerbated by deprivation of social support from family, clan, and
tribe. Given these discontinuities, it is not surprising that many
people report difficulty integrating their gay/lesbian and Indian
identities (Chan, 1989; Espin, 1987; Garnets & Kimmel, 1991,
Morales, 1989) and forging a positive sense of self (Walters,
1997).Some find that the stress associated with negotiating both gay
and ethnic identity challenges their coping resources and psychological
well-being (Jarvenpa, 1985; Kemnitzer, 1978). Teles describes this
identity confusion as a “journey” that many gay American Indians find
themselves taking... Because of the intentional and unintentional
racism Teles routinely experiences with urban gay friends and
acquaintances, the dominant gay community doesn’t feel like “family” to
him... The same identity models that may be empowering and offer a
sense of coherence to his European American counterparts discount
Teles’ reality... Romanticization and irrelevant identity models
contribute to the lack of accurate understanding of American Indian
sexualities. This lack of understanding, coupled with poverty,
generally substandard health care, racism, and other forms of
oppression imposed by the dominant society, along with homophobia
within some Native communities [possibly a byproduct of interaction
with European Americans], may help to explain the dismal statistics
that put American Indians in a class of their own as regards human
suffering. One example is the rapid increase of HIV-positive and AIDS
cases in Indian communities. Unlike other populations, the distribution
of Native American AIDS cases has hardly changed since reporting began.
The majority of cases are among men (85%). Gay/bisexual men account for
79% of thesecases (Rowell, 1997). We suggest that it is time for
researchers to stop imposing European American models on Indian people
and move beyond appropriating and romanticizing
American Indian sexualities as “symbols of potential liberation from
gender identity construction, homophobia, and sexuality containment”
(Jacobs, 1997, p. 36). We concur with Jacobs (1997), who proposes an
alternative motive for the study of Native sexualities, “If I can find
answers... maybe the young people will stop hurting; maybe they will
stop killing themselves, maybe they will be respected instead of
denigrated and beaten up in their communities” (p. 26)
Sexualities and Genders in Zapotec Oaxaca by Lynn Stephen (2002: Latin American Perspectives, 29(2): 41-59, PDF):
southern Mexican state of Oaxaca provides a cross-section of the
multiple gender relations and sexual behaviors and roles that coexist
in modern Mexico.Looking at contemporary gender and sexuality in two
Zapotec towns highlights the importance of historical continuities and
discontinuities in systems of gender and their relationship to class,
ethnicity (earlier coded as race), and sexuality.The various sexual
roles, relationships, and identities that characterize contemporary
rural Oaxaca suggest that instead of trying to look historically for
the roots of “homosexuality,” “heterosexuality,” or even the concept of
“sexuality,” we should look at how different indigenous systems of
gender interacted with shifting discourses of Spanish colonialism,
nationalism, and popular culture to redefine gendered spaces and the
sexual behavior within them.Clear differences between elites and those
on the margins of Mexican society underscore the importance of
divisions by class and status...
Berdache of Early American Conquest: "This paper attempts to link the facet of queer
theory that explains gender and sexuality as culturally constructed
identities, with the presence of the berdache in the New World at the
time of the Spanish conquest. By analyzing the construction of gender
and sexuality among the native peoples, in contrast to the ideologies
of the Spanish, I found a clash arose which explained, in some sense,
the incompatibility of the two cultures. The differences between the
two cultures' gender construction established support for the very
"un'natural'" or "in'essential'" nature of gender, sexuality, and the
body as a means of self-identity. By realizing the issue of power and
where it lies within individuals and societies, hierarchical social
constructions are revealed to be connected with sexual roles. This
dominant/subordinate relationship present in both cultures defines
and substantiates the role that power plays in the cultural context.
The use of queer theory to elucidate these complicated social and
sexual relationships helps to explain the way this power structure
maps onto the native people's relationship with the berdache. This paper will show how the Spaniards mapped
their conceptions of power and sexual relationships onto the natives.
It will address this conception by carefully analyzing the presence
of hermaphrodites in Theodore de Bry's copper etchings. By
visualizing the berdache through the eyes of the Spaniard, the
concept of sexualizing the foreign natives is revealed to be thickly
imbedded in their own gender norms..." - Native American Berdache - Two Spirit People: Gender Does Not Determine Sexuality. - Native vs. White Sex Cosmologies: Sex and Gender Variability vs. Variance in Inter- vs. Intracultural Perspective.
We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two-Spirit People
Alex Wilson (Harvard Educational Review, 66:3, 1996): "The
interconnectedness of sexual identity and ethnicity contributes to the
complex nature of the process of identity development. As educators, we
must acknowledge that fact in the supports and services we offer to our
students. Although the research on lesbian, gay, and bisexual
Indigenous Americans is extensive, these inquiries are typically from
an anthropological perspective. Much of this research is based on the
rereading and reinterpretation of early field notes, testimony, and
biographical sketches, twice removed from Indigenous American
experiences, and twice filtered through non-Indigenous eyes (C. McHale,
personal communication, March 21, 1996). Anthropologists and historians
such as Evelyn Blackwood (1984), Beatrice Medicine (1983), Harriet
Whitehead (1981), Walter Williams (1986), and Will Roscoe (1988, 1991)
have contributed to a body of work that describes and documents the
construction of sexuality and gender in Indigenous American
communities. Their work provides a critique of Western assumptions
about sexuality and gender, but generally fails to recognize the
existence of and to acknowledge the contributions of "two-spirit"
Indigenous Americans today. From my perspective as a two-spirit Swampy
Cree woman, I will critically assess current theory in identity
development through reflection on my life and identity development.
This reassessment has implications for developmental theorists,
counselors, and educators who engage with two-spirit people..."
How to become a berdache: toward a unified analysis of gender diversity. (Related Information): "Berdache status was not a niche for occasional (and presumably "natural") variation in sexuality and gender, nor was it an accidental by-product of unresolved social contradictions. In the native view, berdaches occupied a distinct and autonomous social status on par with the status of men and women. Like male and female genders, the berdache gender entailed a pattern of differences encompassing behavior, temperament, social and economic roles and religious specialization - all the dimensions of a gender category, as I defined that term earlier, with the exception of the attribution of physical differences (the Navajos may be one exception; see n.74). But physical differences were constructed in various ways in Native American perception, and they were not accorded the same weight that they are in Western belief. Social learning and personal experiences (including ritual and supernat ural experiences) were considered just as important in defining individual social identity as anatomy. Viewing female and male berdache roles as third and fourth genders, therefore, offers the best translation of native categories and the best fit with the range of behaviors and social traits reported for berdaches. Conversely, characterizations of berdaches as crossing genders or mixing genders, as men or women who "assume the role of the `opposite' sex," are reductionist and inaccurate." - The Berdache: Transgenderism Among Native-Americans. - Welcome, To A WebSite About An "Other" - A Berdache's Odyssey. - A Native American Perspective on the Theory of Gender Continuum. - Winyanktehca: Two-souls person. - Narcissism is not a dirty word - or the spiritual aspects of transsexualism. - The Hyper-male/Hyper-female And The Warrior Society. - The "berdache": Multiple Genders & Other Myths. - Two Spirit: The third gender in Lakota and Native American Cultures. - Deconstructing Gender Dichotomies: Conceptualizing the Native American Berdache (1994). - Native American Berdache: A Symbol of Identification and Power for Native and Non-Native Gay Men? (1997)
Chapter 17: Native American Societies in An Online Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans* History. - Berdache or Trickster? A Reflection on Homosexuality, Myth and Culture: Proceedings of the international scientific conference 'Homosexuality, Which Homosexuality?' - Moon: "If a man were blessed by Moon, he would have to become a berdache. If he were to refuse Moon's blessing, he would surely die." - What your dreams make you (1989). - The Plains Cree - Religion and Ceremonialism - The Supernaturals. - The Trickster and the Squirrel: Western Sexuality Between Religion and Moral (1995). - Archetypes. - Two-Spirit People: Gender and Sexual Variability in Native North America. - Changing Native American Sex Roles in an Urban Context by Bea Medicine (PPT Presentation).
Are the Third Sex in the 20th Century? . - The
Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza De Vaca (1542). (Alternate
Link) - Redefinition
Of Gender and Sexuality in Pre-Columbian Times. - Gender,
Sexuality, and Ceremony: The Construction of a Pan-tribal Berdache
Identity among Native North Americans (Thesis Abstract). - The
Culture of Male Love (North America) The Two Spirit Tradition in Native
American Experience. - The
place of shamanism in ecofeminism. - Native
American Sacred Traditions and Western Culture. - Free
to be Responsible (Alternate Link). - Cultural
Theft: When claiming one's cultural identity turns into thievery (Alternate Link). -
innovative affair of cultural genocide N/A (PDF Download) by Rev. Sequoyah Ade.
- Extreme Prejudice: Examining Contemporary Genocide in America
(Includes: An Innovative Affair of Genocide) by Rev. Sequoyah Ade - The
Angryindian (Download Page: PDF Download. Author's Web Site).
A British GLBT "Navajo" Problem: - U.S. Navajos Protest Use of Their Name for UK Gay Rights Project. - Navajo on the war path over gay rights charter. - LGBT ‘Navajo’ project angers Natives.
Third Gender: (Alternate Link) "In the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, on the Pacific coast
of Oaxaca, some children are born neither boys nor girls. They are muxe...
In striking opposition to Mexico’s dominant mestizo culture, which is racially
mixed and where machismo prevails, the population of Juchitán is
predominantly Zapotec and does not condemn or reject effeminate male homosexuals.
On the contrary. Here muxe (the word comes from the Zapotec adaptation
of the Spanish word for woman, mujer) are generally regarded as part and
parcel of society, a third element or gender, combining the assets of both
the female and male, and sometimes equipped with special intellectual and
artistic gifts." - EL
Muxeâ: male homosexual roles among the isthmus Zapotec of southern
Mexico: " With the entrance of the queer community into the political
arena in North America, Europe, and elsewhere, muxeâs, too, are increasingly
drawn to the political realm. The convergence of highly political Zapotec
culture with the emergence of homosexual politics has led many muxeâs
to become politically active and organized. Las IntrZpidas, the major queer/muxeâ
organization in Juchit¦n, is outspoken in local politics regarding
homosexual rights, though somewhat paradoxically it is an open supporter
of the right-wing PRI party, rather than the leftist Zapotec party, COCEI,
that has dominated juchiteco politics for two decades. Despite the increasing
influence of the outside world on the muxeâ lifestyle, it seems unlikely
that it will lose its distinctive character anytime in the near future.
Neither the importation of an intimidating machismo nor the muxeâsâ
involvement in broader queer movements appear to be capable of undermining
the sense of pride muxeâs carry for themselves as muxeâ."
Theorizing the Third Gender... Or How I Became a Queen in the Empire of Gender (1995, Will Roscoe):
I became interested in the possibilities of multiple genders as a
result of my research on Native American two-spirits or berdaches. The
first problem I encountered when I began this research was that much of
the evidence I found didn’t fit the standard anthropological definition
of berdaches, which explained these diverse tribal roles as instances
of “a person of one anatomic sex assuming part or most of the attire,
occupation, and social—including marital—status, of the opposite sex”
(Whitehead, 85). I was learning about two-spirits who did not
cross-dress, or who dressed in styles distinct from both women and men,
or who cross-dressed but made no attempt to “pass” or disguise their
original sex. In many cases they engaged in behaviors and activities of
both their anatomical sex and those of the so-called opposite sex, and
many of their behaviors and activities were unique to their role,
especially their ritual and spiritual lives. Finally, there were myths
that accounted for the origins of two-spirit roles much as male and
female genders were explained. In short, many elements of these roles
were inconsistent with the idea that these were persons of one sex
trying to be the opposite sex...
Medicine B (2002). Directions in gender research in American Indian societies: Two spirits and other categories.
