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Full Text Papers!  - - AsiaPacifiQueer 3
Sexualities, Genders, And Rights in Asia: An International Conference of Asian Queer Studies
Bangkok, Thailand, July 8-10, 2005
Closing date for submitting paper and panel proposals: October 31, 2004

Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity.

Part 1: Issues for People of Colour in some Western Countries. - Part 2: Latin America & Africa.

Part 3: Section Index

Section 3C - Northeast Asia (This Page): - China - History - Films - Web Resources. -- Hong Kong - Films - Web Resources. -- Taiwan  - Films - Web Resources. -- Macau -- Tibet -- Mongolia -- South Korea - Web Resources. -- Japan - History  - Films - Web Resources - Books -- General Asian Resources -- General International Resources.

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Section 3D - Southeast Asia / Pacific Islands: - Vietnam - Web Resources - Books. -- Thailand - Web Resources - Books. -- Singapore - Web Resources - Books. -- Malaysia - Web Resources - Books. -- Philippines - Web Resources - Books. -- Indonesia -- East Timor -- Laos -- Burma -- Brunei -- Guam -- Nauru -- General Asian Resources.

Section 3A - Middle East to Central Asia: - Middle East / Eastern Mediterranean Region: - Iran -- Israel -- Palestine -- Lebanon -- Jordan -- Saudi Arabia -- Kuwait -- Iraq -- Bahrain -- Oman -- Yemen -- Syria -- Egypt -- Algeria -- Morocco -- Tunesia -- Turkey -- Cyprus -- General International Resources. -- Afghanistan -- Kazakhstan -- Kyrgyzstan -- Uzbekistan -- Turkmenistan -- Tajikistan.

Section 3B - South Asia: - South Asia - Web Resources - Bibliographies - Books: - India - Films -- Bangladesh -- Nepal -- Sri Lanka -- Pakistan -- Bhutan -- Maldives.

Amnesty International: Hong Kong: LGBT Group
LGBT Group: Page Header...

The higher you build your barriers
The taller I become
The further you take my rights away
The faster I will run
You can deny me
You can decide to turn your face away
No matter 'cause there's
 Something inside so strong
I know that I can make it
Though you're doing me wrong, so wrong
You thought that my pride was gone... oh no
There's something inside so strong
Something inside so strong"
~~ extracted lyrics of ''Something Inside So Strong'' by Labi Siffre on "So Strong" ~~
© 1998 China Records Ltd.


CHINA: Section Index: General Information - Lesbian / Lala - Transgender - HIV/AIDS & Safer Sex - Male-Male Sex Workers / Male Prostitution - History - Films & The Arts - Resources: Conferences / University / Books / Internet

General Information

Homosexuality in China (Wikipedia). - History of homosexuality (2002): Contrary to common assumptions,Chinese homosexuality dates back more than 3,000 years. - Homosexuality in China (2010): In China, where tradition reigns, homosexuality is no longer taboo. What is the view from those living in the country? - Gay Beijing: A Journalistic Challenge (2008). - La vie gay en Chine (2007, Translation). - Gay en Chine: pour vivre heureux, vivons cachés. - Les artistes homosexuels en Chine (2011, Translation).  - Homosexualité en Chine : ambiguïtés contemporaines (2010, Translation). - Being gay in China: Your stories (BBC, 2010). - Official gay bar to open in China's Dali (2009). - New Day for Shanghai Nights (2009): The occasion was a daylong celebration with drag shows, Chinese opera performances, mock same-sex weddings - and, yes, a “hot body” contest - to help conclude Shanghai’s first Gay Pride Week. - China's leading queer webcast launches third season with a big gay bang (2009). - Shanghai gay life flourishes (2010): Shanghai has a flourishing gay scene with an emergence of new bars, clubs and social groups although a good number of the men who participate are married to women, reports AFP.- How to speak gay in Shanghai (2010): As ShanghaiPRIDE continues, beefing up your Shanghai gay lexicon might help you connect with Shanghai's LGBT scene. - Nuovi paradisi gay. Shanghai. la San Francisco d'Oriente (2010, Translation). - La La Love: Hanging out at Beijing's Lesbian Center (2012). - La La Land: The Low-down on Shanghai's Lesbian Scene (2012). - China Not Ready for Gay Marriage (2012).

LGBT Community Leader Conference in Beijing debates future of LGBT movement (2012): In a historic first, the conference managed to gather a varied selection of Chinese LGBT movement leaders. Emphasizing the participation of communities whose voice remains largely underrepresented in China’s LGBT movement, representatives of the lesbian, gay & straight community shared the stage with (among others) leaders of organizations focusing on wives of gay men, bisexuality, transgender issues, disabled LGBT, parents of LGBT, SM, sex workers and HIV/AIDS issues. Both developed and underdeveloped regions were represented, with leaders from far-away regions such as Tibet and Xinjiang also joining in the debates. In total, more than 80 LGBT activists, representing 53 organizations and over 23 different regions in China actively participated in the conference. Focusing on the topic “Cooperation and Development of Chinese LGBT Organizations”, the conference saw intense debates about the development of ideas, tactics and future directions for the LGBT movement in China, and about problems and difficulties LGBT Organizations are currently facing in their development and their collaboration with other organizations... At the plenary debate, which was held at the end of the conference, participants debated the results of a questionnaire distributed amongst the representatives of the conference. Asked about the necessity for Chinese LGBT organizations to issue a unified voice on public policy and legal issues, 57 answered positively, while 2 questionnaires mentioned a negative answer. All representatives unanimously agreed to publish a summary of the workshops and the debates (which will be available soon on the website of the Beijing Gender Health Education Institute,, and expressed their enthusiasm to continue the discussions and jointly prepare for the following LGBT Conference which will be organized in 2013. The closing words were for Xiaogang Wei: “Strengthening the LGBT movement is our common responsibility. So let’s continue to work together towards a better future!”

Zooming in on LGBT issues (2012): A program trains lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community members to create documentaries about their realities. Liu Wei reports in Beijing. Yue Jianbo not only discovered he was gay but also that some of his coworkers were, too, when he was working as a coal miner. Still, Yue, who loves rock music and marathons, felt like an outsider at the mine in the small town of Yangquan, Shanxi province. In March, he traveled to Beijing to join a workshop on making documentaries about the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. "There are documentaries about gay people and there are documentaries about coal miners, so why not make one about gay coal miners?" he says. He applied for the workshop run by the Beijing Gender Health Education Institute, LBGT online video-sharing website Queer Comrades and the China Queer Independent Films, a LBGT rights film tour. China Queer Independent Films founder and a documentary director Fan Popo explains: "I found when traveling across the country that many LGBT people want to learn how to make documentaries, which possess great power to promote understanding among different groups of people. Perhaps this workshop can help them realize their dreams."

Beijing Queer Film Festival 2009: Allowed to Proceed (2009): The Beijing Queer Film Festival 2009 started without police confrontation on Wednesday, June 17.  Some 500 people were estimated to be at the opening event of the second annual Beijing Queer Film Festival, which showcased 16 artists over the course of a week. Continue reading at Beijing Queer Film Festival 2009: Allowed to Proceed. - Shanghai Pride: China Gay Pride Festival Its First Ever (2009). - Hundreds turn up for first Shanghai gay pride day (2009). - Pride Without a Parade (2009): China's first gay pride event was met with red tape. - State media praises Shanghai gays (2009): China's first gay pride festival has been praised in the state media in a significant shift from the previous attitude to such events. The festival was described in the China Daily newspaper as an event of "profound significance" and a "showcase of the country's social progress". - Out and Proud: Shanghai’s LGBT Scene (2011): Although Shanghai still has some way to go before being gay is totally acceptable, it is almost certainly the best place to be if you identify as LGBT in China. The first Gay Pride event in Mainland China took place here back in summer 2009, and there’s no shortage of bars, clubs, mailing lists and groups (including ShanghaiLGBT) to connect the gay community. - Shanghai Pride kicks off on Saturday (2012): A week of LGBT proud celebrations in China’s financial capital. - Gay Guangzhou Couples Display their Affection in Public (2012): On April 2nd at around 11am, three gay couples stood outside the Guangzhou Gongyuanqian metro station near Beijing Road and Zhonghua Square, kissing and embracing. The scene attracted many jubilant spectators, who cheered the couples on and took photos. - Same-sex kissing festival in Guangzhou (2012): Couples smooch in public for equality in the south China city.

Shanghai's openness to gays offers hope (2010): In a shabby hall in a working-class area of Shanghai, dozens of men slow dance to a ballad, enjoying a few hours in the company of other homosexuals before going home - many to their wives. Every weekend evening, men of all ages pay seven yuan (US$1) to waltz, rumba and be themselves  -  no small feat in China, where homosexuals still face crushing social and familial pressure. “If you're gay and people find out in my hometown, everything is over,” said Leon, a 28-year-old tour guide from the eastern province of Anhui who has lived in Shanghai for 10 years, is married and has a boyfriend on the side. “But in Shanghai, there are a lot of people like us and places like this - it's a good city for us.” - Gay men 'marry' in Beijing (2011): Two men in Beijing have reportedly held a "comparatively open" wedding ceremony with about 50 friends in attendance as reports quote a HIV/AIDS prevention volunteer and emcee at the wedding as saying that same-sex marriages will help reduce the chances of HIV infection among gay men. - Shanghai's 'fake marriage' market: Gay men and women try to fit in (2011): Many gay men and women in Shanghai are seeking out heterosexual marriages to please their families. - In Shanghai, Gays Marry Lesbians (2010). - Sham marriages for Shanghai's gay community (2010): What kind of a lie is acceptable to keep your parents happy? In a Shanghai restaurant, a wedding is under way. It looks real. There is a cake, champagne and dozens of guests, but the whole thing is a sham. The groom is gay. The bride is a lesbian. The scene is recorded on a wedding video their parents - unaware of the arrangement - treasure as a record of the day. - Shanghai Fake Marriage Market Draws Gays And Lesbians Seeking Husbands And Wives (2011). - Beijing's 'happy couples' launch campaign for same-sex marriages (2009): Wedding pictures event as gay community fights hostility and discrimination.

Gay life in China is legal but remains hidden (2010). - Homosexuals and Gay Life in China (2011). Mainland China hosts first gay pageant (2010, Video): Eight men competing in Mr Gay China, which organisers say is a striking sign of how far attitudes to homosexuality have changed. - Millions of women married to gay men in China: Experts (2012). - ‘Long road ahead’ for gays and lesbians in China (2010): “There is still a long road ahead for LGBT [Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender] people in China,” the Beijing-based lesbian activist Eva Lee told Macau Daily Times. Lee says that most people don’t “come out of the closet” because their parents think it’s a disease and they don’t want to jeopardize their careers. Eva Lee, a Macau native claims that the LGBT community is pretty big in the biggest Chinese cities, like Beijing, Shanghai or Guangzhou. In the film industry, where she works, “there are many people very open about it.” But outside this sector the visibility is not very high, Lee confirms. - Over three-quarters of Chinese gay students bullied at school (2012). - One in three HIV cases in China attributed to gay or bisexual men (2011). - Public health challenges of the emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in China (2011). - Gay, Lesbian and HIV Grassroots Growing in China (2012).

Beijing's Gay Community Fights Censorship (2011): When the Beijing LGBT Center screened a prerecorded lecture on gay-themed movies last year, the venue was so packed that latecomers had to jostle for a spot on the windowsills of the rented classroom doubling as their makeshift theater. This year, however, a similar event attracted only a handful of people, leaving much of the same room empty. The organizers soon realized their online announcements never reached the community. Soon after, other lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) groups reported that their posts were disappearing from Douban, ostensibly one of China's most liberal social-networking websites. They have since banded together to boycott the site.

A rainbow anniversary: On the paradoxes of lesbian and gay life in contemporary China (2009): Due to this situation, few lgbtq Chinese ‘come out’ (i.e. explicitly declare sexual identity) or live openly in same-sex relationships. Most seek a tacit, complicit strategy of, on the one hand, adhering to normative expectation at ‘face’ value, whilst engaging in relationships and communities of their preference in a kind of un-declared, semi-public/private personal life on the other. However, this pervasive difficulty has not prevented a vocal and diverse lgbtq community to emerge; in fact, it has probably enabled and, certainly, fuelled it. Starting in the mid-1990s, social and activist networks have developed in several large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Dalian, and Kunming. The introduction of and popular access to the Internet and personal cell phones contribute enormously to the general establishment of a semi-private, public sphere in Chinese society, with the potential for alternative expressions and life styles. Combined with the relative decrease in governmental direct control of everyday life, for lgbtq people this change has meant the ability to establish longer-term community projects to raise consciousness,  produce validating and self-affirming positive knowledge such as documentary films, magazines, and oral histories...

Police Raid Shanghai Gay Bar and Detain More Than 60 (2011): More than 60 patrons and employees at a gay bar in Shanghai were swept up in a police raid early Sunday morning and held for more 12 hours, according to the state media and several of those detained. Shanghai Daily, a state-owned English language newspaper, said the police were investigating reports that a male go-go dancer had been performing a “pornographic” show at the bar, named Q Bar, which recently opened on the city’s revitalized historic waterfront. - Party Police: Cops Raid Gay Bar in Shanghai (2011): The state-backed Shanghai Daily said the bar was targeted “after complaints that it was staging sex shows”  -  a claim has been denied by several people in attendance. “Yes, it was a sexy show, but it certainly wasn’t a sex show,” one patron told Shanghaiist. Scantily-clad dancers are certainly not uncommon in Chinese clubs  -  so why the crackdown? The reasons still aren’t clear, but I’d like to address two potential factors: ... homophobia ... police corruption. - Mass Arrests of Gay Men Shows Discrimination by Guangzhou Police (2011). - Police detain gay cruisers in Beijing (2010): According to AFP, a gay rights campaigner claimed that more than 80 men at a forested pick-up spot in Mudanyuan, to the north of the city, on Sunday and Monday. Guo Ziyang, a project manager at the Beijing Gay Working Group, told the news agency: “According to those who were there, riot and normal police detained more than 80 people on Sunday, made them register and took photos, and then they let them go. - Working-class gay men, police stand off in Guangzhou (2009): Police say they’re not against gay men, but oppose sex in public restrooms. Young gay men say they don’t have many other options... When the police descend on People’s Park and shoo away the gay men gathered there, the men usually scatter to avoid trouble. But recently, about 50 or so confronted five officers who began a sweep and finally forced a police retreat after a heated but nonviolent standoff. “I told them they might not like us, but they can’t stop us from coming here,” said AIDS activist Xiao Mu, who was handing out condoms and pamphlets about safe sex when the police arrived on Aug. 25. “We have a right to be in the park.” 

Coming Out in China: The True Cost of Being Gay in Beijing (2011):  "I knew I had to be courageous," he says. "It was too difficult for me to continue with two emotions at the same time. I was prepared to break up with my family." After New Year's Day this year, Zhang invited his wife, his parents and his parents-in-law to dinner. He announced the truth near the end of the meal. The fathers didn't quite believe him, and everybody at the table was startled. Then his mother, who has a hypertension problem, fainted. His wife smacked his face and left. He later cried and knelt in front of his father beside the hospital bed of his mother, asking for forgiveness. "It was really like a second-rate TV drama," he says. "The whole family was crying. I had never imagined that it would ever happen to me." Zhang's wife divorced him without hesitation and won full custody of their son. Relatives scolded him, saying he was irresponsible. He tries to compensate everybody with money. He gave his house to his ex-wife and pays to support his parents, the cost of coming out. Zhang's parents are still in a cold war with him: his mother won't speak to him. He worries that his son will suffer from being laughed at when his friends find out that his father is gay. Nevertheless, Zhang does not think his life is a tragedy and is relieved that at least now he is living according to his true identity. Every time he hears that some "comrade" plans to get married, he always tells them of his own experience: "Don't try to solve the problem by getting married. It will only hurt more people." - Don't Blame Yourself; Accept Your Kids the Way They Are (2009).

Gays at work: how out are Shanghai's gays? (2009): Although being open about one’s sexual orientation at work is a big deal for many gay people, being gay is no longer such a social taboo in Shanghai. Jimmy, a 30-year-old gay man from Shanghai working for an American advertising agency, says he is completely out at work. “I’m not the only gay person in the office,” he says, “and none of my co-workers mind. But it depends on what working environment you are in.” Matt, a 26-year-old Shanghainese guy who owns a PR business, agrees. “You always find gay people working in PR, advertising, art, fashion and design, because many gay people are creative,” he says. “These industries even encourage you to be gay.” When asked whether he is out at work, Matt laughs. “I don’t mind people knowing that I’m gay, but I don’t need to announce to all my employees whether I like guys or girls.” - Beijing youth pave way for gay acceptance (2009): Although traditional attitudes towards homosexuality in China's major cities are rapidly changing fueled by the rise of a new generation, in rural China it still remains a taboo topic... Although many younger generation homosexuals have been accepted by their peers and colleagues, most are still having trouble revealing their true sexual identity to their parents, who often feel unsure about the notion of homosexuality. Older generations exert the most social pressure towards homosexuals and many parents are not ready to accept their children as gay. Traditional family values, such as the expectation for young people to eventually get married and have children, are fuelling the notion that homosexuality is unacceptable.

Queer Comrades – Perspectives on Gay China (2012, at French Embassy): What does it mean to be gay in China? How does the Chinese countryside compare with the gayness of its cities? Is there a united gay movement? From the personal to the political, countless stories are emerging from China’s urban and rural areas which illuminate the diversified life aspirations of Chinese homosexuals. This event explores some of those stories, with an exclusive preview screening of “The Siberian Butterfly”, a screening of the 2010 documentary “Comrades, you’ve worked hard!” and a talk with renowned queer activists Wei Xiaogang and Xu Bin who will elaborate on the varied layers of gay life in China... Panelists: Wei Xiaogang is one of China’s leading gay activists, recognized both nationally and internationally as a queer filmmaker and a queer organizer. In 2007 he founded the LGBT webcast “Queer Comrades” ( for which he has directed more than 50 webcast episodes and documentaries. To date, the Queer Comrades programs have accumulated over 20 million views worldwide. In 2011, Wei Xiaogang became the head of the Beijing Gender Health Education Institute, an NGO which conducts education and provides a supportive platform for informational initiatives regarding issues of gender, sexuality and sexual health... Xu Bin has been an LGBT rights activist in China since 1995.  She was co-founder of the Lavender Phoenix and the Institute for Tongzhi Studies, both US based organizations in support of LGBT activism in China. In 2005 Bin Xu founded Common Language (, a Beijing based LGBT rights organization with focus on lesbian, bisexual women and transgender people in China.  In 2008 Bin Xu also co-founded Beijing LGBT Center and currently serves on its board of directors. Bin Xu has helped foster LGBT groups across China and succeeded in setting up Chinese Lala Alliance, a cross-regional joint effort to provide a sustainable framework for movement building in Chinese LBT communities.

First Mr Gay China 'coming out' in Beijing (2010). - Beijing to host first Mr. Gay China pageant (2010): The Mr. Gay China pageant is coming up and contestant David Wu is a bit worried... Just one thing troubles the handsome 30-year-old: His parents don't know he's gay. "Most Chinese media won't cover it (the pageant), so I think it's unlikely that my parents will find out about me because of this event," said Wu, from the southwestern city of Chengdu. "On the other hand, if they did... maybe it's a good opportunity to tell them." - So Much for the Mr. Gay China Pageant: Police Shut It Down (2010). - Mr. Gay China Goes to Norway, Which Is Certain to Piss Off Chinese Authorities (2010, Video): If Mr. Gay China wins the Mr. Gay World pageant this weekend in Oslo, it’s going to present quite the dilemma: The identity of China’s beautiful person isn’t being revealed due to security concerns, since he went against Chinese officials’ demands and flew to Oslo for the competition anyway. That’s a bold move, given authorities shut down the Mr. Gay China pageant, and organizers, who originally said they would send a contestant anyhow, later stated they would not. Evidently, the pageant’s Chinese representative was selected by his peers.  - Gays in China: Just Another Minority (2010): While there are signs that China is slouching toward acceptance of homosexuality, no one will mistake any of the country’s metropolises for San Francisco anytime soon. Advances over the past two years, including China’s first gay-pride event in Shanghai in 2009 and the phenomenon of gay couples posing for wedding pictures in front of Beijing’s historical sites, are marred by the extensive discrimination urban homosexuals still face in the workplace and at home, strong family pressure to marry, and the lack of enforced laws to protect their rights. - China: Progress on LGBT Visibility Amidst Government Restrictions (2009): Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in China face censorship by the authorities and are subject to laws that curb their freedom to live openly and participate freely in public life. LGBT groups are often not able to register and receive funding. They lack safe spaces to gather or hold public events. Despite these conditions, LGBT activists and their supporters have made considerable progress in increasing LGBT visibility in China.

Characters of venues MSM frequently visited and MSM population (2007): Objectives: To investigate the types and the number of venues and describe the characters of MSM who visited these venues in Hefei. Methods: Sub-structural questionnaires were conducted in ten MSM,and individual depth interview were conducted to another ten MSM and three owners of gay bars. Participant observation was used to find out the venues' locations ,detailed service, the surroundings,et al. Results: The venues in Hefei includes three gay bars, two bath -rooms, one public park, one public toilet and four gay websites.All the venues were located in the center of the city,where the traffic connections were convenient. Many MSM frequently visited gay bars in order to relax themselves. Bathroom was the place where MSM had sex with others. Public toilet was the first place for MSM to find sexual partners and have sexual behaviors.Public park was the most complex venue. The chat-room of gay website was used to find casual sexual partners. The consciousness of health was low among MSM.It was proved by the following facts that the rate of condom use was low; many MSM had multi-sexual partner as well as bi-sexual partners.

[AIDS Prevention] "Colourful Skies" cover gay community in Yunnan (2006): "I must have been the only fully dressed man to ever hang out in a gay sauna," laughs Wang Ming. "No wonder everyone stared at me." Wang can only laugh when he recalls the unique challenges he faced as a timid heterosexual man entering the baffling world of gay men. To break the ice, the bespectacled young man from the Yunnan provincial health education institute began playing chess at the sauna, handing out pamphlets and condoms to curious onlookers during breaks. - Yunnan government blows ¥120,000 to open "gay bar" in Dali... minus the drinks! (2009). - Gay pub delays opening in Yunnan due to pressure (2009). - Nobody wanted to go to the gay bar (2009).- Government Supported Gay Bar Closes Before Opening (2009): Homosexual behavior has been viewed as a sin or a disease for countless ages all throughout the world, including China. And so when the first state-funded gay bar in Dali, Yunnan Province, southwest China was shut down a day before its opening due to a clinical outbreak of homophobia, it came as no surprise. Although gay bars have been operating in China for over 15 years, the stigma associated with homosexuality still exists, making it exceptionally hard for gays to come out the closet. What’s worse is that Yunnan province hosts over 23% of China’s HIV/AIDS infected population, despite only figuring into 3.5% of China’s total population. And according to Health Minister Chen Zhu, 32% of all HIV victims in China were infected from homosexual male-on-male sex.

Hugs and smiles: MSM anti-stigma activities in Yunnan (2011, PSN Newsletter Volume7, January-March):Yunnan Parallel MSM Group provided a range of cultural and anti-stigma activities around World AIDS Day of 2010. As a MSM community group that primarily deliv-ers HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives and serves MSM communities, the group provided a range of activities to promote gay culture and a sense of community among gay groups, and to advocate for human rights and anti-stigma. In late November 2009, Yunnan Parallel provided the first-ever gay cultural activity, which included the G-spot magazine communications and the Kunming stop of the 2nd China Queer Film Festival. In order to make such an activity sustainable, we named it “Yizhuo” (Supreme) a carefully chosen word.

Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality and related factors in three Asian cities (2012): From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions... The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. - Gay rights groups protest hospital's homosexuality treatment (2012): Several gay rights organizations in China started an online protest Thursday, also known as the International Day against Homophobia (IDAHO), against a Beijing hospital after the hospital claimed it offers psychological consultation and treatment for "gay patients." - China to tackle HIV incidence amongst MSM (2009).

China: The Legal Position and Status of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in the People’s Republic of China (2010). - Chinese gay rights activists encouraged after Taiwan visit (2006). - Gays in China taking steps toward equality at Hong Kong conference (2004).- Gays Fail In China Marriage Bid (2012): Of the more than 500 couples who queued up on Tuesday at Beijing’s Chaoyang district marriage registration centre on to get hitched on Valentine’s Day, two couples were turned down by centre officials and walked away without marriage licenses. The two same-sex couples – one male, and one female – had shown up at the marriage office as part of a Valentine’s Day campaign by the Beijing LGBT Centre to drum up support for gay marriage in China. - China’s state press covers gay wedding (2010): China Daily, an English-language newspaper, featured the wedding of Zeng Anquan and Pan Wenjie, which took place on January 3rd. Same-sex marriage and civil unions are not legally recognised in China, yet the media attention on the story follows a number of recent gay rights breakthroughs in the county. Last month, the first state-run gay bar opened and this Friday will see China’s first gay pageant.

China sees pride in first gay series (2007): Homosexual rights in China will take another tentative step forward this week when a satellite channel launches the country’s first series focusing on gay issues, called “Connecting Homosexuals”. The 12-episode series will be broadcast online and features controversial issues such as coming out and gay marriage, and marks a major departure in China where homosexuality remains a taboo and was considered an illness until 2001. - A Hidden Life: Being Gay in Rural China (2006). - Attitudes toward homosexuality relax in China, but pressures remain (2007). - Capitalism and Gay Life in China (2005). - Gays live a difficult life under social bias (2005).

Homosexuality in China (2009): Tan, who serves as editor-at-large for the popular website, has watched the Shanghai scene grow up. “When I first came here, the bars were hidden and had to be very quiet, and now it’s like we’ve got huge bars that cater to different segments of the population,” he said.  “If you’re a middle-aged Chinese gentleman, you go here.  If you like big burly men, go here. The scene has developed to the point that you see very measurable social stratification going on.” China had its first gay pride event in Shanghai in June 2009, consisting of plays, film screenings, discussions and parties scattered throughout one week. The event, called Shanghai Pride, attracted a few thousand people from all over China. While police did monitor the events and plans for a parade were called off, the fact they were able to hold the event is a testament to the progress China has made. In 2004, a different group tried to hold a similar event in Beijing, but was shut down. Tan thinks the fact that Shanghai is away from the political center of Beijing enabled them to hold the event. “People didn’t think it was possible,” says Tan, who served as one of the masterminds behind the event. “We had a small, humble start, but it was a good one. These individuals have been coming out for a while and this pride event gives them a reason to come out collectively as a community.” - On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context (2012): Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages... - Same-Sex Sexual Behaviors Among Male Migrants in a Context of Male "Marriage Squeeze": Results From an Exploratory Survey in Urban Xi'an, China (2012): It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men.

An insight into gay life in China (2007): A lot can change in six years: At least that's the experience of Didier Zheng, an openly gay Chinese man who just wrapped up a stint hosting China's first Internet television show devoted to addressing homosexual issues... - China's First Gay Internet Show Ends Season (2007). - China sees pride in first gay series (2007). - Is China ready for gay TV? (2007) - A Hidden Life: Being Gay in Rural China (2006). - 16, Gay and Homeless in China (2007). - Chinese lesbian mag raided while activists in Copenhagen (2009). - Lala land: Shanghai's lesbian sub-culture (2010): With ShanghaiPRIDE 2010 in full swing we look at two women try to navigate Shanghai's 'lala,' or lesbian, landscape. - NGOs and LBT Groups Rally Against Violence (2011): More than 15 years have passed since the 1995 International Women’s Conference in Beijing spurred the creation of several NGOs tailored to combat domestic violence against women. Now they’re expanding the reach of their aid, partnering with lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT) women’s organizations in a national march toward gender equity. Groups such as the Anti-Domestic Violence Network (ADVN) have linked up with LBT organizations such as Beijing Lala Club and Tongyu to craft a national anti-domestic violence law that would protect all women, regardless of sexual orientation.

Homosexuality in China: Collateral damage: Neither comrades nor spouses (2010): “THERE are three ways of being an unfilial son,” argued Mencius, an ancient Confucian philosopher. “The most serious is to have no heir.” The desire for male descendants has had many baleful consequences in China, and in recent years one that used to be hidden has come to light. Millions upon millions of women are trapped in loveless and often miserable marriages to homosexual men. Thanks to the internet their cries for help have been heard widely enough in mainstream culture to earn their plight a commonly accepted abbreviation. They are known as “tongqi”, combing the words “tongzhi”, or comrade, Chinese slang for “gay”, with “qizi”, meaning “wife” in Mandarin. It is estimated that 15-20% of gay men in America marry heterosexual women. But Liu Dalin, a pioneering sexologist now retired from the University of Shanghai, has put the share in China at 90%. If so, the number of tongqi in China may be as high as 25m. - 16 million women married to gay men in China: Expert (2012). - Gay Marriage proposed by Chinese sociologist (2006). - Gay in China: Gay Life, Marriage and Adoption Rights in China. - Gay Marriage With Chinese Characteristics (2011): A visit to a Shanghai fake-marriage market, where lesbians and gay men meet to find a husband or wife. - Chinese "gay wives" face legal limbo, cultural bias (2012): "I respect gays as any another human beings and understand their pains," she said, still moved to tears after so many years. "But I also want them to see how much pain their wives suffer, so that gay men won't rashly marry a woman any more."

Police Shut Down Gay, Lesbian Event: Government Persecutes Civil Society Groups That Address HIV/AIDS (2005).- Police call halt to China's first gay cultural festival N/A (2005). - China blocks popular gay website (2005). - China Shuts Down Gay Web Sites (2006). - Gay man accuses Tsinghua of discrimination (2006): Xiao Tian, a gay man, sparked an uproar in the gay community in the capital after he accused the prestigious Tsinghua University of discriminating against gays...- China's gay cultural revolution (2004). - Gay revolution puts red China in the pink (2005). - Crime, Disease, Sex, and Abnormal Love: Sexual Minorities under Dominant Gaze in Chinese Media (2004/2009).

The Rapid Development of the LGBT Communities in China (Yaqi Guo, Beijing Gender Health Education Institute). (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "During the 1980s, homosexuals in China were undercover: only personal relationships existed. The emergence of AIDS brought the existence of ‘homosexuality’ to the general public for the first time, but it also misled people to think that homosexuals are filthy, horrifying and contemptible. Due to the neglect shown towards homosexuals, some LGBT volunteers started to work on publicity and behavior-intervention against AIDS in the 1990’s. At the same time, small groups of people providing help to homosexuals also came forth. These were the initial LGBT communities in China. Entering the new millennium, groups of volunteers mushroomed in LGBT communities of many places and organized a variety of activities. In 2003, Beijing Gender Health Education Institute organized a series of activities among homosexuals in Kunming, Nanjing and Beijing to share experiences and to build the foundation for further development of local communities."

Zhang, Jennifer Q (2011). Tongzhi Today, Tomorrow: Homosexuality in Modern China & the Emerging Gay Identity. Senior Dissertation, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. PDF Download. Download Page. This is a multi-media project composed of a research paper and short film on an emerging new identity of affluent urban Chinese men. The research paper begins with a brief background on socially accepted cultural phenomenon of pederasty and same-sex relations in dynastic China. These practices are removed and medicalized in late pre-modern China. The high-culture role of family in relation to the individual and the nation is largely due to continued loyalty toward Confucian doctrines. The struggle of urban gay men against these socio-historical factors is offset with the availability of the internet, digital resources and a digital community emerging into the physical domain. The short film I created titled Tongzhi Today, Tomorrow focuses on an interview with Ben Zhang and his growing up, coming out and life hopes as a gay man in Beijing. The film is interlaced with clips of Drag On! the charity event hosted by Gayographic to raise money for the Beijing LGBT Center.

Heterhomo: La Chine-1 (Translation):  Les jeunes ne désapprouvent pas l’homosexualité (2012). - Des millions de mariages de façade pour les gays (2012). - Le déracinement des lesbiennes (2011). - Le « mariage » d’un couple gay aurait été célébré en Chine (2011). - Une célèbre actrice critiquée pour sa condamnation de l’homosexualité (2011). - Wan Yanhai, militant gay et anti-sida, témoigne de la situation des homos (2011). - Wan Yanhai : « En Chine, la question de l’homosexualité n’est jamais abordée » (2011). - Les séropositifs souvent refusés par les hôpitaux chinois (2011). - Descente de police dans un bar gay de Shanghai (2011).

Heterhomo: La Chine-1 (Translation):  Descente de police à Shanghai : un Français témoigne (2011). - Un film poignant sur le sida en Chine bouleverse la Berlinale (2011). - « Salut camarade ! », une campagne pour soutenir les gays et les lesbiennes chinois-e-s (2010). - Un militant anti-sida fuit la Chine, ne s’y sentant plus en sécurité (2010). - Le bar gay d’Etat destiné à la prévention du VIH a ouvert  (2009). - Des homosexuels se sont rebellés contre la police à Canton en août dernier  (2009). - Des lesbiennes lancent une pétition pour l’ouverture aux homosexuels du don de sang (2009). - Les épouses d’homosexuels de plus en plus nombreuses à se rebeller  (2009). - Malgré les intimidations, une première gay pride a bien eu lieu à Shangai (2009). - Plusieurs rassemblements d’homosexuels ont eu lieu lors de la Saint-Valentin (2009). - Descente de police et arrestations dans un sauna gay (2008). - Vague de répression anti-gay à l’approche des Jeux Olympiques (2008). - un article du China Daily lève le tabou sur l’homosexualité (2008).

PFLAG Organizing in China: Recent Experiences (Weiguo Gu, Chi Heng Foundation) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Concerned about the lack of a support network for the marginalised LGBT people in China such as the Gay movements in the US, the Chi Heng Foundation has started to organise a Chinese version of PFLAG. Currently the work focuses on two projects: The first is the construction of a PFLAG website in Chinese to be used as a starting point to introduce PFLAG to the general public and get like-minded activists united to work towards the elimination of discrimination and prejudice against gays, lesbians and other sexual minorities. The other is the compilation of a book which consists a of collection of original articles written by accepting family members and friends of lesbians and gays recounting how they came to be accepting. It is hoped that such a book will enlighten the misinformed public and increase their understanding of LGBT people."

Homosexuals in Modern China: Four 'Recent' Press Reports (1995). (Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) - Homosexuality in China (2003). -  Tong xing lian : In China, word spreads on the love that dare not speak its name (1998). - Chinese still reluctant to accept homosexuality; Crusader brings his cause to The City (1997, Alternate Link). - Court declares homosexuality abnormal. (1999, Alternate Link)  - The Mekong Region 'Sexual abnormalities' ordered off airwaves after complaints to PM (1999).  - Increasing acceptance of homosexuality in China (1997). - Beijing's 'Secret' Gay Web Confab (2001, Alternate Link): Beijing, China:   They met in a three star hotel that cannot be named.  The event's planner was reluctant to give out the names of any participants or their businesses.  And they had to call it a "private gathering" instead of a "convention," "conference" or even "meeting," words that wave Red flags in front of Chinese authorities nervous about any sort of organizing.  Yet the gay movement experienced a minor revolution here last weekend as the owners or operators of some 30 gay and lesbian Chinese web sites held their first-ever -- how shall we say? -- get-together. Atop the agenda was discussion of how to use the Internet to promote HIV/AIDS awareness and create a more comfortable environment for "tongzhi," or gay, people.  "We provided a physical space for web site owners to meet face to face and get to know one another," said Hong Kong-based gay activist Cheng To, founder of the Chi Heng Foundation that paid for transportation for many attendees. "They have the most potential to reach out to gay people in this country."  Indeed, as powerful as the new media has been for gays in backwater locales in the United States, its promise is unfathomable in a totalitarian society where even such a "private gathering" has participants nervous that the next door knock will be the police.  But regardless of their fears, some attendees traveled for days by train to get to the event and were excited to participate, Cheng said.  "This kind of thing is certainly very significant because people getting together to do that kind of networking is very important," said Sophia Woodman, research director for the New York based Human Rights in China. "For groups of people who are experiencing violations of their human rights, the Internet is a very important channel to share stories, which is sort of a first step." An estimated 250 gay-themed web sites operate in China, ranging from local chat rooms to one for gay Buddhists.

C S S S M: Chinese Society for the Study of Sexual Minorities; A Newsletter (Archive: English Newsletters - 1997-2003).  - Gay Rights in China: A 2003 Update. - Gay China Homepage. - CSSSM News Digest Special Issue: Open Debate on Homosexuality in China and CSSSM in 1997. - Chinese Cultural Studies: The Homosexual Tradition in China: Selections from Chinese Homosexual Literature. - Homosexual Behaviors in Contemporary China (1995).

Filtered Voices: representing gay people in today's China (2002, PDF Download). Strong China presence at HK’s Tongzhi conf (2004): "China delegates to the Fifth Tongzhi Conference in HK earlier this month are optimistic about the future; delegates report that numerous gay communities have sprung up across China..." -  La police chinoise a arrêté 37 homosexuels dans le cadre d'une campagne nationale ''anti-vice'' (2000, Alternate Link, Translation). - Police shut down Gay and Lesbian Culture Festival (2006). - Chinese Traditional Culture and Modern Recognition of Gay Rights (PDF Download N/A). - Transgender Rights in China.

Male homosexuality in contemporary mainland China (1988, PDF Download): Through a unique circumstance described in the text we have 60 letters (of which 56 were from a gay population) concerning homosexuality in contemporary China. Though the sample is not randomly selected it is the first of its kind. An analysis of these letters shows some interesting results and patterns... To better reflect what they think and feel about themselves, their problems, and their hopes we have used quotations from these letters extensively. It is our belief that at this initial exploratory stage of the study on Chinese homosexuality, it is best to let the respondents speak for themselves. - From "Long Yang" and "Dui Shi" to Tongzhi: Homosexuality in China (2003). - China cracks down on gays (1997). - On the fringe of Shanghai (2001): "Gay culture is decidedly unwelcome around China. Shanghai is more tolerant. There are a few gay clubs, but they move often, part of the same cat and mouse game played with authorities as the most outlandish discos. Still, the gay scene fares much better than other areas of the underground." - Coming out in China (2002): Zhang recalls his search for sexual identity nine years ago --- when he was 19. "I found a thick medical book and read this little section, which said homosexuality is abnormal and perverse and gays get AIDS. I got very scared," says Zhang. So scared that he tried to commit suicide. Later, he met other gays in Beijing.  - Couple arrested in east China for running gay prostitution bar (2003).

 Sexual dominance and daring in homophobic China: - one of the first modern Chinese films to deal so directly and outspokenly with gay themes: East Palace, West Palace. - Chinese psychiatrists debate meaning of sex orientation: homosexuality still formally perceived to reflect mental disorder. (1998)  - Chinese Society More Tolerant of Homosexuality (2001): The Chinese Psychiatric Association decided that being gay is no longer a disease in the third edition of its new diagnostic guidelines published on April 20th this year. This landmark event - and the subsequent attention given to homosexuality in all kinds of media in which experts discussed the decision as progress that brings China in line with most western nations, which do not consider being gay an illness - has helped Chinese to rethink the specific social phenomenon of homosexuality. . - China: Gays No Longer 'Mentally Ill' (2001). - Gays in China Step Out, With One Foot in Closet (2002). - Preliminary results - Study of Gay/Bi Males in China: "Voices of Gay Men in China." (1998). - Gay Rights in 90's China (1992). - 'Is There Anything Wrong with Love? (2000): Young gays are having trouble finding their place in modern Chinese society. - Testing China's Censors With a Gay Love Story (2002). - Stanley Kwan: Between Chinas (2002): "is latest ground-breaking film, "Lan Yu," shot without permits in Beijing, offers the first realistic portrayal of gay men in mainland China.

Gay Shanghai: Living the Good-Enough Life (2002): It could be said these glowing descriptions ignore the heavy reality of Communist rejection of homosexuality. There is no permission for the formation of any public or private gay organizations, and for a very long time there was no acknowledgment from the medical community that sexual orientation had valid variations. Except for one newsletter, obliquely called "Friends" (which never uses the words 'gay' or 'homosexuality') there are no gay publications for the entire LesBiGay population throughout China. Even the respected Exhibition for Chinese Ancient Sex Culture (the 'Sex Museum') in downtown Shanghai relegates homosexuality to a single, rather ambiguous display in its "Unusual Sexual Behavior" section. However, in a major change of medical policy, psychiatrists in China, in June of 2001, decided to stop classifying homosexuality as a mental disease. The Chinese Psychiatric Association dropped all references to homosexuality as a pathological condition... Such activity reveals that gay China today is reasonably alive. But it is not a public movement; it is, rather, a vast network of friends and contacts throughout the country in frequent and abundant communication with one another. There is not a major or minor city where these networks don't extend. Friends are everywhere. Connecting them now are the invisible frequencies of cell phones and the Internet -- which also connects them beyond China to companions abroad as well.

Sun Z, Farrer J, Choi K-h (2006). L'identité des hommes aux pratiques homosexuelles à Shanghai. Perspectives Chinoise, 93, janvier - février. Full Text. Translation.  Un échantillon de 30 HSH a été sélectionné à Shanghai entre décembre 2003 et juin 2004 par le biais de réseaux sociaux informels... Après avoir donné leur consentement, les participants ont été interviewés face à face en mandarin ou en shanghaien sur la base d’un format d’entretien semi-directif. Celui-ci abordait sept thèmes : les expériences de migration des participants, leur vie en général, leurs réseaux sociaux (amis ou personnes importantes), les lieux de rencontres fréquentés, les partenaires sexuels, leurs expériences d’utilisation de préservatifs et leur coming out...  Résultats:  La première section identifie le lexique utilisé par les hommes interrogés pour définir leur identité sexuelle. La seconde résume leur expérience de découverte de leur orientation sexuelle. La troisième décrit comment ces hommes présentent leur identité de manière différente en fonction du groupe social où ils se trouvent.

Hou C-N (2011). Same Tongzhi, Different Destiny Examining the Gay Website Regulations in China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Journal of Cyber Culture and  Information Society, 20: 39-81. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page. This study investigates the similarities, differences and implications of the Internet regulations in four Chinese societies, with particular regard to gay website regulations. In reality, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan have different political systems, ideologies and perspectives toward the role of law in society. These differences are also reflected in their Internet regulations. Compared to the prosperity of gay websites in Hong Kong and Taiwan, gay websites in Singapore and China continue to be fragile, but are steadily marching out of the closet encumbered by outmoded ideas of social control. Although it is very strictly-regulated in Singapore and China, the two governments are pragmatic and succeed in their policies because they impose strictures on gay website users who have to develop their own self-censorship. The growing commercialization of the gay space in Chinese-speaking cyberspace marks a paradoxical development of the internet where state control, a degree of freedom of expression, and self-censorship coexist. Even gay users in China and Singapore have tried to use the Internet as a mode of alternative expression, with some success and some failure in the face of government hostility.

ScotMUN 2011: Human Rights Council: Position Papers: The Rights to Asylum for Homosexuals: China N/A: Homosexuality has been documented in the People's Republic of China since ancient times. This has been evidenced by the fact that China was ruled by 10 openly bisexual Emperors who had one or more male sex partners and unlike female wives and concubines, the male companions of the emperors were often admired as much for their sexual abilities. The complexity of homosexual relationships inevitably led to the creation of poetic works, immortalising conflicting sentiments. In Modern China however, Homosexuality is characterised as the 3 NO'S, that is No Approval, No Disapproval, and No promotion. Since the early 1990s, the Chinese government has become increasingly tolerant about homosexuality. By 1997, the law that outlawed Sodomy was repealed, while homosexuality was removed from the nation's list of mental illness. The tolerance of the Chinese public towards homosexuality reflects the progress in the Chinese society and will eventually contribute to the stability and development of the country... Further more, instances of police harassment of Homosexual citizens probably reflect traditional social taboos and homophobia rather than systematic official harassment. Following a nationwide study, the Chinese government estimated in 2004 that the country has between 5 and 10 million homosexuality men aged between 15 to 49 years. This shows China's respect for human rights to Asylum for Homosexuals especially under article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Quing Dao University carried out a survey of 1,295 homosexual men in Chongqing, Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, LAN Zhou and Anshan and found that 62%hide their homosexuality, 18%revealed their homosexuality and haven't suffered discrimination, 9% revealed their sexuality and were forced to quit a job, 5% feel that their sexuality has affected there career, 20% have been extorted by other homosexuals. This is evidence that Homosexuals should also be entitled to the same rights of freedom of association and expression as Heterosexuals, because all men are Equal. - Homosexuality In China by Max and Jason (Video).  


Lesbian life in China (2010). - A History of Lesbians Organizing in China (2010). - Beijing's 'Lala' scene: A Chinese Lesbian speaks out (2005). - China More Accepting of Lesbians Than Gay Men Because They Don’t Have Penises (2010). - China's gay comrades take first step (2005). - The Chinese Government: It's OK to be gay (2005). - China launches first gay TV show (2007). - China gay group 'gets approval' (2006). - China opens first lesbian hotline (2006). - Lala girls don't wait in line (2006): Cruising in Beijing's lesbian bar. - Eye on Lesbian Shanghai: Welcome to Lala Land (2006).

Lesbians in China's Mainland: A Brief Introduction (2006, Excerpts): This paper describes and introduces lesbians' lives and the relevant research in China's Mainland. The first part shows the slow development of lesbian culture in the form of literature, films and documentaries. Although lesbians' lives were reflected more or less in modern literature, the "true" lesbian novel was published only recently. Relevant films and documentaries were never shown to the public in China. Lesbian culture is still unevenly developed and remains negligible... - At the Juncture of Censure and Mass Voyeurism: Narratives of Female Homoerotic Desire in Post-Mao China (2002, PDF): The most scandalous, best-selling erotic publication in China in the early 1990s was probably Jia Pingwa's Abandoned Capital [Fei du], whose traditional vernacular style and numerous sex scenes - often insinuated by deliberate marks of omission - made critics liken it to the Ming-dynasty erotic masterpiece The Golden Lotus [Jin ping mei]. In 1996 something peculiar happened. The editor responsible for the publication of The Abandoned Capital advised a female writer that, if she wanted to find a publisher willing to put out a work she had finished some time earlier, she would have to delete its entire first chapter because of its inappropriate sexual material and would have to make significant changes to the sexual descriptions throughout the rest of the novel. What was this novel? How could it be judged obscene compared with The Abandoned Capital, the modern Golden Lotus? ... - Lesbianism in China (1992): Lesbianism in China has a long but usually hidden history. This paper examines the historical and literary sources of the past to illustrate the history of lesbianism and then turns to a survey of lesbianism in the China of today... - Chinese lesbians commit suicide (1994) N/A. - Lesbian Chinese Woman Attempts Suicide to Escape Forced Marriage (2010). - Hey China, Forced Marriage Cannot "Correct" a Lesbian (2010). - Lesbian hotline and magazine in China.- An anthropological account of emerging same-sex subjectivity and sociality among women in late-socialist urban China (Beijing) (2008, Video).

A History of Lesbians Organizing in China (2011): During the mid-1990s, groups that formed using the term “homosexual” were carefully watched and eventually banned. As a result, group leaders were forced to deal with these limitations and think up alternative ways to organize and unite the gay community. They wanted to create an encouraging environment that allowed everyone to feel comfortable in acknowledging their identity. At that time, several lesbians living in Beijing had already begun to arrange occasional meetings. In 1994, Susie, a bisexual English woman, began organizing parties at her house, inviting both her foreign and Chinese gay friends. In addition, Susie began to organize bar gatherings with gay activist, Wu Chunsheng... In addition to gay bars, gay hotlines have also emerged. Private parties, bars, hotlines, and meetings have encouraged more lesbians to come out. Through these social networks, lesbians are able to get to know one another, and self-proclaim their identity, becoming participants in a movement... In the late 90’s, the internet became an important medium to help gays connect and create a network. They began with chat rooms, websites, and moved on to discussion forums. The young gay community was especially proactive, creating a large cyber network community... In 2000, Dongdong’s page became an official website called, "Late Autumn Cabin." "Late Autumn Cabin" quickly became one of the first most popular lesbian websites. Webmaster, Dongdong’s taste for literature, allowed her to organically gather young lesbians involved in the literary scene... The cancellation of the 2001 Beijing Lesbian Cultural Festival and the breakup of the Beijing Sister group could have led to the silencing of China’s lesbian movement.    But with the subsequent rise of the internet and the emergence of lesbian voices, new lesbian organizations emerged.  In 2004, Xian, a native Beijinger returned to Beijing from the United States. While studying in the U.S, Xian became acquainted with several gay activists, and was moved by their cause. She believed that the gay movement opened up new possibilities in her life. After her return to China in 2004, Xian began to explore Beijing’s lesbian community. She first consulted a few senior members of the gay movement about both the gay and lesbian movement in Beiing. Xian found they did not have any experience to offer about the lesbian movement. In addition, the lesbian community was not a cohesive one and lacked money. The senior members gave Xian a warning: do not form a community, it is too hard.  Unlike previous participants in the lesbian movement, Xian had experiences in NGO work and had studied the theory behind movements like this. Xian applied these theories to the gay movement and formed a sound strategy. In her view, there were two ways to conduct a movement: from the bottom up, to start from the masses to form a community or from top down, to work with lawmakers and experts, working to change policies. Xian chose the former because "social movements are not decided by an individual or small number of people with power. The charm in social movements is that everyone has the responsibility to work toward social progress. In fact, this way of thinking is the precisely the idea behind popular grassroots movements. I never felt compelled to become a leader of a movement. My goal is to inspire others to get involved in the movement." ...

The first national lesbian conference in China N/A. - Lesbian Organising in China: Interview (2007): I believe the key lies in the personal level: each individual’s realisation, choice and action will decide the movement’s direction and speed. That is why I choose to start from grassroot work rather than high-level campaigns and the best part of it is that I truly enjoy what I do. I learn and grow along... In 2004, there were very few lesbian support groups in China, compared to more than thirty gay men’s groups working on AIDS issues with men who have sex with men (MSM). Lesbians went to online chat rooms to look for girlfriends, and stayed with a girlfriend in private until they broke up, and then went to the chat room again. Lesbians did not have a life or voice in public. Most people were in the closet, and did not have friends or family who can provide support when in crisis. Most lesbians in China either stay at home with their girlfriend all the time because going out will increase the risk of meeting other lesbians and breaking up, or else they would get married to a man and stay on the Internet looking for love in a virtual space. Lesbians relationships are very fragile, and most young women do not have much hope in their future... How did you begin your organisation? Xian: Lesbian and bisexual women are called lala here in China. Beijing Lala Salon is a weekly gathering for lesbian and bisexual women to share issues in life and support each other. The salon was the first activity we organised in Beijing. The reason why we started it is very simple. When I met Anchor in Beijing in 2004, the only ‘group activity’ we had was a lesbian night in a rented bar each Saturday. The women who went there were 20 years old on the average... - Eye on Gay Shanghai: The Bund gets a lesbian nightclub (2008).

Shame, internalized heterosexism, lesbian identity, and coming out to others: A comparative study of lesbians in mainland China and Hong Kong (2010, Alternate Link): The purpose of this study was to investigate coming out to family and friends and their relationships to shame, internalized heterosexism, lesbian identity, and perceived social support in Chinese lesbians from 2 different cultural settings - Mainland China (N = 244) and Hong Kong (N = 234). Results of structural equation modeling showed that, in both samples, a sense of shame was related to internalized heterosexism and a devaluation of one’s lesbian identity, which in turn was related to a decreased likelihood of coming out to others. Shame was also associated with a reduced perception of support from friends, which seemed in turn to exacerbate internalized heterosexism among lesbians. Family support was generally unrelated to outness, except for outness to friends in the Hong Kong sample. Results are discussed in relation to the cultural stigma attached to same-sex orientation and the cultural practice of shaming that parents use to socialize children.

Jingru, Teng (2009). Lesbian Spaces in Beijing. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU) in Amsterdam/Delft. PDF Download. Till now, lesbian spaces are still ignored in China regardless of the fact that a large number of women are lesbians. The aim of this paper is trying to show a general view of lesbian spaces in Beijing, focusing primarily on four principal aspects concerning lesbian spaces: the background preparing for the emergence of lesbian spaces, the historical process of the development, different spatial types, and challenges they faced nowadays. The author points out that, lesbian spaces in Beijing are actually a byproduct of mainstream gay man movement, that’s why the predominant lesbian spaces are bars. Nonetheless, lesbians have invented new types of spaces in the recent years, which demenstrates different value orientation from gay man. Meanwhile it is worth noticing that the situation of lesbian spaces can’t explain the living condition of all the lesbians in Beijing. Lesbian spaces also represent as a model for the heterosexual women to develop their own cultural spaces.

The Emergence of Lala Community in Shanghai (Yip Lo Lucetta Kam, Chinese University HK) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "With the popularity of the Internet and the emergence of lesbian and gay friendly public spaces such as bars, Lala communities have begun to appear in many major cities in China. Lala is popularly used as a local identity for women with same-sex desires. During the past decade, we have witnessed the rise of Shanghai as a new metropolitan centre in China. In recent years, scattered Lala gatherings such as parties and discussion groups were told to be held in Shanghai semi-openly. The city has become one of the most vibrant sites of Lala community in the country. Cyber space has been the most active meeting and interaction point for Lalas. Websites such as Aladao and Lala Club etc. have turned popular both for Lalas in Shanghai and other cities in China. Offline in the real space, the flourishing development of gay and lesbian friendly bars in the city in recent years is also believed to play a significant role in forming and shaping the local Lala community. My study aims to map out this recently emerged community both by its physical locations (that is, the physical spaces that it makes itself visible) and its discursive trajectory (that is, the discursive forces that it used to make itself recognizable and identifiable). Ethnographic field visits and in-depth interview are major research methods." - Volunteers run China's first lesbian helpline (2006).

Same Sex, Different Women: an ethnographic investigation into new meanings of identity and modes of belonging inurban mainland China. Taking the everyday and intimate lives of a diverse population of same-sex desiring  women (lala) in Beijing as point of departure, I explore how ideas and practices regarding gender, sexuality,family, and nation are constructed through processes of self-making and ¶othering.· The book is based on datagathered during long-term anthropological fieldwork for two years (2004-2006, 2009). The research methodology included participant observation, informal conversations, semi-structured interviews, and media analysis withaltogether 95 individuals of very diverse backgrounds and lala  affiliation. Fieldwork was conducted in theChinese language (Putonghua), and by the author herself.   Self-identified tongzhi  (gay and lesbian) communities started emerging in Chinese cities in the mid-1990s,and have since begun challenging the pre-existing dominant discourse of homosexuality as innate mental illnessor political-moral deviance. While gay male identity and community has received considerable governmental,scholarly and media attention for some time, female homosexuality has been almost invisible. Over the lastdecade or so, lala  communities and lifestyles have gained visibility and momentum, and this development·s widersocio-political and gender-specific context is an important backdrop for the book·s ethnography.

Heterotopias of Same-Sex Intimacies: Schoolgirls’ Tales and Practices of Transgressive Emotionality and Sexuality in Postsocialist China (Pik Ki Leung, University of Cambridge) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In this paper, I draw on the Foucauldian notion of ‘heterotopia’ to illuminate Shanghai schoolgirls’ expressive and performative enactment of a she-self desiring another she in their journey through schooling. Heterotopias of same-sex intimacies in school space disrupt the heteronormativity so unrelentingly (en)forced through various disciplinary technologies from teachers’ pastoral surveillance to public condemnation (e.g., in moral education classes) of emotional intimacies and physical affection deemed falling into the category of tongxinglian (lit. same-sex love)/homosexuality. Such heterotopias range from both the spectacle of kisses and embraces in the school green and clandestine behavioural intimacies in the classroom which have escaped the scrutinizing gaze of the school to schoolgirls’ narratives of same-sex emotional bonds and erotic experiences happening in different spatio-temporal sites of their school life, e.g., dormitory, school excursions. Perhaps what is most intriguing about the revelation of the graphic/telling/intricate details of the experiences of same-sex intimacies is their own self-positioning on the friendship-eroticized intimacy continuum as they recount their emotional/erotic adventures. While many of them would rather portray their same-sex relationships as passionate friendships, some of them gingerly embrace ‘lesbianism’ as they seek to name the intense emotional attractions and erotic fantasies they have towards another girl. This paper relates on the one hand schoolgirls’ ingenious negotiations of the school’s governmental impulses to circumscribe the legitimate expressions of sexuality and depicts on the other hand their struggles for emotional autonomy and sexual subjectivity through the exploration of alternative identities/identifications of which the lesbian identity/identification is but one."

Engebretsen, Elisabeth Lund (2008). Queer ethnography in theory and practice: Reflections on studying sexual globalization and women’s queer activism in Beijing. Graduate Journal of Social Science, 5(2): 88-116. PDF Download.  This paper addresses the problem of the cross-cultural study of sexuality in global times. I take issue with the inherent bias in analytical frameworks and theoretical assumptions that typically structure Western studies of non-normative sexuality in ‘other’ places, and provide a critical reconsideration of the challenges to queer studies of transnational sexuality. Recent anthropology-based studies of transnational sexualities and sexual globalization argue that Anglo-US queer studies emphasize desirable queerness as one modelled on modern, Western ideologies of sexual freedom, identity, openness, and of individual rights. The effect is one of considerable political consequence, where Western queer life-worlds become the default analytical yardstick for cross-cultural comparison, and where Anglo-US-centric categorizations forever anchor desirable queer formations within a Western knowledge circuit. I draw upon my own research of Chinese women’s narratives about lala, or lesbian, community and activism in post-millennial Beijing. I consider what lesbian identity, activism and rights might mean in a Chinese political and cultural context, and ponder the possibilities and limits of current analytical frameworks in this respect. I conclude that ethnography as method, theory, and academic-activist ethics, provides an invaluable tool for the study of transnational sexualities. It helps us move beyond the binaries of absolute and categorical differences between a Western queer self and the non-Western lesser other.

Engebretsen, Elisabeth (2005). Lesbian identity and community projects in Beijing: Notes from the field on studying and theorising same-sex cultures in the age of globalisation Paper presented at The First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies, Bangkok, Thailand, July. PDF Download. Download Page. This paper is based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork for my PhD in Anthropology, and is a research project that investigates same-sex desire and cultures among women in Mainland urban China, mainly in Beijing and on the Internet. The ambitions with this project are for one to contribute knowledge about the variations and similarities in human sexuality and culture, by way of studying a rarely prioritised category of people (lesbian-identified women) in a relatively seldom studied locale (urban China). And second, I hope to connect ideologies about sexual identity to wider social and cultural economies of change and inter-exchange in this particular moment in history often referred to as an age of ‘globalisation’.

Suppressed Voice or Silence by Choice? - Lesbians and the Emerging Lesbian Communities in Contemporary China (Bin Xu, Institute for Tongzhi Studies) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "While women’s studies is still trying to get more attention from mainstream male scholars in China, most researchers simply leave lesbians out on purpose. After examining the reason of the lack of lesbian studies, I explore the emerging lesbian community in China, taking examples of the city of Beijing and a popular lesbian website, and explain how the community in the virtual space help shaping the one in real life. I also trace the ups and downs of the only lesbian group in China, Beijing Sisters. By analyzing the event that caused the dissolution of the group and the following heated discussion within lesbian community, I examine the different attitudes towards lesbian activism and the struggles lesbian face in contemporary China. In the end, I propose the strategies for lesbian community building as well as for promoting the lesbian visibility in both academe and general public."

Engebretsen, Elisabeth L (2009). Intimate practices, conjugal ideals: Affective ties and relationship strategies amongst lala ('lesbian') women in contemporary Beijing. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 6(3): 3-14. PDF Download. PDF Download. This article explores a range of marital ideologies and relationship strategies in the lives of lala (lesbian) women in contemporary Beijing. Although new discourses on same-sex marriage rights and sexual equality are becoming popular in parts of Chinese lala communities, the traditional marriage ideal continues to appear desirable, and it structures same-sex life aspirations as well as social, romantic, and family relationships. The author offers ethnographic data to demonstrate why seemingly oppressive structures retain such significance and overall positive association in lala everyday life and ideology. Narratives of 3 complex relationship strategies demonstrate that marriage is at the core of negotiations that reconcile personal same-sex desires with normative social pressures. Compliant-like conjugal strategies enable subversive possibilities that subtly challenge the status quo while appearing normal. This observation requires a rethinking of notions and meanings of agency, power, and the approach to studying the current global diversity of nonnormative sexualities.

Jin, Cao (2009). Case Study of Lesbian’s Health Hotline in Peripheral Chinese City. Observatorio (OBS*) Journal, 10: 273-287. PDF Download. This article examines the telephone hotline health services for lesbians in one of the mainland China’s peripheral cities, Kunming. It examines the socio-cultural situation of Chinese lesbians, identifies a blind spot in indigenous feminism discourse on lesbian issues, and proposes a rethinking of that discourse. It probes the value that dialogue has for lesbians by examining their participation in the hotline service, and explores how lesbians in China can enter social struggles for equality with the support of public policy organizations. This case study seeks to contribute to debates in Chinese scholarship on lesbian issues from a reflexive, critical feminist perspective... It is therefore clear that the establishment of health care hotline, as a result of the efforts of both professionals and lesbian volunteers, and the subsequent institutional legitimation of this work, has made substantial inroads in combating the prejudices of the dominant heterosexist culture and the unfair policies these prejudices have supported. This is an important milestone for the Chinese lesbian movement. It demonstrates that lesbian volunteers, drawing upon aid from international sources, and establishing alliances with the government is an effective strategy for advancing public policy concerns as well as the social movement.

Superlezzie Xiangqi, founder of Shanghai lesbian group (2011): Jennifer Chang and Lisa Dazols, a couple who are traveling the world in search of “Supergays” who are creating change for the LGBTQ community, speak with Xiangqi, the founder of Shanghai Nvai about setting up the city's only lesbian group for local Chinese, faux marriages where gay men and lesbian women marry one another, and lesbian life in China... How did your group Shanghai Nvai come about? Xiangqi: In 2001, I started a lesbian website. At the time in China, there were very few gay or lesbian websites. I ran this site for 6 years and met a lot of friends. Through the site, people were able to meet each other and talk about lesbian issues. The internet was such a critical platform for us during that time. In 2005, I moved to Shanghai. That same year, a lesbian community group started up in Beijing. I felt Shanghai needed one as well, so I started Shanghai Nvai as a grassroots organization. In Shanghai, we are the only local lesbian community group, though there are quite a few community groups for gay men. Our ongoing activities include speakers and salon discussions with the public. And right now, we’re recording the oral history of lesbians in Shanghai. We record what their lives were like, what issues they faced, and how they overcame them.

Backward Glances: Contemporary Chinese Cultures and the Female Homoerotic Imaginary - 2010 - by Fran Martin. Review. Review. Review.  Google Books: Backward Glances reveals that the passionate love one woman feels for another occupies a position of unsuspected centrality in contemporary Chinese mass cultures. By examining representations of erotic and romantic love between women in popular films, elite and pulp fiction, and television dramas, Fran Martin shows how youthful same-sex love is often framed as a universal, even ennobling, feminine experience. She argues that a temporal logic dominates depictions of female homoeroticism, and she traces that logic across texts produced and consumed in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan during the twentieth century and the early twenty-first. Attentive to both transnational cultural flows and local particularities, Martin shows how loving relations between women in mass culture are usually represented as past experiences. Adult protagonists revel in the repeated, mournful narration of their memories. Yet these portrayals do not simply or finally consign the same-sex loving woman to the past - they also cause her to reappear ceaselessly in the present.</p><p>As Martin explains, memorial schoolgirl love stories are popular throughout contemporary Chinese cultures. The same-sex attracted young woman appears in both openly homophobic and proudly queer-affirmative narratives, as well as in stories whose ideological valence is less immediately clear. Martin demonstrates that the stories, television programs, and films she analyzes are not idiosyncratic depictions of marginal figures, but manifestations of a broader, mainstream cultural preoccupation. Her investigation of representations of same-sex love between women sheds new light on contemporary Chinese understandings of sex, love, gender, marriage, and the cultural ordering of human life.