In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.),
Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 3, Chapter 2). PDF Download. Indigenous
social role categories that represent third and fourth gender
characteristics, such as the Lakota (Sioux) winkte and the Dino
(Navajo) n<dleeh and other Native terms, mark the status of these
individuals. However, they are often blanketed by the term, berdache,
in social science literature. Contextualization in an ethnographic
frame is essential to greater comprehension of these roles. A critical
review of contemporary research and the writings of the Native
occupants of these categories has resulted in an all encompassing term:
"Two Spirits." Coterminously, Native terms for lesbians are also
emerging. However, all Native gay males and lesbians have not accepted
the term. This article discusses the concerns of indigenous researchers
and others or non-indigenous researchers in this discourse...
Language, Embodiment, and the ‘Third Sex’ (2009) by Lal Zimman and Kira Hall. To appear in Dominic Watt and Carmen Llamas (eds), Language and Identities. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. PDF Download.
Groups whose gender identities and enactments fall outside of
sociocultural norms for women and men are often described by scholars
as well as group members as constituting a “third gender” or “third
sex.” This chapter discusses the utility of this categorization
(hereafter abbreviated as third sex) for the study of language, gender,
and sexuality. We begin by acknowledging the problematic nature of this
terminology as established by the critiques that have been leveled
against its use within the history of anthropological scholarship.
However, we maintain that a careful deployment of the concept can be
theoretically illuminating when providing ethnographic accounts of
gender-variant communities who themselves articulate their subjectivity
through the idea of thirdness. Most notably, the way this term
refocuses the analytic lens on biological sex—an issue that feminist
scholars have often subordinated to their interest in the social
construction of gender—highlights how sexual embodiment, no less than
gender, is constructed in culturally and historically specific ways.
The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the importance of the
body in shaping the relationship between language and identity amonggender-variant groups...
Hemmilä, Anita (2005). Ancestors of Two-Spirits: Representations Of Native American Third-Gender Males In Historical Documentation: A Critical Discourse Analysis in Anthropology. Graduate Dissertation, University of Jyväskylä. PDF Download. Download Page. The words hermaphrodite and berdache are some of the many terms that have been used in reference to certain kinds of North American natives who can be characterized as Native American third-genders. Nowadays, these kinds of natives call themselves two-spirits. In their own cultures, third-genders were, and to some extent still are, regarded as being outside the male and female genders, as if occupying a third-gender position in their society. In the past, these individuals had a visible and socially recognized position in their culture, and many Native American languages had special terms for them. These terms could be applied to real hermaphrodites and/or to those whose inner character contained the essence of both female and male characters. In the traditional native way of thinking, this gave them a unique spiritual power, supported by the ancient religious belief systems of their peoples. Nowadays, many of these Native American terms have either disappeared from use or do not have the same definition or connotations they once had. Many European and American terms applied to third-gender have fallen out of use as well. For example, the oldest one of these, hermaphrodite, was laterrealized to be a misnaming...
Young JC (1999). Alternative genders in the Coast Salish world : paradox and pattern. Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia. PDF Download. Download Page. Abstract: The concern of this thesis is the position of people of alternative genders in Coast Salish culture,
not only in the past, but in the present. How were individuals with such a difference treated? What forces
constrained them? What factors afforded them opportunity? Were such genders even recognized? With
these questions in mind, field work was conducted with the permission of the Std: Id Nation throughout the
summer of 1998. This paper is based on interviews conducted then and subsequent interviews with people
from other Coast Salish groups. In addition, local ethnographic materials—with reference to field notes
whenever possible—and traditional stories were analyzed from the perspective of Coast Salish
epistemology. Alternative genders need to be understood foremost in the cultural contexts in which they
occur, only then can comparisons proceed from a secure foundation.
Research revealed a paradoxical situation. Oral traditions in which the alternately gendered are
despised, occur side-by-side with traditions in which such people were honoured for the special powers
they possessed. Individuals and families operated in the space generated by this paradox, playing the
"serious games" to which Ortner alludes (1996:12-13). The absence of a "master narrative" in Coast
Salish culture accounts for some, but not all of these contradictions. Equally relevant are persistent
patterns of secrecy, personal autonomy, kin solidarity, differential status, and differential gender flexibility
that both restrict the social field and offer stress points that were, and are, manipulated in individual and
collective strategies. Given a world view in which transformation was the norm, and in which the
disadvantaged could become powerful overnight by revealing the power they had hidden, some
alternatively gendered people were able to maximize their potential and become significant forces. No
formal roles offered sanction, instead an ad hoc approach marked the response to alternative genders and
the outcome rested on the position of the individual and her/his family, and their ability to maneuver
within multiple constraints. It was this potential to transform a stigmatized status into an honoured role
that made the position of the alternatively gendered paradoxical.
Horswell, By Michael (2005). Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture. Amazon. Google Books. In Part, Full Text. In the late fifteenth century there was a crisis in the succession of Inca rulers in Tawantinsuyu—a pachacuti
(cataclysmic change) that became a liminal moment in the cultural
reproduction of the Andean social body and in the transition of Inca
imperial bodies from one generation to another. As recounted in the
first epigraph above, to mediate the tension created during this time of
change, the Inca summoned to Cuzco a queer figure, the chuqui chinchay, or the apo de los otorongos,
a mountain deity of the jaguars who was the patron of dual-gendered
indigenous peoples. While we do not know precisely why the chuqui chinchay was called to Cuzco that day, we can now appreciate that this apo was a revered figure in Andean culture, and its human huacsas,
or ritual attendants—third-gendered subjects—were vital actors in
Andean ceremonies. These quariwarmi (men-women) shamans mediated between
the symmetrically dualistic spheres of Andean cosmology and daily life
by performing rituals that at times required same-sex erotic practices.
Their transvested attire served as a visible sign of a third space that
negotiated between the masculine and the feminine, the present and the
past, the living and the dead. Their shamanic presence invoked the
androgynous creative force often represented in Andean mythology...
Skyes H, LIoyd J (2012). Gay Pride on Stolen Land: Homonationalism, Queer Asylum and Indigenous Sovereignty at the Vancouver Winter Olympics. Paper submitted for publication to GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. PDF Download. Download Page.
In this paper we examine intersections between homonationalism, sport,
gay imperialism and white settler colonialism. The 2010 Winter Olympics,
held in Vancouver, Canada, produced new articulations between sporting
homonationalism, indigenous peoples and immigration policy. For the
first time at an Olympic/Paralympic Games, three Pride Houses showcased
LGBT athletes and provided support services for LBGT athletes and
spectators. Supporting claims for asylum by queers featured prominently
in these support services. However, the Olympic events were held on
unceded territories of four First Nations, centered in Vancouver which
is a settler colonial city. Thus, we examine how this new form of
‘sporting homonationalism’ emerged upon unceded, or stolen, indigenous
land of British Columbia in Canada. Specifically, we argue that this new
sporting homonationalism was founded upon white settler colonialism and
imperialism—two distinct logics of white supremacy (Smith, 2006)...
Klein, Cecelia F (2001). None of the Above: Gender Ambiguity in Nahua Ideology. PDF Download. In: Cecelia F. Klein and Jeffrey Quilter (eds). Gender in Pre-Hispanic America. Washington, DC: umbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Google Books. Amazon.
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M (2001). Asking about Aztec Gender: The Historical and Archaeological Evidence. PDF Download. In: Cecelia F. Klein and effrey Quilter (eds). Gender in Pre-Hispanic America. Washington, DC: umbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Google Books. Amazon.
CONNECTIONS between the queer and indigenous communities in Canada : a conversation. - The "Native Americans & Homosexuality" Forum. - A Native American Perspective on the Theory of Gender Continuum. (Alternate Link) - Chrystos on Queer Native America. - Europe Exported Lesbian/Gay Oppression to the Americas. - The fence. - "A Curious Double Insight": The Well of Loneliness and Native American Alternative Gender Traditions. - Without Reservations: Native American Lesbians Struggle to Find Their Way. - Bryce's Story: On Being a Transgender Native American. - Healing a generation of hard work (Must Scroll). - Two-Spirit People: A (Re)Weaving Healing from historical trauma. Celebrating our survival. Creating a warp and weft to weave our continuance. - GayWest Rural Two Spirit Youth CD Package Project N/A: "GayWest is now working on a CD package project which will support and inspire Two-Spirit Youth (Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual/Transgender/Intersexed) from all nations. The package will made up of series of audio CDs and one computer interactive CD. Each audio compact disk will contain eight 10 minute audio clips of messages from Two-Spirit speakers with positive perspectives and good inspirations on living as a Two Spirited person. The Interactive Compact disks will contain longer audio clips plus video, positive images of Two Spirited youth, relevant stories, and history of GLBTI community, resource links, and much more..."
Two-Spirited Youth Must be Empowered: "Canada’s
Indigenous People remain one of the most marginalized groups across the
land... Unfortunately, the Two Spirit youth community is
further marginalized and living in an oppressed state, and at-risk for
suicidal tendencies... First, due to homophobic attitudes within
society they are at risk of rejection and social isolation. Second, and
what may be most difficult for Two Spirit youth are that they in turn
also have a higher chance of being rejected and socially isolated
within their own families and home communities at large. The experience
of double estrangement for Two Spirit youth no doubt contributes to
feelings of inadequacy, cultural confusion and a lack of a
self-identity... Many, grappling with identity issues are unable to
find any sense of belonging, a key attribute to youth success... In
summary, it is encouraged for all to learn more
about Two Spirit peoples, and their history in order to improve upon
the economic, cultural, social and personal prospects of urban Two
Spirit youth by the development of more awareness and research to
address the high rates HIV/AIDS and other chronic diseases contracted,
social inequalities, double estrangement, and lack of self-identity
that Two Spirit youth experience." - Two Spirit Organization Denied By Their Own and the City of Edmonton! (PDF):
"The Two Spirit Circle of Edmonton Society has been overlooked,
forgotten or just downright denied inclusion in the latest edition of
“A Guide To Aboriginal Edmonton”. What motivated the omission of the
fact of our existence and our contact information is bewildering...Two Spirit peoples and our place in Nehiyaw culture
and history in the Edmonton area is beginning to build momentum and we
see this ‘oversight’ as a bump in our road to a full return to the
Nehiyaw circle of life. We give thanks to all the individuals who were
responsible for the Guide for forgetting us and by doing so providing
us this distinct opportunity to speak our own truth”, says Mr. Jenkins.
“W e’ve been overlooked, forgotten, denied, bashed, beaten, murdered or
ridiculed for too long and it’s time to stop and the only way that’ll
get accomplished is by taking responsibility for ourselves. Indigenous
communities throughout the Americas can no longer keep their heads in
the sand about the importance of Two Spirit peoples - we need each
other as much, if not more, now than we ever did before.” - Two spirits, one purpose: Gay and lesbian American Indians look to the past to shape a better future on the reservation.
Date Rape: " For gay or two-spirited males, sexual assault can
lead to feelings of self-blame and self-loathing attached to their
sexuality. There is already a lot of homophobic feelings in society to
trouble two-spirited males about their sexuality. Being sexually
assaulted may lead a gay man to believe he somehow "deserved it," that
he was "paying the price" for his sexual orientation. Unfortunately,
this self-blame can be reinforced by the ignorance or intolerance of
others who blame the victim by suggesting that a gay victim somehow
attracted the assault or was less harmed by it because he was gay. Gay
men may also hesitate to report a sexual assault due to fears of blame,
disbelief or intolerance by police or health professionals..." - Two
Spirited Peoples Forum. - Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues and Initiatives in Vancouver: Two-Spirit / LGBT (2007).
Two Spirited Movement gives Hope to Vulnerable Aboriginal GLBTT Youth (2009, Albert McLeod, PPT Download). - Winnipegger speaks up for gay Aboriginals at national hearings (2010): 'In order to advance human rights you have to value identity,' says Albert McLeod. - Two-Spirit Youth Speak Out - Analysis of the Needs Assessment Tool (2004).
Wong A, et al. (2007). Invisible Identities: Sexually Diverse Ethnic and Racial Minorities and Two-Spirited People in Quebec.
Memoire presented by Coalition MultiMundo and Ethnoculture Inc., in
collaboration with the Sexual and Gender Diversity: Vulnerability, and
Resilience (SVR) Research Team, to the Commission de consultation sur
les pratiques d'accommodement reliees aux differences culturelles. PDF.
Wong A, et al. (2007). Identités Invisibles: Diversité sexuelle des minorités visibles, des communautés culturelles et des personnes bispirituelles au Québec. Mémoire présenté à la commission de consultation sur les pratiques d'accommodements reliés aux différences culturelles par la Coalition MultiMundo et Ethnoculture, en collaboration avec l’équipe de recherche Sexualités et Genres : Vulnérabilité et Résilience (SVR). PDF.
Kiss of the Fur Queen by Tomson Highway
(2010): The Roman Catholic Church appears to be in crisis with the
continued outing of homosexual pedophile priests and revelations of
abuse. The sad thing about this is that the abuse is not the
crisis. Given that abuse has been happening since the days of St.
Peter, one can hardly call the status quo a crisis. The only
thing that qualifies as a crisis is the media treatment of the
issue. A tabloid fascination with lurid details coupled with
global dissemination of those details has produced a media nightmare
for the Vatican. As a consequence, this Easter we have witnessed
the bizarre spectacle of Easter homilies whose content is nothing more
than damage control. Religion was never so shallow... 2) This is
not a Roman Catholic issue. This is a human systems issue.
The Canadian experience with residential schools is instructive.
We learned that abuse can be perpetrated by Catholic, Protestant and
secular institutions. Their members can be gay or straight.
And the abuse they inflict can be sexual, physical, psychological, even
cultural. The defining qualities of abuse are unrelated to the
religious affiliation or sexuality of the perpetrators and have nothing
to do with the particular nature of the abuse inflicted. What
defines abuse is a dynamic in the relationship between perpetrator and
victim characterized by an inequality of power: dependency of the
victim and breach of trust by the perpetrator... One prophetic voice is
Cree novelist, Tomson Highway, who was born in northern Manitoba but
was removed from his family and placed in a Catholic residential school
in The Pas. His novel, Kiss of the Fur Queen, tells the story of
two brothers, Champion and Ooneemeetoo Okimasis, who are placed in a
Catholic residential school where they are sexually abused by a
supervising priest. Deprived of family, community, culture, even
deprived of their names, they have no supports to cope with the trauma
of abuse. The older brother, Jeremiah, watches as his younger
sibling, Gabriel, comes apart at the seams. Gabriel never comes
to terms with his sexuality, engaging in extreme promiscuity, often for
money, and ultimately dying of AIDS. Jeremiah copes by burying
himself in piano studies with with hope of pursuing a career as a
Youth Program (PDF Download N/A). - Gay
Lesbian Bisexual Two-Spirited Alberta Youth Outreach. - First
Nations gay youth brings support to Smithers. - The Toronto Trans and Two-Spirited Primer: An Introduction
to Lower-income, Sex-working and Street-involved Transgendered, Transsexual
& Two-Spirit Service Users in Toronto (by Trans Programming at the
Download). - Discrimination Against Two-Spirited People:
"The Ontario First Nations AIDS and Healthy Lifestyle Survey, which was
completed in 1993, contained a section that explored views of
homosexuality in various Aboriginal communities (i.e.,
on-reserve). In the Survey it was stated that:“The majority of
respondents felt that homosexuality was wrong, and perceived their
family and community to support this view.” This statement is
indicative of the pervasiveness of homophobia in First Nations’
communities. It has been our experience at 2-Spirited People of
the 1st Nations that many of our members have been forced to leave
their home communities due to intolerance of sexual diversity and, in
many cases, at very young ages. Many adolescent two-spirited
people arrive in large urban centres with an inadequate education to
find employment and many our forced into the sex trade as a means of
survival. Thus the affects of racism and homophobia often leads
to high risk and self-destructive behaviour... Rejection by one's own
cultural group can be psychologically devastating. “Two-Spirit[ed]
People ... have experienced homophobia resulting in rejection from
family and community. Some individuals experience internalized
homophobia, and an inability to accept their own sexuality due to
judgemental attitudes from society in general. Lack of acceptance
produces ramifications of substance abuse, sexual, mental &
physical abuse, no family or community support, internalized racism,
sex trade, language barriers, low self-esteem, shame, fear, guilt, lack
of work experience/education, lack of safer sex negotiating skills,
sexual identity crisis and lack of peer counselling. This
scenario has produced isolation which may result in suicide.” ... As
two-spirited men, you know there is not room for your life on the
reserve. Your sexuality is not tolerated and many men leave to
find urban centres where they can express themselves. Many men
live a dual life: Bisexuality on the reserve is more common than you
think. If you are one strong enough to be who you are, you are
ridiculed, harassed and only sometimes understood as again being
San Diego Two-Spirit Group Seeking Members N/A
(2006): "Karen Vigneault (Ipai/Kumeyaay), from the Santa Ysabel
reservation, is a woman on a mission. She wants to re-establish San
Diego's first Native American LGBT group, "Nations of the Four
Directions." This group was active in the early to mid 90's and
participated in powwows, San Diego Pride, and HIV/AIDS education. Their
mission was to provide social support to the Two Spirited Native
American community of San Diego. The group disbanded when the core
members of the group moved away or had to devote attention to their
personal lives. Over the past year, Karen has received encouragement
from friends, fellow tribal members, and acquaintances, to revive the
Two-Spirit support system that once existed in San Diego. After much
thought and spiritual reflection, she's ready to start rebuilding..."
Wabanaki Two-Spirit Alliance. - A celebration of the Spirit
(2010): A group of two-spirited people and their supporters named the
Wabanaki Two-Spirit Alliance is organizing the first regional gathering
of its kind for next July. The alliance is comprised mostly of First
Nations people from the Maritimes, Quebec and New-England who identify
as two-spirited. Its Facebook group has 44 members. First Nations people
that embody both traditional male and female roles who also identify as
part of the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender community are
considered to be two-spirited. The gathering’s main goal is to create a
safe space, free of drugs and alcohol, where two-spirited people can
connect with their peers and feel free of social constraints regardless
of their gender or sexuality, says Kevin Barlow, an organizer of the
group and gathering. Sweats, smudging, traditional singing and craft
workshops are some of the activities that will take place at the
gathering... - Wabanaki Two-Spirit Alliance: It Gets Better! (YouTube, 2011). - Mawita'jik Puoinaq Schedule (2012). - Balancing Fire & Water: Suicide Prevention Workshop (2012);
Agenda For April 2012 Workshop. Workshop Materials: 2 Spirit
Presentation: The Introduction to W2SA, 6 slides. Contemporary Roles of
Two Spirit People, 9 slides. Decolonization for Two Spirit People, 7
slides. Mawita jij Puoinaq Final Report: Complete report of the September 2011 W2SA Gathering, 31 pages. Research and Two Spirit in Atlantic Canada: Possible research topics for W2SA, 4 slides..
Sinister Wisdom: A Multicultural Journal by and for Lesbians: "Two Spirit Women of First Nations (Deadline: March 1, 2007) - Guest Editors: Chrystos (Menominee) and Sunny Birdstone (Ktunaxa): Colonialization has marginalized Indigenous women (as well as men), making Native Dykes almost completely invisible. We celebrate the survival of Two Spirit women of First Nations in this issue. Submissions may be in any format - taped interviews, dialogues, as well as fiction, poetry, etc. Please respect certain definitions, which have often been violated - ie. we ask for work from lesbians who are Native in this lifetime only, recognized by their tribes or communities (although a BIA number is not required) and willing to use their name rather than a pseudonym (this is to help prevent submissions of non-authentic work). We define Indigenous Dykes as coming from the Americas, as well as the Pacific (Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia), with a land base (ie. reservation, ranchero, etc.) and a tribal affiliation (Maori, Koori, Cree, etc.). Government recognition of tribal status is not necessary (ie. we recognize the Duwamish). We are particularly interested in stories from dykes who were in residential schools, Elders, incarcerated, & in honor of those who have passed on (Barbara Cameron NationShield, Smiley Hillaire). Edited by Chrystos (Menominee) and Sunny Birdstone (Ktunaxa). Megwetch." - Inque[e]ry: The Lesbian, Bi, Trans and Two-Spirited Women’s Research Network of B.C. (2002). - Two Spirit Women, 2nd edition (2008).
Two Spirit Women: The More We Know, the More We Heal (2010). Presenter: Doris “Doe” O’Brien-Teengs, Regional Outreach Worker, Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy, Toronto. Presentation PDF.
Abstract: Aboriginal Peoples have experienced massive cultural genocide in the last 500 years. More specifically in the last 120 years, the most affected groups are the sexually diverse. Aboriginal women and those who are now called Two Spirit people have been targeted and homophobia has been sewn into the fabric of Aboriginal People’s consciousness. Coming out as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgendered in any Aboriginal community, whether that is a First Nations, Metis or Inuit community, a rural community or a city is a difficult venture because most of the Aboriginal communities – even ‘traditional’ Aboriginal cultures are homophobic and proud of it. Only through telling our stories and celebrating our identities will Aboriginal communities be able to come to a place of Aboriginal balance—a place which includes Two Spirit women. The Two Spirit Women booklet 2nd Edition was written to tell the stories of our past, reveal our colonization and to demonstrate how these affect our lives along with our lived experience. These experiences may be individual, but shared; and only through telling our stories and living our lives will we reach a place of healing in our emotional, physical, mental and spiritual selves..
Histories, Identities, and Politics. - Antropology of Sexualities (Word
Download). Coloring Queer (Word
Studies and Ethnic Studies often seem at odds. While
scholars of both fields tout their dedication to social justice, they
frequently ignore the very issues of one another. Myopic white
privilege and homophobia within communities of color appear to lay at
the root of this seemingly benign neglect. This course addresses
the disciplinary void by illuminating the very intersection of race and
sexuality through queer communities of color themselves. The
course focuses less on the causes of the erasure and more on how queer
individuals of color negotiate family, race, and desire, and ultimately
carve out spheres of sexual fulfillment in both positive and
destructive ways..." - PowerPoint presentation created by John Hawk
Cocke (Osage/Peoria/Cherokee), elder of the Tulsa Two Spirits Society:
Two Spirit, Then and Now (PPT Download. Download Page). - First Person Radio: Feb 9: DR. KARINA WALTERS: On Two-Spirit Health (2011).
Wilson, Alexandria M (2007). N'tacimowin inna nah': Coming in to two-spirit identities. PhD. Dissertation, Education, Havard Univerity. Abstract.
Alaers, Jill (2010). Two-Spirited People and Social Work Practice: Exploring the History of Aboriginal Gender and Sexual Diversity. Critical Social Work, 11(1). Full Text. Diversity of sexual orientation appears to be universal throughout human history. This article explores gender and sexual diversity of non-Aboriginal and traditional First Nations groups in North America, and the reclamation of traditional roles and identities by contemporary two-spirits. This article argues that social workers, as well as various other human service professionals stand to improve the quality of their practice by seeking deeper understanding of sexual and gender diversity through exploration of historic First Nation traditions of two-spirit roles as well as the intersecting multiple oppressions impacting two-spirits in urban, rural and reserve locations.
Cameron, Michelle (2005, 2007). Two-Spirited Aboriginal People: Continuing Cultural Appropriation by Non-Aboriginal Society.
Canadian Women Studies / Les Cahieras de la Femme, 24(2/3): 123-127.
This paper was presented at Cornell University' "Quotidian Queerness"
conference in Ithaca, NY: April 29-30, 2005. PDF Download. Conclusion:
Aboriginal two-spirits have identities that operate outside of the
western dichotomy of sex orientation and gender. Many of the words for
two-spirited were lost from various First Nation groups due to the
imposition of Christianity, and dominant society. Eduardo Duran and
Bonnie Duran state: "The process of self-determination starts with the
ever-evolving processes of self-identification and self-construction"
(156). When Aboriginal queers decided to begin using the term
two-spirited again, it was a sign of reclamation of the historical
legacy that is unique to our First Nations. Two-spirited identity can
thus be viewed as a counterhegemonic identity, and as a term of
resistance to colonization.