Mulky, Virginia (2011). Shaping a New Identity: Increasing Visibility of Lesbian Desire in Chinese Cinemas. Honors Dissertation, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. In recent years there has been a noticeable increase in Chinese-language films about lesbian romances. Many of these films have found commercial and critical success in Chinese markets such as Taiwan and Hong Kong, as well as honors at international film festivals.In order to analyzes how these films reflect and shape Chinese lesbian identity, this thesis considers how a range of contemporary Chinese-language films produced in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and abroad deploys the figure of the lesbian. In particular, this study examines the production of such films by Chinese cultures outside of Mainland China as a means of promoting an alternative, inclusive Chinese identity in opposition to Mainland censorship.


China’s Progressive Attitude Toward Transgender Community (2009). - China’s Transgender Community (2009): As the examples of Jin Xing and Chen Lili show, Chinese transpeople are being fully integrated into society. They can now change their ID cards without hassles, their civil rights are protected by law, and after they have surgery can get married and have those marriages recognized by the state as valid. They are examples that the rest of the judgmental Western world would do well to emulate, especially in my own country. - Sex in China – The Third Sex, Transgender People Struggle (2012): The first sex change in China was carried out in 1983, so the technology has been available for a long time. The problem is that gender dysphoria is considered first and foremost to be a mental illness and unlike homosexuality it is unlikely that this stance will change soon. This means that in the last 30 years, only 2,000 Chinese people have been able to become fully transsexual. In 2009, the government published fairly stringent regulations for anyone hoping to have surgery – some of these conditions seem reasonable given the severity of the surgery (it has to be noted that surgery does not seem to have a major impact on the long-term happiness of many transgender people, and the post-operative period is often one of depression and occasionally can lead to suicide) and others are seemingly arbitrary... - Red tape to test transsexuals' desire. - Jin Xing, Chinese Transgender Dancer, Defends Right To Perform (2012). - Transgender In China: Defending A Formerly Male Dancing Star's Right To Be A Woman (2012): Essay: Jin Xing, one of China's greatest modern dancers, has divided public opinion after she was barred from being a television show judge because censors thought she was a bad influence on teenagers. A close-up look at a unique role model in modern China.

Gender Variance in China (2010): I was mildly surprised by the state of transgender rights in China. Transgender individuals can change their government identification cards, can legally receive sex-change operations (though only an estimated 1000 people have done so, according to one source), and the government recognizes the marriages of post-operative transpeople. This last right is especially interesting, given the fact that in the United States there are ongoing legislative and judicial disputes about the validity of marriages between transpeople both before and after surgery. - Transgender in China (2010).  - Transgender in China  (Wikipedia). Transgender (Video, Chinese, English Subtitles).

Sex appeal - life of Chinese cross-dressers (2010): Wherever he goes traveling in China, he has trouble checking into a hotel. The receptionists will always question him for a long time and then check with the manager if it is OK for him to stay in the hotel. The problem? His identity card shows he's male, but he dresses like a woman. A 26-year-old teacher at a Beijing-based high school, who wished to remain nameless, wears shirts and trousers at work, but when he goes traveling on his own, or with friends, he wears skirts, leggings and high-heel shoes... Zhao Gang, head of Trans China, says it is difficult to give a specific number of transgender people as it is a group easily ignored by society. Based in Kunming, Yunnan province, Trans China is a non-government organization set up after the first Transgender Sex Workers Health and Human Rights Workshop held by Asia-Pacific Network of Sex Workers in Thailand in 2006. Two years later, it was officially registered under the International Gay and Lesbian Association. Zhao, a cross-dresser himself, says the organization aims on empowering transgender communities in China and educating the public, winning their understanding on transgender issues. Though he admits, "Society is more tolerant towards us now." ... The changing attitudes can be seen in the reaction to cross-dresser Liu Zhu, 19, from Sichuan province, who was called "pseudo-girl" by his fans for his cross-dressing performance on Hunan TV's 2010 Happy Boys. Liu brought the issue of cross-dressing into the media spotlight. "He won a lot of positive support, which means society is beginning to know what a cross-dresser is and is ready to accept it exists," Zhao says. "Liu brought the transgender issue to the surface. Though the population is small, they are struggling to live their own lifestyle," says Li Yinhe, a sociologist and sexologist with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, who started looking into the issue 10 years ago when local police banned a drag-queen troupe from Northeast China from performing in Beijing.

One Powerful Personality: Jin Xing (2012): in Xing is China’s most celebrated choreographer, dancer, and transgender role model – an outspoken and inspiring figure who as she says ‘is always challenging the boundaries of Chinese society.’ With 350,000 fans on Sina Weibo (China’s Twitter), and an array of regular TV gigs, she’s also a national celebrity, and a symbol of the diversification of popular culture in contemporary China. It gives me great pleasure to post the following edited transcription from a talk given by Jin Xing at the University of Minnesota on 16 February this year. Colloquial and compelling, the piece reads as something of a manifesto on Jin Xing’s life and dance practice, and has been edited in consultation with the speaker herself. For those already interested in Jin Xing, get ready for a real treat. For those who haven’t heard of Jin Xing yet, allow us to introduce you to one powerful personality... Personal strength, sexuality and China: Somehow, with my personality, I’m always challenging the boundaries of Chinese society. [laughs] I’m always pushing things, biting at things. The best male dancer in China in 1995 became a female dancer. That’s already a big taboo for China. And then she established the first modern dance company. And when I moved to Shanghai, I didn’t go quiet. I was running my own company, choreographing new pieces, and at the same time I became a single mother. I adopted three children from an orphanage. So a single mother with three kids – that’s also a big taboo. In China, that’s too much. I’m too much! But I say all my energy, all my strength and determination, all of this comes thanks to my government and my military training. [laughs] I’m now 45 yrs old, and still dancing. How is it that I have the energy? I think I’m a very blessed person, and dance gives me a way to balance myself. Dance is sign language, and you can use this to communicate all of your struggles, all of your sorrows. You can choose beautiful music from around the world, and then put everything of yourself into that music, and I think that’s a tremendous gift. Even if I’m facing a very challenging social environment and social path, I always have this to recharge me back in my studio. And when I go home as a mother and a wife, I look at my three gorgeous kids – that’s another recharger. I have to fight. Fight for what? For money, so they can have a beautiful life? No. I have to fight because society can be cruel. They are orphanage kids; I adopted them. And now they already have all this extra business with ‘oh, your mother was a man, your mother was a transsexual …’ It means I just have to work harder to establish myself as a serious artist, so that in the future these kids can grow up and be proud of their mother. There’s a lot of debate on the internet with people saying She’s a transsexual, How can she adopt kids, She’s a disgusting person, She can’t be a good mother, etc. To that, I say: shut up. Am I a good mother or not? Only my kids can tell society that after twenty years. Nobody else can judge me. - Chinese dancer becomes cultural icon after sex change operation (2012). - Chinese trans dancer sees her future in politics (2012).

Chinese government official becomes a woman aged 84 (2012): An 84-year-old retired government official from southern China has become an unlikely trailblazer for transgender rights after speaking out about his decision to become a woman – in his ninth decade of life... Qian Jinfan was born in Jiaxing, a city around 50 miles from Shanghai, in 1928. A Chinese calligrapher, literary theorist and art collector, he built a career as a mid-ranking civil servant in Foshan, in southern Guangdong province, and married aged 54. Four years ago, aged 80, he decided he wanted to be a woman... Mr Qian's experience suggests prejudice remains. While colleagues had been broadly supportive when he began attending meetings in female clothes, Mr Qian said he had suffered abuse from children near his home. He reported them to the local neighbourhood committee after being called a "man-monster." "I don't think I am inferior to others. I will not give up easily. I am not wrong," he said. Online responses to Qian's story were mixed. - Longing for being males, Chinese twin sisters, 25, have sex-change ops (2012): A pair of 25-year-old twin sisters from Yunnan Province in southwestern China have successfully received preliminary sex-change operations in a Shanghai hospital to become males, seeing their long-cherished shared dream finally come true. Both received plastic surgery at the No. 411 Hospital of People's Liberation Army, the hospital confirmed yesterday with Shanghai Daily. The younger has already returned to her hometown as "she" received the surgery months ahead of her older sister, who boarded a train back home yesterday afternoon. "The operations on both the twins are successful. They said they would continue to save up from hard work so they can return for their respective last phases of surgery," said Zhao Yede, the twins' plastic surgeon. - Man castrates himself, then jumps to his death in Beijing (2012): Reports that a transgender man came to a tragic end on campus of prestigious Beijing university.

Chinese transsexuals gaining acceptance (2004): Transsexuals such as Chen Lili, who hoped to compete in the Chinese Miss Universe contest, are making gains against social disapproval... Transsexuals have ceased to be taboo in urban China in recent years, and a total of about 500 Chinese men have so far had their sex changed surgically, according to statistics given by the country's state media. Chen, who underwent a sex change in November, first began attracting local attention as a hormone-taking transvestite singer in China's southern Guangdong Province more than eight years ago... "In 10 years the most important thing I want to achieve is to keep myself alive, to keep my life," she said, before laughing and claiming to be joking. The thousands of dollars she has spent on her physical transformation have come from singing. Despite offers, she has never prostituted herself, she said. Chen and the Jiangsu Sirrim clinic have also come to an agreement where she promises to do all media interviews at the clinic in exchange for free surgical procedures. - China to regulate transsexual operations (2009). - Soul in the wrong body: Gov’s new rules change the fate of transsexuals (2009).

Sex in China – The Third Sex, Transgender People Struggle (2012): China has one of the largest populations of transgender people in the world, it is estimated that over 400,000 people consider themselves to be trapped in the body of the wrong gender. However many of these individuals face an uphill struggle if they wish to undertake surgery for sexual reassignment... In 2009, the government published fairly stringent regulations for anyone hoping to have surgery – some of these conditions seem reasonable given the severity of the surgery... The main requirements of the policy are as follows:... So China isn’t Thailand, and despite the fact that the country imports enormous numbers of Thai transsexuals to work as show girls – Chinese transsexuals have a much harder time being accepted into society... The final barrier to many of China’s transsexuals is that of money, gender reassignment is expensive (estimates are around 200,000 RMB) and many Chinese people simply cannot afford to have an operation of this nature. In a country where the average wage is 1,500 RMB a month, the average worker would need to go without food, clothes, a place to live, etc. for 11 years to be able to afford a sex change. - Transsexual Woman Campaigns for AIDS Awareness (2006): Transsexual woman Liu Xuanyi in the costume she made with condoms poses for photographs in a move to arouse AIDS awareness in people in south China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. - Transgender Dancer's Hard Road to Love: Portraits of Young People in a Changing China (2008).

First Chinese transsexual gets marriage certificate (2004): Transsexual Zhang Lin received not only a new ID card, but a marriage certificate in Peng Township, Shuangliu County in Southwest China's Sichuan. - Chinese transsexual Chen Lili disqualified from Miss Universe (2004): Chen Lili, a 24-year-old trans-sexual from Sichuan Province, was shut out of the Miss Universe contest by organisers, saying she is an artificial woman. - Transsexual's wedding mirrors social changes (2004). - Transsexual mother to adopt child (2005). - Zhejiang's first transsexual becomes mother (2006). -  China removes transsexual dancer as talent show judge (2011): A well-known contemporary Chinese dancer says she has been removed as a judge from a television talent show despite the objections of the show's producers, and believes it is because she is a transsexual. Shanghai-based retired dancer Jin Xing announced on her microblog that she had received the news in a telephone call this week from the director of the singing show, which is made by a television station in the eastern province of Zhejiang. "He told me that the reason for my removal, according to the regulator's letter, is because I am transsexual, which will have negative effects on society," Jin, a one-time colonel in a People's Liberation Army dance troupe, told Reuters. - Chinese transsexual talks openly about womanhood, sparks heated online debate (2011): Jin Xing (金星) is an internationally acclaimed dancer who had been fantasizing about being female since the age of 6. Though she was already mentally prepared to undergo full surgical transformation by age 16, it was not until 12 years later that she finally took herself to the operation table. “Only when I am truly successful can I expect the society to accept me for my differences,” said Jin at a recent interview.

China’s most celebrated dancer Jin Xing is transgendered, original, rarely seen (2012): One of the few transgender women officially recognized by the Chinese government, the work of Jin Xing would be extraordinary for its enchanting choreography all by itself, no sex change operation necessary. Adding that second fact goes a long way to explaining why you will neither read nor see much about this artist who was born the son of a policeman and who at the age of nine joined the People’s Liberation Army as a boy, receiving training in both dance and military training. She became a member of the military’s dance troupe, and eventually attained the rank of Colonel. She experienced strong transsexual desires early in life. She said she would stay outside during rain, and wish that a lightning strike would turn her body female. But for all the torment, Jin Xing had a sense of humor that is wonderfully exposed in the names of her dances. The Imperial Concubine Has Been Drunk for Ages is one for example, a traditional work that takes on new meaning when danced by someone who is transgendered.

Cross-dressing boy entering singing contest, judges and viewers stunned (2010, Video): Super Boy” or ”Happy Boy”, inspired by UK show Pop idol, is a national singing contest in China for male contestants as a spin off the popular series “Super Girl” or “Happy Girl”. A 2010 Happy Boy southern division contestant Liu Zhu (刘著) are attracting more attentions recently because he went on the show looking just like a girl, wearing heavy makeup, pink stockings and high heels. According to his Baidu wiki page, Liu Zhu was born in January 9, 1991, 1.68 meters tall from Nanchong, Sichuan province. He is currently a student of Sichuan Conservatory of Music. - 19-year-old cross-dressing male contestant stands up to judge on China TV talent show (2010): The video which shows a 19-year-old contestant Liu Zhu standing his ground despite being repeatedly interrupted and verbally abused by a judge during his performance during a TV singing contest has caused a minor stir in China. - Cross-dressing 'Happy Boy' stirs up debate on gender in China (2010).

Bold pretty boys wear lipstick, heels (2010): Pretty boys, or "flowery boys" as they are called, are a big trend in China and they are quite accepted - some are gay, some not - but there's still discussion of gender roles and what it all means. Outright dressing as women is much rarer. On his blog, Liu describes feelings of sexual ambivalence, to say the least, indicating he's a girl at heart in a male body. He's a cross-dresser in daily life. "Many people tell me that I am a mistake," he writes. "I admit they are right. If I had been born a girl, I would have had a more peaceful, happier and simpler life - study at a good university, find a decent job and marry a good husband. "People may laugh at me but I won't stop my efforts to show my best and pursue an extraordinary life." Liu was just one of the young men mistaken for girls on "Happy Boy." Xu Long, a 22-year-old known as Tongtong, stunned the audience and netizens with his cross-dressing and model-like looks - he even has his own professional fashion portfolio, including one of him as a bride in white. Many compared him to the Chinese mainland actress Fan Bingbing. But Xu, who is also from Sichuan Province, says that unlike Liu, he is 100-percent male and never dresses like a girl in daily life.

Men who are princesses (2012): Theatrical cross-dressing, a common practice in traditional Chinese opera, is now a popular trend among Wuhan undergraduates. Gan Tian reports in Beijing. 'Xiao Lu' is an undergraduate who likes to don fake long wavy blonde hair, wear colorful leggings and put on fake eyelashes. He also borrows some female garments and cosmetics from his girlfriend. Part time drag queen? Xiao Lu (his stage name, not his real name) does not want to be associated with that term. Cross-dressing is a new trend among Wuhan's undergraduates and Xiao Lu is considered as a trendsetter. He co-founded Alice Nisemusume (pseudo-girl in Japanese) Association and his favorite role is to dress up like Shihodani Yujiro's character in the Japanese manga, Princess Princess. The manga tells the story of three boys, chosen to dress up as girls, in an all-boy school... "The popularity of cross-dressing performances show the vibrancy of performing arts. These young male students are anime fans, who like Japanese feminine cartoon figures, and they are expressing their interest through their performances. There is nothing wrong with it. It won't change their sexuality," Li Yinhe says. Confirming Li's views, Xiao Lu says for most of his friends, it is just a passing fancy. "We don't even aspire to make our association a profitable one. We are just a group of normal people who love Japanese cartoons, but we lead normal lives. We will stop all this cross-dressing once we've graduated," he says.

The Sexy China’s Cross-Dressing Cosplay (2012): Sexy boys perhaps? It was on a cross-dressing cosplay extravaganza in Wuhan, and this group of transvestite hobbyists call themselves the “Alice False Mother Group”, where all members are university students. Must mention that they didn’t have any plastic surgery in Thailand, they’re just average males when not on stage, and most of them got girlfriend too! Some of them said they learn to walk in a ladylike manner from their girlfriend. Maybe they can also teach their girlfriend the boys manner as well! More shots after the break… - Cross-dressing cosplay college boys in Wuhan (2012): Calling themselves the “Alice False Mother Group” (爱丽丝伪娘团), the outfit apparently has strict recruiting policies for new members, and ironically apply their idealized feminine beauty standards towards males interested in dressing up like wispy classical Chinese beauties. Xiaolu, a junior majoring in accounting at South-Central University for Nationalities that serves as spokesperson for the transvestite hobbyists, says the group’s members have to possess “long and thin legs, a frame that isn’t too burly, and a face that’s long enough to be delicate and handsome.” With members from schools like Wuhan University, Wuhan Textile University, Huazhong University of Science & Technology and Huazhong Normal University, the False Mothers claim that they’re just average males when they’re not on stage, with a red-blooded affinity for basketball and other sports. The main difference apparently being that most of the males receive plenty of attention from girls due to their delicate and non-burly features, with most of the members reporting they already have girlfriends. Incidentally, having access to girlfriends reportedly is a boon for when the boys need to learn how to walk in a ladylike manner, as well as teaching how to properly coo and mew while clutching stuffed animals.

Picture of the day: Cross-dressing boy club (2011): Wei niang, 伪娘, or literally fake girl, is a Chinese slang for cross-dressing boy who is not necessarily homosexual, which has a slightly derogative connotation. However, as the word is being popularized by internet culture, some cross-dressers have come to accept this term. Alice Fake Girl Club was founded on October 1, 2009 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and has grown from a handful members to 200, all of whom are college students in the city of Wuhan. The members proclaim that they “have magnanimity greater than men’s and glamor greater than women’s.”

Transgender Casting in the Hong Kong film world: There has been quite a number of women playing male or gender-ambiguous characters in Hong Kong movies. The same-sex dynamics and identity confusion so common in Hong Kong film are rarely seen in Western movies, at least not in the same context. According to the article He's a Woman, She's a Man : Cross-dressing and Androgyny in China: ... - He's a Woman, She's a Man : Cross-dressing and Androgyny in China (2003).

Sexy Beijing: Su Fei meets Mei Mei, Queen Transvestite of Beijing (2010): In the most recent video of Sexy Beijing, Sufei meets up with Mei Mei, a famous drag queen in Beijing and the star of a documentary in her name. In the documentary, she moves with a lover/new husband to Shanghai, only to experience heartbreak and go back to Beijing. Now she's the host of the China Cross-Dressing Club, which helps Beijing men become beauty queens. - Mei Mei (dir. Gao Tian, 2005, 82 mins): Mei Mei is a transvestite male actor who is eager to find his true love. He searches among gays and transvestites. In 2004 he finally meets a man of his match who also accepts Mei Mei as he is. They have a public wedding ceremony. Mei Mei is very confident about his marriage and his future. His friends throw a farewell party for him before he leaves for Shanghai where he and his love are to embark on a life together.  However, things are not as perfect as planned, and his marriage proves harder than expected. Finally Mei Mei comes back to Beijing. He feels embarrassed when running into old friends. Also, he runs into financial problems worse than ever before. - Drag Beijing: Introducing Mei Mei (2009): Looking at Mei Mei, Li Dong, seated directly across from me during the screening of this documentary film made about her life, it hits me how hard it is to believe she is anyone's son. Mei Mei is a true drag queen; she hasn't had sex-reassignment surgery and doesn't plan to. Her height is accentuated by four-inch black high-heels, and her slender frame made more dramatic by the cut of a tight-fitting qipa dress.

The People's Republic of Cross-dressing (2008, YouTube). -  Chinese crossdresser act (2010, YouTube). - The most beautiful boy in China (2010, YouTube). - Crossdress Paradise (2010, YouTube).

Cross-Dressing in Chinese Opera - 2003 - by Siu Leung Li. Informed by queer and feminist theories, this book offers a critical and historical reinterpretation of theatrical cross-dressing in Chinese culture embodied in various discourses, texts and artifacts from the eighth century to the present time. - Cross-Dressing in Chinese Opera - 2003 - by Siu Leung Li (Google Books) (Review).

Cross-dressing in Beijing Opera (2011):  Cross-dressing has a long history in Beijing opera, dating back to Feudal times when women were not allowed to perform on stage. As a result, male opera singers had to perform female roles. It was during what many term “Chinese opera’s golden age” in the 1920s and 30s that women were first allowed to openly make an appearance on stage. Owing to the move toward gender equality among the intelligentsia during that era, some female singers decided to take on male roles – just as male singers had traditionally taken on female roles. What is important to keep in mind is that cross-reading was never thought of as humorous or ironic as in the West. “People didn’t go to the theatre to see men play women’s roles,” accomplished female impersonator Liu Zheng, of the Tianjin Peking Opera Company, said. “Although some audience members might have known that you were really a man, they would not have paid much attention to your gender, forgetting about that during the performance. It was very important that the male be made up to be really beautiful and that his gestures and mannerisms be really feminine.”

Female cross-dressing in Chinese opera & cinema - 2010 - Dissertation by W Xie (Alternate Link). The dissertation investigates the dynamics between femininity and masculinity as represented in female cross-dressing within the context of Chinese theatrical and cinematic narratives, specifically women's Yue opera that peaked in popularity in 1930s/40s Shanghai and the huangmei diao film that prospered in 1950s/60s Hong Kong. First I examine the emergence and dominance of Yue opera in the semi-colonial milieu of 1930s/40s Shanghai, with particular attention to its shift from all-male towards all-female casts. I argue that, unlike her gendered counterpart in Beijing opera, the Yue opera cross-dresser unveils her femininity. The typical feminized male hero in Yue opera plays is traced back to the image of the "fragile scholar" in the classic 'scholar-meets-beauty' romances. Exploring the metamorphosis of The Butterfly Lovers, arguably the most celebrated piece in the Yue opera repertoire, from a male-centered story tinted with pornographic innuendos to a female-gendered, melodramatic, pure romance, the dissertation then argues that the plays of Yue opera are primarily designed as an exhibition of sentiment and its practice of female cross-dressing allows for the creation of a fantasy space where sex, gender and sexuality are temporarily suspended.

Lee, Hanyl (2009). Female Cross-Dressing in Taiwanese Opera- A Study on the Role of Xiaosheng. Master's Dissertation, Soochow University. Download Page.  These survived Taiwanese Opera troupes transformed the old performing styles and promoted the existent performing qualities not only to retrieve the losing audience, but also to attract new audience. The traditions and essences of Taiwanese Opera remained, but some qualities had modified in order to go with the stream, such as: performing styles and performance locations. Among the modified characteristics of Taiwanese Opera, kunsheng phenomenon was the most interesting one. Both xiaosheng and xiaodan played the leading roles in performance; they supposedly won the equal attention from the audience, but they did not. Xiaosheng performers were often more popular and admired than the xiaodan performers. Xiaosheng in Taiwanese Opera are cross-dressed by female performers; they, therefore, are also called as kunsheng. Well-known kunsheng actresses usually become the celebrities and famous stars in popular culture.

Altenburger, Roland (2005). Is It Clothes that Make the Man? Cross-Dressing, Gender, and Sex  in Pre-Twentieth Century Zhu Yingtai Lore. Asian Folklore Studies, 64: 165–205. PDF Download. The legend of Zhu Yingtai and Liang Shanbo is among the perennial subject matters of folk literature in China. Despite its enormous popularity there, it has hitherto received very little attention in Western folk literature studies. This article presents a study of Zhu Yingtai lore across a varied body of pre-twentieth century texts, including the historical account, song-drama, and prosimetric narrative. It proposes a reassessment of the thematic focus and significance of the Zhu Yingtai narrative, arguing that it is primarily about female-to-male cross-dressing. What at the early stage began as a tale of failed recognition and disrupted male companionship, in song-drama and prosimetric narrative of subsequent periods was transformed into a comedy of gender ambiguity. The study of Zhu Yingtai lore offers important insights into the Chinese conceptions of gender and sex and their interrelationship.

Striking Their Own Poses: The History of Cross-Dressing on the Chinese Stage (1998). - Clothes make the wo/man: Cross-dressing and gender on the English Renaissance stage and in the late imperial Chinese theatre (2004). - Li Yugang and Female Impersonators of the Traditional Chinese Stage (2010).

Liu, Bo-wen (2009). Comparison of Cross Dressing in The Twelfth Night and Yi Zhong Yuan. Cross-cultural Communication, 5(4): 78-85. Download Page.  The device of cross dressing is adopted both by Renaissance writer Shakespeare and Chinese writer Li Yu in late Ming and Early Qing dynasty. This paper makes a comparison between Shakespeare’s work The Twelfth Night and Li Yu’s Yi Zhong Yuan (The Desired Ideal Matches), in which the female protagonists are dressed in men’s cloth. The two female protagonists transgress into men’s world by cross dressing, showing the ambiguity of gender identity and challenging the dominant system by men. However, they owed different attitudes towards cross dressing and different level of masculinity. Traced back into the concept of gender in two cultures, we may find an answer to this difference.

Jiang, Jin (2011). Women Playing Men Same-Sex Relations in Republican Shanghai. Harvard-Yenching Insittute Working Paper Series. PDF Download. Although we have fairly good knowledge about the homoerotic and homosocial world of Beijing opera of the late Qing, we know very little about the same-sex culture of women’s Yue opera that flourished in Republican Shanghai. This paper looks at the homosexual aspects in women’s Yue opera against the background of the general Republican reformation of sex and gender relations. By juxtaposing the opera’s stage representations of heterosexual love by the same-sex cast with the off-stage homoerotic and homosocial relationships within women’s opera circles, we will explore a spectrum of possibilities for women in Republican-era Shanghai... Elsewhere I have argued that the rise of women’s Yue opera in Republican Shanghai was not merely a cultural phenomenon, but an important social event that highlighted women’s entrance into society and their influence in fashioning the city’s public culture. The foregoing investigation, however, reveals how homoerotic desires, unspeakable in the public and most time concealed, were also an important driving force behind women’s Yue opera as a public event.

Mulan in Real Life: Chinese Women Soldiers and Feminism (2012): Among all Chinese women soldiers in ancient period, Mulan probably is the one that has attracted the widest range of attention. No matter how she is educated or where she is raised, every Chinese girl knows Mulan. Mulan is the earliest legendary women warrior in Chinese culture and was recently verified by various scholars as real women living during the Han Dynasty (Li, 1994). The courageous peasant girl disguised herself as a man and took her ailing father's place in the emperor's army. After fighting in the army for 12 years, she declined the appointment bestowed on her by the emperor and went back home. Inspired by Mulan’s deed, Disney released a movie Mulan in 1998 and was well-received by critics and the public, grossing $304 million, earning Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations. More importantly, Mulan, as a representative of ancient Chinese women in wars, reflects perfectly the powerfulness and the powerlessness of Chinese women soldiers at the time. I would like to discover the “feminist” and “non-feminist” perspectives in Mulan’s story, and then to expand them to all Chinese ancient women’s stories.

Chan, Felicia (2006). Wuxia Cross-dressing and Transgender Identity: The Roles of Brigitte Lin Ching-hsia from Swordsman II to Ashes of Time. Word Download. The act of cross-dressing in the theatrical and cinematic traditions has been consistently employed as a method of transgressing and thus exploring the limits of the boundaries in gender but also in identity and selfhood. In some cases, these transgressions were a response to prevailing institutional, cultural and social restrictions of the day. This essay attempts to address the cross-dressing performances of Brigitte Lin (more widely known as Lin Ching-hsia to East Asian audiences) in the context of the wuxia performance tradition, its sense of spectacle and the Hong Kong film culture of which the actress is an integral part. It aims not at a deductive outcome, of whether gender manipulation and ambiguity in the films possess any implications for a culture’s social practices, but instead attempts to investigate the act of cross-dressing as a performative act, locating its enactment as the site on which arguments of (trans)gender identity, social expectation, and so on, may converge.

Peter Ho-Sun Chan's He's a Woman, She's a Man - 2009 - by Lisa Odham Stokes (Hong Komg University Press) (Google Books). This raucous, gender-stretching comedy follows the disruptions of a glamorous Hong Kong music couple's tumultuous romance by an "ordinary" fan's noisy arrival in their lives. With great comic story development, the film confronts social stereotypes of masculine females, male anxieties about homosexuality, and the limits of male femininity. - He's a Woman, She's a Man - 1994 - Film directed by Peter Ho-Sun Chan. - The 36th Hong Kong International Film Festival Presents Filmmaker in Focus Peter Ho-Sun Chan Exhibition (2012).

Celluloid Comrades: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Chinese Cinemas - 2006 - by Song Hwee Lim (University of Hawai'i Press) (Google Books) (Full Text).Celluloid Comrades offers a cogent analytical introduction to the representation of male homosexuality in Chinese cinemas within the last decade. It posits that representations of male homosexuality in Chinese film have been polyphonic and multifarious, posing a challenge to monolithic and essentialized constructions of both "Chineseness" and "homosexuality." Tracing the engendering conditions within the film industries of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, Song Hwee Lim argues that the emergence of Chinese cinemas in the international scene since the 1980s created a public sphere in which representations of marginal sexualities could flourish in its interstices. Examining the politics of representation in the age of multiculturalism through debates about the films, Lim calls for a rethinking of the limits and hegemony of gay liberationist discourse prevalent in current scholarship and film criticism. He provides in-depth analyses of key films and auteurs, reading them within contexts as varied as premodern, transgender practice in Chinese theater to postmodern, diasporic forms of sexualities.

Transgression: Guangxi police surprised by cross-dressing prostitutes (2012): Police in Nanning, the regional capital of Guangxi in southern China, on Jan. 7 arrested 14 male prostitutes posing as women in the city's Chaoyang marketplace. Authorities had been receiving complaints about prostitution, gambling and robberies in the marketplace from residents from last November. Almost 70 police officers raided the marketplace on Jan. 7, finding many prostitutes with long hair and slim figures soliciting on the street. - Prostitutes turn out to be cross-dressing men (2012).  

HIV/AIDS & Safer Sex

East China's college students surveyed on sex views (2002): "about 60 percent of the students hold a tolerant view about homosexuality, thinking it should be permitted openly." - China AIDS activist riled officials (2002). - AIDS and Homosexuality in China (1997). - AIDS in China: The history of AIDS in China (2011). - China: AIDS cases due to gay male sex (2001). - A Walk in the Park: Frames and Positions in AIDS Prevention Outreach among Gay Men in China (2002, PDF Download. Word Download): In recent years, with increased emphasis by the government on AIDS prevention and control (Plafker 2001; Zheng 2002) and a more accepting stance towards homosexuality (Feng 2001; Wan 2001b), men who have sex with men in China have had increasing opportunities to encounter AIDS prevention messages through social gatherings at bars and discos, telephone hotlines providing peer counseling (Beijing Comrades Hotline 1999) and internet web sites (see for example Guangzhou Comrade 2000). In 1996, however, the opportunities for AIDS education among this population were severely constrained both by official reluctance to address the issue of homosexuality and by difficulties for non-members in accessing this relatively invisible community (Jones 1997, 1999, 2001b; Li 1998; Wan 1999)...  - China launches first gay HIV survey (2004): China's gay men know little about AIDS. - China's First Homegrown Gay and AIDS Activist, Wan Yan Hai (2000).

Chinese AIDS Activist is Missing - Police Suspected (2002). - Chinese AIDS Activist in Police Custody; 1 Million Infected? (2002). - China's Gay Activists Cheer New Openness on AIDS (2001, Alternate Link). - Chinese AIDS Activist Honored Despite Ongoing Detention (2002). - Chinese HIV/AIDS activists detained as epidemic worsens (2002). - China's Best-Known AIDS Activist is Released. - Wan Yan Hai has been released! (2002): Human Rights in China (HRIC) has received information that Chinese HIV/AIDS activist Wan Yanhai, who disappeared on August 24, 2002, has been detained. According to Liang Yen Yen, one of the coordinators of the Aizhi (AIDS) Action Project, on September 4 at 1:30 P.M. Beijing time, an official from the Ministry of State Security informed him that Wan Yanhai is being detained and is under examination (shen cha) for leaking "state secrets." The Ministry of State Security views Wan's research and report that revealed the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in Henan Province as an exposition of "state secrets."

Lonely Battle Against AIDS in China: Health: Prejudice, ignorance are rife as disease's toll rises (2002): "But amid the media coverage, almost nothing has been said about acquired immune deficiency syndrome's inroads among gay men. The taboo against talking about sex in general and homosexuality in particular remains a block against getting information to those in need. Only a handful of people are trying to break the silence. Even the China Society for the Prevention of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Disease, composed of officials, doctors and researchers, stays relatively mute on the issue of gays and the disease." - AIDS, gay rights activist battles Chinese mores (2002). - The Butterfly And The Sword: AIDS In China (2002): The lid is coming off of China’s potentially monumental AIDS problem - but slowly. Unbelievable theatre in China - everybody’s a Bette Davis,” thirty-four-year-old gay expatriate Brad tells me. “They say they love only you, but they’re lying through their teeth!” By the way, he adds, “Why don’t you come to a party I’m giving next weekend at my apartment? There’ll be lots of people for you to talk to there.” Brad lives to party in China’s “one-party” state, and his soirées are well known in gay Beijing... The threat of AIDS may not yet have encroached upon Brad’s urban circle of friends, but it will soon enough. Some 1.25 million people in China are HIV-positive, according to international health organizations. That number is projected to surge to ten to twenty million in a decade... After the 2000 AIDS conference, says Lin, the government’s AIDS Prevention Society decided to lend its stamp of approval to volunteer AIDS prevention efforts among gays in some of China’s larger cities. Gays were told that they could become society members and, after Ministry of Health training, could receive a certificate officially permitting them to continue their previously unrecognized volunteer work, such as distributing condoms, with a bit of state financial support. The problem is this: The AIDS Prevention Society has boxes of condoms and safe-sex brochures but doesn’t know where or how to distribute them...

Gay volunteers promote safe sex (2006). - Beijing and Shanghai (2007): As China's stature as a major player in the global business and political arena continues to increase, so does the visibility of the nation's gay community. To be sure, China is still a place where homosexuality is rarely discussed out in the open, and in all but a few very large cities, you'll find no organized gay scene. But the times are changing - China decriminalized homosexuality in the late '90s, and prior to its communist revolution in 1949, the country had been relatively tolerant of gay people, at least from a cultural and religious perspective, for centuries. Although the Chinese government is still a long way from passing any laws that actually protect GLBT citizens and visitors from discrimination, life for gay people in the nation's leading tourist destinations - Beijing and Shanghai - continues to improve... - Aids in China: Discourses on Sexuality and Sexual Practices (2005). - Sexual identity among men who have sex with men in Shanghai (2006). - Homosexual behaviour without homosexual identity: The case of Chinese men having sex with men (MSM) (2004).

“A Strange Love Affair”: Chinese Authorities Embrace Unification Church's Teaching on Sexuality (2002): "Wan Yanhai is a grassroots gay rights and HIV/AIDS education activist from China who frequently travels between the Los Angeles area and Beijing. Wan has made a name for himself as China’s most visible activist on these issues. His work involves getting comprehensive information on sexuality directly to people with AIDS, the gay community, and educators in China. His Chinese-language Web site called Aizhi Action, educates readers about various sexual orientations and contains translated versions of research reports from the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation and SIECUS. His recently published article called “A Strange Love Affair” uncovered the conservative, family-values ideology of the Unification Church, which had previously received the support of various Chinese bureaucracies, including the Ministries of Health and Education, to spread its gospel in China. According to the United Nations’ AIDS epidemic update, released in December 2001, the number of HIV infected people has risen above one million in China, more than double the 1999 figure. Reported HIV infections rose by 67 percent in the first six months of 2001, and many authorities believe the actual numbers may be two to three times as high. The Unification Church has a history of teaching abstinence-only sexuality education in the United States...

Tough Road Ahead: Successes and Challenges of HIV Prevention for MSM in China (Chung To, Chi Heng Foundation) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The Chi Heng Foundation’s HIV/AIDS intervention programme for MSM was one of the first in mainland China that targeted this sexual minority group which had virtually been ignored by previous programmes. This programme is community-based and focuses on mobilizing activists (outreach volunteers) from local MSM communities to disseminate information on HIV/AIDS prevention and promote safer sex in their own communities. To help the outreach volunteers to do a better job, various training workshops have been organised for them in collaboration with local health professionals. An on-line resource centre dedicated to HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual health for MSM has also been constructed to reach out to MSM Internet users. To date, the programme has extended to ten major cities in China including Hong Kong SAR. The programme coordinator travels regularly to these cities to supervise volunteers’ work. The challenges that the programme faces at present are lack of funding, talents, etc. Organisational development also poses some problems which need to be tackled in order to achieve greater success." - Chinese gay volunteers promote safe sex (2006). - The HIV related risks among men having sex with men in rural Yunnan, China: a qualitative study (2006, PDF Download. PDF Download).

Causey P, Settle E (2008). Enabling effective voluntary counselling and testing for men who have sex with men: Increasing the role of community based organizations in scaling up VCT services for MSM in China. Occasional Paper: UN Technical Working Group on MSM and HIV/AIDS, Beijing, China. PDF Download. In addressing the issues of HIV prevention and treatment in China, a great deal of information has been generated. All of those involved - individuals, organisations, communities and all levels of government – have demonstrated commitment to creating appropriate responses, which are both urgently needed based upon what we know about the HIV epidemic in China today1. VCT services strengthen a comprehensive prevention strategy by increasing the number of engaged MSM to both learn their HIV status and as an entry point for care and treatment. This was first recognized by the government of China in 2002 and reaffirmed by all stakeholders in national meetings under convened by the UN Technical Working Group on MSM and HIV/AIDS (UN-TWG/MSM). This paper is intended to explain what we know about MSM and VCT in China and describe the serious risk that HIV presents to this group. It also aims to illustrate the invaluable role community based organizations can play in effectively increasing access to VCT services for men who have sex with men (MSM) and self identified gay men. Finally, drawing on the experiences of ongoing collaborative efforts, this paper confirms that creating and strengthening partnerships between local and provincial health officials and civil society, and working closely with volunteers recruited and trained directly from the affected communities themselves, is the best and most effective approach to scaling up VCT for MSM.

Prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in Chongqing, China, 2006–2009: cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys (2012): A total of 953, 1015, 743 and 603 participants were investigated in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. HIV prevalence rates were 10.9%, 12.8%, 10.6% and 19.1%, respectively. The rates increased by 2.3% averagely per year (p<0.001). The HIV prevalence rates were significantly higher than the total population in subjects who were aged more than 40 years, subjects with an educational background of a junior high school level or lower, subjects with a positive syphilis infection or subjects who were recruited from a public bath (p<0.01). The HIV prevalence rates increased on average per year more than 4% in subjects over 30, subjects who worked in the entertainment business, subjects who were married or divorced, subjects with a positive syphilis infection or subjects who were not informed HIV test results. Although most subjects had good HIV/AIDS knowledge awareness (90%), the rate of consistent condom use was low (<37%).

Prevalence of bisexual behaviour among bridge population of men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis of observational studies (2011): Forty-nine articles (including 28 739 MSM subjects) met the selection criteria. Aggregated findings indicated that the estimated prevalence of bisexual behaviour among MSM in China is 31.2% (95% CI 28.1% to 34.5%). HIV and syphilis prevalences were 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively, among MSM engaging in bisexual behaviour and 3.8% and 9.3% among MSM only having sex with men. HIV prevalence among MSM engaging in sex with both men and women was significantly higher than in those who only have sex with men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.62; p=0.02). There is a high prevalence of bisexual behaviour among MSM in China and bisexual behaviour is significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk. The results of this meta-analysis highlight a critical pattern of HIV transmission among MSM in China and indicate that targeted interventions aimed at encouraging safe sex practices and promoting societal and family acceptance of MSM are urgently needed.

He Q, Xia Y, Raymond HF, Peng R, Yang F, Ling L (2011). HIV trends and related risk factors among men having sex with men in mainland China: findings from a systematic literature review. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 42(3): 616-33. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in the HIV epidemic and risk factors for HIV infection among men having sex with men (MSM) in mainland China. A literature review was conducted. Data from studies regarding HIV prevalence, syphilis infection and risk behavior, were pooled into three chronological stages. The independent correlates of HIV infection were gathered in order to guide the development of future interventions. HIV prevalences were 2.5% (95%CI 1.8-3.7), 1.8% (95%CI 1.1-2.9) and 3.3% (95%CI 2.0-5.3) before 2004, during 2004 to 2005 and 2006 to 2007, respectively. About two-thirds of MSM had multiple male sex partners during the previous six months (P6M), and more than one third of MSM engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) during last sex. Only UAI among commercial sex workers declined significantly. More than one quarter of MSM had female partners in P6M and the proportion having multiple female partners declined. The rates of unprotected vaginal sex had a downward trend. The prevalence of injecting drug use was low and remained the same. The number of lifetime male sexual partners and the frequency of anal sex in P6M were independently associated with HIV infection; UAI was correlated to the number of male partners, buying sex from males, being part of a mobile population, prior HIV testing and having a prior sexually transmitted disease (STD). We conclude intervention programs targeting UAI and multiple partners are urgently needed to control the HIV epidemic among MSM in mainland China.

Increasing prevalence of HIV and syphilis but decreasing rate of self-reported unprotected anal intercourse among men who had sex with men in Harbin, China: results of five consecutive surveys from 2006 to 2010 (2011): The prevalence of HIV and syphilis increased from 1.0% in 2006 to 7.5% in 2010 and from 9.2% in 2006 to 22.4% in 2009, respectively, whereas the rate of unprotected anal intercourse decreased from 61.3% in 2006 to 47.1% in 2010. Syphilis positivity and HIV infection are independently associated with each other across years. The rate of unprotected anal sex remains high although it has decreased over the years. Findings support an increasing prevalence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Harbin. Targeted behavioural intervention and syphilis treatment are urgently needed to prevent the epidemic from growing. - A survey of HIV/AIDS related behaviors among 2250 MSM in nine major cities of China (2008): The average age was 29.1±9.2. Of the subjects under survey 75.3% were unmarried and 24.7% were married.34.8% of the unmarried subjects and 74.0% of unmarried ones had female sexual partners in the past six months;94.8% had male sexual partners in the past 6 months,with an average number of 6.6±15.6 and 82.7% had anal intercourse partners in the past six months, with an average number of 8.0±17.8. The main ways to seek for sexual partners in the previous year were website (52.0%), bars (25.5%), bath rooms (21.1%) and so on. 49.5% looked for strange men to have sexual intercourse in gay places. The most preferable sexual ways were annual and oral intercourse with their sexual partners, with an incidence of 43.8% and 20.4%,respectively. The incidence of bleeding occurred in themselves or their partners was 27.7% during sexual intercourse in the past year. 72.3% ever visited gay website and chat room, 58.5% ever sought for sexual partners through website, and 55.5% met personally with MSM and had sexual intercourse with them.18.6% ever engaged in group sex in the previous year. 13.2% exchanged sex for money,with an average number of persons of 4.7±7.4, and with average episodes of 5.7±8.7, during the preceding year.Of the total samples, 75.1% ever used condom in the last anal intercourse and 6.1% experienced condom rapture or drop during condom use in the last time.

Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence is increasing among men who have sex with men in China: findings from a review and meta-analysis (2011): A total of 94 articles were identified (25 in English and 69 in Chinese) and analyzed. National HIV prevalence among Chinese MSM has increased over this period, from 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8%-2.4%) in 2001 to 5.3% (95% CI: 4.8%-5.8%) in 2009. MSM in Southwest China have the highest HIV prevalence, of 11.4% (95% CI: 9.6%-13.5%) in comparison with other regions, which range 3.5% to 4.8%. Significant increases in HIV prevalence among MSM were consistently observed across all Chinese regions. There is an urgent need for implementation of effective public health interventions to curb the spread of HIV infection among MSM across China, especially in the Southwest.

Jones RH (2007). Imagined comrades and imaginary protections: identity, community and sexual risk among men who have sex with men in China. Journal of Homosexuality, 53(3): 83-115. AbstractPDF Download. This paper describes the recent development of identity and community among gay men in China. It focuses both on the ways emerging forms of gay identity relate to larger ideological and discursive shifts within society, and on the ways these new forms of identity and community affect situated social interaction among gay men themselves. In particular, it addresses the question of how these emerging forms of gay identity and gay community affect the ways gay men in China understand the threat of HIV and make concrete decisions about sexual risk and safety. Among the chief tactics used by gay men in China to forge identity and community involves appropriating and adapting elements from dominant discourses of the Party-State and the mass media. This strategy has opened up spaces within which gay men can claim "cultural citizenship" in a society in which they have been heretofore marginalized. At the same time, this strategy also implicated in the formation of attitudes and social practices that potentially increase the vunerability of Chinese gay men to HIV infection.

Micollier, Evelyne (2006). Sexualités et vulnérabilité au VIH en Chine, un regard anthropologique [Sexualities and HIV/AIDS vulnerability in China, an anthropological perspective]. Sexologies, 15: 191-201. Abstract. Abstract. PDF Download. Translation. Using an anthropological approach, sexuality is studied as a social object, and this idea which is pluralist and wide-ranging, depending location, plays the role of a heuristic in ‘contextualised' studies on sexuality during a period when AIDS is spreading worldwide. The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is recognised as one of the most pressing public health problems globally, and in particular in developing countries, and as a ‘social' disease because of the implications and representations associated with it, has stimulated, or caused to be developed, studies on sexuality despite the risk that these studies will be used as a mere tool for epidemiology – which should be assessed in each context - and despite the risk associated with implicit moralisation of sexuality in terms of attempts by the scientific community to establish standards and thresholds of legitimacy for sexuality. The way the epidemic is treated in society is closely linked with medical care for it, and has facilitated recognition of the diversity of ‘sexual cultures' which take shape in an open and dynamic context of affective, social, political and economic interactions and relationships. Following an introduction which provides pointers to the theory, methodology and Chinese context, the following are examined: 1) sexual transmission of HIV and the epidemic dynamic; 2) its situation within society and the position of sexual minorities; 3) the development of studies on sexuality. Discussion of such themes contributes to documentation, in a specific social context, the social phenomena of sexual commerce in the same way as emergence and recognition of groups of minority sexual orientation, and of their rights, although theserights are still timidly granted in a limited context, and the way in which these groups negotiate with other participants in traditional normative structures (the family) or official structures. Finally, we should note that, in the context of prevention and care of HIV/AIDS in China, the idea of ‘sexual health' acts as a heuristic for studies of sexuality, which recently have been produced in ever-greater numbers and on increasingly diverse subjects, and in defending social and individual rights.

World Health Organization (2009). Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Report of the Consultation, 18–20 February 2009, Hong Kong SAR (China). Manila, the Philippines: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. PDF Download. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons (TG) are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. In Asia, MSM are 19 times more likely to acquire HIV infection than adults in the general population, and in China the odds are 45 times. Compared with the better-known epidemics in western countries, the HIV epidemic among MSM in the Asia–Pacific region takes a different path and form, with huge diversity in male sexual identification and behaviour, and different legal environments and societal attitudes towards male sexuality.

HIV-Related Behavioral Studies of Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for Future Research (2011): HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased significantly in China since early 2000, with MSM accounting for 32.5% of the newly infected HIV cases in China in 2009. This study reviews a total of 33 studies published in English literature on MSM in China from 2000 to 2009. Existing studies indicated that frequently MSM in China were married (especially older MSM); a majority were migrants and self-identified as gay. A large and increasing proportion of MSM sought sexual partners online. Sexual risk behaviors among MSM were prevalent, including high rates of unprotected sex, concurrent sexual relationships with both men and women, and commercial sex. Illicit drug use, however, was relatively low among general Chinese MSM, but higher among those engaged in commercial sex with men. The existing literature suggests a lack of socio-behavioral studies, lack of intervention studies specifically targeting MSM, and lack of studies in smaller cities, towns, and rural areas. Future studies need to employ more rigorous research methodology, including longitudinal study design, multiple sampling methods, and common measurements of HIV-related risk behaviors.

Li HM, Peng RR, Li J, Yin YP, Wang B, Cohen MS, Chen XS (2011). HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis of published studies. PLoS One, 6(8): e23431. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have now become one of the priority populations for prevention and control of HIV pandemic in China. Information of HIV incidence among MSM is important to describe the spreading of the infection and predict its trends in this population. We reviewed the published literature on the incidence of HIV infection among MSM in China... Twelve studies were identified, including three cohort studies and nine cross-sectional studies. The subgroup analyses revealed that the sub-overall incidence estimates were 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7%–5.3%) and 6.7% (95% CI, 4.8%–8.6%) for cohort and cross-sectional studies, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 5.54, p = 0.02); and 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9%–9.7%) and 4.6% (95% CI, 2.4%–6.9%) for studies in Chongqing and other areas, respectively (difference between the sub-overalls, Q = 7.58, p<0.01). Syphilis infection (RR = 3.33, p<0.001), multiple sex partnerships (RR = 2.81, p<0.001), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past six months (RR = 3.88, p = 0.007) represented significant risk for HIV seroconversion. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that HIV incidence is substantial in MSM in China. High incidence of HIV infection and unique patterns of sexual risk behaviors in this population serve as a call for action that should be answered with the innovative social and public health intervention strategies, and development of biological prevention strategies.

Chow EP, Wilson DP, Zhang L (2011). HIV and syphilis co-infection increasing among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 6(8): e22768. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF DownloadChinese and English literatures were searched for studies reporting HIV and syphilis prevalence among MSM from 2003 to 2008. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analysed by meta-analyses. Meta-regression was used to identify the potential factors that are associated with high heterogeneities in meta-analysis. Seventy-one eligible articles were selected in this review (17 in English and 54 in Chinese). Nationally, HIV prevalence among MSM increased from 1.3% during 2003-2004 to 2.4% during 2005-2006 and to 4.7% during 2007-2008. Syphilis prevalence increased from 6.8% during 2003-2004 to 10.4% during 2005-2006 and to 13.5% during 2007-2008. HIV-syphilis co-infection increased from 1.4% during 2005-2006 to 2.7% during 2007-2008. Study locations and study period are the two major contributors of heterogeneities of both HIV and syphilis prevalence among Chinese MSM. There have been significant increases in HIV and syphilis prevalence among MSM in China. Scale-up of HIV and syphilis screening and implementation of effective public health intervention programs should target MSM to prevent further spread of HIV and syphilis infection.

Zhang L, Ding X, Lu R, Feng L, Li X, Xiao Y, Ruan Y, Vermund SH, Shao Y, Qian HZ (2012). Predictors of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Chinese Metropolitan City: Comparison of Risks among Students and Non-Students. PLoS One, 7(5): e37211. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. Respondent driven sampling approach was used to recruit men who were self-identified as MSM in Chongqing Metropolitan City in southwestern China in 2009. Each participant completed a computer-assisted self-interview which collected demographic and behavioral data, and provided blood specimens for HIV and syphilis testing. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified predictors for HIV and syphilis infections while comparing student and non-student MSM. Among 503 MSM participants, 36.4% were students, of whom 84.2% were in college. The adjusted prevalence of HIV infection was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%-10.2%) in students and 20.9% (95% CI: 13.7%-27.5%) in non-students; the adjusted prevalence of syphilis was 4.4% (95% CI: 0.7%-9.0%) in students and 7.9% (95% CI: 3.6%-12.9%) in non-students (P = 0.12). Two groups had similar risky sexual behaviors such as number of sexual partners and exchanging sex for money. Multivariate analysis showed that students had lower HIV prevalence than non-students (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8) adjusting for age, ethnicity and other variables. Student MSM have lower HIV and similar syphilis prevalence compared with non-student MSM. However, due to a shorter duration of sexual experience and high prevalence of at-risk sexual behaviors among student MSM, HIV risk might be quite high in students as in non-students.

Xu JJ, Reilly KH, Lu CM, Ma N, Zhang M, Chu ZX, Wang JJ, Yun K, Shang H (2011). A cross-sectional study of HIV and syphilis infections among male students who have sex with men (MSM) in northeast China: implications for implementing HIV screening and intervention programs. BMC Public Health, 11: 287. PDF Download. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. A cross-sectional study of MSM high school and college students in Liaoning Province was conducted. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and blood specimens were obtained and tested for HIV and syphilis. There were 436 eligible participants. HIV and syphilis prevalence was 3.0% and 5.0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sexual orientation known by family members (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 1.5-34.6), HIV/AIDS information obtained from clinical doctors (OR: 6.7; 95% CI: 1.7-25.9), HIV/AIDS information obtained through free educational services and materials such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and condom distribution services (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0), inconsistent condom use (OR: 5.7; 95%: 1.3-25.3), sexual partner experienced anal bleeding after insertive anal intercourse (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 1.6-28.4), and history of illegal drug use (OR: 18.9; 95% CI: 2.2-165.3) were found to be significantly associated with HIV infection. Greater effort should be made towards stemming the HIV and syphilis epidemics among Chinese student MSM. Immediate screening and comprehensive interventions towards student MSM should be implemented in order to curb the spread of HIV. Family and school-based interventions should be considered to target this educated, yet vulnerable, population.

Cong L, Ono-Kihara M, Xu G, Ma Q, Pan X, Zhang D, Homma T, Kihara M (2008). The characterisation of sexual behaviour in Chinese male university students who have sex with other men: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 22;8: 250. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. Of 1824 sexually active male students, 68 (3.7%) reported having had sex with a man at least once; 33.8% of these 68 men had also had female partners. Compared with non-MSM students, MSM students were 3–6.5 times more likely to have had sexual encounters with casual or commercial sex partners and were three times less likely to have protected sex in the past year or during their lifetime. They were three to five times more likely to have had multiple partners and 15 times more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease (STD). In addition, the MSM students knew half as much about HIV and had less condom-decision than did non-MSM students and were two times more accepting of commercial sex. However, the MSM students were twice as aware of the risks for HIV infection. MSM composed 3–4% of the male sexually active university student population studied and was found to be at greater risk than non-MSM students for STD/HIV infection. There is an urgent need for STD/HIV programmes in university health services that take into consideration the sexuality and psychosocial issues of MSM students.

AIDS Prevention in a Different Way - Innovative Outreach Approach Towards MSM in China (Yi Mu Shen, Chi Heng Foundation) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In China, the existence of the MSM population was not officially acknowledged until very recently. Therefore, past AIDS prevention programmes have largely ignored this marginalised sexual minority group. The unique characteristics of the MSM population require an innovative approach to intervention, in which the stigma, discrimination and other social barriers that hinder the effectiveness of prevention must be removed. The Chi Heng Foundation’s MSM Outreach Programme aims at improving MSM’s safer sex awareness and reducing their risk behaviours. It is community-based and involves no moral judgment, focusing only on the target group’s health. This non-judgmental attitude has proved to be essential in winning the trust and support of the target MSM community. The programme’s volunteers are gay men themselves, so the MSM community can easily identify with them. They regularly visit gay cruising grounds and other gay venues (including gay bars, gay bathhouses, etc.) to hand out condoms, lubricants and educational leaflets about safer sex. They also proactively communicate with the men on topics of sexual health. This paper shares the experiences of the volunteers of the MSM Outreach programme and assesses the impact of this innovative approach on AIDS prevention among MSM in China." - Chengdu Tongle: Integrated Behaviour Change Interventions with Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) (2010). In December 2002, with the support of the UK-China Project, the Chengdu Tongle Health Counselling Service Centre began implementing HIV behaviour change, interventions with the MSM population in Chengdu. By 2006, it is estimated that the number of people covered by these interventions had reached 14,000. Chengdu Tongle’s interventions are implemented through a range of channels, and adopt a variety of approaches, with the aim of effectively engendering behaviour change among Chengdu’s MSM population.

Wong WC, Kong TS (2007). To determine factors in an initiation of a same-sex relationship in rural China: using ethnographic decision model. AIDS Care, 19(7): 850-7. Abstract. PDF Download. The sexual behaviour and HIV risks among Chinese MSM in rural areas are grossly under-researched. The aims of this study were to explore the process and formation as well as the factors in an initiation of sexual relationship or act in among MSM in this cultural setting. Twenty-four in-depth interviews and observation were conducted in Dali prefecture in two field visits in 2004 and the data were analysed using grounded theory and an ethnographic decision model. We found their sexual relationship can be understood as a negotiation process with self, family and society, some of which (e.g. emotional and physical needs; rationalization in choosing partners) are common in all MSM groups while others (e.g. sex hierarchy or role of family) are geographically and culturally more unique or prominent for rural China. By better understanding of these decision processes, more effective and target-orientated intervention programmes can be implemented fighting against HIV/AIDS in this sexually marginalized sub-group of the population.

Demonstration for arrested HIV/AIDS activists in front of Chinese embassy (2004). - China conducts 1st survey on homosexual HIV carriers (2004). - China's gay men know little about AIDS: survey (2004). - China facing gay AIDS epidemic (2006). - HIV infection in Chinese gay men climbing at alarming rate (2006). - Beijing gay venues join AIDS intervention campaign (2007). - Labor of love for AIDS activist (2007): The brightly colored map in Xiao Dong's health education room is his version of a war room map. Covering the length of the wall from top to bottom, the map of Beijing's sprawling Chaoyang district has hundreds of locations marked as targets. Blue and yellow markers are for saunas and clubs. Red ribbons are for clinics. Xiao, 31, who heads up the Chaoyang Chinese AIDS Volunteer Group, has been working for more than two years to improve AIDS education in China's capital. The organization's work is targeted at groups that are deemed a high risk to contract the deadly virus, such as intravenous drug users, sex workers and the city's gay population. - China's first gay hotline in use against AIDS: National Gay Hotline Opens In China (2006). - A Chinese University Removes a Topic From the Closet (2005): Less than a decade ago, homosexuality was still included under the heading of hooliganism in China's criminal code, and it was only in 2001 that the Chinese Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses. "This is definitely a big breakthrough in the contemporary society, because for so many years, homosexuals, as a community, have lived at the edge of society and have been treated like dissidents," said Zhou Shengjian, director of a gay advocacy group in Chongqing, an inland city far from Shanghai's cosmopolitanism. "For such a university to have a specific course like this, with so many participants and experts involved, will have a very positive impact on the social situation of gay people, and on the fight against AIDS."

Male-Male Sex Workers / Male Prostitution

Male Brothel History: - Pederasty: Men's sexual interest in youths was also reflected in prostitution, with young male sex workers fetching higher prices than their female counterparts as recently as the beginning of the twentieth century. In Tianjin there were thirty five male brothels, housing 800 boys, and men from the area were assumed to be expert in anal relations. Though the superintendent of trade at Guangzhou issued an annual warning to the population against permitting westerners access to boy prostitutes ("do not indulge the Western barbarian with all our best favors"), Europeans were increasingly welcomed in the boy brothels.

Sexual Work and Its Public Policies in China (1997): "Gay male commercial sexual work is common in contemporary China, especially in some of the big and open cities. It is estimated that there are several thousand gay male sexual workers in Beijing "alone. - Police in southwest China's Chongqing raid city's largest gay brothel (2003). - Chinese men jailed for operating gay prostitute ring (2004). - Utopia: Homosexulaity and the Law in China. - Homosexuals in China: More Tolerance, Less Prejudice (2002): Farmer Huang Zhengfu, aged 60, from south China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was recently sentenced by a local court to a year's imprisonment for deliberately injuring his male lover Luo Zhongliang... The news of Huang and Luo being homosexuals spread quickly in the wake of the reporting of the court trial. Many local residents were shocked. They thought homosexuals were only found in major cities and overseas but certainly not in their village. For the Intermediate People's Court of Bose Prefecture, it is the first criminal case concerning homosexuals ever handled by the court. - China’s timid coming out (2001): Psychiatrists no longer view homosexuality as a mental illness, while the media is broaching the topic. But authorities prefer to keep the Lid on a subject that could spiral into a human rights debate. - Interview with Li Yinhe on Homosexuality (2001): Li Yinhe did a large amount of research both in the field of western theories and the actual cases of the homosexuals in China. Reporter: As far as I know, you began the research on homosexuality in China from 1989. How did you get the idea to do such research? Li Yinghe: When I came to the Sociology Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences I had prepared several subjects to study, such as the phenomena of singles and divorce in China. Homosexuality was also one of these subjects. Because, before 1989 there was not any studies on the homosexuality in China, I thought it was absolutely wrong that we neglect a group of people who account for approximately three to four percent of the adult population, according to estimates in China. - Coming out in China (2002): Bar owner Zhang Yi practices the art of mixing cocktails everyday at his On-Off Bar, a place designed for Beijing's homosexual men and women to mix freely.. - China Comes Out of the Closet. - Chinese gays breaking down taboos (2005): Not only is China's booming economy developing at lightning speed, but society's attitude to once-forbidden topics like homosexuality is also rapidly changing.

Transgression: Guangxi police surprised by cross-dressing prostitutes (2012): Police in Nanning, the regional capital of Guangxi in southern China, on Jan. 7 arrested 14 male prostitutes posing as women in the city's Chaoyang marketplace. Authorities had been receiving complaints about prostitution, gambling and robberies in the marketplace from residents from last November. Almost 70 police officers raided the marketplace on Jan. 7, finding many prostitutes with long hair and slim figures soliciting on the street.

Male Brothels - All of Us Count, Part 1 (2004, PDF Download): Chi Heng also follows this principle in promoting peer education through its outreach work. Many of the part-time outreach workers hired to regularly distribute condoms and educational material in bars, discos, saunas and male brothels in Beijing and Shenzhen are tongzhi themselves, and were already regular patrons of these venues before working for Chi Heng. - China’s Male Prostitutes (2009): In his short video “China’s Male Prostitutes,”  [Alternate Link] Tom Bannigan interviews two male prostitutes and Tong Ge from the Beijing Gender Health Education Institute in an exploration of the male sex industry in China, From Current TV.

‘Money boys’ become currency of pimps (2005): Bing Bing is at the centre of the Dalian money boy world, connecting hundreds of clients with more than 30 “children” on his books. He says he keeps six of the best prostitutes as long-term contractors, while the rest rotate through different pimps in town or between different cities. This is a practice called “full-mooning”. Insiders say up to 80 per cent of the money boys are not homosexuals but poor young men prostituting themselves simply to make money. And there is great demand for their services... A source from Shenyang says Guangdong panderers sometimes go to the northeast to help meet demand there. But he says that a new trend is that of southern pimps flying in “well-trained, excellent” money boys directly from northeast China when “the trade is too brisk” in Guangdong. “There is already a well-developed employment market and professional agents for prostitutes,” he said. Bing Bing said he did not keep tabs on the whereabouts of the “full-mooned” boys. Rather than operating under the guise of a sauna, massage parlour or karaoke bar, Bing Bing runs his business by maintaining five apartments which also serve as workplaces for the prostitutes... “My customers are from all walks of life, including officials, police, university professors and businessmen. Some only hire my ‘children’ because they trust me,” Bing Bing said with pride. Mu Yang, head of the grassroots gay organisation Dalian Rainbow, said customers tended to go directly through pimps such as Bing Bing to hide their identities. Mr Mu said the clients feared being blackmailed or threatened by the money boys if they hired them themselves.

Tao X, Gai R, Zhang N, Zheng W, Zhang X, Xu A, Li S (2010). HIV infection and mental health of "money boys": a pilot study in Shandong Province, China. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 41(2): 358-68. Abstract. PDF Download. A pilot study was conducted in eight cities of Shandong Province, China to examine the seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis infection, and the mental health of "money boys" who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the HIV-positive among money boys was 5.1%. Factors associated with the infection were having sex with women in the past 6 months (p < 0.05) and suffering STD-like symptoms (p < 0.01). The prevalence of syphilis was 10.2%. There were 77.2% participants engaged in such an occupation for economic survival. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among money boys was 46.6% and 68.1%, respectively. Heterosexual money boys were more likely to suffer from such mental symptoms. This study revealed the urgent need for interventions for HIV/AIDS control, together with mental counseling, targeting this vulnerable population. - An innovative approach toward interventions for high risk receptive sex behaviors among male sex workers (2011).