Bowers R (2007). A
bibliography on Aboriginal and minority concerns: Identity, prejudice,
marginalisation, and healing in relation to gender, sexuality, and the ecology of place . Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, 3(2), Indigenous Special Issue, 46-88. PDF Download. Download Page. Author Website. Selected Writings of Dr. Kisiku Sa'qawei Paq'tism Randolph Bowers.
Iovannone, J James (2009). "Mix-Ups, Messes, Confinements, and Double-Dealings": Transgendered Performances in Three Novels by Louise Erdrich. Studies in American Indian Literatures, 21(1). Full Text.
Prince-Hughes , Tara (1998). Contemporary Two-Spirit Identity in the Fiction of Paula Gunn Allen and Beth Brant. Studies in American Indian Literatures, 10(2): 9-31. Full Text.
Scudeler, Jane (2006). "The Song I am Singing": Gregory Scofield’s Interweavings of Métis, Gay and Jewish Selfhoods.
Studies in Canadian Literature / Études en littérature
canadienne, 31(1). In his/her essay, "Call Me Brother: Two-Spiritness,
the Erotic, and Mixedblood Identity as Sites of Sovereignty and
Resistance in Gregory Scofield’s Poetry," mixed blood Cherokee and
Two-Spirit writer Qwo-Li Driskill proclaims that Scofield is a poet
whose words we need. He is a writer who gives us back our tongues, who
dislodges our silences and turns them into sites of resistances …
Scofield writes us weapons and shields, weaves us blankets. (222)
Driskill’s description of Scofield’s work is certainly fitting,
especially given Scofield’s work as an oppositional force against the
dominant society’s sometimes one-dimensional view of both Métis
people and of gay men. But the metaphor of weaving may be more
appropriately applied to a Métis sash, taking into account
Scofield’s Métis ancestry. Of course, it is traditional to give
blankets to someone who performs exemplary service to his or her
community, and Scofield has certainly given to the Métis
community with his writing. Considering his earlier desire to be Cree
rather than Métis because of the negative portrayals of
Métis, a sash is a more appropriate metaphor to celebrate
Scofield’s writing and his acceptance of his Métis heritage.
However, while sashes appear tightly woven, there are gaps between
threads, creating spaces for multiple ideas, and more importantly in
Scofield’s case, for multiple identities to shape themselves. Because he
is described as a gay poet and as a Métis poet, the recent
discovery of Scofield’s father’s Jewish ancestry adds to the seeming
fragmentation of Scofield’s identity. In a world filled with niches —
academic and marketing — how does Scofield negotiate these complex gaps
and inter-weavings between and within identities? This paper will begin
to traverse the warp and weft of Scofield’s identities to discover how
he entwines these disparate selfhoods in his work.
Snyder M (2008). "He certainly didn't want anyone to know that he was queer": Chal Windzer's Sexuality in John Joseph Mathews's Sundown. Studies in American Indian Literatures, 20(1): 27-54 (Full Text):
In the field of Native American literary studies, far too little work
has been done that examines sexuality in Indigenous poetry, drama, and
fiction. Moreover, little critical attention has been given to
two-spirited,1 gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or queer Native
writers and characters. For example, representations of twospirited
characters in certain works of canonical, straight-identified
Indigenous authors, such as Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead
and Gerald Vizenor's Bearheart: The Heirship Chronicles, deserve
critical scrutiny. And while some (but not enough) critical essays and
chapters have been devoted to two-spirited women writers and poets,
such as Paula Gunn Alien and Chrystos,2 less attention has been given
to the output of gifted male two-spirited or queer novelists and poets
such as Craig S. Womack, Maurice Kenny, Qwo-Li Driskill, and Chip
Livingston. In fact, critical discourse on textual representations of
Indigenous male same-sex desire is quite rare, whether referring to
representations within works authored by two-spirited or avowedly
heterosexual Indians. The very idea of Native male same-sex desire has
proved to be challenging and subversive, in that "gay" or "queer" does
not seem to correspond with the popular image of the Native American.
Craig S. Womack writes, "the queer Indian, even more than contemporary
Indian culture generally, defies the stereotypes of the stoic warrior,
the nature-loving mystic, the vanishing American. [. . .] a queer
Indian presence [. . .] fundamentally challenges the American mythos
about Indians in a manner that the public will not accept" (Red
279-80). The consequence is that two-spirited people have found
themselves virtually invisible in literary and cinematic
representations of Native Americans, whether produced by indigenes or
not. This absence, in reinforcing Euroamerican heteronormativity,
contributes to what Qwo-Li Driskill has called a "colonized sexuality
[. . .] in which we have internalized the sexual values of dominant
culture" (54)... - glbtq: .Native North American Literature. - A tale of two spirits: First Nations actor pens award-winning tale about growing up gay 'on the rez' (2011).
The Emergence and Importance of Queer American Indian Literatures; or, “Help and Stories” in Thirty Years of SAIL [Studies in American Indian Literatures] (2007). - Queering Native Literature, Indigenizing Queer Theory (2008). - Professor explores Two-Spirit literature in Northwest native groups
(2010): Lisa Tatonetti, associate professor of English and American
ethnic studies, received a fellowship to "Native Cultures of Western
Alaska and the Pacific Northwest Coast," a National Endowment for the
Humanities' summer institute. She used the opportunity to meet with
various native groups to learn about their policies and cultures,
including those on alternative sexualities and genders. Her findings
will contribute to her upcoming book, "Queering American Indian
Literature: The Rise of Contemporary Two-Spirit Texts and Criticism." It
will be the first literary exploration into recorded Two-Spirit
literature, mapping its inception in the early 1970s to its rise in
present day and its criticism... - Documentary addresses issues of sexuality in Native American culture
(2012): Hands covered mouths and tears ran down faces as the
documentary “Two Spirits” hit its climactic moment, explaining how the
death of 16-year-old Fred Martinez has left an impact on today’s
society. “Two Spirits” was shown Wednesday in the Beach Museum of Art,
and was sponsored by the LGBT Resource Center in collaboration with the
Student Governing Association and the Union Program Council as a part of
K-State’s Community Cultural Harmony Week... The event opened
with an introduction from Haddock, as well as from Lisa Tatonetti,
associate professor of English. Tatonetti gave a brief history of the
Navajo who were affected by the events and issues in the documentary, as
well as how the term “two spirits” came to be. She explained that “two
spirits” came out of activism and the wish of Native people — the Navajo
tribe as well as others — to take back their voice about their views on
gender and sexual orientation. Those like Martinez who identify as
two-spirit individuals are male-bodied persons with feminine natures,
and are often considered to have a special gift...
Tatonetti, Lisa (2010). Visible Sexualities or Invisible Nations: Forced to Choose in Big Eden, Johnny Greyeyes, and The Business of Fancydancing. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 16(1/2): 157-181. PDF Download.
Studies in American Indian Literatures, 2008, 20(1) PDF Download. Full Text. See:
Queering Native Literature, Indigenizing Queer Theory, by Daniel Heath
Justice & James H. Cox (XIII). - This Bridge of Two Backs: Making
the Two-Spirit Erotics of Community, by Sophie Mayer (1 - 26). - “He
certainly didn’t want anyone to know that he was queer”: Chal Windzer’s
Sexuality in John Joseph Mathews’s Sundown, by Michael Snyder
(27- 54). - Interpenetrations: Re-encoding the Queer Indian in Sherman
Alexie’s The Business of Fancydancing, by Quentin Younberg (55 - 75).
Exploration of Two-Spirit Literature in Northwest Native Groups (2011). - Sovereign Erotics: A Collection of Contemporary Two-Spirit Literature - 2011 - edited by Qwo-Li Driskill, Daniel Heath Justice, Deborah Miranda, Lisa Tatonetti (Excerpt: Contents / Introduction) (Review) (Review). - Queer Indigenous Studies: Critical Interventions in Theory, Politics, and Literature - 2011 - edited by Qwo-Li Driskill, Chris Finley, Brian Joseph Gilley (Google Books) (Review) (A Conversation with the Editors). - Blog: Ráhkisvuohta & Niiyaw: Love and my Body: Exploring where Indigenous Culture Studies Meet Queer Studies.
Will Roscoe Bibliography (Alternate Link). - Homepage (Alternate Link).
I Became a Queen in the Empire of Gender. - Native
American healing and spirituality, wolves, the maya and aztecs, and ancient
beliefs. - An Aztec Two-Spirit Cosmology: Re-sounding Nahuatl Masculinities, Elders, Femininities, and Youth. - Dyke
Psyche: Native American Two-Spirit People.
- The Toronto Trans and Two-Spirit Primer: An Introduction to
Lower-income, Sex-working and Street-involved Transgendered,
Transsexual & Two-Spirit Service Users in Toronto: PDF Download.
Quo-Li Drilkill (2009 CV): Call
Me Brother: Two-Spiritedness, the Erotic, and Mixedblood Identity as
Sites of Sovereignty and Resistance in Gregory Scofield's Poetry (pdf). Speak to Me Words: Essays on Contemporary American Indian Poetry. Eds. Janice Gould and Dean Rader. Tucson: University of Arizona, 2003. 223-234. - Creating New Ceremonies with Remembered Ones: A Commentary on Louis Esme Cruz's "Puo’winue’l Prayers"(pdf). Sexuality, Nationality, Indigeneity. Eds. Daniel Heath Justice, Mark Rifkin, and Bethany Schneider. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 16.1–2 (2010): 69-92. 244-245. - Doubleweaving Two-Spirit Critiques: Building Alliances between Native and Queer Studies (pdf). Sexuality, Nationality, Indigeneity. Eds. Daniel Heath Justice, Mark Rifkin, and Bethany Schneider. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies. 16.1–2 (2010): 69-92. - Stolen from Our Bodies: First Nations Two-Spirits/Queers and the Journey to a Sovereign Erotic (pdf). Studies in American Indian Literatures. 16.2. (2004): 50-64. (More Papers Available).
Quo-Li Drilkill: Some Courses Given: Writing: The American Ethnic and Racial Experience (WRA 125). Michigan State University: Fall, 2006... Writing: The American Ethnic and Racial Experience involves
drafting, revising, and editing compositions derived from readings on
the experience of American ethnic and racial groups to develop skills in
narration, persuasion, analysis, and documentation. This section
focused on Native people and the diverse identities and experiences that
exist within Native nations, communities, histories, and intellectual
traditions. Specifically, we looked at Native women, Native
Gay/Lesbian/Bi/Trans and Two-Spirit identities, Native people with
(dis)abilities, and Red-Black (African-Native American) experiences. We
engaged with the subject matter by exploring various genres including
theory, poetry, fiction, visual rhetorics, film, music, and theater.
The use of interactive theater in the classroom was a common learning
technique.- Writing: Men in America. (WRA 145). Michigan State University: Spring 2006... Writing: Men in America involves drafting, revising, and editing
compositions (in a wide variety of genres) derived from readings on men
in America to develop skills in narration, persuasion, analysis, and
documentation and is a Tier One writing course at MSU. This section had
a particular focus on the experiences of Gay, Bisexual, Transgender,
and Queer (GBTQ) identified men of color, "gender variant" people of
color from a wide spectrum of gender expressions, constructions of
masculinity, feminism, and anti-sexism.
Brian Gilley (Associate Professor of Anthropology): Queer Indigenous Studies: Critical Interventions in Theory, Politics, and Literature - 2011 - edited by Q-L. Driscoll. B Gilley, S. Morgenson, C. Finley. University of Arizona Press. - Becoming Two-Spirit: The Search for Self and Social Acceptance in Indian Country - 2006 - by Brian Gilley, University of Nebraska Press (Google Books).
Scott L Morgensen: .Activist Media in Native AIDS Organizing: Theorizing the Colonial Conditions of AIDS (2008). - Arrival at Home: Radical Faerie Configurations of Sexuality and Place (2008).
Tatonetti L (2010).Visible Sexualities or Invisible Nations: Forced to Choose in Big Eden, Johnny Greyeyes, and The Business of Fancydancing: This essay examines the construction of Two-Spirit identity in three contemporary narrative films, Big Eden, Johnny Greyeyes, and The Business of Fancydancing, arguing that, despite each story's focus on a queer Native protagonist, by their conclusions each film fractures Two-Spirit identities. Whereas Big Eden elides indigenous identity, Johnny Greyeyes and The Business of Fancydancing segregate indigeneity from queer sexuality, thereby relegating queerness entirely to off-reservation spaces...
Walter L William (CV, 2006 - Related Website): Founding Editor: International Gay & :Lesbian Review. - The 'two-spirit' people of indigenous North Americans (2010). - Two Spirits: A Story of Life with the Navajo: Two Spirits is an historical novel by Walter L. Williams and Toby
Johnson. - Two Spirits: A Story of Life With the Navajo - 2005 - by Walter L. Williams and Toby Johnson (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - The
Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture - 1992 - by
Walter L. Williams (Abstract) (Excerpts) (Amazon: 20
Sample Pages) (Review) (Google Books.
Lisa Tatonetti: - Professor's Book Is First to Explore Two-Spirit Literature in Northwest Native Groups (2010): Queering American Indian Literature: The Rise of Contemporary Two-Spirit Texts and Criticism. - Book Explores Two-Spirit Literature (2010).
Sexuality, Nationality, Indigeneity,
GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 16(1/2), edited by Daniel
Heath Justice, Mark Rifkin, and Bethany Schneider (2010, Access to
Work and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Two-Sprited People. - Remembering
Barbara Cameron. - The
tragic murder of openly gay, Two-Spirit Navajo youth Fred Martinez, Jr.,
has presented many challenges and opportunities to local, regional and
national media covering the story. - Canadian
Caucus for Two-Spirited and Queers of Colour, Egale Canada. - Showing the True Colours of Montreal’s Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Community:
Conference to focus on issues of diverse cultures and sexualities. The
Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) announced today that it will
host Out in Colour, the first conference to address issues of concern
to members of Montreal’s diverse cultural communities who are also
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or two-spirited (LGBTTS)..." - Making Traditional Spaces: Cultural Compromise at Two-Spirit Gatherings in Oklahoma.
Two Spirit People: American Indian Lesbian Women and Gay Men (Monograph
Published Simultaneously As the Gay & Lesbian Social Services , Vol
6, No 2, 1997) (Paperback) edited by Lester Brown (Amazon) (Google Books) (Abstracts): Book Review. - Mann, Barbara Alice (2002). - Spirits of Sky, Spirits of Earth: The Spirituality of Chingachgook. Presented at the Cooper Panel of the 2002 Conference of the American Literature Association in Long Beach, California. - Native Sexual Inequalities: American Indian Cultural Conservative Homophobia and the Problem of Tradition (2010).
Dvorsky G, Hughes J (2008). Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary. IEET Monograph Series. PDF Download.
is an extrapolation of ways that technology is eroding
the biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an
argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory.
Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary
limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of
involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species
through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and
reproductive technologies. Postgenderists contend that dyadic gender
roles and sexual dimorphisms are generally to the detriment of
individuals and society. Assisted reproduction will make it possible
for individuals of any sex to reproduce in any combinations they
choose, with or without "mothers" and "fathers," and artificial wombs
will make biological wombs unnecessary for reproduction. Greater
biological fluidity and psychological androgyny will allow future
persons to explore both masculine and feminine aspects of personality.
Postgenderists do not call for the end of all gender traits, or
universal androgyny, but rather that those traits become a matter of
choice. Bodies and personalities in our postgender future will no
longer be constrained andcircumscribed by gendered traits, but enriched
by their use in the palette of diverse self-expression...
Health Survey of Two-Spirited Native Americans (07/2002-06/2007) (Alternate Link):
"Native American (NA) gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT)
individuals (whom we will refer to as two-spirits) represent a
population facing challenges from both within the NA and GLBT
communities. They are a drastically understudied and underserved group,
at risk for multiple psychological and health problems. There are no
national, quantitative, representative studies of this population on
any topic..." - Understanding Two-Spirits N/A:
"It goes without saying that, since we are in the Native American
capital of the world, that there are bound to be a few queer Indians
running around. What may surprise you is the lack of funding and
resources available to the Native American community when it comes to
dealing with HIV and AIDS awareness and coming out support groups. One
organization, the Tulsa Two-Spirited Men’s Group, is dedicated to
ensuring that the Native American Gay and Lesbian Community won’t go
unnoticed..." - Aboriginal Diversity: "An Approach to Aboriginal Awareness". - Workshop addresses gay-bashing and American Indians. - Cultural investment: providing opportunities to reduce risky behavior among gay American Indian males (2005). - Sexual Partner Concurrency and Sexual Risk Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender American Indian/Alaska Natives (2010). - North American Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Resources Available Online.
in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other
Categories. [Medicine, B. (2002). In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel,
S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.)] - Walters KL, Simoni JM, Horwath
PE (2001). Sexual orientation bias experiences and service needs of gay,
lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and two-spirited American Indians. Journal
of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 13(1/2): 133-49. Journal
Index. Abstract Page: PDF
Download. - Darrell
Joe - gay Navajo tribe member provides services for gay tribe members.
For Papers: Intersections of Native American Studies and Queer Studies. - Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues and Initiatives in Vancouver: Two-Spirit / LGBT. - North American aboriginal two-spirited sexual identity and HIV/AIDS (1998). - Protective
factors related to HIV sexual risk behavior among heterosexual, gay,
lesbian, and bisexual American Indian adolescents (2007).
Two-spirit women’s experience of homophobia in the context of HIV/AIDS Service provision. - Two-spirit Applies Courage to Adversity. - Aboriginal Two Spirit Women’s Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. - Mind, body, and spirit: Use of traditional healing among two-spirit Native women. - Best Practices for LGBTQ, Two-Spirited Population. - Aboriginal Youth Concepts of Healthy Sexuality in British Columbia: Final Report N/A (2008). - A Study on Issues that Impact on the Holistic Health of Two Spirit Youth in Toronto (2004, PDF Report Download). - HIV/AIDS and Indigenous Peoples: Final Report of the 5th International Policy Dialogue (2010).
Dancing To Eagle Spirit Society:
The purpose of the society is to advance Native American healing and
spiritual principles for aboriginal and non-aboriginal people who self
identify as two spirit persons. To educate the public on the Sweat
lodge ceremony and other Native American spiritual practices.
Simoni JM, Walters KL, Balsam KF, Meyers SB (2006). Victimization,
substance use, and HIV risk behaviors among gay/bisexual/two-spirit and
heterosexual American Indian Men in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 96(12): 2240-5. Abstract. Full Text. Full Text."The
20 men self-identifying as gay, two-spirit, or bisexual (hereafter,
"two-spirit") were more likely to report being victimized and engaging
in HIV risk behaviors than the 51 heterosexual respondents, although
they reported comparable levels of recent substance use. Overall,
victimization was associated with lifetime HIV risk behaviors (even
after control for sexual orientation) but not with substance use or
unsafe sex in the past 12 months. The percentage of HIV infection was
surprisingly high (10% of two-spirit men and 6% of heterosexual men)..."
Balsam KF, Huang B, Fieland KC, Simoni JM, Walters KL (2004). Culture, trauma, and wellness: a comparison of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and two-spirit native americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3): 287-301. Abstract. Full Text. Abstract: In
a community-based sample of urban American Indian and Alaska Native
adults, 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and two-spirit participants were
compared with 154 heterosexual participants with respect to
sociodemographic characteristics, Native, cultural participation,
trauma, physical and mental health, and substance use. Compared with
their heterosexual counterparts, two-spirit participants reported
higher rates of childhood physical abuse and more historical trauma in
their families, higher levels of psychological symptoms, and more
mental health service utilization. Two-spirit participants reported
differences in patterns of alcohol use and were more likely to have
used illicit drugs other than marijuana. Discussion and recommendations
for health promotion interventions and future research are presented in
consideration of an "indigenist" health model and the multiple minority
status of two-spirit people..
Taylor, Catherine (2009). Health and Safety Issues for Aboriginal Transgender/Two Spirit People in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Aboriginal Community-based HIV/AIDS Research, 2, Winter: 5-26. Abstract & Download Page: A
community-based assessment funded by Public Safety and Emergency
Preparadness Canada was conducted following OCAP principles in order to
gain specific knowledge of the safety and security concerns, the
service and support experiences, and the service and support needs of
the transgender and Two Spirit people of Manitoba and Northwestern
Ontario. Full Text. Full Text.
Taylor C, et al. (2006). Nowhere Near Enough:
A Needs Assessment of Health and Safety Services for Transgender and
Two Spirit People in Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario: Final
Report (Word Download). - Health and Safety Services for Transgender/Two-Spirit People
(2007): A survey of this community clearly shows that there is a
tremendous gap in the services for transgender folks that ultimately
has a human and economic cost to all Manitobans. The one-year project
was funded by the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada
department of National Crime prevention Centre and carried out by Nine
Circles Community Health Centre in response to a growing demand for
services. Participants in the survey came from all walks of life.
Regardless of socio-economic background, person after person described
blatant abuse and discrimination against members of the transgender
community. Survey respondents indicated that they were often ignored,
offered inferior care and/or mistreated by the health system. The
research indicates there is a clear lack of knowledge and lack of
comfort with the issues of transgenderism among health-care
practitioners. Furthermore, participants, whether closeted or publicly
trans, described school life as a long ordeal, characterized by
bullying and depression that led them to under-perform or drop out
altogether. Taken together, the long-term effect of discrimination and
failure to provide services, not only affected the person in question,
it had an impact on the community at large...
Ristock J, Zoccole A, Passante L. 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations, Toronto (2010). Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ Migration, Mobility, and Health Research Project. Winnipeg, Final Report (PDF Download). Purpose: This qualitative, community-based research project explored the trajectories of migration of Aboriginal people who identify as Two-Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer (LGBTQ) and the impact of mobility on health and wellness. Our focus on migration includedmovement from First Nation reserve communities to urban centres or rural communities (and back and forth) as well as staying or moving within one place. We were interested in the intersection between sexual and gender identities with cultural/Nation and other identities within the historical and present context of colonization in Canada. More specifically this research project had the following objectives: 1. to explore the migration paths and experiences of Aboriginal Two-Spirit and LGBTQ peoples, their experiences of health/wellness in that context, and their interactions with health and social services (including mainstream, Aboriginal and LGBTQ services). 2 to generate new knowledge that may lead to future research that will be of direct benefit to LGBTQ and Aboriginal communities, Aboriginal service providers and health/social service agencies.
20th International 2 Spirit Gathering
(2008): Native youth suicide was highlighted as an emerging concern of
great magnitude in the Two Spirit community, in addition to unabated
levels of HIV transmission during more than a quarter of a century of
the pandemic. Escalating levels of cuts in federal funding directed to
prevention and services among Native health and human service
organizations have increasingly raised alarm across Native
Country. In 2008 Native American HIV transmission rates are
equaled only by sub-Saharan Africa, it was reported at the
International AIDS Conference in Mexico City. Two Spirit Press
Room presented information about the 20th International Two
Spirit Gathering at a 3 day Indigenous pre-conference in August, at the
invitation of the Ottawa based Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network.
Since 1981 AIDS has claimed 25 million people worldwide, and Native
American people continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV. - Two-Spirited but Not Accepted N/A:
Two-Spirit males are at a higher risk for suicide than other aboriginal
males and white gays.Two-Spirit youths in urban areas are more likely
to become street kids with the guys more likely to become male
prostitutes and rent-boys than their heterosexual counterparts and
white gay counterparts. Finally, Two-Spirits have a much higher risk of
abusing and becoming addicted to drugs, and sharing dirty needles.