How Much Are China’s Male Prostitutes ‘Selling Smiles’ For? (2010): There’s no material difference between what male sex workers like Jo-Vanni Roman in the United States do, versus their counterparts in China. But there, in cities like Shanghai, the vast network of “money boys” is operated by fly-by-night websites and mobile phone numbers, where out-call “massages” are offered for about USD$73 for a “quickie” or $88 for the whole night. It’s a business of “selling smiles,” as it’s known, and involves workers moving from one crowded house to another, to keep clientele from viewing the offerings as stale. At least one pimp claims to take only about $15 per service rendered, a decent fee compared to America’s small businessmen. In a good month, prostitution will earn a worker around $300  -  about twice the national average for all Chinese workers. - Gay life of a male prostitute (2010): He found office work boring so despite his well-to-do family background on the mainland, Daniel took up the sex trade. Ming Yeung reports. When Daniel, 33, decided to explore the gay world in 2000, he never thought he would eventually enter the oldest profession of mankind - prostitution. The medium-built and sun-tanned young man from Anhui province asked to be identified only by his first name and declined any photos, but he spoke candidly about his life as a sex worker, offering a rare glimpse into a common subculture that is being overlooked in modern society. Daniel claimed he was not sensitive to his sexual orientation when he was a boy. Driven by curiosity, he sought out gay photos online back in 1998, back when Internet access was still new to him. Soon he found some friends with similar taste. After about two years of nine-to-five office work in Shanghai, Daniel was bored. He decided to try a more exciting life. He uploaded his photograph to a compensated-dating website. His first customer soon appeared. It wasn't very glamorous. He was paid 1,000 yuan, a fair amount at that time. In 2006, Daniel arrived in Hong Kong seeking to ply his trade. He had already chatted with some potential customers on instant messaging services before setting out. Daniel arrives periodically on a 7-day permit. He attends up to five clients charging HK$600-800 each time. Daniel is pleased that he can earn a living in Hong Kong without a working visa. He works from hotel rooms. Sometimes he takes his customers to his hostel, where he pays HK$150 a day... Most male sex workers (MSWs), like Daniel, have chosen their vocation voluntarily. "I think men turn to prostitution for many reasons. But as far as I know, no one has done this against their will or owing to their financial backgrounds," Daniel said. "Some of them do it because they want to make more money, though." ...

Kong TS (2008). Risk factors affecting condom use among male sex workers who serve men in China: a qualitative study. Sexually Transmitted infection, 84(6): 444-8. Abstract. PDF Download Between 2004 and 2005, 30 MSW were interviewed (Beijing n = 14; Shanghai n = 16). The MSW in this study were mainly single, young, homosexual, rural migrants with secondary education. None practised safer sex in their home towns. Until they migrated to big cities and entered the sex industry, they did not develop safer sex practices. They reported high condom use at work, but more than half of them (n = 17) had not been tested for HIV. Four factors, derived from the interviews and correlated to their rural background, sexual orientation and sex work identity, put MSW at risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI): incorrect AIDS knowledge; economic hardship; homosexual orientation and over-trusting in sexual relationships. MSW, a distinctive but often neglected group in both studies and sentinel surveillance among the MSM population in China, deserve special attention. There is not only potential for HIV/STI infection among the MSM population but also for infecting the general public. Education and prevention programmes should take their three major interlocking identities: rural migrant, sex worker and homosexual into consideration in social, cultural and economic contexts in China.

Ting, Ming-hao (2009). The study on the male to male sex workers in Shanghai China. Master's Dissertation, College of Commerce, National Chengchi University. Download Page. After interviewing with the 15 MB, the author has learned more from examining the circumstances of male-to-male sex workers (sex or sexual) who are willing to engage in the male-to-male sex trade and also willing to held a traditional marriage, from the three perspectives of their sexual orientation, economic status and overall social environment. (A) From the sexual orientation point of view. Among the male-to-male sex workers (sex or sexual) in this study with the exception of one participant who was a heterosexual, the majority of the participants in this interview were all homosexuals staying in the closet. And many of the MBs in the countryside share common formative sexual experiences with other boys, such as sleeping together and masturbation…etc. In the more densely populated countryside where living conditions are relatively poor, it is quite common to see many boys sleeping together in one room, thereby increasing the opportunity for the boys to develop intimate contact. Therefore in light of their formative experiences, the ways they grew up actually contributed to these MB’s acceptance of the male-to-male sex trade. (B) From the economics point of view. All of the research subjects had indicated that the main reason for becoming an MB was to make money. Money became the focal point of these MB’s lifestyles because they had grown up in very poor rural areas and suffered from the pressures of an impoverished environment and unfair society. For recently-graduated students from the rural areas, the education which they have received at great expense is still not comparable with those students graduated from the city. Moreover, China is a social-networking or so-called “guanxi” in Chinese. Rural families often find absolutely no connections to help them find jobs. As a result, graduation spells unemployment. And consequently under great economic pressures, many rural youths go to Shanghai in search of their fortunes. However as they run into brick walls and run out of resources, selling their bodies becomes an easy way to increasing their wealth and a means of survival. (C) From the social environment point of view. Chinese people have stepped away from communism due to the development of capitalism. The emergence of the commodity economy society enables people to pursue a material life and leave virtues of contented living behind.

Cai WD, Zhao J, Zhao JK, Raymond HF, Feng YJ, Liu J, McFarland W, Gan YX, Yang ZR, Zhang Y, Tan JG, Wang XR, He ML, Cheng JQ, Chen L (2010). HIV prevalence and related risk factors among male sex workers in Shenzhen, China: results from a time-location sampling survey. Sexually transmitted Infections, 6(8): e23431. Abstract. PDF Download. In total, 394 MSW were recruited for the survey. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis among these workers was 5.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Only a quarter of the MSW self-identified as homosexual. More than 70% had sex with both men and women. HIV-related knowledge levels were high regardless of HIV serostatus. Consistent condom use was low (37.1%) and varied by type of sexual partner. Factors including more non-commercial male partners, working in small home-based family clubs, being drunk before sexual intercourse, having a history of HIV tests, syphilis infection and a short period of residence in Shenzhen were associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. High-risk sexual practices were common among MSW regardless of their high level of HIV awareness. The working venues were associated with HIV infection and a recent test for HIV was a potential predictor of HIV infection. The time-location sampling method was found to be an appropriate way of recruiting MSW for this study, especially those without fixed working places.

Liu S, Zhao J, Rou K, Chen L, Cai W, Li L, Wu Z, Detels R (2012). A survey of condom use behaviors and HIV/STI prevalence among venue-based money boys in Shenzhen, China. AIDS and Behavior, 16(4): 835-46. Abstract. PDF Download.We examined an at-risk population in China, money boys (MBs), to evaluate their potential role for transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Data were collected from 418 MBs selected by time-location cluster sampling, using a self-administered computerized questionnaire and testing a small blood sample for HIV/STIs. One-third (32.1%) of participants self-identified as homosexual, 25.4% heterosexual, 33.5% bisexual, and 9.1% uncertain. Consistent condom use by participants was 70-80% with commercial sex partners, 43.9% with girlfriends, and 60-70% with other non-commercial partners. HIV prevalence was 3.3%; syphilis, 10.5%; and HSV-2, 11.0%; overall prevalence for any was 20.3%. Factors significantly associated with HIV/STIs included being minority (OR = 4.82), having only male partners (OR = 1.92), having more male casual partners in the last 6 months (OR = 1.28), being younger at sexual debut (OR = 1.14), and being older (OR = 1.11). This study emphasizes the importance of developing targeted interventions for MBs, particularly those who are homosexual or minority.

A comparison of HIV infection and related risks among male sex workers in different venues in Shenzhen, China (2011). Different risks of HIV infection have been reported among different types of male sex workers (MSW). In order to compare the prevalence of HIV infection and related risk behaviors of MSW in different venues in Shenzhen, China, a time-location sampling survey was conducted in 2008. 5.1% of the 394 MSWs were tested positive for HIV, with 6.9% in those working in parks (PMSW), 11.3% in small family clubs (FMSW) and 1.7% in entertainment venues. PMSWs and FMSWs reported a higher proportion of self-identified homosexual/gay. Moreover, FMSWs reported a lower coverage of HIV-related education and services and were more likely to self-report coming from provinces with higher HIV prevalence. The results indicated that MSWs in small venues and parks were comparatively at higher risk of being infected and suggested that current HIV preventive intervention needs to be expanded to the small venues in Shenzhen.

Feng Y, Wu Z, Detels R, Qin G, Liu L, Wang X, Wang J, Zhang L (2010). HIV/STD prevalence among men who have sex with men in Chengdu, China and associated risk factors for HIV infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 53 Suppl 1:S74-80. Abstract. PDF Download. A total of 538 MSM were recruited, and 513 (95.4%) consented to complete the questionnaire. HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis prevalence were 9.1%, 24.7%, and 28.1%, respectively. The rate of consistent condom use was low and varied by types of sexual partners. The highest was with casual male partners (38.6%), and the lowest was with wife or girl friend (17.8%). Money boys were 6 times more likely to be infected with HIV compared with clerks/students. Infection with either HSV or syphilis increased the risk of HIV infection more than 4-fold. The prevalences of HIV and STDs were high among MSM in Chengdu. To prevent HIV/STDs, campaigns promoting condom use are needed not only to boost the frequency of condom use but also to educate MSM about proper condom use.

Chengdu, China (PDF Download): A Chengdu City-Level Scan was undertaken between 12th September and 31st October 2010 in order to begin debating and planning for further scale up and intensification of HIV programs and services for MSM (men who have sex with men) and TG (transgender) persons in Chengdu, China... This scanning process and this city-level report are part of a larger Multi-City Scanning program that will culminate in a meeting of representatives from six Asian mega-cities in Hong Kong in December 2010 aimed at planning for scale up of MSM and TG HIV services in these cities. The time available to undertake the scanning was approximately five working days. As such, rather than comprehensively describing the range of services provided in Chengdu, the goal of these scans was to create new stimulus locally for thinking differently and adding to current attempts to scale up activities aimed to interrupt the transmission of HIV and minimize the negative impact of living with HIV among MSM and TG persons... Chengdu is a migrant city with an open and tolerant culture. The mobile population in Chengdu reached 1,596,700 in 2010, increased by 33.3% compared to the same period the previous year. It is estimated that there are 24,203-48,447 MSM in Chengdu. They are highly mobile, hidden, and hard to reach. According to the annual updated mapping exercise conducted by Chengdu CDC together with civil society organisations, there are 47 MSM activity venues in Chengdu, including 8 bars, 4 bath houses, 10 outdoor sites, 25 clubs, and the internet is a popular way to network among MSM. Surveillance data shows that MSM active in bath houses are at higher risk to HIV infection.

Psychosocial factors in association with condom use during commercial sex among migrant male sex workers living in Shenzhen, mainland China who serve cross-border Hong Kong male clients (2009). Male sex workers serving Hong Kong male clients in Shenzhen were surveyed (n = 199); 98.9% had been in Shenzhen for < or =3 years; 83.4% served local male clients; 82.8% had no family members/relatives in Shenzhen; 58.3% depended exclusively on sex work; 73% were bothered by one's sex work; and 81.7% found financial support unavailable when needed. About 29.1% had had unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with Hong Kong male clients in the last month. UAI behavior was associated with exposure to HIV prevention services (OR = 0.08) and poor social support, being bothered by the sex work, substance use, and type of sex work venue (OR = 2.92-5.96). 


History of Homosexuality In China [revised edition]. - Sexuality and Gender Roles in Ancient China. - Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China - 1992 - by Bret Hinsch (25 Sample Pages). - History of Homosexuality in China (2002). - History of Chinese homosexuality (2004). - History of Sex: Ancient China. - Homosexuality in Chinese Literature (2004). - Male homosexuality in traditional Chinese literature (1987). - Some Gay Chinese literature.  - A Gay Novel From China (2005): So I am going through the bookshelves in this apartment, and I find an English-language book titled "Silent Opera."  Hmm, I think, how could an opera be silent?  I am perplexed.  I look at the name of the author.  Li Yu?  Who?  I've never heard of him before.  I read the biography.  Li Yu (1610/1611-1680) is the author of The Carnal Prayer Mat.  Ah, I know that book, as would any hot-blooded teenage Chinese boy with raging hormones.  But, of course, when I read it, the listed author was not Li Yu but a pseudonym; besides, I wasn't reading the book to improve my mind... - A World History of Homosexuality (U3A course SBS19-2006): Comrades of  the Cut Sleeve Homosexuality in China. PDF Download.

Talk sheds light on Chinese LGBT issues (2011): When I Li Hsiao came out to his family more than a decade ago, his father didn't take the news seriously. "My dad said, 'Oh, it's a Western thing,'" Hsiao said. But Hsiao didn't think so. He started researching Chinese gay history, and he found not just a few LGBTQ people in the books, but many. "Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people have always been part of Chinese culture," Hsiao said. "It's not a Western import." In fact, homophobia, not homosexuality, may have been the Western import. That common misconception that queerness and gay history are products of Western culture was the subject of a Jan. 15 talk by Hsiao and Maggie Lee, "Coming Home: Chinese Traditionalism & Changing Views of Same-Sex Love" at the Chinatown Public Library. The presentation was an i2i (Invisible to Invincible: Asian Pacific Islander Pride of Chicago) event. According to Lee and Hsiao, Chinese LGBTQ history can be traced as far back as 722 B.C., during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, when "bisexual behaviors were apparently common."

The Admonishment of Vegetarian Great Aunt; Reflections on Sexual and Gender Multiplicity and Culture (2007) ... See: Chinese Anti-Marriage Sisterhoods. Excerpt: From around the middle of the nineteenth century so-called ‘Orchid Societies’ existed in the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong (formerly spelled as Canton), a province in Southern China. Women who joined these anti-marriage associations were mostly silk workers. Due to their income they could afford to live independent lives. In cases where, at a very young age, they had been promised in marriage to a man, they might even contribute to the households of their former fiancées, even when these men would have married other women.6 The sisters vowed never to marry a man and instead engaged in relationships among themselves. The ceremonies in which they pledged loyalty to each other knew several elements that also took place in heterosexual marriages, such as the hairdressing ceremony. The vow of spinsterhood ensured that a sister’s soul would be worshipped after her death and would not come back as a Hungry Ghost to bother the family of her birth.

Male Brothel History: - Pederasty: Men's sexual interest in youths was also reflected in prostitution, with young male sex workers fetching higher prices than their female counterparts as recently as the beginning of the twentieth century. In Tianjin there were thirty five male brothels, housing 800 boys, and men from the area were assumed to be expert in anal relations. Though the superintendent of trade at Guangzhou issued an annual warning to the population against permitting westerners access to boy prostitutes ("do not indulge the Western barbarian with all our best favors"), Europeans were increasingly welcomed in the boy brothels.

Zhang, Jennifer Q (2011). Tongzhi Today, Tomorrow: Homosexuality in Modern China & the Emerging Gay Identity. Senior Dissertation, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. PDF Download. Download Page. This is a multi-media project composed of a research paper and short film on an emerging new identity of affluent urban Chinese men. The research paper begins with a brief background on socially accepted cultural phenomenon of pederasty and same-sex relations in dynastic China. These practices are removed and medicalized in late pre-modern China. The high-culture role of family in relation to the individual and the nation is largely due to continued loyalty toward Confucian doctrines. The struggle of urban gay men against these socio-historical factors is offset with the availability of the internet, digital resources and a digital community emerging into the physical domain. The short film I created titled Tongzhi Today, Tomorrow focuses on an interview with Ben Zhang and his growing up, coming out and life hopes as a gay man in Beijing. The film is interlaced with clips of Drag On! the charity event hosted by Gayographic to raise money for the Beijing LGBT Center.

Testa, Amy (2010). Changing Attitudes: The Male Homoerotic Tradition in Late Imperial China through Present Day. Honor's Dissertation, Robins College. PDF Download. ... An example of a uniquely Chinese approach to inspiring cultural changes comes from the adaptation of ‘coming out.’ Rather than encouraging a highly visible, confrontational, aggressive process of revealing an individual’s sexual identity to all of her or his friends, family members, colleague and neighbors, many tongren have begun to “come home.” Coming out, as the epitome of confrontational politics, allows for LGBTQQIA individuals to transition to an openly queer lifestyle; many see it as “a developmental and lifelong process, starting from self-recognition and acceptance to the ultimate goal of becoming a full person in society.”
218 In America, coming out “is not only a political project of the lesbigay movement, but is often a cultural project of affirming the American value of individualism.”219 In China, however, telling one’s parents, neighbors or colleagues has a high risk of danger. While physical harm is unlikely, emotional damage and fears of being ostracized prevent many tongren from ‘coming out.’ Furthermore, the more relational concepts of identity makes coming out seem like the individual admits he or she does not fit the expectations of society. It reaffirms that non-hetersoexual sexual identity deviates from Chinese identity and places more weight on aspects of one’s identity that usually constitute only a minor part of the person. One woman, for example, said, “It is problematic to demand that all PEPS come out with the same identity… I tend to prioritize Hong Kong Chinese identity (cultural), Buddhism (religion), daughter (family-kin), and vegetarian (ecological-political) no less than my sexuality. So, come out as what?” This view of the coming out process occurs in many minority groups within the sexual minority in other cultures and countries. For example, LGBTQQIA individuals in the Asian American community view coming out to their parents as “the implication is that not only is the child rejecting the traditional role of a wife-mother or son-father, but also that the parents have failed in their role and that the child is rejecting the importance of family and Asian culture.” Coming out, therefore, defines more aspects of one’s identity and culture beyond their sexual preference. An alternative process in China, known as ‘coming home,’ works within Chinese social values to help reaffirm tongzhi individuals of their place within Chinese culture and within the family-kinship system so as to avoid distinguishing themselves from all of their Chinese identity.

Van de Werff T (2010). The Struggle of the Tongzhi: homosexuality in China and the position of Chinese 'comrades'. In: Dubel & Hielkema (eds). Urgency Required: gay and lesbian rights are human rights. The Hague: HIVOS. PDF Download. There are roughly forty million homosexuals in China today. In the past, they were regarded with relative tolerance. It was not until the twentieth century that same-sex relationships were considered taboo and condemned. With the advent of communism, homosexuality was made a criminal act, and gays and lesbians were actively prosecuted. Since the economic and political liberalization of the 80s and 90s, there is more room for cultural, social and artistic diversity in China. The Internet has brought a homosexual subculture with its own identity and advocates in China. In June 2009, the first Shanghai Gay Pride Festival took place. Although the event was described by China´s state-run newspaper as ‘a good showcase of the country’s social progress’, the festival still suffered from bureaucratic badgering by the local government. Despite the adversarial relationship of the Chinese authorities with these minority groups, and the numerous problems that homosexuals still experience on a daily basis, the position of the Tongzhi in China has indeed slowly improved. How has the liberation process developed over the past ten years? With what problems are Chinese homosexuals confronted? This article offers a short survey of the social position of gays and lesbians in China and their hopeful fight for liberation in the most populated country on earth.

Gender and Sexuality in Pre-Modern China: Bibliography of Materials in Western Languages. - At the Intersection of the Global and the Local: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Fictions by Pai Hsien-yung, Li Ang, Chu Tien-wen, and Chi Ta-wei (PDF Download).  

Films / The Arts

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: China). - Man Man Woman Woman (1999, Film): "a film like Man Man Woman Woman will emerge that forces us to reconsider what we think is possible under what we take to be the ever-watchful eye of the authorities in present-day China. - "East Palace, West Palace", by Zhang Yuan: "The film triggered the wrath of censorship in communist China, and copies are only circulating in the West because the negative was in France. Director Zhang Yuan had his passport seized. Why such wrath? Because the film broaches a homosexual relationship in the public lavatories of a gloomy park in Peking, and because it depicts the nervous confrontation of love and hate between a policeman and a gay.This is, in fact, the first gay film in Communist China, drawn from a theater play written by..." - Tracing Chinese Gay Cinema 1993-2002 (2005, PDF Download). - A Chinese gay boy`s love story "Tightrope Walker": a short film filmed by the students of the university of Hong Kong (2009, YouTube, Alternate Link). - Soundless Wind Chime (2009). - I Am by Nature a Boy: Portrayals of Gays in Recent Chinese Film and Literature (1996, Download Page). - Farewell, my Concubine (1994, Download Page).- For Gay and Bi-Boy in Love / Where is the Love? (2006, YouTube).  - Gays In China: Beijing Queer Film Festival Goes Off Without A Hitch (2009).

Queer ‘guerrilla’ activism in China: Reflections on the tenth-anniversary Beijing Queer Film Festival 2011 (2011): While it has often been assumed that queer life is invisible, silenced, and poorly organized in societies like the Chinese, where formal recognition and legal protection remain absent, a rather different and more nuanced perspective emerges when we look more carefully into specific events and their particular context, such as this film festival. In the BJQFF organizers’ press statement they suggest that it was perhaps despite and even because of, official bans and police surveillance that they succeeded in hosting the film festival and achieving their aims - celebrating the importance of showing queer films, and spreading knowledge of queer cultures in a society where non-mainstream voices are stifled all too often. This upbeat and celebratory attitude alongside a flare for ad-hoc activist creativity - or guerrilla-style tactics - are key characteristics of queer social activism in mainland China. Guerrilla activism in general works to empower marginalized groups by creating a temporary platform for transmitting their voices and experiences, and works relatively independently of established channels and vehicles of communication and organization. These strategies are of particular relevance in China, where authorities regularly but quite unpredictably, censor and crack down on dissenting activities.

Queer ‘guerrilla’ activism in China: Reflections on the tenth-anniversary Beijing Queer Film Festival 2011 (2011): On June 19 this year, the fifth biennial Beijing Queer Film Festival (BJQFF) closed after five days of screening over thirty queer films from China and abroad, hosting talks and parties, and with people attending from all over China, as well as from overseas. Queer and straight volunteers ensured a smooth-running festival, and a funding initiative assisted youth from inland provinces to attend, watch queer films and socialize in a distinctively queer community, some for the first time in their lives. This is a considerable achievement when seen in context of the persistently difficult socio-political climate for minorities in the country. While it has often been assumed that queer life is invisible, silenced, and poorly organized in societies like the Chinese, where formal recognition and legal protection remain absent, a rather different and more nuanced perspective emerges when we look more carefully into specific events and their particular context, such as this film festival. In the BJQFF organizers’ press statement they suggest that it was perhaps despite and even because of, official bans and police surveillance that they succeeded in hosting the film festival and achieving their aims - celebrating the importance of showing queer films, and spreading knowledge of queer cultures in a society where non-mainstream voices are stifled all too often. - Gay movies help change taboo (2009): Two Saturdays ago, a modest crowd gathered at The Boat on Beijing's Liangmahe road because they wanted to watch queer films. Not an easy thing to do in China says the screening's organizer, Xiao Gang, of China Queer Film Talk (CQFT), but through their efforts and those of others, this taboo is starting to change. "Many people don't really have a chance to see Chinese queer films," said Xiao. "It's hard to get them online." And while several local LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) groups try to hold monthly film screenings, this one goes on tour throughout China and will be in Shanghai and Suzhou next month. A native of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, Xiao, like many of those responsible for organizing or in attendance that day, came to Beijing from other parts of China. Disseminating support and knowledge of queer culture to those in areas less likely to receive it, is of paramount importance. One way he does this is through the CQFT screenings; the other is through his online LGBT talk show called Queer Comrades.

Crowds throng to gay film festival (2009): More than 50 films with gay themes were shown, and three seminars held, as part of the Fourth Beijing Queer Film Festival (BQFF) at the Songzhuang Art Center and Fanhall Cinema in Beijing. The event, which ended on Sunday, attracted about 10,000 people. Most films were from the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The opening movie Soundless Wind Chime by Hong Kong director Kit Hung, drew more than 500 people. - China bans parts of gay festival (2009): The news came on the very day a state-run newspaper described the Shanghai festival as of "profound significance". Officials have warned the owners of two venues planning to hold a play and a film screening they would face "severe consequences" if they went ahead. - Comrades: The Chinese LGBT Film Festival (2008).

China bans film for 'gay themes' (2006): South Korea's highest-ever grossing film has fallen foul of China's censors - The King and the Clown, about two 16th century jesters who mock a tyrannical king only to be hauled up before him, has been banned from mainland cinemas because of its "subtle gay themes" and sexually explicit language. The film, directed by Lee Jun-ik, has already taken more than $85m (£46m) in its homeland and sold about 12m tickets (about one-fourth the republic's population of 48 million). - China censors decree gay cowboy film too sensitive (2006): Censors in China have banned the screening of Brokeback Mountain because they object to its homosexual content.

Banned director burns his bridges with gay film (2009): A prominent mainland Chinese director banned by Beijing from making movies brought his new gay romance film to Hong Kong on Friday for what is likely the last of a handful of screenings on his home soil. In 2006, China banned Lou Ye from shooting movies for five years after he screened Summer Palace at the Cannes Film Festival without government approval. In the film Lou tackled the Chinese military’s brutal crackdown on pro-democracy student protesters at Beijing’s Tiananmen Square in June 1989. But he defied the ban, secretly shooting the love story Spring Fever with small, digital cameras in Nanjing last year. He also entered it at Cannes this year, where it won best screenplay in May. In Spring Fever, he takes on homosexuality - another taboo in China - with graphic gay sex scenes. The 115-minute movie is about a private investigator hired to spy on a married man having a gay affair. But the investigator falls into a love triangle with his own girlfriend and the boyfriend of the husband he is investigating. - A Chinese gay doc film premieres in Amsterdam this week (2012): “Be a Woman”, about drag queens in Nanning in southwest China. - The challenges of running an Asian lgbt film festival (2011): Fridae's reporter in Hong Kong Tony Ed Lo meets Fan Popo, this year's HKLGFF Prism Award winner and one of the faces behind the Beijing Queer Film Festival; and John Badalu, the founder of the Q Film Festival in Indonesia who share the challenges of organising their respective festivals.

The Old Testament” [2002] offers a rare glimpse at gay life behind communist borders.   Biblical references weave together three engaging vignettes on the topics of sexuality, homophobia and AIDS. In “Song of Solomon” a male couple receives an unexpected visitor: an ex-boyfriend with AIDS.  Faced with a commitment to provide hospice care for the former lover, the couple must confront the demise of their own relationship.  “Proverbs” follows the love triangle between a married man, his wife, and his gay lover.  As the bisexual husband attempts to get  the best of both worlds, the feuding wife and lover begin to wonder if he is worth the fight.  “Psalter” concludes the trilogy as a straight couple schemes outrageously to prevent the husband’s younger brother from sleeping with his “special friend.”

M. Butterfly (Wikipedia): M. Butterfly is a 1988 play by David Henry Hwang [Google Books, Amazon] loosely based on the relationship between French diplomat Bernard Boursicot and Shi Pei Pu, a male Peking opera singer. The play premiered on Broadway at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre on March 20, 1988, closing after 777 performances on January 27, 1990... Hwang adapted the play for a 1993 film directed by David Cronenberg with Jeremy Irons and John Lone in the leading roles. - M. Butterfly (YouTube, Part 1 of 11). - M. Butterfly (PPT Presentation). - Review/Theater; 'M. Butterfly,' a Story Of a Strange Love, Conflict and Betrayal (1988, New York Times). - "M. Butterfly": Orientalism, Gender, and a Critique of Essentialist Identity (1990). - "M. Butterfly": An Interview with David Henry Hwang (1989).

Hoffman '98, Hope (1997). Stereotypes as Reinforced Structure in M. Butterfly. Undergraduate Review, 10(1): Article 9. PDF Download. "And what was waiting for me back-in Paris?" Gallimard asks himself, "[B]eUer Chinese food than I'd eaten in China" (Hwang 2859). Gallimard's mind constantly fulfills his expectations about the East rather than recognizing the region's reality. As French diplomat who is married to a Chinese actress for twenty years before discovering that she is a man, Gallimard depends heavily on the power of stereotypes in order to keep his wife, Butterfly, as "Oriental" and female as he believes she should be. Despite living in the physical reality of the East, he never seems to leave his European home-he remains burrowed into his safe space, the fantasy realm in which his Western perceptions and stereotypes are the only reality.

Knapp, Leah (2011). Pulling the wings off M. Butterfly: Dramatic Irony, Performance and the Third Space in Hwang’s dramatic script and film adaptation. Inkwell: A Journal of Academic Writing. Full TextM. Butterfly is, by nature, “deconstructivist” (95), at least as Hwang describes it. Of course, authorial intent factors into an interpretation of a work, however it ultimately comes down to whether or not he accomplished his goal. I believe he has. In creating a labyrinth of gender, eroticism and sex, Hwang effectively incorporates various methods of deconstructing binary oppositions in both the dramatic script and film adaptation by the same name. Moreover, the differences in the film and text facilitate irony in both their comparison and in the works themselves. Specifically, dramatic irony, gender bending and transvestism perpetrate the subversion of not only the gender binaries, but the cultural dichotomies.

Gómez, Mª Isabel Seguro (2007). M. Butterfly as Total Theatre. Edicions i Publicacions de la Universitat de Barcelona. PDF Download. The aim of this article is to analyse David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly from the perspective of a semiotics on theatre, following the work of Elaine Aston and George Savona (1991). The reason for such an approach is that Hwang's play has mostly been analysed as a critique of the interconnections between imperialism and sexism, neglecting its theatricality. My argument is that the theatrical techniques used by the playwright are also a fundamental aspect to be considered in the deconstruction of the Orient and the Other.

Zhao, Jin (2010). Imagining Queerness: Sexualities in Underground Films in the Contemporary P. R. China. Communication Theses. Paper 73. Master's Dissertation, Georgia State University. PDF Download.  In this thesis, by analyzing the representation of queer lives in three underground films made by Chinese filmmakers in mainland China at the turn of the century and the cultural and social conditions under which these films were produced, I aim to offer insights in understanding the rising of modern identities for sexual minorities in the postsocialist China and their constructions in public discourse. I argue that through the work of Chinese liberal intellectuals and filmmakers with considerable Western influence, the first representations of Chinese sexual minorities as subjects in public discourses reflect Chinese sexual minorities’ quest of sexual freedom, identification, and recognition. As the conditions for Chinese sexual minorities have changed over the years, the constructions, appropriation and reappropriation of queer identities, especially the adaptation and appropriation tongzhi identity, reflect the complex interplay of cultural forces that is difficult to be understood in terms of the global and local dichotomy.

Tan, Jia (2007, 2010). Chinese Queer Videos Beyond Visibility: The Politics of Independent DV in the Era of Transnationalism. Presented at the Screen Studies Conference 2007, University of Glasgow. (2010). Beyond Visibility: Independent Chinese Queer Videos in the Era of Transnationalism. Cultural Studies Monthly, April 25, 2010. Full Text. DV (Digital Video) films, fictional or non-fictional, have experienced great proliferation since the 1990s in terms of their textual characteristics as well as their mode of production, distribution and reception in mainland China. Following the independent film movement in mainland China, which is also framed as “the underground cinema,” the DV counterparts employ even more subversive themes and formal strategies within a wider range of marginalized filming subjects and empower the underclass - peasants, unemployed workers, soldiers, homosexuals, transgender, prisoners, and so on. Community-based DV clubs, screenings, festivals, forums and award granting are organized semi-publicly by filmmakers or related practitioners. Avoiding the existing institutions of state-controlled film and television industries, the proliferation of DV films, sometimes coined as the “DV movement”, is based on communities, or more likely, individual creativities, constructing a new order of the moving image culture.  In particular, a number of filmmakers, such as Cui Zi'en, Andrew Cheng (Cheng Yushu) and Shi Tou, use the medium of DV to generate radical sexual politics, queer sensibilities, and even a “camp” aesthetic, which destabilize the heterosexual and patriarchal society. Others such as Jiang Zhi deploy the medium of digital video in a fine-art oriented context, using multiple screens, looping exhibition in video installations to create further complex experience for the audience...

McCarthy, Mac (2011). Chinese Gay Cinema: Revisiting The Cut Sleeve in The Modern Age. UCLan Confucius Institute China Lecture Series. PDF Download. Related PowerPoint Presentation.  A talk that takes Chinese Gay Cinema as its theme immediately sets up two important questions: 1. Is gay cinema something unique beyond the fact that the romantic and dramatic interest focuses on the relationship between two same-gendered persons? 2. Is Chinese gay cinema any different from gay cinema that originates elsewhere in the world? Fairly obviously, I shall be arguing that the answer to both questions is yes – otherwise, this would be a fairly short lecture. On the other hand, the esteemed film studies lecturer and author, Song Hwee Lim, would argue yes and no! I shall come back to that later. In turn, you need to ask yourself the same questions and perhaps develop your view as we progress – there will be an opportunity to ask questions later. I should state that I am not an acknowledged expert, rather I speak as an amateur enthusiast with a long-standing interest in the subject... Significantly fewer in number and distinctly low key in comparison to films about gay men, they are there nevertheless. I shall mention three briefly here...  The first films to attract attention for their representation of characters who were Chinese and gay were Farewell, My Concubine by Chen Kaige and The Wedding Banquet by Ang Lee; both directors are straight and both played down the importance of the gay theme in their movies... The setting for East Palace West Palace is the toilets on the opposite sides of a park close to Tiananmen Square in Beijing, known for cottaging activities by gay men in the 1980’s. the story concerns the arrest and interrogation of one young gay man, Ah Lan, by a police officer... Happy Together, directed by Wong Kar Wai, focuses on the lives of two Chinese gay men in crisis – in Argentina. They have split up but the dissolute character who has played around, hung out with gangsters and may have been involved in illegal activities is trying to win his ex-lover back whilst still reverting intermittently to the life he cannot leave... Blue Gate Crossing concerns the secret love of a teenage girl, Meng, for her best friend who has a crush on the local swimming star, Zhang... Fish and Elephant is an underground lesbian film made by Yu Li, with non-professional actors and invoking a high degree of realism. Internationally, it was praised for its ground-breaking subject matter within a society where lesbians are invisible thought criticised for being somewhat mediocre...In Feeding Boys Ayaya, Xiao Bo comes from a moderate, middle class family but has decided to make his living as a male hustler. His older brother, a devout Christian, tries without success to reform him and his hustler friends... His film Star Appeal, identified as the first Chinese, gay science fiction movie places a gay alien into the community of a bisexual man, his girlfriend and boyfriend... His first film, City Without Baseball, was based around stories by and starring the Hong Kong baseball team. One of them explores his sexuality within a patchwork of storylines. At times a little muddled, and often accused of being self-indulgent he has, nevertheless, a fresh approach that pushes Chinese gay cinema in directions that are new. His second film did so even more so... In Permanent Residence the gay character falls in love – with a straight man. But instead of the tragedy that might have befallen the character in times gone by, this gay man is strong, confident, successful – and gradually wins, at least in part, the heart of his friend but within limits... His third film, Amphetamine, explores the limits of passion through the story of a vulnerable, drug-taking straight man, Kafka, in a relationship with a successful gay man, Daniel. It proves to be too much for Kafka who succumbs to a breakdown. It’s a highly arresting film visually and emotionally...

Beijing Breakthrough: Stanley Kwans films a gay love story in mainland China... Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan’s Lan Yu is a superb love story, touching and true, visually mesmerizing, and directed and performed with soul-stirring sensitivity. The Strand release tells of the romance between shady Beijing businessman Handong (Hu Jun) and student-turned-prostitute, Lan Yu (Liu Ye), which survives jealousy, commitment-phobia on Handong’s part, financial disaster, even Tiannenman Square. - Capturing China's gay heart: Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan talks about Lan Yu, his lyrical gay love story set and filmed in supposedly repressive China (2002). - Testing China's Censors With a Gay Love Story (2002): It might seem that the first film made in China that uses the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre as a plot element would qualify for an automatic ban from the government for that reason alone. Yet it may be an equally sensitive issue in China, homosexuality, that dooms the chances of the film, ''Lan Yu,'' [2001] for legal showings in this nation. Despite both issues and other controversies, the film's producer, Zhang Yongning, is applying for approval from China's Bureau of Film to play it in theaters here. No date has been set for a decision. - Fish and Elephant (Wikipedia). - Fish and Elephant (Jin Nian Xiatian, Review). - Lesbian Film Pushes Chinese Boundaries N/A: "Director Li Yu had tangled with mainland Chinese censors before in trying to get her independent documentary called "Sisters" before large audiences. With "Fish and Elephant," a tender and often humorous story about three lesbians, she wisely side-stepped the Chinese Film Bureau entirely. "Fish and Elephant" is the first internationally recognized film about lesbian sexuality to come out of Communist China, and though it has been shown at more than 70 film festivals worldwide, it has been shown in its country of origin only once." - If Not Tongxinglian: Queer Poetics and “Out” Performance in Li Yu’s Fish and Elephant. - China censors decree gay cowboy film too sensitive (2006).

No man's Lan: LAN YU - Starring Jun Hu, Ye Liu. Written by Jimmy Ngai based on the internet novel Bejing Story. Directed by Stanley Kwan. "Despite the full-frontal nudity and frank eroticism in the film's early scenes, the answer was no. Kwan connected not with the sex in the book but with the story of the nine-year relationship between the characters, which made him think of the 12-year relationship he had with his own boyfriend. "We went through every single detail the characters did," says Kwan..." - Beijing gay life brought to the screen (2001): Now Hong Kong-based director Stanley Kwan ups the ante with Lan Yu, a frank, unflinching gay love story set in Beijing that makes its North American premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival. . - Ten Most-Admired Chinese Lesbian-Gay Movies on DVD (2006, English Subtitled).

Sexing the Cinematic Space: Films from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (Sean Metzger, Duke University) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "My paper will interrogate Chen Kaige’s The Emperor and the Assassin and Zhang Yimou’s Hero in terms of historical epics that offer a gendered formation of Chinese nationalism. I want to suggest ways to queer these ostensibly conservative nationalist projections, particularly by arguing that the star discourse which, in part, propels such films to international acclaim works to forestall the assertion of a hegemonic masculine national project. By examining the possibilities of female space/subjectivity in each film as a counter to the male homosocial resolutions that each text, I believe, posits, I begin to sketch counternarratives that refuse national narratives of heteronormativity. My paper will draw on theoretical work by Eve Sedgwick, Shuqin Cui, Jenny Kwok Wah Lau and others."

Is there really a way out? The rigid fashioning of gay masculinities in Lanyu (Tommy Tse Ho Lun, University of Hong Kong) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Stanley Kwan reproduced a ubiquitous tragic homosexual love online story (named Beijing story) onto the screen in 2001, Lanyu, in which he replaced and rearranged episodes from the original text to elaborate the personae more deeply, which eventually has been highly recognized in both cultural and cinematic fields; the film visualizes and constructs varied gay masculinities, destabilizing the cherished notions of dichotomous genders and normative heterosexuality in contemporary Chinese ideology. Yet if we specifically scrutinize those apparently subversive‚ fashioning of masculinities, we may discover that such a subversion is still well monitored by the heterosexual matrix; two male protagonists‚ gay gender performance is in some way rigid, fixed, destined, and directly borrows the binary and hierarchical gender positions from the heteronormative culture. Extremely speaking, it would make no difference if Kwan adopted a female to perform Lan Yü the film would simply become a heterosexual love story, not provocative at all. In the film why should Lan Yu often perform the presumed feminine roles (passive, obedient, doing housework) but Chan Hong Dong never does? Why is the purely‚ homosexual Lan more problematic than seemingly bisexual Chan so he needs to be cured by the psychiatrist? In what ways are the constructions of Chan’s and Lan’s masculinities different? Is the sub-division of gay masculinity only reconfirming the orthodoxical gender positions? What are the politics between two rigid gay genders, masculine masculinity and feminine masculinity, and their correlations to the heterosexual ideology? Lastly, is there really a way out?"

Mulky, Virginia (2011). Shaping a New Identity: Increasing Visibility of Lesbian Desire in Chinese Cinemas. Honors Dissertation, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. PDF Download. Download Page. In recent years there has been a noticeable increase in Chinese-language films about lesbian romances. Many of these films have found commercial and critical success in Chinese markets such as Taiwan and Hong Kong, as well as honors at international film festivals.In order to analyzes how these films reflect and shape Chinese lesbian identity, this thesis considers how a range of contemporary Chinese-language films produced in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and abroad deploys the figure of the lesbian. In particular, this study examines the production of such films by Chinese cultures outside of Mainland China as a means of promoting an alternative, inclusive Chinese identity in opposition to Mainland censorship.

RIK-Magazine: German gay mag introduces homo-erotic drawings by Chinese artist Muskboy. - Muskboy - Erotic Revolution. - MUSK MING (muskboy)'s "Erotic Revolution" in Bangkok (2010. YouTube). - MUSK MING (muskboy) in 03 tease art fair 2009, Cologne (2009, YouTube). - Musk Ming - Ausstellung Berlin Avantgarde  (2012, YouTube). - Kitschy: China:Gay: Muskboy. - Muskboy (2008). - Musk Ming - Glorie at 6. Berliner Kunstsalon (2009): Berlin-based Chinese artist Musk Ming skillfully uses historical styles taken from Maoist propaganda and vintage Chinese popular culture and, subversively twisting their inherent heteronormativity, invests them with his own exploration of the rich but suppressed queer Chinese culture and history... To safeguard himself, his beloved family and his befriended pioneering gay bi les and transsexual community against the arbitrariness of Chinese authorities the artist uses his pseudonym Musk Ming. The word “musk” (“She Xiang” in Chinese) is a luxurious perfume and traditional Chinese medicine. And “Ming” is the infant name of the artist named by his grandmother.

Yue Ren (China): Gay Scene in Beijing by Inge Morath Award Finalist, 2005: Photo Essay: One of my good friends is a gay, whose emotional life is very complex. There are several times he want to suicide. I don’t know how to help him, but to be more close to him, so I begin to document his life use my camera. I do this work for two years, and the story broadened out. I know many this kind of people, when we become friends; I decide to continue this work as my long-term project. Although china became more and more open, gay in china still has a difficult life because they are not being understand. Gay are still not accepted in Chinese society, not even in Beijing...

Gay Beijing Artist Defies Social Stigma (2012): Titled “Metamorphosis of a Butterfly: A Kaleidoscopic Vision of Life by a Gay Chinese Artist,” the exhibit will include more than 50 works celebrating same-sex love and life struggle transcending the harsh discrimination and social stigma experienced by the LGBTQ community in China. Also included in the exhibit will be works showing the artist’s struggle as a gay, married father of a daughter and son, the latter severely disabled by cerebral palsy. “My artwork is really about the desire for freedom,” Xiyadie said. “Freedom of expression, freedom to live honestly and freedom from the disease my son suffers from.” “That’s why I call myself Xiyadie, or 'Siberian Butterfly,'” he continued. “In Chinese, it expresses hope and my wish for freedom in a cold and harsh environment.”

Poetry of Wu Tsao (2007): Wu Tsao was born sometime around 1800; her year of birth and death are uncertain. She was the daughter of a merchant and married a merchant herself. Her experiences with these men were not positive and she sought out the company of women, as friends and as lovers. She wrote erotic poems to courtesans, creating unashamed lyric passages full of the sweetness of yearning. She was China's great lesbian poet, and she was popular while she lived, her songs sung throughout China. Her poetry dealt with a variety of topics, unlike other women poets of her time. This versatility, combined with casual style and personal tone, probably contributed to her popularity. Later in life, Wu Tsao moved to seclusion and became a Taoist priestess. - China bans gay love story for theatres, OKs for DVD (2006).  - China singer releases first lesbian song: China’s first out lesbian artist, who also operates Beijing's longest-running dyke bar, has released her first single “Ai bu fen” (爱不分) along with a music video depicting two women in love... - Wang Zheng knew he was different from the age of five but for long tried to suppress his natural inclinations. Even after openly coming out as gay, friends would advise him to get married as a "cover." The Canadian-Chinese, who is based in Beijing, is also known as Tavio. In conversation, the stylish designer speaks with a deep voice and looks much younger than his 47 years. While admitting that he sometimes carries himself more like a woman, at first glance Wang comes across like a handsome, fashionable young man... 

Resources: Conferences / Universities / Books / Internet

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to China:  - Transgender in the People’s Republic of China (James Caspian, University of Westminster).  - Catamite Coolies and Chinese Sodoms: British Investigations into Chinese Labourers‚ Sexuality in the 19th & 20th Centuries (Ross Forman, School of Oriental and African Studies). - The Rapid Development of the LGBT Communities in China (Yaqi Guo, Beijing Gender Health Education Institute). - The Emergence of Lala Community in Shanghai (Yip Lo Lucetta Kam, Chinese University HK).  - Not a Juicy Story: Identity Management of Chinese Male Sex Workers (Travis Shiu Ki Kong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University). - Heterotopias of Same-Sex Intimacies: Schoolgirls’ Tales and Practices of Transgressive Emotionality and Sexuality in Postsocialist China (Pik Ki Leung, University of Cambridge). - Is there really a way out? The rigid fashioning of gay masculinities in Lanyu (Tommy Tse Ho Lun, University of Hong Kong). - Sexing the Cinematic Space: Films from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (Sean Metzger, Duke University). AIDS Prevention in a Different Way - Innovative Outreach Approach Towards MSM in China (Yi Mu Shen, Chi Heng Foundation). - Gender Studies and AIDS Education among Chinese Youths (Qi Si, Chi Heng Foundation).- Tough Road Ahead: Successes and Challenges of HIV Prevention for MSM in China (Chung To, Chi Heng Foundation). - Suppressed Voice or Silence by Choice? - Lesbians and the Emerging Lesbian Communities in Contemporary China (Bin Xu, Institute for Tongzhi Studies). - The Impact of the Internet on Sexual Health Education among MSM in China (Yang Yang, Chi Heng Foundation). - People Who Have Homosexual Behaviours in Contemporary China (Beichuan Zhang, Sex Health Center of the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao Shandong, China).  - Queer Theory: Queering Chinese Laws? (Dan Zhou, Fudan University, Shanghai, China).

Conference (2008, Stanford University): "Same-Sex Desire & Union in China" (Overview). Same-sex desire and union are themes of basic importance to multiple fields of Chinese studies, notably Ming-Qing literature, but also history, anthropology, and contemporary cultural and political studies. After long occlusion by mainstream scholarship, these themes have recently become a central focus for a growing number of international scholars. In a complementary development, queer activism and cultural production are highly visible features of the increasingly robust civil societies that have emerged in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, and Hong Kong over the past decade or two. The following is a brief overview of just a few of the questions and challenges that scholars face today... The conference will consist of five panels of speakers (three per panel), followed by a round table discussion among four prominent scholars (two historians and two literature specialists) from outside the field of Chinese studies, to highlight comparative and theoretical issues that have emerged from the conference papers. If, as I expect, the event is a success, I hope to edit a conference volume for publication. Index Page for Accessing Presentation Videos: Terminological Dilemmas: Talking About Same-Sex Desire in the Chinese Context: Introduction. The Traffic in Money Boys. Naming the Unnamable: History, Male Same-Sex Desires, and the Problematic of Naming. How to Understand the Male Same-Sex Relations Recorded in Qing Legal Cases. Panel Discussion. -- Same-Sex Desire in Ming-Qing Literature: Introduction. Libertine Masculinity: Homosociality and Homosexuality in Late Imperial Pornographic Fiction. Flower-guides, public space and writing in nineteenth-century Beijing. Homosociality and Homosexuality in the late-Qing tanci Feng shuang fei. Panel Discussion. -- The Novel Precious Mirror of Boy Actresses (品花寶鑑) and Its Legacies: Introduction. Same-sex desire and the ethics of equality in Precious Mirror of Boy Actresses. Boy Heroines, Manchu Villains, and the Curious Gaze of a Frenchman in Peking in the Twilight of the Empire. Queer Hermeneutics: Wu Jiwen's Fin-de-siècle Boy Love Reader. Panel Discussion. -- Visions of Chinese Modernity: Introduction. Dan (Male Actors Playing Female Roles) and Sexuality in Chinese National Modernity. Women’s Opera and Same-Sex Relations in Republican Shanghai. An anthropological account of emerging same-sex subjectivity and sociality among women in late-socialist urban China (Beijing). Panel Discussion. -- Same-Sex Desires and Identities in Transnational Context: Introduction. Love and Remembrance: Women’s same-sex desire in trans-national Chinese media and popular cultures. Paper Marriage and Transnational Queer Politics. The constitution of social networks among young MSM in urban China: HIV/AIDS prevention programs and the local translation of the ‘Gay community. Panel Discussion. -- Round Table Discussion. -- Panel Discussion. 

Eye on Gay Shanghai: Gay Studies courses at Fudan Uni (2008): Fudan University, frequently ranked the 3rd best university in China, just kicked-off their fall session of “Homosexual Health and Social Science” on September 16th. When it commenced in 2003, there was just 1 student officially enrolled, but standing room only in the actual class. What a surprise! These days, the course is sponsored by the prestigious Ford Foundation and has an impressive list of lecturers from various walks of life including multinationals like Citigroup, the Beijing Film Academy, US writers, AID/HIV outreach groups like Chi Heng, Chinese lawyers, and university lectures from multiple disciplines and countries- even Taiwan. The class is held at Fudan’s Medical School Campus in downtown Shanghai in Xujiahui and taught only in Chinese, unless the lecturer is foreign. - China's first undergraduate gay studies course (2005): While this semester's Fudan University course on homosexual studies is not the first gay-themed course to be offered by the Shanghai institution, it is the first one open to undergraduates. This is also the first year enrollment has surpassed the five student mark. Two years ago, at the behest of Hong Kong-based HIV activist Chung To, Fudan University school of public health professor Gao Yanning offered China's first course on homosexual studies. At that time, it was on the medical campus and only one student officially enrolled (despite what the Shanghai Daily and the Associated Press reported). The vast majority of attendees were the hundreds of Fudan students and general hangers-on from elsewhere that didn't want to sign their names to something gay. Well-known gay Chinese author Bai Xianyong's lecture last year attracted especially large crowds.

Gender and Sexuality in Pre-Modern China: Bibliography of Materials in Western Languages. - At the Intersection of the Global and the Local: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Fictions by Pai Hsien-yung, Li Ang, Chu Tien-wen, and Chi Ta-wei (PDF Download).

Books: - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Table of Contents) (Google Books) (Review). Contains: "Individual strategies of tongzhi empowerment in China" (P. 137-156) "Chou Wah-shan deals with what he calls ‘individual strategies of tongzhi empowerment in China’. Tongzhi is the term many Chinese gay activists choose to call themselves; it has a dual meaning: it means ‘same love’, but it also means ‘comrade’." - Tongzhi: politics of same-sex eroticism in Chinese societies - 2000 - by Huashan Zhou and Wah-shan Chou (Google Books). - Celluloid Comrades: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Chinese Cinemas - 2006 - by Song Hwee Lim (Google Books) (University of Hawai'i Press) (Introduction) (Review) (Review) (Full Text Download). - Homoerotic Sensibilities in Late Imperial China - 2004 - by Wu Cuncun (Review) (Google Books) (Full Text Download). - Passions of the Cut Sleeve : The Male Homosexual Tradition in China - 1992 - by Bret Hinsch (University of California Press) (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Libertine's Friend: Homosexuality and Masculinity in Late Imperial China - 2011 - by Giovanni Vitiello (University of Chicago Press) (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Beyond the Strai(gh)ts: Transnationalism and Queer Chinese Politics - 2010 - edited by Lisa Rofel, Petrus Liu (Duke University Press) (Contents & Abstracts). - As Normal As Possible: Negotiating Sexuality and Gender in Mainland China and Hong Kong - 2010 - edited by Yau Ching  (Google Books) (Contents) (Review).

Books: - Asian Homosexuality - 1992 - edited by Wayne R. Dynes and Stephen Donaldson (Table of Contents). Contains: "Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Mainland China," 175-88: PDF Download. (Contents). -  The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China - 2003 - by Tze-Lan D. Sang  (University of Chicago Press) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Gay and Lesbian Asia: Culture, Identity, Community - 2001 - edited by Gerard Sullivan and Peter A. Jackson (Google Books) (Review) [Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3/4): Title of Paper: Homosexuality and the cultural politics of tongzhi in Chinese societies (Full Text: Word Download)]. - Backward Glances: Contemporary Chinese Cultures and the Female Homoerotic Imaginary - 2010 - by Fran Martin. (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Book) - Chinese Male Homosexualities: Memba, Tongzhi and Golden Boy - 2010 - by Travis Kong (Routledge) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Utopia Guide to China: the Gay and Lesbian Scene in 45 Chinese Cities Including Hong Kong and Macau - 2005 - by John Goss. - Obsession: Male Same-Sex Relations in China, 1900-1950 - 2009 - by Wenqing Kang (Google Books) (Review). - Cross-Dressing in Chinese Opera - 2003 - by Siu Leung Li (Google Books) (Review). - Red Is Not The Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction On Love & Sex Between Women, Collected Stories - 2001 - edited by Patricia Sieber (Google Books) (Review).

Resource Links: Utopia's China Resources. - Utopia's Shanghai's Resources. - Queer China: Gay China and Chinese Gay and Lesbian Resources. - Beijing LGBT Center 北京同志中心: The Beijing LGBT Center is a non-profit, community-based organization that empowers the Beijing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) community through providing social services and organizing advocacy programs. Their work seeks to further the LGBT movement, eliminate discrimination and achieve quality. Visit their website for details about weekly activities, or contact them by email/phone to make an appointment. - Queer Comrades. - UNAIDS: China. - Queer Theory Resources: Chinese Cultures.

Shanghai Pride. - Shanghai LGBT. - Gay - Gay - ShanghaiGuy: Your Gay Guide in Shanghai. - Gay Shanghai (2007, YouTube). - Shanghai Gay. - Eye on Gay Shanghai, Part 1, Part 2 (2007, YouTube. - Dragoncastle: China- China Rainbow Network: site by gay Chinese from the mainland for support and friendship. - China Rainbow Association. - China Gay & Lesbian Issues News. - - Long Yang Club International (LYCI): The world's largest network of gay Asian/non-Asian groups. There are over 35 LYC chapters and member groups in 4 continents around the world. - Grey Gay Guide - China.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: China: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay China (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 1998-2012. - Gay China: Shanghai 2000, 2006. - Gay China 2007. - Homosexuality in China (Wikipedia). - ILGA Report

Gayscape. - Pridelinks. - Utopia

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

HONG KONG:  Section Index: General Information - Politcs & Equality Issues - Lesbian - Transgender - HIV/AIDS & Safer Sex - Films & The Arts - Resources: Conferences / University / Books / Internet

Is it OK to be gay in Hong Kong? (2010): Gay bars have opened and LGBT events are growing in popularity, but is it yet acceptable to be gay in Hong Kong? Hong Kong's generous tax laws and deregulated business environment make it an easy place to express yourself financially. But what if you're part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender community? There are a smattering of gay bars and clubs dotted around the city. But is it OK to be gay here? We spoke to some people directly involved in the LGBT scene here to find out what they thought.  Hong Kong NGOs to campaign against homophobic bullying in schools (2011). - Rainbow Action Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Advocates Conversion Therapy for Gays (2011). - Hong Kong: Sexual Orientation Conversion Advocated by Government (2011). - In Hong Kong, a quiet advance for gay rights (2011). - Mr Gay Hong Kong in Mr Gay World 2012 (YouTube). - Mr. Gay Hong Kong shows it’s not just a pretty face (2011). - Mobile app to locate gay-friendly businesses to be launched in Hong Kong (2012). - Hong Kong film festival sheds light on gay Asia (2011). - A Gay-Pride Revolution in Hong Kong (2008, Time Article): There were no drag queens in sexy ensembles with heavy makeup strutting down the streets in platform heels or buff shirtless sailor boys splayed like starfish on moving floats. But Hong Kong’s first official gay-pride parade Saturday was still a colorful gathering; in fact, for a country that rarely acknowledges homosexuality, let alone celebrates it, it was downright revolutionary. - Gays 60 percent more prone to domestic abuse: survey (2007).

Hong Kong Gay Pride 2011: Over 2,000 Revelers March For LGBT Rights. - Gay pride de Hong Kong: 2.000 personnes défilent (2011, Video). - 'Queer is my power', say Hong Kong gay pride marchers (2011). - Over 2,000 march in Hong Kong's gay pride parade (2011, Video). - A Gay-Pride Revolution in Hong Kong (2008). - From personal trauma to activism: Kenneth Cheung Kam-hung (2009): Fridae’s Hong Kong correspondent Nigel Collett meets with one of the city’s most prominent gay activists, Kenneth Cheung Kam-hung, who became active in gay and HIV/AIDS activism after being diagnosed with AIDS just months after his A-level exams. - Conditional Spaces: Hong Kong lesbian desires and everyday life (2012): Dense living conditions in Hong Kong do not provide much privacy for lesbians living with their families. As a result, lesbians often locate alternative spaces to develop support networks with other women. Denise Tang's new book maps the effect Hong Kong’s spaces have on the lesbians who inhabit them, and the psychological and institutional spaces provided by education, religion and queer organisations. - Gay clergy to speak in Hong Kong next week (2012): Gene Robinson is bishop of the diocese of New Hampshire for the Episcopal Church andYvette Flunder founded the Church of Refuge in San Francisco. They will both speak at Amplify 2012 in Hong Kong from 22 to 24 June. - Hong Kong’s gay community takes to the hills (2010):’s Hong Kong correspondent, Nigel Collett hikes into Hong Kong’s hidden countryside with Hiketilla, gay hiking group.

Hong Kong NGOs to campaign against homophobic bullying in schools (2011): With Mr Gay Hong Kong Heihei Yau as the ambassador for the ‘Tongzhi Tsai’ (Junior Tongzhi) campaign, the Boys and Girls Clubs Association (BGCA) and Tongzhi Community Joint Meeting (TCJM) are gearing up to address the issue of homophobic bullying and the use of ex-gay reparative therapy literature in schools... Fighting back against homophobic bullying in schools has been a lonely and dispiriting task till now for the Hong Kong NGO, the Boys and Girls Clubs Association (BGCA). They raised this issue almost alone and initially unnoticed once they started to realise there was a problem that had so far not been recognised in Hong Kong’s schools and so which no one had so far addressed. In July 2009, they conducted an online survey which found alarming levels of homophobic bullying in schools accompanied by a complete lack of any institutional protection for the students suffering from it. They released the results to the press that year, to little notice. You can read detail of their findings in the article carried on 13 August 2010, ‘Hong Kong NGO fights homophobia in schools’... 82.3% of respondents had realized their sexual orientation in or before their 15th year. - 79.7% of respondents stated that their sexual identities were known by other students. - Of these whose sexual orientations were known. 53.1% had suffered some form of discrimination including bullying and more than 42.3% had encountered verbal violence, teasing or being the subject of rumour. - 39.8% had experienced isolation and a decrease in contact and felt socially isolated. - 13.5% had been physically hurt or faced sexual harassment...

Wu KK, Leung EY, Leung AY (2008). A survey on same-sex attraction in secondary school adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial factors. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 18: 15-22. PDF Download. Full Text. Questionnaire survey of 413 secondary school students (aged 12 to 21 years). In all, 21% of the participants reported uncertainty about same-sex attraction and 4% reported definitely being same-sex attracted. Females were more likely than males to report uncertainty or certainty about same-sex attraction, and a higher level of perceived knowledge by peers on their sexual orientation. Males were more likely than females to report being not same-sex attracted. The level of satisfaction with one's gender identity was not significantly low for those who were certainly same-sex attracted, but participants who were unsure of same-sex attraction were less satisfied with their gender identity than those who were definitely not same-sex attracted. Participants who were same-sex attracted or unsure of same-sex attraction had lower perceived levels of acceptance and experienced more victimisation about their sexual orientation within their social environment, than those who reported they were not same-sex attracted. It is important not to have a preconception about the sexual orientation of individual youths in healthcare settings. Same-sex attraction is associated with subjective feelings of an unfavourable social environment.

Survey: 46% of gay men are 'proud' or 'very free' living as a gay man in Hong Kong (2011): Kara characterised the results as showing that gay men were: “private towards their orientation; positive in their outlook to life”. Of her respondents, she found 46% prepared to say they felt “proud, comfortable, or very free” living as a gay man in Hong Kong. This is a result that perhaps stems from the reach of the survey, which was, by nature of its means, more to men who are social and out, rather than isolated and closeted. Some 28% of respondents claimed to be “publicly open about their orientation”, a level much higher, from experience, than for the whole gay population. But in the survey, the darker side does show through. 10% of respondents felt embarrassed by their lives, 9% felt them a burden, and 64% had suffered some form of discrimination... As a place to be gay, though, Hong Kong scored well; a full 71% of respondents were happy or satisfied with living here. Yet 62% were “not open about their sexual orientation in the workplace” (again, a figure lower than one would expect for the whole gay population) and the message came across strongly in the survey that “professional and personal life should be kept separate.” There is still a huge fear of loss of work or of disadvantage to careers from being open in Hong Kong’s commercial world. There is a similar fear, of course, of being out to the family. Interestingly, Kara found that this was often because gay men feel responsible for their family members and don’t wish to make their lives difficult. Family members, many reported, were ignorant rather than prejudiced.

Hong Kong pop star Anthony Wong comes out (2012): . Anthony Wong, a Hong Kong-based pop star, once well-known as the lead singer of the duo, Tat Ming Pair, has come out as gay in front of thousands of fans during a concert. Though Mr Wong’s sexuality has been something of an open secret in the city’s entertainment world, for a city that had its first gay pride parade in 2008, and even then attended only by around 1,000 participants, the announcement is seen as a significant move. - Hong Kong Pop Star Anthony Wong Comes Out as Gay (2012): On the final night (April 23), Wong gave the audience a definitive answer. He told his audience in Cantonese that people no longer have to wonder whether or not he is a tongzhi. He literally spelled out what he is: "I'm gay. I'm a homosexual. G-A-Y." "I'm sorry, members of the media," he added. "For the next 20 years, I'll keep singing songs, but you don't need to ask me this question any longer." - TV host So Sze Wong reveals she is a lesbian (2012): China Press reported that So Sze Wong, a popular TV host and DJ in Hong Kong, has revealed she is a lesbian... "In this world, I thank my parents, siblings and friends. I never talked about it but they all accepted me. I appreciate, because of love," said So. - Softcore actress Lan Yan admits she is lesbian (2012): Softcore actress Leni Lan Yan recently said that she would not choose male, when asked by the media about the criteria she uses to find a partner, indicating that she is in fact a lesbian. The Shanghai-born actress also said that she very much supported Hong Kong singer-songwriter Anthony Wong who also publicly admitted that he is a homosexual.

Gay Community to Take Legal Action Against Hong Kong Police (2011): A gay demonstrator has sought legal aid to take legal action against the Hong Kong Police for the infringement of his Basic Law right to peacefully demonstrate in the city without harassment or disruption from the police, the Tongzh Community Joint Meeting (TCJM) said today. This move arises out of police action on May 15 when police disrupted a demonstration in Hong Kong to mark the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHO). Police demanded that dancing at the demonstration cease and threatened to arrest organisers if their demands were not met. - Hong Kong government hires 'gay conversion expert' (2011): Psychiatrist Hong Kwai-wah, who specialises in "treating unwanted homosexuality," gave a two-and-a-half hour talk to staff at the former British colony's social welfare office on Friday... The southern Chinese city's Social Welfare Department said it had invited scholars and gay rights activists to speak at earlier sexual identity seminars. "The department had adopted and would continue to adopt an open and impartial attitude in organising training courses, thematic talks and experience sharing sessions for the professional development of its social workers," it said in a statement.

Hong Kong University Vice-Chancellor: Save transgender research at HKU. Employ Sam Winter beyond 60 (2012). - A survey of attitudes toward homosexuality in Hong Kong Chinese medical students (2005). - Queer at Your Own Risk: Marginality, Community and Hong Kong Gay Male Bodies (2004).