These kids are in many instances the highest risk group in all of Canada
Remembering Two-Spirits This Thanksgiving (Alternate Link):
I am also reminded of my Two-Spirit Native American brothers and
sisters who struggle with their families and tribes not approving of
their sexual identities and gender expressions as many of us do with
our families and faith communities. “Yes, there’s internalized
homophobia in every gay community, but as Native Americans we are
taught not to like ourselves because we’re not white. In our
communities, people don’t like us because we’re gay,” Gabriel Duncan,
member of Bay Area American Indian Two Spirits (BAAITS), told the
Pacific News Service. And consequently, many Two-Spirit Native
Americans leave their reservations and isolated communities hoping to
connect with the larger LGBTQ community in urban cites. However, due to
racism and cultural insensitivity, many Two-Spirits feel less
understood and more isolated than they did back home. - Acceptance is crucial for two-spirit people:
After more than two decades of living mostly in Vancouver, Evan Adams
has returned home to his Sliammon band reserve near Powell River. A
prominent gay actor who finished a medical degree and is now British
Columbia’s first aboriginal-health physician adviser, Adams is settling
in with his partner and their son in their own house. “It was a big
homecoming,” Adams, 41, told the Georgia Straight about the warm
welcome he and his family received from band members when they moved in
on April 4. It was quite a different world for Adams, who, like many
young Natives, had to leave his ancestral community for an urban area
because he felt his sexuality wasn’t accepted by his own people. For
many, acceptance is hard to come by even in the cities, where they also
face discrimination because they’re aboriginal.
Thoms JH (2007). Leading an Extraordinary Life: Wise Practices for an HIV prevention campaign with Two-Spirit men (PDF Download. PDF Download).
From Executive Summary: This study identifies the unique and complex
barriers that hinder 2-Spirit men from transforming their knowledge of
HIV into the adoption of consistent safer sex behaviours. The critical
findings are that Two-Spirit men have lived lives of family and
community shaming, estrangement, and abuse, caused in large part by
Aboriginal community homophobia. These experiences have greatly
diminished Two-Spirit men’s self-esteem. An individual’s self-esteem is
directly linked to their ability to change risky sexual behaviour. In
other words, low self-esteem and Aboriginal homophobia are fundamental
barriers to Two-Spirit men’s adoption of safer sex behaviours. The
study asked: how can social marketing tools be applied to eliminate
these barriers? ... The study includes a large historical chapter that
documents the fact that Two-Spirit people were widely accepted,
dignified, and led “an extraordinary life” in traditional times. It
identifies how colonizers applied calculated methods to instill
homophobia in Aboriginal communities and destroy the dignity and
respect of Two-Spirit people. Today, Aboriginal community re-acceptance
of Two-Spirit people is the most concrete incentive for Two-Spirit men
to adopt safer sex behaviours.
are American Indian/ Alaskan Natives’ (AI/AN) HIV prevention needs?
People & HIV / Aids Strategy. - AIDS
& Two-Spirited. (PDF Download): "Men who have sex with men constitute 52.4%
of infections among Aboriginal males." - Part
2: Sexual and Reproductive Health Issues of Concern to Aboriginal
People: Issues for Everyone: Unit 14 — Two-Spirit People and Sexual Diversity. - Attitudes
and Beliefs Towards HIV and AIDS Among Aboriginal Peoples Living in British
Columbia: "Also, HIV/AIDS is associated with injection drug use, another
reality that holds negative connotations within many Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal
communities. We believe that an important first step in HIV/AIDS education
is to dispel fear of the disease by building knowledge through culturally
appropriate teaching. For HIV/AIDS, this includes addressing issues around
homophobia and addictions. In the following study we use a multivariate
logistic analysis to identify differences in attitudes and beliefs towards
HIV/AIDS..." - Raven's
Eye: The Aboriginal Newspaper of British Columbia & Yukon: " "The
Two Spirit Gathering is created out of a need for a space where two-spirited
people can feel safe, to have a community of our own," said Lafferty. "There's
still a lot of homophobia out there, not only in the world at large but
within our own community, so there is a real need for us to be together
and share our stories." - Two-Spirit
Voices - Volume 1(1), Volume 2(2) Newsletter by NNAAPC. (Home Page) - Two-Spirit Update Newletter by NNAAPC: 2002-03. - A Study Comparing Aboriginal Two Spirit Men Who Utilize AIDS Service Organizations Compared to Those Who Do Not. - .Native Americans & HIV/AIDS.
HIV Prevention Issues Among American Indian and Alaska Native “Two-Spirits” (2004, PDF Download):
"There is a paucity of research and few culturally relevant services
addressing the health concerns and HIV risk and prevention needs of
two-spirits. In this article, we overview elements of an indigenist
stress-coping model for use in HIV prevention research and practice,
CDC surveillance data on Natives, key research findings related to
two-spirits and HIV risk, and our current research project on the
topic... Through December 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention reported 2,337 cases of AIDS among Natives (1897 for males
and 439 for females) in the United States. Although this absolute
number is relatively small, the AIDS case rate per 100,000 for Natives
is 12.7 (17.3 for males and 8.3 for females), which is much higher than
for Whites (7.9; 14 for males and 2.2 for females). For men, the major
modes of transmission were MSM (57%), IDU (16%), and MSM and IDU (16%).
For Natives, this last category is higher than for any other ethnic or
racial group. Discouraging as they are, the AIDS surveillance data are
likely huge underestimates for many reasons. First and most
importantly, many Natives with AIDS are misclassified as non-Natives...
Specific research on sexuality and sexual orientation among two-spirits
is limited to a few recent studies (i.e., Saewyc et al., 1996; 1998).
Findings indicate that, compared to non-Natives, Native youth have a
higher prevalence of self-reported GLBT identities and a higher
prevalence of sexual risk factors (e.g., histories of abuse or running
away); earlier onset of heterosexual intercourse; and, among Native
lesbian and bisexual girls, more frequent intercourse... There are no
published studies of adult two-spirits and HIV risk... Recent anecdotal
and empirical evidence suggests that, indeed, two-spirits are at higher
risk for trauma than their Native heterosexual and non-Native GLBT
counterparts. Two-spirits not only contend with racism and colonization
from non-Natives (heterosexual as well as GLBT) but also must deal with
pervasive heterosexism or homonegativity in Native communities... Our
NIMH-funded HONOR Project is the first study to focus on HIV risk among
urban two-spirits. Grounded in the indigenist stresscoping model, it
examines the interrelationships among traumatic stress exposures,
substance use, mental health, and HIV risk behaviors among 72
two-spirit community leaders and 400 two-spirit individuals across six
sites: Los Angeles, San Francisco/Oakland, Seattle/Tacoma, Tulsa,
Minneapolis/St. Paul, and New York City... "
Population-Specific HIV/AIDS Status Report (Rapport d’étape sur le VIH/sida et les populations distinctes : Autochtones) (2010?): Contents. 3.6 Gay, Two-Spirit, Bisexual and other Men Who Have Sex with Men. 3.7 Lesbian, Two-Spirit, Bisexual and other Women Who Have Sex with Women.
Aboriginal Strategy on HIV/AIDS in Canada II: for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples from 2009 to 2014 (PDF Download). Aboriginal Strategy on HIV/AIDS in Canada, Draft, 2001: PDF Download. - Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy: "Getting people to open up and talk about sex, homophobia and AIDS phobia are some of the biggest obstacles to dealing with this issue," says LaVerne Monette. "That, and the tendency to blame victims rather than trying to help them or giving people the information they need to keep them healthy". LaVerne is the provincial coordinator of the Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy and a board member of Two-Spirited People of the First Nations. "The fears and intolerance that many Aboriginal people with HIV/AIDS experience in their communities means that many leave home and come to large communities like Toronto, Sudbury or Thunder Bay to get help or simply some understanding," says LaVerne. "Homophobia doesn?t belong to First Nations people. Before Europeans arrived, gays or two-spirited people as they are known in the Aboriginal community, were accepted and respected. The spirit of tolerance that existed was lost as foreign values were imposed on children and their families." Much of the work that goes on under the Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy involves outreach and education to change biases and attitudes in the community, and providing an opportunity where people can begin to talk about it in a spirit of acceptance and openness." (Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Publications). - Leis, Genevieve (2001). HIV Prevention from Indigenous Youth Perspectives. Master's Dissertation, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia. PDF Download.
Addressing Homophobia In Relation To HIV/AIDS In Aboriginal Communities: "Conclusions: Preliminary results from the literature review reveal that there has been little or no advocacy done to protect the rights of Two Spirit people at-risk of HIV infection and living with HIV/AIDS, despite the fact that this population has experienced the brunt of the HIV epidemic in the Aboriginal population. Issues and rights related to gender and sexual orientation must be addressed by Aboriginal governments and communities as they increasingly take control of their health services and negotiate self-government agreements with Canada." - Addressing Homophobia in Relation to HIV/AIDS in Aboriginal Communities: PDF Download. - Embracing Our Two Spirited Relatives (Mending the Sacred Hoop Technical Assistance Project Introductory Manual 2003): PDF Download N/A. - Trauma and HIV Risk Among Urban Gay/Bisexual/Two Spirit American Indian Men: Research Findings and Decolonizing Practice Strategies: "Findings revealed that two spirit Native men were more likely to report being victimized and engaging in HIV risk behaviors than heterosexual Native men. Moreover, prevalence of HIV was surprisingly high." - HIV Vulnerability among LGBT and Two-spirited Youth who Migrate to Toronto: A Community -Based Research Project (2005).
Ryan B (2003). A New Look at Homophobia and Heterosexism in Canada. Canadian AIDS Society. Internet (http://www.cdnaids.ca/web/repguide.nsf/cl/cas-rep-0188): "2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations (TPFN) became an organization in
Toronto in 1989. They recently released a report titled, “Voices of
Two-Spirited Men: A Survey of Two-Spirited Men Across Canada” (Monette, Albert & Waalen, 2001).
This initiative demonstrates the new paradigm of Aboriginal commuity
based research, being that Aboriginal people ask the questions, own the
research agenda, and ensure that the community is aware of the
findings. The survey had 189 respondents from six regions of Canada.
Half reported that they were HIV-positive and most identified as Two
Spirits (58%) or gay (48%), some using both terms. The report
concludes, "The core issue of homophobia must be addressed if we
seriously hope to see a reduction in risk-taking behaviour among
Two-Spirited men. There are too many Two-Spirits who are excluded from
the circle, estranged from their traditions, families, and communities.
Our survey respondents have shown us their deep craving for
self-esteem, familial love, community belonging, and spiritual
connection. If their families and reserves reject them – if their
traditional healers, elders, and teachers denounce them – they will try
to find what they are seeking elsewhere. More than any other factor, it
is the sense of alienation that contributes to engaging in the
high-risk activities that make them vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. The
painkiller used, and the dosage, is as individual as the pain and the
pain threshold. - Critical
issues in practice with gay, lesbian, bisexual and two-spirit people
educational module for professionals in the fields of health and allied
health. By Shari Brotman and Bill Ryan (2001)
Monette L, Albert D, Waalen J (2001). Voices of Two-Spirited Men, A Survey of Aboriginal Two-Spirited Men Across Canada, 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations. Toronto. Internet: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~asa/data/Voices_of_Two-Spirited_Men-Part_One.doc - http://www.uoguelph.ca/~asa/data/Voices_of_Two-Spirited_Men-Part_Two.doc - http://www.2spirits.com/Voice2SpiritMen.pdf
: "This study is about knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and social
conditions of Aboriginal, two-spirited men across Canada. It was
commissioned by 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations in Toronto and was
distributed by researchers at the Centre for Quality Service Research,
Ryerson University. Aboriginal people representing various communities
were involved in the development of the survey questions... These
two-spirited men face enormous pressures - racism, homophobia, poor
housing. Many have experienced homelessness and unemployment. Yet
they are very concerned about the threat of HIV in their communities of
origin. They express a great deal of worry for Aboriginal people.