My story as gay and Christian:  God's Abundant Love (2011, by Fergus Lo, a gay Christian man from Hong Kong): I live in Hong Kong.  I am a relatively young gay Christian man.  And, for more than ten years, I have been attending a church here in Hong Kong that ministers primarily to the LGBT community.  Here is my story... After becoming a Christian I still experienced some down moments in my life.  God has not promised success in every aspect of our lives.  Nevertheless, it has been the ups and downs that have enabled me to experience God’s guidance, protection and His presence.  Because of my ups and downs I have not taken Him for granted.  There are many challenges for the gay person living in Hong Kong, and more so for the gay Christian living here.  Even so, I am very grateful that God created me just as I am – a gay man, and that I am a Christian.  God loves me unconditionally regardless of my sexual orientation.  In fact, being gay enables me to see His abundant love from a perspective straight people do not necessarily experience.  In addition, being a gay Christian enables me to put my feet in the shoes of other minority communities more easily... I would like to proclaim loudly that being a Christian and gay is definitely not contradictory. Actually, it is a special blessing!

In Memory of Leslie Cheung Kwok-Wing (1956-2003). - Leslie Commits Suicide (2003): Openly gay actor/singer plagued by depression over a soured 17-year relationship. - Leslie Cheung (Wikipedia).

Wong, See-huat (2008). Cosmopolitan consumption of sexualized space : Hong Kong's gay bar/club/sauna. Master of Sciences (Urban Planning) Dissertation, University of Hong Kong. Download Page. ... The findings of the research are primarily drawn from 220 online and on site questionnaire responses from the gay community and business owners, and the general public. The analysis focuses on the use (interpretation) of space, and the envisioned use of space by the gay community. The general awareness, tolerance and recognition of the gay iv scene in Hong Kong are also explored. Supplementary in-depth interviews with prominent figures from nine Hong Kong gay NGOs and three government associated institutions were undertaken to get a balanced view. An additional focus group (involving 15 individuals) was also held... In conclusion, Hong Kong needs to improve its knowledge and diversity (two key elements underpinning cosmopolitanism). 77% of respondents from the general public have no awareness of the local gay scene, 76% had never encountered gays, and only 34% know or are willing to emulate overseas gay scenes locally. As regards respondents from the gay community, 53% had no idea of gay spending power (the “pink dollar”) and only 15% are aware of legislation concerning gay rights. This dearth of knowledge and awareness suggests there are political and cultural barriers to recognizing gays as a niche market; the notion of gay consumerism influencing a gay rights political discourse is unproven here. There is a tension between the cosmopolitan status of Hong Kong and the local gay scene. - For Hong Kong’s Gay Scene, a Night-Life Institution (2009): Propaganda isn’t just the grandmother of the gay night-life scene in Hong Kong, it’s something of a historic site. Steven Khouw, the director and general manager, was one of the founders of Propaganda (1 Hollywood Road, Central; 852-2868-1316) when it first opened in 1991, the same year that Hong Kong decriminalized gay sex. Since then, countless glammed-up men (and the occasional woman) have graced its dance pole. “It’s one of the key features of the dance floor, where our most daring customers can climb up and show off their great bodies and personalities,” Mr. Khouw said. - Gay Hongkong: Hongkong is a huge, lively bustling city, but the gay scene is only just starting to emerge. A lot of gay places are tucked away and need to be looked for carefully. Many Chinese gays remain in the closet due to family and cultural pressures.

Male homosexual identity in Hong Kong: a social construction (1995): This research is to explore the social and psychological forces that influence the identity of a man who has come to describe himself as a "homosexual." An attempt is made to understand the emergence of male homosexual identities in Hong Kong--which is predominantly a Chinese community under western influence for more than one century. The results suggest that male homosexual identity arises not so much from homosexual behavior per se but from the stigma and heterosexist beliefs that encompassed it. The acquisition of homosexual identity is largely a response to the cultural definitions of marriage and family, gender and sex roles, as well as a way to handle a culturally induced set of difficulties of getting access to emotional and sexual fulfillment in an environment that prohibits it..

Coming Out Experiences and Psychological Distress of Chinese Homosexual Men in Hong Kong (2004, PDF Download): This study adopted a cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in understanding coming out experiences and psychological distress of 187 Chinese gay men. Results showed that participants' coming out experiences were characterized by same-sex sexual fantasy at teenage years, followed by awareness of homosexual tendency, same-sex sexual contact, and then self-identification and disclosure of homosexual orientation in young adulthood. Regarding targets of disclosure, participants tended to disclose their sexual orientation to their gay friends first, followed by heterosexual friends, siblings, parents, and coworkers. This study also supported the extension of the TRA conceptual framework to Chinese societies. Results showed that a low level of psychological distress in Chinese gay men was linked to their coming out experiences, which were in turn related to TRA components of involvement and identification with gay communities and positive attitudes toward coming out..

Developing a Social Constructionist Therapy Approach for Gay Men and Their Families in Hong Kong (1999). - Negotiating Anal Intercourse in Inter-racial Gay Relationships in Hong Kong (2000, Word 97 DownloadAbstract): This article is about the experience of Chinese gay men in colonial Hong Kong, their relationship with Western partners and their sexual practices. The body of the colonized is a critical space where resistance against the subjection by the colonial intrusion is put up. As their agency and instruments of desire are actively claiming personal and interpersonal space, the forces of colonial domination are met with subversive resistance. It is in the paradoxical site of inter-racial gay anal intercourse that the equation between the colonizer and the powerful is simultaneously realized and questioned, both the enemy and the lover present themselves to a desire that is always characterized by ambivalence.

Becoming an Inclusive Community: Challenges from Hong Kong’s Tongzhi Movement (2004, PDF Download). - Personality, Psychosocial Variables, and Life Satisfaction of Chinese Gay Men in Hong Kong (2003): This study explored associations of life satisfaction with personality traits, life events, and social support among 187 Chinese gay men in Hong Kong. In general, participants were modestly satisfied with various aspects of their lives. Findings from a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that a high level of life satisfaction of Chinese gay men was related to weak borderline personality traits, disclosure of homosexual sexual orientation, and gay peer support. - A Survey of Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in Hong Kong Chinese Medical Students (2003): A total of 249 students (40%) reported that they had a religion; 542 (86%) reported that they would accept their friends to be homosexuals. Two thirds thought that homosexual and heterosexual partners should have equal legal rights in terms of marriage, whereas slightly less than half (46%) thought they should have equal legal rights in adopting children. With regard to learning or working abilities, 93% thought homosexuals are not any different from heterosexuals. Two thirds thought homosexuals are not different from heterosexuals in terms of sexual behaviour such as promiscuity or loyalty.

Politcs & Equality Issues

1998 Chinese Tongzhi Conference, Hong Kong.1996 Chinese Tongzhi Conference: About 200 Chinese Tongzhi Gathered in Hong Kong: Tong-zhi Movement Should be Cultural Specific for Chinese Societies N/A. - Manifesto from the 1996 Conference. - "Chinese gays and lesbians from around the world met in San Francisco  June 26 - 28 [1998]."  - Interview with Samshasha, Hong Kong's First Gay Rights Activist and Author (2000). In 1968, the Hong Kong government first attempted to 'legalise' homosexual acts (between two consenting adult males in private). The issue was favoured by few liberal British expatriate legislators but strongly opposed by local Chinese communities (religious and political ones especially) - if only to re-enforce the 'decadent west tries to pollute the innocent Chinese' theory. In 1980, after a series of homosexual scandals involving British expatriates, the colonial Government again attempted to introduce homosexual law reform but its attempts were fiercely resisted by sectors within the Chinese community which insisted that homosexuality was a western vice, unknown in Chinese tradition.  To counter this myth, Sam began to publish gay liberation texts in Chinese including A Chinese Gay's Manifesto (1980) which was the first such booklet published in Hong Kong, and Pink Triangle (1981), Hong Kong's first underground gay newsletter. These were followed by Twenty-five Questions about Homosexuality (1981) which was the first gay-liberation book to be published in Chinese and, in 1984, Sam published The History of Homosexuality in China (in Chinese), which is still the most comprehensive account of the topic in any language (a revised and expanded...

Evaluation of the Hong Kong Government's Consultation Paper Equal Opportunities: A study on Discrimination on the Ground of Sexual Orientation (1996): Because of unclear, vague, and presuppositional wording in the survey questions, exacerbated by serious implementational shortcomings, the survey whose results are reported on in Equal Opportunities: A study on Discrimination on the Ground of Sexual Orientation fails to meaningfully measure the most important public attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and bisexuals.

Hong Kong to Celebrate First Pride Day (1999). - Hong Kong activists fight for gay rights (2004). - Chinese gays hold historic Hong Kong meeting Many still not ready to come out to family (2004). - Gay Chinese Students Protest Group's Exclusion N/A. - Hong Kong: An infant GLBT movement (2001). - Gay Support Increases in Hong Kong N/A (2001). - Survey reveals strong anti-gay sentiment in Hong Kong (2000, Alternate Link): People in Hong Kong are heavily prejudiced, with 37 percent believing gay men and lesbians undermine society's moral standards, a survey published Monday found. The figure among elderly people is even higher, with 56 percent believing gays undermine moral standards, the survey of 1,000 people by a social welfare group in the territory found. Fifty-five percent of people questioned agreed that there was "significant [anti-gay] discrimination" and 29 percent admitted having personally discriminated against gays. - Hong Kong: Lesbian & Gay Supporters Increasing (2002): ... However, the research, which was conducted by telephone in May, also found that a majority of people believe homosexuality is a mental illness. Women, younger people, single people and people with more schooling polled more gay-friendly than other respondents. - Hong Kong to debate gay rights, gay marriage (2004): Gays and lesbians in Hong Kong will be covered by sexual orientation discrimination legislation sooner rather than later if a survey to be conducted by early next year indicates more than 50 per cent of the public supports such a law. Tim Cribb reports. - HK gay activists challenge unequal age of sexual consent law (2004). - Strong China presence at HK’s Tongzhi conf (2004): China delegates to the Fifth Tongzhi Conference in HK earlier this month are optimistic about the future; delegates report that numerous gay communities have sprung up across China. - Two men and a gay wedding has Hong Kong in an uproar (2004).

Queer Hong Kong After Chinese Takeover (1997): That's not to say there aren't exciting gay bars, discos or saunas in Hong Kong. There are. But the importance of marriage and the family line in Chinese culture fuels the widespread fear among queer Hong Kongers of being spotted in such establishments. For instance, Robin Wong - who immigrated to Canada in 1995 - points out that 20 years of overseas travel by Hong Kong youth hasn't altered their obligation to the "old values most of our parents cling to." Therefore, unsurprisingly, the vast majority of gays and lesbians in Hong Kong continue to lead a double life. "Outside Lan Kwae Fong, an L-shaped street with mostly gay bars, you have to be careful," Wong explains. "I don't mind being seen in a gay bar, but I do mind being seen by someone [I know] who never knew I was gay. There are too many gossips in Hong Kong. People can hurt you professionally and personally, and [gay life] will become even more difficult when Hong Kong returns to Chinese rule." Just ask activist Li Jian Quan. "Once people know you are gay, life is hell," Li told the 16th International Lesbian and Gay Association conference in NYC in 1994. "If you have a job, you get dismissed immediately. After that, your family cannot face the neighbours' gossip. Gays are drowned in an ocean of condemnation."

Hong Kong's Catholics condemn gay activists for disrupting Mass (2003): The activists condemned Hong Kong's Roman Catholic Bishop Joseph Zen over two recently articles published in a church newsletter against same-sex marriages. They have demanded an open apology. The Hong Kong government does not legally recognize same-sex marriages and has said there's no need to change the law. ``It was only a brief disruption but the Catholics officials are supporting a stance that trespasses our rights every moment, everyday,'' said protest organizer Noel Chen..

What a Difference a Gay Makes (2009): Johannes Pong introduces the proud poofs who are working to make a difference in Hong Kong’s queer scene. Additional reporting by Jojo Choi, Paul Chan and Richard Otsuki... Sometimes it’s not easy being gay in Hong Kong. We have some pretty discriminatory laws and we lack GLBT leaders of the same stature as Ellen DeGeneres, Dustin Lance Black or Amanda Lepore. But that is no reason to write the city off as some kind of homophobic backwater - there are plenty of loud and proud pioneers from all walks of life who are working hard to advance LGBT issues here. So word ‘em up, sisters and misters - we salute you... The Literary Butch - Nigel Collett ... The Publishing Fairy - Joe Lam ... The Pride March Lynchpin - Wei Siu-lik ... The Drag Queen - Coco Pop ... The Power Lesbians - Abby Lee and Betty Grisoni ... The Radio Gaga - Brian Leung ... The Queer Performance Artist - Rick Lau ... The Campaigner - Billy Leung ... The Gay Club Producer - DJ Stonedog, aka Evan Steer.

Queer at Your Own Risk: Marginality, Community and Hong Kong Gay Male Bodies (2004, PDF Download. PDF Download.) Hong Kong gay men have always been subordinated under heterosexism and the disciplinary notion of hegemonic masculinity in the straight world and hegemonic cult gay masculinity in the gay world. Dominance, however, is not securely held, but must constantly be won. Under the postcolonial administration, Hong Kong gay men are not enthusiastic about the political sphere of life; rather, they have tended to shift from institutional politics to cultural politics. Cultural space has become the primary location for the production of texts that disrupt the norm of hegemonic heterosexuality under the commodity logic of capitalism. Moreover, using their own forms of embodied cultural capital, Hong Kong gay men tend to take the path of micro-resistance in combating societal domination. This can be seen from their engagement in public sex and in their involvement in the commercial gay scene. Based on the ‘voices’ of 34 Hong Kong gay men, this article argues that Hong Kong gay men negotiate a gay identity that is sensitive and flexible to different institutional arenas; this allows them to strive for sexual freedom and create their own space for social interaction and sexual desire.

Cross, Whitney (2004). Homosexuality in Hong Kong: How Gay Men and Lesbians have united for Greater Equality. Essay: Anthropology 350, The College of William and Mary. Word Download. In Hong Kong, male homosexual behavior was illegal before 1991, with the maximum sentence being life imprisonment. Since then, the Legislative Council has decriminalized homosexuality, but has turned down attempts at anti-discrimination legislation in 1993 and 1997. In my paper, I wish to explore how homosexuality has been affected by the decriminalization in 1990; including how homosexual’s lives have changed, what gay groups have been formed, and what these groups and organizations are doing to call for more gay rights. I also wish to investigate what the people of Hong Kong think about homosexuality and if their views have changed since the decriminalization of homosexuality and with the change of time and culture. What is the general consensus among the Hong Kong people concerning same-sex partners? What is the real life of homosexuals (the minority) in Hong Kong? ... While in Hong Kong, I hope to determine the views of primary sources (homosexuals), and secondary sources (non-homosexuals who would know about the topic, such as experts on homosexuality, and the general public) mainly through the use of interviews, questionnaires and/or surveys, and observation. By using interviews and data collection (through surveys), I hope to understand more about different aspects of this relatively uncommon (the study of homosexuality is very rare at schools and universities) and misinterpreted topic.

Warren, Robin A (2004). Gay Marriage: Analyzing Legal Strategies for Reforms in Hong Kong and the United States. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal, 13(3): 771-805. PDF Download. Download Page. Like many countries, both the United States and Hong Kong face the question of whether to legalize gay marriage due to social, legal, and political forces within and beyond their borders. The legalization of same-sex marriage in one jurisdiction forces other jurisdictions to decide whether to recognize marriages celebrated there. Comparing the current state of U.S. and Hong Kong law reveals that only a direct challenge to discriminatory marriage laws will successfully effect change. Two U.S. state supreme court decisions provide examples of effective legal arguments in a direct challenge. Conflict of laws analysis for marriage and the public policy exception to the place of celebration rule in the United States and Hong Kong preclude "importing" gay marriage by availing oneself of friendlier law in another forum. Ultimately, the timing must be ripe to effectively mount a direct challenge. In the meantime, every effort made, even if unsuccessful, raises awareness within a forum, and slowly gives rise to tolerance.

Gay life in Hong Kong (2005): After a Hong Kong judge ruled in August 2005 that laws prohibiting gay sex by men under the age of 21 were discriminatory, Victor Chau, editor of a gay magazine, told the BBC News website about life as a gay man in Hong Kong.... - glbtq: Hong Kong. - Hong Kong Equalizes Age of Consent for Gays (2006). - Judge rules Hong Kong gay sex laws unconstitutional (2005). - HK gay sex rules 'discriminatory' (2005): A Hong Kong judge has ruled that laws prohibiting gay sex by men under the age of 21 are unconstitutional. - I only wanted equality, says Leung (2005). - Hong Kong leads the way (2005): In a landmark decision, a judge in Hong Kong ruled that the laws against homosexual sex were discriminatory and were therefore unconstitutional. They violated the Basic Law, Hong Kong's constitution. - Police disrupt gay fashion show in Hong Kong (2005).  Human Rights Watchdog Condemns Hong Kong Over Gay Rights. - Hong Kong turns down gay marriage (2006). - Hong Kong's top court rules that law against sodomy in public is discriminatory (2007). - Hong Kong court finds public sodomy law discriminatory (2007). - New gay social services centre opens in Hong Kong (2007). - Gay film festival receives government backing (2006). Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Unit: The Unit was established in May 2005. The aim is to enhance the equal opportunities for people of different sexual orientation and transgendered persons. The Unit's functions are to: ...

Victimization experiences of Chinese gay men and lesbians in Hong Kong: A longitudinal study and an evaluation of a psychoeducational program on sexual identity management strategies (2005, Dissertation): The present thesis explored the experiences and correlates of victimization among Chinese gay men and lesbians in Hong Kong with the aim at reducing their victimization experiences in future. This thesis had two studies. Study One was a cross-sectional study to examine correlates of victimization experiences. Based on the stress and coping paradigm, an integrated model on victimization experiences was developed. The model composed of three predicting factors of victimization experiences: predispositional stressors including gender role atypicality and internalized homophobia, cognitive appraisal variables including perceived discrimination and gay/lesbian community involvement, and sexual identity management strategies including counterfeiting, integration, and confrontation. A total of 645 Chinese gay men and lesbians in Hong Kong participated in this study..

Wong AD (2005). The reappropriation of tongzhi. Language in Society 34: 763–793. Abstract. PDF Download. A general address term in Communist China, the Chinese word tongzhi ‘comrade’ was appropriated by gay rights activists in Hong Kong to refer to members of sexual minorities. It has positive connotations of respect, equality, and resistance. This article focuses on the reappropriation of this word by a mainstream newspaper in Hong Kong. The parodic use of tongzhi allows journalists to ridicule gay rights activists so as to increase the entertainment value of news stories. At the same time, it mocks activists' demand for equality and may lead to the pejoration of the term. This study provides synchronic evidence for sociolinguistic accounts that explain how lexical items may undergo pejoration because of the context of their use. It shows that because the meaning potential of a word is not bounded by the intentions of its users, words that marginalized groups have appropriated can be resignified yet again in hateful contexts.

Wong AD (2008). The Trouble with Tongzhi: The Politics of Labeling among Gay and Lesbian Hongkongers. Pragmatics, 18(2): 277-301. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. A general address term in Communist China, tongzhi comrade was appropriated by gay rights activists in Hong Kong to refer to members of sexual minorities. Examining its level of acceptance among non-activist gay and lesbian Hongkongers, this article argues that non-activists ideology about sexuality accounts for their rejection of tongzhi and their preference for strategies that leave same-sex desire unspecified. This study demonstrates how the discursive history of a label can both enable and impede its political efficacy. It also sheds light on the internal resistance that representatives of minority groups encounter when introducing new labels for those they supposedly speak for.

Diver, Andrew P (2011). Querying the ‘Global Gay Narrative’: Hong Kong, Transnational Sexualities, and the Formation of Queer Subjectivities since 1997. PDF Download. Master's Dissertation, University of Cambridge. This essay locates the formation of Hong Kong sexualities within the parallel emergence of globalisation, neo-liberalism, and postcolonialism. It poses the question of how are we to understandsame-sex sexual imaginaries in Hong Kong within a constellation of global queer cultures. How hasthe proliferation of an idea of intensified ‘global interconnectedness’ affected the intimate lives of  people who inhabit a particular locality of Hong Kong? How has an accelerated flow of technologies, languages, goods, ideologies and images, between and within nations, sculpted thequeer body and carved the boundaries of queer space? Situated in current debates on citizenship, this essay challenges the homogenising tendenciesof the ‘global gay narrative’. By drawing on a more sophisticated scholarship of the global, it pointsto the asymmetry of globalisation by foregrounding a ‘transnational’ framework of analysis. It notonly asks who has found meaning in the ‘multiple’, ‘plural’, and ‘flexible’ citizenships which have been transmitted by global sexual networks, but also who has been excluded, rejected and silenced by them? Similarly, it interrogates theories of cultural hybridisation by pointing to strategies of resistance to global (queer) processes.This essay draws heavily from recent work on Chinese sexualities which has promisinglyexamined the interplay of global forces on the ordering of intimate lives. In particular, there has beenconsiderable fieldwork done on Chinese gay men, and the ways in which their lives have beenaffected both by localised social institutions and broader transnational flows. Yet this scholarship,especially for Hong Kong, is still largely embryonic in its development. This essay seeks to build on previous work in two ways...

A new name in Hong Kong activism: Pink Alliance (2012): Hong Kong’s Tongzhi Community Joint Meeting (TCJM for short) has decided to adopt a working name called Pink Alliance for its activities whilst keeping the TCJM name for its legally established and registered non-profit NGO. Fridae's Hong Kong Correspondent Nigel Collett has more on the group's history and new developments... The Tongzhi Community Joint Meeting (TCJM for short) has for many years had an honoured place in the world of LGBT activism in Hong Kong. Its second incarnation appeared in 2008 (the first having gone into abeyance some years before) and it’s been steadily expanding its activities ever since. The name harks back to the ‘90s, when activists picked up the word ‘tongzhi’, the mainland Chinese term for ‘comrade’, and applied it to the LGB world. It was handy, it was Chinese, it had style and was about as queer an appropriation of a straight term as you could get. It also neatly got round the need for the ever-increasing set of initials the rest of the world is face with, by which I mean LGBTIQ etc etc. Tongzhi conferences were held in Hong Kong and when the local activist groups got together to form a Hong Kong-wide body, they adopted the word for the first incarnation of the TCJM. There are problems, though. It’s a name that needs continual explanation for those not in the know, and that includes not only non-Chinese speakers but a lot of Chinese people as well. In its unabbreviated form, the TCJM’s name doesn’t exactly trip off the tongue, and in its abbreviated form activists and fundraisers have found themselves always needing to waste time better spent on their real message by having to explain it. Tongzhi tended, sadly, to get a bit in the way.

How Gay-Friendly is Hong Kong? It Depends (2012): Hong Kong’s LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) community may have received a boost from local pop star Anthony Wong’s very public coming-out last month, and there may have been visible improvements in public attitude in recent years - the city has hosted a number of Pride parades since 2008 - but a new survey shows that hostility continues in the workplace. - Hong Kong Gays Face Widespread Discrimination in Workplace (2012).  - Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual: Orientation: A Hong Kong Study (2010). - Creating Inclusive Workplaces for LGBT Employees: A Resource Guide for Employers in Hong Kong (2010, Alternate Link): The report looks at some of the challenges faced by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) employees in Hong Kong from a historical, legal, and workplace perspective, and provides some very practical suggestions of what companies in Hong Kong can do to make their workplaces more inclusive. At Goldman Sachs in Hong Kong and throughout Asia, our policies aim to treat all employees equally, without regard to sexual orientation, and our benefits plans apply wherever possible to same sex partners, as they would to opposite sex partners. We host training events to further educate our employees on how to be inclusive of LGBT people in the workplace and we have an active LGBT Network which runs several events throughout the year that are open to all of our people, helping to build greater visibility around our LGBT population and potential challenges they may face in the workplace.

The Hong Kong LGBT Climate Study 2011-12 report (2012, PDF Download): There are also a number of key findings from this Study that are significant for Hong Kong society as a whole. Firstly, the Hong Kong community appears more accepting of LGBT individuals than has often been previously assumed. Whilst there continues to be a level of ambivalence and there is certainly room for greater education and understanding on this subject, the majority of people say they do not have an issue with LGBT individuals and that discriminatory practices towards LGBT employees are never acceptable. Secondly, this is an issue that is of interest and concern to Hong Kong’s growing Gen Y population. The demographic trends from this Study highlight that Gen Y employees are both far more accepting of LGBT individuals and concerned by the discrimination they face. And thirdly, as evidenced by the positive response rate to the LGBT Employee Survey, LGBT individuals are willing to come forward, engage and share their views on this subject. We believe these findings point to a changing climate in Hong Kong and that it is time for greater openness and dialogue on this subject – by both the community and the corporate sector. It is no longer appropriate to overlook this topic as being too sensitive or too difficult to address. Taking proactive steps to understand and meet the needs of LGBT individuals, creating a more inclusive and open environment will not only be good for business – it will be good for Hong Kong as a whole...

Gay acceptance in Hong Kong undergoes changes (2012): After the Hong Kong’s pop star Anthony Wong identifying himself as a gay in public last month, the local LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) community may have gotten a great inspiration. Accompany with an increasing international acceptance of gays, Hong Kong witnesses some visible improvements in public attitude, but a new survey shows that LGBT community may still suffer in the workplace. According to Isabella Steger, author of How Gay-Friendly is Hong Kong? It Depends., Hong Kong nonprofit Community Business conducted a major survey on public attitudes towards LGBT individuals on the basis of 1,002 randomly chosen working people in Hong Kong and other 626 working people but from LGBT community.The survey said that the acceptance of LGBT individuals from the former group reached 50%, a big advance compared with the results of the 2005 survey by Hong Kong’s government. What’s more, only 3% in this survey expressed their hostility and judgment towards gays, compared with 42% in 2005. 25% of workers still felt unacceptable towards gays, and 53% of LGBT employees admitted that they were “exhausted by having to pretend to be someone they are not”. 26% said they preferred staying home because of exclusive working environment. The average score that the LGBT respondents gave to their employers was just 2.68 out of 10 in for creating an inclusive working atmosphere. International companies got a higher score than average, with 4.32, but government was not so lucky to enjoy the pleasure, with a low score of 1.47..

Gay Station is the pioneering gay & lesbian based in Hong Kong. It now offers livestreaming webcast daily.


What is it like to be a lesbian in Hong Kong? (2012): Life is never easy when you are alone in a foreign country, let alone if you are a lesbian in Hong Kong, where the lesbian scene is preciously rare. In a city like Hong Kong, where people come and go so quickly and going out for drinks is almost the only option if you want to meet, how did Lee Harlem Robinson manage to lead a promiscuous life? Fridae’s reporter Tony Ed Lo speaks with Hannelore Arbyn, the person behind the story... Hannelore Arbyn is a Belgian living in Hong Kong who has been writing Lee Harlem Robinson’s life in the virtual world for more than 18 months. Her debut novel Come and Go picks up where her blog Trying to Throw my Arms Around the World left us. In the novel we follow Lee after her heartbreaking separation from Stella. The sleepless nights and the wounds are still fresh, and Lee is trying to indulge herself in unintentionally promiscuous relationships involving her new love interest Nikki and her ex/ boss Lucy. “In Hong Kong, a four months relationship is equivalent to a year in other countries.” This was how Lee described the situation in which she found herself as she headed towards the break up.

The Voice of a Lesbian from Hong Kong (2010): In 2000, I had a relationship with a female policewoman. She had already come out to her family. I usually stayed overnight at her house on weekends. On New Year’s Eve we went out to celebrate. Since the street was so crowded, we held hands tightly. Suddenly, she took her hand and ran away. I was confused. ‘What happened?’ I caught up to her, and she explained she had just seen her colleague on duty. She did not want her colleagues to know about her sexual orientation. She said most of them were very homophobic and sexist. She knew one of her colleagues, who was a masculine lesbian, was teased by male colleagues. I had never thought that I would not be able to hold hands with my girlfriend. I used to think I was living in a liberal city though I could not get married to my lover. I had a relationship with this girlfriend. Suddenly, I recognized that I was back in the closet again...  

Indonesian Maids in Hong Kong Blur the Borders (2010): According to Muthi Hidayati, a coordinator at the Indonesian Migrant Workers Union, up to 20 percent of Indonesian females working in Hong Kong are lesbians...  According to Sim, being a lesbian is not about gender transformation. It is rather a form of role-playing as a consequence of imbalances in the Indonesian community in the city. “I don’t know of any [lesbian] who actually wanted to change their sex surgically. Most just impersonate men because they think there should be a male in their group,” Sim said. In Hong Kong, those like Argy, who assume a male role, call one another tomboys. “Tomboys do not like other tomboys. They are boys, so they like girls,” Argy said. “And girls like us, because we are the boys in the group.” Argy has a girlfriend, with whom she has been with for five years now. Her sweetheart, who is feminine and shy, laughs and blushes when asked personal questions about their relationship.
The life of a lesbian in Hong Kong (2012): We interview the author of Come and Go, a novel about the lesbian scene in Hong Kong. Come and Go, released this month, follows Lee Harlem Robinson through a promiscuous couple of months after heartbreak in Hong Kong, presenting an image of an alcohol-dependent and incestuous gay scene there. Gay Star News interviews the author Hannelore Arbyn, who says the book is definitely not autobiographical and explains why she is glad she was already married before moving to Hong Kong... Yes the blog is completely fictional, as is the book. The places are real, but the characters are fictional. - A Chinese gay boy`s love story "Tightrope Walker": a short film filmed by the students of the university of Hong Kong (2009, YouTube, Alternate Link).

Local Lesbians Out Of Closet (1995): Fifty per cent of gay women have told at least one family member about their sexual preferences and a third of those received a positive response, according to a new survey on lesbians in Hong Kong. More than three-quarters of those questioned said they felt comfortable with their sexual identity, while a similar number believed they had passed the initial stages of the “coming-out process”. But 13 per cent had considered suicide. More than 100 women were polled in the rare study conducted by the newly-established gay group, Queer Sisters, in conjunction with the Hong Kong Women Christian Council. Most of the respondents were aged between 16 and 35.

Chow, Pizza Ka-yee (2008). Self-stigma, Homosexual Identity and 'Coming Out': A Comparative Study of Lesbians in Hong Kong and Mainland China. Award of Excellence in the 2008 Student International Research Awards. Pizza Chow Ka-yee examined lesbian issues in Chinese societies.

Shame, internalized heterosexism, lesbian identity, and coming out to others: A comparative study of lesbians in mainland China and Hong Kong (2010, Alternate Link): The purpose of this study was to investigate coming out to family and friends and their relationships to shame, internalized heterosexism, lesbian identity, and perceived social support in Chinese lesbians from 2 different cultural settings - Mainland China (N = 244) and Hong Kong (N = 234). Results of structural equation modeling showed that, in both samples, a sense of shame was related to internalized heterosexism and a devaluation of one’s lesbian identity, which in turn was related to a decreased likelihood of coming out to others. Shame was also associated with a reduced perception of support from friends, which seemed in turn to exacerbate internalized heterosexism among lesbians. Family support was generally unrelated to outness, except for outness to friends in the Hong Kong sample. Results are discussed in relation to the cultural stigma attached to same-sex orientation and the cultural practice of shaming that parents use to socialize children. - Shame, self-stigma, lesbian identity, and coming out to others: A comparative study of lesbians in Mainland China and Hong Kong (2010): Lesbians in Hong Kong and China develop a sense of shame due to Chinese cultural prejudice against same-sex orientation, which affects their willingness to disclose their sexual orientation to others, especially family members... Results are discussed in relation to the cultural stigma attached to same-sex orientation and the cultural practice of shaming that parents use to socialize children. This is the first study to have systematica

Books: Conditional Spaces: Hong Kong Lesbian Desires and Everyday Life - 2011 - by Denise Tse-Shang Tang (Google Books) (Review). Abstract: Dense living conditions in Hong Kong do not provide much privacy for lesbians and other sexual minorities living with their families. As a result, lesbians often locate alternative spaces to develop support networks with other women. Others reject the notion of lesbian spaces and instead assert their visibility in different aspects of everyday life. Based on life history interviews with several dozen lesbians living in Hong Kong, this book maps the complex relations between personal subjectivities and spatialities as they emerge and interact with various social justice movements and alternative communities. - The space between us all (2012): Conditional Spaces is the newest publication in the Queer Asia series, which started in 2008 from HKU Press. The series is a first of its kind and provides a platform for university academics to publish their findings on queer culture in Asia. While queer theory originated in, and has typically been dominated by North America and Europe, Tang and her fellow authors prove that the queer cultures and practices in Asia are equally of interest. The Queer Asia series has opened a serious door into investigation of not only a particular sexuality but also a particular ethnographic group. Denise Tang is hopeful the series will promote Asia as a valuable place for queer study. “It’s so hard to find a series so dedicated not only to queer study, but to Asia. I think academically… the trend is like in business – you can see a lot more interest now in Asia than before.”