Almost half of them are HIV+, yet many of them avoid medical treatment
due to fear of discrimination because of their status and lack of
information about where to go for services... Other factors that place
Aboriginal people at risk are outlined in the Ontario Aboriginal
HIV/AIDS Strategy (1996). They include the high rates of sexually
transmitted diseases, non-consensual sex (sexual assault, incest,
abuse), lack of self-esteem, intravenous and injection drug use (IDU),
the abuse of alcohol especially in conjunction with other drugs, and
limited safer sex education. "For two-spirit people, and in particular
two-spirit youth, whose identity may be repeatedly assaulted by racism
and homophobia, the risk for suicide is dangerously high" (Manitoba
Aboriginal AIDS Task Force, 1998)... our focus group interviews seem to
show that urban Aboriginal gays do not seem to identify themselves as
two-spirited but rather as "gay"... In a small study of transsexuals
(n=40), half of whom were of Aboriginal ancestry, Rekart et al. (1993)
found that this group faced serious social difficulties including
homelessness, discrimination, physical abuse, racism and homophobia.
HIV risk behaviours were common including unprotected receptive anal
intercourse (85%), prostitution (90%), and infection drug use with
needle sharing (62%)... For some participants, disclosure of sexual
orientation and HIV positive status was a difficult process. Many of
the participants expressed an early realization and rejection of the
(gay) "party scene." The participants also described many of the
difficulties of coming out on the reserve and within the Aboriginal
community... Participants identified how historically the Berdache or
two-spirited people were considered important members of the community.
However, the participants also described how present day attitudes,
namely the lack of acceptance of gay identified individuals and people
living with HIV/AIDS have manifested into ostracizing and
discrimination from within the Aboriginal community and even from band
leaders and Aboriginal governments. These circumstances have forced
some of the participants off of their reserves... Many of the
participants came from and lived in a variety of foster homes,
shelters, and rooming houses and/or were involved with Children's Aid
Society. They also described their current crisis in lack of
housing. Several of the participants have lived on the streets
surviving through drug trafficking and/or the sex trade... Practically
all of the participants survived by working in the sex trade and/or the
drug trade. One participant described his alleged involvement in
other criminal activity such as break and enters... All participants
described experiencing discrimination of some form. One
participant described his experiences of racism (within the gay
community). Other participants elucidated their experiences of
homophobia within their respective families and Aboriginal
communities... Despite many of difficulties that the participants
described it seems all of them have found some way to cope and
survive. Most notably many of the focus group participants used
humour to deal with their circumstances. Most of the
participants appeared highly independent and one participant described
it as "taking care of oneself."...
Deschamps G (1998). We Are Part of a Tradition: A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations Communities. Mino-B'maa:diziwin, 2-Spirited of the 1st Nations, Toronto: PDF Download. A Quebec version of the document having the same title "We Are Part of a Tradition: A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations Communities" was produced by the First Nations of Quebec and Labrador Health and Social Services Commission: PDF Download N/A.
"We, as the two-spirited community, must heal. We must re-learn that to
be two-spirited is an honour. We have grown up with the single message
that lesbians and gay men are sick. We are in the process of rebuilding
a positive self-image as a result of this past. And if, as in the
larger First Nations community, two-spirited people suffer from
suicide, substance abuse and short life spans, then we must recognize
this as symptom of a very different illness. We, as two-spirited
people, identify ourselves very strongly as members of the First
Nations. We take an interest in the future of our Nations and wish to
play an active role in that future... Rejection by one's own cultural
group can be psychologically evastating. “Two-Spirit[ed] People . .
have experienced homophobia resulting in rejection from family and
community. Some individuals experience internalized homophobia, and an
inability to accept their own sexuality due to judgemental attitudes
from society in general. Lack of acceptance produces ramifications of
substance abuse, sexual, mental & physical abuse, no family or
community support, internalized racism, sex trade, language barriers,
low self-esteem, shame, fear, guilt, lack of work experience/education,
lack of safer sex negotiating skills, sexual identity crisis and lack
of peer counselling. This scenario has produced isolation which may
result in suicide.” [McLeod, Albert, and Peterson, Treasure (1993) Care
and Treatment of Aboriginal People with HIV/AIDS (Manitoba Aboriginal
AIDS Task Force). Winnipeg, March 1993.] ... The affect of racism on
Aboriginal peoples in Canada has been well documented. This oppression
has resulted in many social ills that plague First Nations people
today. Poverty, substance abuse, violence and suicide are all part of
the reality for Aboriginal people. As in the larger First Nations
community, two-spirited people suffer from the same adversities.
However, these problems are compounded as many two-spirited people are
rejected and ostracized by their own communities. In a world that does
not honour indigenous people, two-spirited people suffer “triple
oppression” -- as Natives, as homosexuals, and in the case of
two-spirited lesbians, as women. In many cases, the internalization of
negative stereotypes about two-spirited people has led to
self-destructive behaviour... AIDS-Related Stigma has had dire
consequences for two-spirited people. The effects of being both
homosexual and Aboriginal are devastating. Two-spirited people face
discrimination from inside and outside their communities. Problems of
identity formation in the face of intense prejudice make being either
homosexual or/and Aboriginal more than enough for one individual -
particularly two-spirited youth - to cope with. Self-destructive
behaviour among two-spirited youth in the forms of substance abuse,
suicide, unsafe sexual practices, are very extensive..."
Honouring and Caring for Aboriginal People and Communities in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS: " This paper provides an organizational overview of Healing Our Spirit BC First Nations AIDS Society (Healing Our Spirit), and introduces the holistic healing and Aboriginal specific service delivery model that Healing Our Spirit uses to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The HIV/AIDS epidemic compels many Aboriginal communities to deal with the complex issues associated with HIV/AIDS. While in the process of strengthening and regaining cultural and social systems, Aboriginal peoples also face inter-generational, interconnected, and socio-economic issues. Specifically, these issues include sexual abuse, homophobia, shame, lack of housing, lack of education, and alcohol and drug use and addiction. In large part, these are a legacy of colonization and residential schools. Healing Our Spirit has developed culturally sensitive and relevant community development strategies to address the multiple and complex challenges in the field of HIV/AIDS..."
For Diversity (Winnipeg, Manitoba, October 16-19, 2003 - Forum
Report - Word
97 Download): "This report contains the ideas, knowledge and insight
that took place over a three and a half day session in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The “Youth For Diversity” Project, aims to bring approximately 25 youth
together in one arena to discuss, debate and create ideas and plans around
the issue of diversity. Half of the session was spent looking at
the individual and group definitions of diversity, with sessions that included
both reflective and group exercises. Small groups were formed to
further flesh out concepts around diversity—racism, ageism, sexual orientation,
access to resources, etc. - to further understand the impact that diversity
has had on us and those around us. To add to these sessions, three
guest speakers were invited to address the group around particular issues
that are present in our communities. The guest speaker topics ranged
from the particular Aboriginal issues that urban youth face today, poverty
and homelessness amongst youth, homophobia and personal experiences with
racial stereotyping and discrimination..."
Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Native American Images).
(1997). - Two-Spirit
People. - Film:
Two-Spirited People. - Children
of the Rainbow: Two-Spirited First Nations Group Takes Major Arts Award N/A.
Anagaat Yatx'i (Children of the Rainbow): Related Information: PDF Download. - "The
Berdache" - a play by Cheryl Ann Costa: PDF Download. - Other
Plays by Cheryl Ann Costa. - Cheryl Ann Costa Website. - The
Work of Beth Brant. - Lambda
Project tackles Two-Spirits for Upcoming Rainbow Theater Festival. - Two-Spirit
People by Michael Beauchemin, Lori Levy, and Gretchen Vogel (Video: 1991).
Long Eyes of Earth - Video:
Honored by the Moon. - Two-Spirited and Multifaceted: Two controversial works are screened at the 2005 Vancouver Aboriginal Film Festival. - Fires Were Started: An Interview with Noam Gonick:
"Noam Gonick’s new film, Stryker (2004), arrives with an immodest
agenda. It wants to revise assumptions about indigenous people, and
perhaps even change the way they view themselves..." - A Poet Finds His Past Is Just Where He Left It (Film Review): The Business of Fancydancing.
Visible Sexualities or Invisible Nations: Forced to Choose in Big Eden
- by Lisa Tatonetti (2010): "This essay examines the construction of
Two-Spirit identity in three contemporary narrative films, Big Eden, Johnny Greyeyes, and The Business of Fancydancing,
arguing that, despite each story's focus on a queer Native protagonist,
by their conclusions each film fractures Two-Spirit identities..." - TWO SPIRITS: Sexuality, Gender, and the Murder of Fred Martinez (2009). (Google Search). - Two-Spirit: a movie about Fred Martinez Jr (2010). - Two-spirit film criticism: Fancydancing with Imitates Dog, Desjarlais and Alexie (2010). - Two Spirit Films. - Two Spirit Videos Online. - Cal Poly to Present Film Screening and Discussion on Two-Spirited People in Native American Culture.
the empowering story of Rodney "Geeyo" Poucette's shattering encounter
with prejudice and his journey to overcome it. As a two spirited person
(gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered), Geeyo hasn't always been
so readily accepted in some Aboriginal communities. In August 2000,
Geeyo registered as a dancer in the Kamloopa Powwow under the Jingle
Dress category - a category normally reserved for women. After
competing, an elder discovered that Geeyo was, in fact, a man and took
away his championship...
Tomson Highway Website. - Tomson Highway Biography. - Tomson Highway Books. - Tomson Highway. - Tomson Highway, guest of honour at the 2006 Festival Voix d'Amériques (Word RTF Download):
"He's Cree. He's gay. He spends half his time in the south of France
and the other half in northern Ontario. Without a doubt, he is one of
the leading Aboriginal writers in North America. And if that's not
enough, he's also an accomplished pianist and an exceptional
communicator who speaks English, French and Cree. He will be the guest
of honour at the next Festival Voix d'Amériques, giving
Montréal audiences a rare opportunity to catch this
entertaining, outstanding artist and hear him perform in English and
French.Tomson Highway is one of Canada's foremost playwrights. Born in
a tent in a snow bank in northern Manitoba, he spent the first few
years of his life in the forest before being placed in a residential
school, like many of his generation. He studied at the University of
Manitoba, in London, England, and at the University of Western Ontario,
earning degrees in music and literature. His first play, The Rez
Sisters, took the theatre scene by storm, winning the Dora Mavor Moore
Award as well as representing Canada at the Edinburgh International
Festival and being nominated for the Governor General's Literary
Awards. He followed up with Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing, which
again won the Dora Mavor Moore Award along with the Floyd S. Chalmers
Award." - Tomson Highway.
The Universe of Tomson Highway. - Tomson Highway touches many (2008). - Tomson Highway to speak on Aboriginal literature (2009). - Tomson Highway back from hiatus (2010). - Tomson Highway - Toronto Premiere - 'KISAGEETIN: A CABARET' (2010). - Tomson Highway's Kisageetin: A Cabaret (2010). - The Tomson Highway experience (2010). - Tomson Highway at U of M for week ‘in residence’ (2010). - Tomson Highway releases plays in Cree (2010). - World Premiere of Tomson Highway’s New Musical (2011).
René Highway (1954-1990):
Canadian dancer and actor of Cree descent from Brochet, Manitoba. He
was the brother of playwright Tomson Highway, with whom he frequently
collaborated during their time at Native Earth Performing Arts in
Toronto, and the partner of actor and singer Micah Barnes. Highway
studied dance at the Toronto Dance Theatre, Denmark's Tukak Theatre,
and at the Native Canadian Centre in Toronto. René Highway
helped to create the role of Nanabush in his brother's play The Rez
Sisters (1986), and was the choreographer for Dry Lips Oughta Move to
Kapuskasing (1989).He died of AIDS-related causes in 1990. Native Earth
Performing Arts started the René Highway Foundation in his
Videos: Interview Tomson Highway. - Tomson Highway: Talks About the Cree Language. - Rockburn Presents - Tomson Highway. - Tomson Highway ideaCity05 Part 1. - Tomson Highway ideaCity05 Part 2. - Tomson Highway - "The Indian Woman". - Video Book Review The Rez Sisters by Tomson Highway.wmv. - Tomson Highway: On The Treeline. - Videos of Tomson Highway:
1. Tomson Highway Talks About the People. - 2. Tomson Highway Talks
About Canada's Treeline. - 3. Tomson Highway Talks About Canada's
Wildlife. - 4. Tomson Highway Talks About Caribou. - 5. Tomson Highway
Talks About the Cree Language. 6. Tomson Highway Talks About Canada's
Beauty. - Tomson Highway: Thank You for the Love You Gave (1997): A documentary portrait of the brilliant Cree playwright, musician, and novelist, Tomson Highway.
Chang, Oswald Yuan-Chin (2008). Tomson Highway's "The Rez" plays: theater as the Merging of native ritual through postmodernist displacement. Nebula, December. Full Text.
Agokwe celebrates two-spirited First Nations
(2011): Nanabush, the trickster in many First Nation’s storytelling,
threads together the tale of two young men battling with their
sexuality, while giving context to the influence of Western influence
on the changing attitudes towards homosexuality in the one-man play Agokwe.
The play, which ran from Jan. 17 to Jan. 22 at the Cultch theatre,
follows Jake, a shy, young, gay First Nation’s man, and Mike, a sought
after hockey player who masks his homosexuality with bravado. The two
locked eyes at a Warehouse One Jeans store at the Kenora Shopping Mall,
but have never met because they live on different reserves and hide
their sexuality... - Gay love on the rez: Hockey, powwow and two boys connecting (2011). - Review: ‘We’re all agokwe’ (2011).
Aboriginal Arts Kicks Off Summer Programs (2001) N/A: Aboriginal Arts Program; Banff. - WagonBurner Theater
Troop: An Evolving Indian Theater Experience. - Native Spring 2005:
"the annual festival of indigenous events in San Francisco by the
Native American Cultural Center (NACC). This year our theme is
indigenous Americas, inspired by the remarkable film "The Motorcycle
Diaries." Our theme explores interrelationships between
indigenous people and lands throughout the western hemisphere. We
are very excited to welcome the Fulni-O Tribe of Brazil to San
Francisco as part of this year's festival. So enjoy the great
variety of performances, lectures, nature events, and activities --
there is something in Native Spring for everyone! And be sure to
check out the Native foods before your evening show." - An aboriginal adaptation of Romeo and Juliet by the well-known
Canadian actor and playwright Billy Merasty, the play is more commonly
known as Godly's Divinia (A Love Story). Bill Merasty: "Manitoba-born actor and writer Billy Merasty comes from a distinguished line
of First Nations artists. His uncles, the late ballet dancer Renee Highway and
the writer Tomson Highway provided gay-positive role models for the young Two-Spirited
man growing up in a homophobic small town in northern Manitoba." - Billy Merasty.
Qwo-Li Driskill: "Cherokee Two-Spirit and Queer poet/activist/educator also of African, Irish, Lenape, Lumbee, and Osage ascent. An award winning writer, Qwo-Li's work has appeared in Many Mountains Moving, Mavin Magazine, The Raven Chronicles, Crab Orchard Review and the anthologies Nurturing Native Languages, Revolutionary Voices: A Multicultural Queer Youth Anthology and Speak to Me Words: Essays on Contemporary American Indian Poetry. Qwo-Li speaks across the country on issues of concern to First Nations Two-Spirit people, mixed-race people, queer and trans people, and people of color..." - Indigenous Literature with a Queer/LGBT/Two-Spirit Sensibility. - First Nations Literatures: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Two-Spirited Native Writers. - LGBT/TS indigenous resources.
Swanson, Kerry (2005). The Noble Savage Was a Drag Queen. Hemispheric Institute’s e-misférica forum, Fall, issue 2.2. PDF Download.
Conclusion: "As Homi Bhabha writes, freedom for those marginalized by
colonization exists through the creation of new hybrid spaces beyond
the confines, constructs, and definitions created by the colonizers.
Freedom is the act of creating and existing in a place beyond
definitions, beyond black and white, somewhere in the blurry space
beyond the culturally safe margins of identity. Sexuality and its many
taboos are nothing more than imaginary constructs that are given codes
and rules as a method to enforce power. Names, rules, and acceptance
levels change according to the dominant ideology of a specific time and
place. In this way, something that was once a source of pride can
easily become a site of shame, as in the case of non-heterosexuality
under Christianity. Monkman refuses to accept the Christian constructs
that were established and reinforced by colonial rule, and continue to
deny and suppress the once-celebrated sexual diversity within Native
tribes. Through his visual and performance art, Monkman
successfully creates a third space, where a time-traveling half-breed
drag queen can take ownership over her history and sexual identity.
From this position, the margins are the center, and the power of
definition belongs to the once-marginalized. In creating this space,
Monkman acknowledges the rightful place of the Two-Spirited person in
traditional history, and encourages discourse that reflects on and
amends the loss of Native sexuality through Christian imperialism.
Resources: - The International Two Spirit Gathering Website. - 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations. - NativeOut: Phoenix. - Tulsa Two-Spirit Society. - Minnesota Two-Spirit Society. - Bay Area American Indian Two Spirits (BAAITS). - Two-Spirit Society of Denver. - NorthEast Two-Spirit Society. - Two Spirit Circle of Edmonton Society N/A (Facebook). - 18th International Two Spirit Gathering 2006. - AIDS & Two-Spirited. - Two-Spirited People (McGill University). - International GLBT Native Press Archive. - Canadian Caucus for Two-Spirited and Queers of Colour, Egale Canada. - The Intersection of Sexual Orientation & Race: Considering the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered People of Colour & Two-Spirited People (GLBT People of Colour & two-spirited People). - Oklahoma Gay Natives. - Ohio Valley Two-Spirit Society. - Two-spirited people of Ontario & Friends of.
Resource Links: - 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations Links. - Two-Spirited Youth Program (Vancouver, B.C.) - First Nations and Two-Spirited People. - Two-Spirited Native People. - The Two-Spirit Tradition. - Minnesota Two-Spirit Society. - WhiteWolf's Den. - Perceptions (the first twenty-two years 1983-2004) Indigenous People. - Native American Berdache -Two Spirit People - Gender Does Not Determine Sexuality. - Canadian Rainbow Health Coalition: Two-Spirited Documents. - Two Spirit Voices.
Native American Resources. - People
of Color: Native American Links. - The
Native American Resources Page by the Lesbian
Gay Bisexual Transgender Resource Center, UC-Riverside. - SAADAYA:
A Call to Reclaim Queer Spiritual Traditions N/A. - Yahoo Two Spirit Group. - Two Spirit Social Networking Groups. - International Two-Spirit Links.
Will Rosco Website: Books, Articles, Essays.
Bibliographies: - Learning about "Two-Spirited People" in the American Indians Studies Library. - The two-spirit tradition in native American experience: Bibliography. - Books on native homosexuality. - Indigenous Literature with a Queer/LGBT/Two-Spirit Sensibility. - American Indian Gay/Lesbian Topics. - Two-spirit articles and books. - Gay & Lesbian History: North America: Pre-Modern History. - Two Spirit People: Selected Readings: PDF Download. - U.S. Literature: Gender in Native American Literatures and Cultures.- Two-Spirit People: A Bibliography. - Two Spirit Bibliography. - American Indian Gay & Lesbian Bibliography. - Serving the Two-Spirit Community: A guide for librarians. - Two-Spirit Youth: Trauma and Healing: Citations and Additional Resources. - Queer Theory: Native American Books. - Indigenous Literature with a Queer/LGBT/Two-Spirit Sensibility. - Mini-Pathfinder: Resources for Two Spirit Youth and Their Advocates (2010).
Bowers R (2007). A
bibliography on Aboriginal and minority concerns: Identity, prejudice,
marginalisation, and healing in relation to gender, sexuality, and the ecology of place . Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, 3(2), Indigenous Special Issue, 46-88. PDF Download. Download Page. Author Website.
People Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality
- 1997 - edited by Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang (Google Books) (Amazon). - The
Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture - 1992 - by
Walter L. Williams (Abstract) (Author Website) (Excerpts) (Amazon) (Review) (Review)
(Review) (Google Books) - Changing
Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America - 1998 - by
Will Rosco. (Review) (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books). - The
Zuni Man-Woman - 1991 -by Will Rosco (Review). (Alternate
Link) (Summary) (Summary) (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books) (The Zuni Man-Woman: A Documentary Drama by Will Rosco, 1998). - Living
the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology - 1988, 1998 - edited by Will Rosco. - Many
Faces of Gender: Roles and Relationships Through Time in Indigenous Northern
Communities (Northern Lights, Calgary, Alta.), V. 2. - 2002 - edited
by Lisa Frink, Shepard Rita S., Gregory A. Reinhardt (Review).
Books: - Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas - 1999 - by Richard C. Trexler: "His book is doubtless not only the best study of the American berdache, but also a significant contribution to the understanding of the development of power and authority in human society." (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). Powers, Karen Vieira (2002). Conquering Discourses of "Sexual Conquest": Of Women, Language, and Mestizaje. Colonial Latin American Review, 11(2) PDF Download N/A. Excerpt. "Finally, Richard Trexler’s book Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas (1995) turns our attention away from the sexual violence suffered by indigenous women and toward that of equally abused men—European, Native American and otherwise. His main subjects of investigation are male rape, homosexual passives, and the berdache (transvestized men raised as women in some Native American cultures to serve other, more powerful men in all things, including sex). Trexler’s most important insight is that the sexual abuse of men was merely another form of using sexuality and gender to establish hierarchy, but among same-sex groups. Even outside their dominant position vis-a`-vis women, some European and Native American men sought to dominate other men through sexual penetration, thereby creating a male hierarchy by turning less powerful men into women. If, as Trexler states, male rape (or “to be turned into a woman”) was the ultimate punishment and humiliation for a man, then it is clear that this practice and the discursive formations that grew out of it were deeply embedded in misogynist ideologies. Hence, the underlying principles of Trexler’s analysis about men are intimately tied to the gender discourses of power relations that began, first and foremost, with the subordination and even abhorrence of women, regardless ofrace or class, by the men of the period."
Books: - J. Spencer Rowe, Author Web Site N/A: - The Last of the Dodo's: Voice of the Two Spirit (creative non-fiction) (Preview): "The first ever published narrative book about Two Spirit Native Americans written entirely by a Two Spirit Native American. (Ojibwa) It speaks directly to the huge costs incurred when society removes the sacred from community." - Half Breed - RAW: ...is a photographic and text journey taking us on a healing path as we view each black and white photograph of a nude and semi-nude (exposed) Two-Spirit Native American. Complimented with Poetry this essay reaffirms the existence of the sacred Two-Spirit Native American people...
Books: - Two Spirit People: American Indian Lesbian Women and Gay Men - 1997 - edited by Lester B. Brown (Google Books) (Book Review). Also published in the Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 6(2) - Abstracts - Abstracts: Preface: Sharing the Gift of Sacred Being. - Women and Men, Not-Men and Not-Women, Lesbians and Gays: Gender Style Alternatives. - Gender Selection in Two American tribes. - American Indian Lesbians and Gays: An Exploratory Study. - Urban Lesbian and Gay American Indian Identity: Implications for Mental Health Service Delivery. - That's What They Say: The Implications of American Indian Gay and Lesbian Literature for Social Service Workers. - Developing AIDS Services for Native Americans: Rural and Urban Contrasts. - AIDS Prevention in a Rural American Indian Population: A Collaborative Effort Between Community and Providers. - Sexuality, Nationality, Indigeneity (A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies) - 2010 - edited by Daniel Heath Justice, Mark Rifkin, Bethany Schneider (Duke Uiversity Press).
Search GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Search BGLAD. - Search the QRD. - Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - Search Google.com. - Search Google Scholar. - Search Google's G:LBT Directory. - MSN Search. - Search findarticles.com: many full text articles and papers.
IngentaConnect: The most comprehensive collection of academic and professional
publications. - Search Project
Muse: Scholarly Journals Online. - Search
JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Search
The National Library of Medicine.