As Normal As Possible: Negotiating Sexuality and Gender in Mainland China and Hong Kong - 2010 - edited by Yau Ching  (Google Books) (Contents) (Review). See: Tung Lo Wan: A Lesbian Haven or Everyday Life?  This chapter shows how lesbian commercial spaces in Hong Kong — including karaoke bars, upstairs cafés, and lesbian specialty stores in a high-density shopping hub known as Causeway Bay or Tung Lo Wan — function as sites of community formation for lesbians to escape from heteronormative society, validate their self-images, build and maintain social networks, and/or perform political subjectivity. It also argues that these physical spaces are in a continuously mobile process of transforming themselves through customers who take part in the reproduction of social and sexual relations within them. In general, it reviews how lesbians have been marginalized in the field of gender and space and how notions of resistance can offer a theoretical framework to understand the spatial decisions made by Hong Kong lesbians. It attempts to position everyday resistance in the city of Hong Kong as lesbians negotiate with capitalist ideologies as entrepreneurs or as customers to lesbian spaces such as bars, café or specialty stores.

Best lesbian hangouts (2011): Celine Lau checks out the city’s most popular meet-up spots for queer and bisexual women... While the Hong Kong gay scene has a moderately sized romping ground to play in, ranging from chilled-out bars like Psychic Jack and T:ME to the infamously bumping Propaganda, our lesbian scene is, to put it mildly, somewhat hidden. However, with a bit of perseverance, you can discover casual bars, regular club nights and monthly support groups catering to queer women. Here is Time Out’s handy guide to the best girl-friendly bars and venues...

Les Peches: Hong Kong’s premier lesbian social organisation (2010)... Interview (2008). - Lesbian Hong Kong.


Hong Kong plays transgender catch-up (2009): In the biggest challenge yet to traditional Chinese values about sex in this city of 7 million people, a male-to-female transsexual is suing the government for the right to marry her male partner. Moreover, because the plaintiff makes such a compelling case, traditionalists find themselves on the legal defensive. No matter the ultimate ruling in this unprecedented courtroom drama, it is another indication of how attitudes toward sex and sexual orientation are changing in Hong Kong and all over Asia. Such a conjugal union is already legally sanctioned in Singapore, Japan and South Korea - and even in some places on the Chinese mainland. From a transgender perspective then, Hong Kong is playing catch-up. For gay-rights activists, increasingly assertive in the city as well, the case also bears watching. - Hong Kong Transsexual Woman Fights Marriage Ban (2010): The Chinese male-to-female transsexual (20s), identified as "W" under court order, was denied the right to marry her male partner by Hong Kong's Registrar of Marriages last year because her birth certificate still identified her as a man, the Sunday Morning Post said. The case underscores the uncertainty of marriage law when it comes to people who have changed their biological gender in the socially conservative ethnic Chinese community. - Transgender woman gets her day in court (2010): Hong Kong University's Sam Winter, who studies transgender issues, said Hong Kong lags behind countries such as China, Singapore, Japan and South Korea which allow such marriages. Amnesty International Hong Kong's Medeleine Mok Shin-han said Hong Kong should allow a transgendered person to acquire a certificate, similar to the Gender Recognition Certificate in England, to declare his or her adopted gender. Since the first transgender surgery in 1981, a small number of people in Hong Kong, mostly considered to have gender recognition disorders, have undergone sex swap surgeries, many conducted overseas. There are about 200 such individuals in Hong Kong.

Leung, Helen Hok-sze (2005). Unsung Heroes: Reading Transgender Subjectivities in Hong Kong Cinema. PDF Download. In:  Masculinities and Hong Kong cinema - 2005 - edited by Laikwan Pang & Day Wong (Google Books) (Amazon).

HK Court Rules Against Transsexual Marriage (2010): The High Court of Hong Kong rejected a transsexual's appeal to marry her boyfriend on Tuesday, noting existing laws only allow marriage between couples who were of the opposite sex at birth. - Transsexual loses case (2010): A Hong Kong court has asked the SAR government to launch a consultation on legalizing transsexual marriage after rejecting a transsexual woman's bid to marry her boyfriend. The city's High Court ruled Tuesday against the transsexual woman, identified only as W, as there had been insufficient evidence in the case "to demonstrate a shifted societal consensus in present-day Hong Kong regarding marriage to encompass a post-operative transsexual." - Transsexual challenges Hong Kong law that forbids her marrying (2011): A transsexual is challenging Hong Kong laws which forbid her from marrying her boyfriend in a case at the city's Court of Appeal Thursday. Lawyers for the woman, who was born a man but underwent a sex-change operation, are appealing against a court ruling last October that upheld a law barring her from marrying her boyfriend. They claim the original decision by the court, which ruled gender was determined by the sex at birth, was based on a precedent set 40 years ago and that a modern interpretation should be made which took into account changes in society. - Setback to transgender rights in Hong Kong (2011): The plaintiff, publicly known as Ms W and who has since 2008 been fighting for her the right to marry, will now take her case to the Court of Final Appeal after the Court of Appeal last Friday refused her the right to legally marry a man.

Contact reduces transprejudice: A study on attitudes towards transgenderism and transgender civil rights in Hong Kong (2009); Study based onthe 2008 PhD Dissertation study by Mark E King: Transprejudice in Hong Kong: Chinese Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights. Abstract Excerpt: In a 2006 random sampled telephone survey, 856 Hong Kong Chinese men and women ranging in age from 15-64 years old were interviewed... The results were fascinating and revealing. For example, Hong Kong Chinese people do not have very negative attitudes towards TG/TS people and are generally supportive of transgender civil rights, despite the fact that the most frequently used term to describe transgender is yen yiu or “human monster”. About one-third of participants reported contact with transgender people in Hong Kong and/or overseas; contact that produced significant positive effects on attitudes on both personal and institutional dimension constructs. Etiological beliefs revealed significant results related to gender, level of education, and religiosity. With regard to biological essentialist beliefs, almost two-thirds believed that transgenderism is based in biology, with biological essentialist beliefs being related to lower levels of education and those without religious beliefs. Gender was only significantly related to attitudes on the Gender Essentialism construct, with males holding more rigid beliefs. Younger people expressed significantly more positive attitudes on both personal and institutional dimension constructs, as did people with higher levels of education. Religiosity resulted in significant results on both dimensions, with people without religion reporting more positive attitudes. - Related draft of paper "Transprejudice in Hong Kong: Associations with Contact and Demographic Variables on Attitudes towards Transgenderism and Transgender Civil Rights" (Word Download)

HIV/AIDS & Safer Sex

Gays face `borderline HIV epidemic' (2010): The prevalence of HIV among men having sex with men, or MSM, has reached "borderline epidemic," health director Lam Ping-yan said. Lam was speaking yesterday at the opening ceremony of a three-day meeting to discuss prevention of HIV among MSM, being attended by about 140 local and overseas experts. He said despite the fact HIV prevalence has remained at a relatively low level for some time, the rise in infections among MSM in Hong Kong and the neighboring region over the past few years has alerted the territory to the importance of vigilance. "Our serial community-based surveys have revealed that HIV prevalence in the local MSM community has reached the borderline level of a concentrated epidemic," Lam said.

Empowerment Through “Project Touch” : Narratives from Chinese Gay and Bisexual Youth Volunteers in Hong Kong (by Kan Diana Kwok). Abstract: ... This study is triggered by the heated social and legal debate over anti-discrimination legislation for sexual orientation during 2005-2009 in Hong Kong. Discrimination cases based on sexual orientation were documented from previous studies on LGB youth regarding their marginalized experience with mainstream social service programs and sex education system in Hong Kong. Through in-depth individual interviews and focus group meetings, this qualitative research explores with 20 young volunteers and youth leaders in social service settings their meanings, definitions and experience of “empowerment” through “Project Touch” - a youth-led HIV prevention social service project in Hong Kong. These young people describe their meanings and experience of “empowerment” through participating Project Touch in individual, interpersonal and collective level. They also verbalize supports and barriers at institutional and individual level in their experience of empowerment... - Research Report on Experiences of Chinese Gay & Bisexual Youth in Project Touch Empowerment-based HIV/AIDS Prevention Project (2010, by Kan Diana Kwok).

MSM HIV Preventive Campaign 2006: Red Ribbon Centre (RRC) has launched the Men who have sex with men (MSM) HIV Preventive Campaign 2006 in the second half of 2006, in order to scale up the HIV prevention effort in MSM or gay community... In Hong Kong, various data sources pointed towards genuine increase in infections among MSM, including increasing number of voluntary case reports among MSM, an increased HIV prevalence recorded from outreach testing service performed by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in MSM saunas and the identification of a cluster of MSM infections. MSM has been playing a significant role in HIV epidemic in Hong Kong... The publicity strategy has used the same design (a rainbow) for every part of the campaign so that people could link all up the components. Sets of publicity materials in the forms of magazine advertisements, internet banners, posters and coasters were produced for the three phases of the Campaign. Throughout the Campaign, internet banners, advertisements in most popular gay magazines and posters in gay venues, were employed to convey the messages to gay community. On-line programmes on HIV/AIDS and safer sex were also produced to disseminate the HIV prevention messages to a segment of MSM who use the internet... Posters of the Campaign for posting in gay settings (bars, saunas, websites):...

Lee SS, Lam AN, Lee CK, Wong NS (2012). Virtual versus physical channel for sex networking in men having sex with men of sauna customers in the City of Hong Kong. PLoS One, 7(2): e31072. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. Using venue-based sampling, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted at saunas frequented by men having sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong. Comparison was made between MSM sourcing partners through physical venues alone versus concomitant users of physical and virtual channels, the latter referring to internet and smart-phone applications, using bivariate logistic regression. Over a 7-week study period, 299 MSM were recruited from 9 saunas. .. MSM sauna customers commonly use virtual channels for sex partner sourcing. Unprotected sex is more prevalent in sauna customers who use virtual channel for sex partner sourcing. While the popularity of smart-phone is rising, its use is not associated with increased behavioural risk for HIV/STI transmission.

HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong (2012): This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers.

Chan K, Leung R, Wong KH (2011). Factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men recruited from the internet. Communicable Diseases Watch, 8(9): 36-37. PDF Download.  Men who have sex with men (MSM) is the priority community in HIV prevention in Hong Kong. A rise in the number of reports of HIV infection in MSM was observed in Hong Kong since 2003 (Figure 1). Homosexual and bisexual contacts as routes of transmission contributed to 40% of all HIV reported cases and 57% of male infections in 20101. Previous studies showed that sex networking through internet use is related to HIV risk behaviour among MSM2. We reported selected findings among an internetrecruited sample of MSM in Hong Kong in 2010... When compared with the PRiSM survey conducted in gay premises in 20083, this internet-based survey disclosed a MSM segment who adopted lower levels of consistent condom use with their RSP (36% vs 45%) and NRSP (54% vs 75%) and accessed less to free condom (51% vs 72%) and HIV preventive messages (53% vs 90%). These findings suggested the need to improve access to HIV prevention among MSM, especially those using internet. Besides surveillance of HIV risk, internet could be a viable channel to support MSM in making informed decision about safer sex, and the HIV risk associated with drug abuse before or during sex.

Tsui HY, Lau JT (2010). Comparison of risk behaviors and socio-cultural profile of men who have sex with men survey respondents recruited via venues and the internet. BMC Public Health, 10: 232. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet) who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8%) or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%), to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%), and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%). On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6%) and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6%) or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%). Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.

Lau J, Wende C, Lin C (2008). Cross-border MSM sexual behaviors – results of 2 surveys. PDF Download. Background: 15.2% of Hong Kong MSM had MSM sexual activity in Shenzhen (Lau et al., 2004) ... Study 1 - Cross-border MSM sexual activities in Shenzhen. ... Study 2 - Shenzhen Money Boys (MB) serving HK MSM clients... 14% [of MB] came to serve as MB in Hong Kong... HK MSM clients (last 6 months) 48.7%... - Unprotected anal intercourse behavior and intention among male sex workers in Shenzhen serving cross-boundary male clients coming from Hong Kong, China - prevalence and associated factors (2012): This study interviewed 186 Chinese male sex workers (MSW) in Shenzhen, China, serving cross-boundary Hong Kong male clients; 49.5% had had UAI with their Hong Kong male clients (last six months) and 24.2% intended to do so (future six months).

Hong Kong Advisory Council on AIDS (2007). Recommended HIV/AIDS Strategies for Hong Kong 2007-2011. PDF Download. Priority areas for action: A. Scaling up targeted HIV prevention in risk populations with MSM being the most pressing priority. - A randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong (2008). - Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype B among the men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) population in Hong Kong (2011, Abstract & Full Text).

Chan LK, Donovan R (2007). Iconography and Stigma: Graphic Strategies of HIV/AIDS Campaigns Which Target Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Hong Kong. In: Emerging Trends in Design Research. IASDR 07 Proceedings, presented at International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR07), Hong Kong, 12-15 November. PDF Download. Recent Hong Kong government strategies on HIV/AIDS intervention prioritised four “communities” prone to be at risk: commercial sex workers, cross border travellers, illicit drug users, and men who have sex with men. The generic term “men who have sex with men” (MSM) is used as an inclusive descriptor in Australia, Britain and North America. The term is problematic when applied to Asian societies where MSM define themselves according to their adopted gender, with feminine and masculine roles shaping both sexual behaviour and personal relationships. The challenge for HIV/AIDS campaigns in Hong Kong is how to communicate health messages to stigmatised individuals of multivarious gender and sexual identities. This paper concerns the iconography and material culture of HIV/AIDS campaigns in Hong Kong with emphasis on associated social and cultural relationships which surround design and production, consumption and, importantly, everything of any bearing that lies between the two. - HIV infections reach record high in Hong Kong (2009): The city recorded its highest-ever number of HIV infections in a single year, with 435 new cases recorded in 2008, up 5 percent from the previous year, the Department of Health announced yesterday. It is the highest number of HIV infections since records began in 1984, it said, adding most of the new infections were the result of sexual contact. Of the new cases, 145 resulted from homosexual relations, 131 from heterosexual contact, 40 from intravenous drug use and three from blood infusion. Causes of the remaining infections are unknown, it said.

Lee SS, Ma E, Tam D (2007). Report on the Assessment of Recently Acquired HIV Infection in Men Having Sex with Men (MSM) in Hong Kong. The Chinese University of Hong KongL Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases. PDF Download. In response to the rising trend of HIV prevalence and reports among men having sex with men (MSM) reported by Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, Hong Kong, a study was conducted to assess the situation, explore the underlying risk factors and suggest evidence-based recommendations. The study comprises a desktop review of the global and local HIV situation in MSM, a qualitative interview with HIV positive MSM and key stakeholders, and a questionnaire survey administered on HIV positive MSM attending two specialist clinics in the territory... The situation in Hong Kong is similar to that in other countries. Data from different sources suggested that new infections in MSM have doubled within the past 3 years. The sharp rise among MSM has dominated the overall increase of HIV infection contracted through risk behaviours in Hong Kong. Most of the HIV positive MSM patients are Chinese young or middle aged adults who acquired the infection in Hong Kong through non-regular, non-commercial sex. Epidemiological investigation of two clusters of 46 patients detected in 2006 suggested that there were very active sexual activities among subgroups of MSM. Local studies suggested the condom usage rate among MSM was in the range of 60%. Cross border sex, getting acquaintance with sex partners through internet and having sex in sauna were common practice. A mathematical model predicted a 3-fold increase in the cumulative number of HIV infected MSM within 5 years.

Lau JT, Kim JH, Lau M, Tsui HY (2004). Prevalence and risk behaviors of Hong Kong males who seek cross-border same-sex partners in mainland China. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31(9): 568-574. Abstract. PDF Download. A telephone survey was conducted. A total of 15,230 Hong Kong Chinese men aged 18 to 60 participated in the study. Of the 283 MSM engaged in some MSM behaviors in the last 6 months, 15.2% had engaged in sexual activity with a man in mainland China in the 6 months before the survey. These "cross-border MSM" were more likely than others to have practiced risk behaviors such as having patronized male commercial sex workers, having contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD), having had > or = 3 MSM partners, and having higher prevalence of HIV testing in the last 6 months (adjusted odds ratio, 3.32-43.83). There is an urgent need for a regional approach to HIV/STD prevention for MSM in southern China.

Lau JT, Kim JH, Lau M, Tsui HY (2004). HIV related behaviours and attitudes among Chinese men who have sex with men in Hong Kong: a population based study. Sexually Transmitted infections, 80(6): 459-65. Abstract. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Smith G, Chung LC, Louey P (2002). A Study of the Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes of the Men who use Hong Kong’s Gay Saunas. Hong Kong: AIDS Concern. PDF Download. PDF Download. A review of the local epidemiological data leads us to conclude that there is a significant potential for the HIV prevalence among MSM in Hong Kong to be understated. This is due to the taboo against homosexual behaviours, the dependence of the surveillance system on reported cases, and the low rates of testing among MSM. Even without adjusting for potential confounding factors the available data shows that MSM behaviour still plays a critical role in Hong Kong’s HIV problem. Our survey of sauna-users revealed reassuringly high rates of condom use for anal sex, and a high level of exposure to the intervention as judged by the number of men who reported having seen or used the condoms provided by AIDS Concern. Against this, comparisons with recent unpublished data on the general MSM population suggest that sauna-users have more sex partners and more anal intercourse. We argue that this indicates the need to focus future efforts on helping sauna-users sustain current levels of condom use. The continued supply of free condoms and lubricant is critical for achieving this. A key problem revealed by the study is the fact that the condoms and lubricant are not optimally located in the saunas. - A Study of the Sexual Behavior and Attitudes of the Men who use Hong Kong's Gay Saunas.

Lau JTF, Siah PC, Tsui HY (2002). A study of the STD/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors of men who have sex with men in Hong Kong. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(4): 367-372. AbstractPDF Download. A random population based study was carried out to understand HIV-related attitudes and behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among men who have had sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong... About 45% of the MSM did not perceive condom use to be efficacious for HIV prevention (vs. 30% for male clients of FSW). The study is limited by its small number; however, it suggests that MSM in Hong Kong may be at high risk of contracting HIV. Prevention programs should attempt to change attitudes (e.g., perceived efficacy of condom use, perceived susceptibility, awareness of risk involved, etc.) as well as behaviors. The feasibility for establishing a behavioral surveillance system for this population was demonstrated.

AIDS Prevention among MSM in Hong Kong: Review of Research and Prevention Activities, October 2000 (Alternate Link): As of June 2000, of the 1446 reported cases of HIV transmission and the 475 reported cases of AIDS in Hong Kong, 286 HIV infections and 91 AIDS cases were attributed to ‘homosexual’ transmission and 74 HIV infections and 26 AIDS cases were attributed to ‘bisexual’ transmission. The number of cases attributed to ‘homosexual’ or ‘bisexual’ transmission per year has been showing a clear though erratic increase since the first reported case in 1984 (see table 1). - A Preliminary Investigation of HIV Vulnerability and Risk Behavior among Men who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong (2000). - Study Results for 110 Gay/Bi Males: "Men who have sex with men in Hong Kong" (Ravi Lulla) (1997).   - Recommended Strategy for HIV Prevention in MSM in Hong Kong (2001). - AIDS Resources in Hong Kong (To 2004). - Hong Kong Community Planning Process on HIV/AIDS MSM Working Group (2003). 

Fearing for Minorities Living in Hong Kong: "During a visit to Hong Kong in 1989, 1 noticed that many gay men were behaving self-destructively, smoking, drinking, and failing to practice safe sex. I decided to document the emotional experience of gay men in Hong Kong for my doctoral dissertation, as an example of a minority group that is tolerated in Hong Kong but penalized in China. I began by comparing homosexual and heterosexual men. Both showed high levels of anxiety, with the symptoms--worry, paranoia, depression, and suicidal feelings--being much more acute among homosexuals. I have returned three times to Hong Kong since 1991 -- with my latest visit having been to witness the actual Chinese take-over at the beginning of July -- to talk with people from the original study as well as others in both formal interviews and informal conversations. And I continue to maintain the opinion that worry , sadness and fear are escalating because the political changeover is already having significant personal ramifications for people... While the American press continues to focus on Hong Kong as primarily "an economy," the voices of residents such as gays and other minorities continue to go unheard..."

Beyond Identity Politics: The Making of an Oral History of Hong Kong Women Who Have Same-sex Desires (Day Wong, National University of Singapore) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Lesbians and gay men are often identified as a homogeneous group in struggles for equal rights. Some feminists question whether lesbians’ interests have been ignored, given that such rights movements are associated historically with demands, mainly by gay men, for decriminalization of male homosexual offences. In making no distinction between lesbians and gays, the concern is not simply that possible differences in the experience of social inclusion/exclusion are overlooked, but that lesbians are at risk of being subsumed under the category ‘gay’. Influenced by feminists’ gender differentiated approach, some scholars have begun to recover the histories of lesbians by collecting their life stories. In Hong Kong, there is a tendency that lesbians are made invisible in both the Tongzhi movement and the larger society. Some local female activists believe that lesbians do have a history and that history must be written. This paper discusses how they engage in the making of an oral history which enables voiceless women to speak for themselves. By naming the project as “An Oral History of Hong Kong Women who have Same-Sex Desires,” the organisers were sensitive to difference and included in the project women who have same sex desires/ relationships and yet refuse to identify themselves as lesbians. I argue that unlike oral histories which are oriented to cultivation of lesbian consciousness, this project has implications for developing a postmodern politics which emphasizes difference and fluidity of identities."

Reconsidering the Rice Queen (Dredge Byung’chu Kang, Emory University) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In gay argot, the ‘rice queen’ is a gay man, typically white, who has an exclusive or strong sexual/affectional preference for Asian men. His counterpart, the ‘potato queen’, is an Asian man who desires white men. In Western nations, some gay Asian men have protested the putative objectification of Asian men in these interracial relationships. They claim that the pairing, often of a significantly older and less attractive white male with a younger and more attractive Asian male, is a form of psychosocial violence. This is made possible by the emasculinization of Asian men within a social context of structured power differentials where white masculinity is privileged. This formulation, however, does not allow for agency among potato queens, as agency is construed as being motivated by an internalized racism or individualistic social climbing. Moreover, the argument fails to consider homophobic constraints on the agency of rice queens. They, furthermore, are marginalized by other gay men who can not fathom their desires for the feminized Asian. Additionally, younger rice queens situate their identity in contradistinction with older rice queens, whom they portray as resembling sex tourists: old, fat, ugly and unable to attract sexual attention without their financial endowments. Thus, the putative perpetrators of psychosocial violence are themselves located within complex webs of power differentials based on race, sexuality, nationality, age, economics, and their failure to conform to gay cosmopolitan ideals of attractiveness. In this paper, I argue for a more nuanced view of the rice queen and sex tourist. - "Potato Seeking Rice": Language, Culture and Identity in Gay Personal Ads in Hong Kong.

Values in Transition: The Development of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in Hong Kong (1997, Alternate Link). In the early 1980s, when Great Britain and the People's Republic of China (PRC) negotiated the terms for returning Hong Kong to the PRC in 1997, a gay and lesbian rights movement was almost nonexistent in Hong Kong. Male homosexual conduct was a criminal offense punishable by a maximum term of life imprisonment,  and the local police maintained a special unit solely responsible for monitoring homosexual activity. The absence of any legal recourse left gays and lesbians vulnerable to discrimination at work, at school, and in the general community. Indeed, it was legal to discriminate on any ground at that time, and employers did so openly. Under this social climate, gays and lesbians maintained an extremely low profile in Hong Kong and were decidedly apolitical. In the words of one commentator, "[t]he homosexual minority is, on the whole, respectable, conformist in most things, and strongly pro- Establishment. Given the state of the law in the Colony, this is perfectly understandable." In early 1997, only months before the transfer of sovereignty to the PRC, the atmosphere has significantly changed. Hong Kong now has a Bill of Rights that expressly grants individuals a right to privacy. As a result, the legislature has decriminalized most male homosexual conduct, and a small gay and lesbian rights movement has emerged.  ... These changes, which occurred during the thirteen-year transition period leading to Hong Kong's return to the PRC, stem largely from increased public demand for legal protection of human rights, democracy, and equality. This period of liberalization may, however, eventually be remembered only as a brief interval in Hong Kong's history. When the PRC regains sovereignty over Hong Kong, the gay and lesbian rights movement may falter, subjecting its proponents not only to inequality, but also to persecution. Part II of this Article describes the laws against homosexual conduct prior to the transition period and analyzes the reasons that attempts to liberalize the law initially failed. Part III discusses the introduction of the Hong Kong Bill of Rights and demonstrates how it led to the decriminalization of homosexual conduct in 1991. Part IV analyzes the ongoing campaign to enact a law prohibiting discrimination on the ground of sexuality. Part V critiques the recent public consultation exercise on sexuality discrimination. Finally, Part VI briefly considers prospects for the gay and lesbian rights movement after 1997...

Tang, Tse-shang Denise (2008). Conditional spaces and infinite possibilities : Hong Kong lesbians and urban spatialities. PhD Dissertation, Sociology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. PDF Download. Lesbian commercial spaces function as temporal sites of resistance for Hong Kong lesbians to validate their lesbian identities, to form social networks and to question their political subjectivities. Others might choose to reject the notion of lesbian spaces and instead assert their lesbian visibility along the line of everyday life, thereby disturbing the notion of heteronormativity within social worlds. They might have chosen to be who they are no matter where they are, albeit in spaces of intimacy, familial and acquaintance. Based on life history interviews with 30 lesbians living in Hong Kong, I attempt to map the complex relations between lesbian subjectivities and spatialities as they emerge, develop, interact and negotiate with each other in their everyday lives. Drawing on theories encompassing urban sociology, feminism, queer theory and cultural studies, I propose to understand Hong Kong lesbian culture through an analysis of spaces, in their multiplicities and ambiguous codings, in their formulas of resistance, and in their everyday affect on Hong Kong lesbians.

Kong, Travis SK (2009). More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry. Deviant Behavior, 30(8): 715-745. Abstract. PDF Download. Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these men employ are simultaneously gender strategies they use to accomplish masculinity. It is through this process that they negotiate a masculine identity within the hierarchy of masculinities in order to become “respectable” and “responsible” Chinese men. - HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong (2012): Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively.

Li, Cheuk Yin (2012). The absence of fan activism in the queer fandom of Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC) in Hong Kong. Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. Full Text. The queer fandom of female Hong Kong pop singer Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC) from 2009 to mid-2011 is dealt with through the qualitative methodology of in-depth interviews and media ethnography. HOCC, an idiosyncratic cultural producer who dabbles in the politics of ambiguity, creates texts that invite queer interpretations from fans and from queer activists in Hong Kong. Via analyses informed by both queer studies and audience studies, the various creative practices of fans in reshaping their sexual identities via popular culture are explored. These practices are highly political and empowering to a queer audience. However, the intensive rewriting of meanings as queer symbolic creativity and tactics in cultural politics fail to transform into formal institutional politics and more confrontational queer activism. This is so for several reasons. Internally, the hierarchical structure of fan organization, fan proximity to the culture industry, and the top-down encouragement of social charity as the only channel of activism have all reduced the possibility of transforming fans' queer sensibilities into institutional queer politics. Furthermore, Hong Kong, under the influence of three major discourses that seek to discipline and regulate sexualities - traditional Chinese ethics, the British colonial legacy, and the postcolonial revival of rightist Christianity - has a long social history of heterosexist discrimination and a preference for normalizing when striving for queer citizenship. This empirical study examines relations between cultural specificity and fan agency in a non-Western context.

Li, Cheuk-Yin (2011). Queering Urban Popculture: Exploring Tactics in the Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC) Fandom in Hong Kong. In: Hidden Cities: Understanding Urban Popcultures - 2011 - edited by Leonard R. Koos. PDF Download. This paper explores the queer subculture of fandom of a female pop-singer Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC) in Hong Kong from late-2008 to mid-2010. Being one of the best-selling singers in current Hong Kong, HOCC is an idiosyncratic cultural producer whose polysemic star texts, including songs about sexual minorities, androgynous images and ambivalent sexuality in tabloids provide space for fans to queer popculture through everyday interpretation, negotiation and production. Based on thirteen semi-structured in-depth interviews with fans recruited from the HOCC International Fans Club and critical engagement with fans for 2 years, this study unfolds the underground queering of popculture situated in the schizophrenic sex culture in Hong Kong which is resulted from a hybrid of residue Chinese values, British colonial legacies and the revived religious right.

Kong, Travis SK (2002). The Seduction of the Golden Boy: The Body Politics of Hong Kong Gay Men. Body & Society 8 (1): 29-48. PDF Download. Download Page. This article seeks to investigate the self-identity of Hong Kong gay men under the constellation of the global culture in two different ‘sites of desire’, namely Hong Kong and London. In order to study the notion of self-identity and its related concepts of body and masculinity, I have mainly drawn upon literature from deconstructionism (Derrida, 1981; Foucault, 1970; Hall, 1996a, 1996b), queer theory (Butler, 1990; Fuss, 1991; Sedgwick, 1990; Warner, 1993) and postcolonial writings (Fanon, 1970; Manderson and Jolly, 1997; Said, 1978; Stoler, 1995). For me, every identity has a history, and one’s identity cannot be separated from one’s racial, sexual, national or class positions, one’s age, and even one’s physical fitness. ‘Gay’ or ‘lesbian’ as identities cannot be considered apart from these other ‘identity components’ (Seidman, 1996); there is no separate, independent ‘gay’ or ‘lesbian’ experience that can be marked off. There are no general categories of ‘gay’ or ‘lesbian’, only gay men and lesbians who simultaneously occupy particular positions of race, class, sex, gender, age group, physical embodiment, national social positions, etc. (Mouffe, 1995). We, or our identities, thus embody,1 through various forms and meanings, a vast and rambling multiple positioning and re-positioning of the self... I think we should acknowledge Hong Kong gay embodied identities as a ‘silent’ resistance to sexual norms, but the problem of how to reconcile postcolonial identities within a family institution remains an important issue for most Chinese gay men. A new gay politics which, on the one hand, is sensitive to the continuing existence of Chinese culture and traditions and, on the other hand, is aware of the universal rhetoric and styles involved in the global tendency of ‘Euro-Americanization’ of gay identities, should be sought. Moreover, Western gay men are always the ‘origins’ by which the whole universe of ‘gayness’ is defined. Postcolonial gay men, say Hong Kong gay men who are living in Western countries, should be understood in their own right. A constant critique of the intertwining relationship between the hierarchy of different gay identities should be made.

Films / The Arts

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Hong Kong). - Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival. - GLBTQ: Hong Kong Film. - HK Queer Film/Video Festival 98. - Hong Kong Gay and Lesbian Film/video Festival (2003). - Who's the Woman, Who's the Man? He's a Woman, She's a Man (1997): Hong Kong's gender-benders are the stuff of legend; director Patrick Chan adds two key works to the canon in these 1996 bookend satires of fame, pop music, and forbidden kisses. - Who's the Man, Who's the Woman (金枝玉葉II) (1996, YouTube, Part 1 of 11).  - Sexuality in Chinese Film series (1998). - 2004 Pride International Film Festival - Night Corridor. - HK to host Asia's largest lesbian & gay film fest (2005). - Cut sleeve boys to premiere in asia at the bangkok international film festival (2006). - Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival 2007 (Video, YouTube). - Transgender Casting in the Hong Kong film world: There has been quite a number of women playing male or gender-ambiguous characters in Hong Kong movies. The same-sex dynamics and identity confusion so common in Hong Kong film are rarely seen in Western movies, at least not in the same context. - A Chinese gay boy`s love story "Tightrope Walker": a short film filmed by the students of the university of Hong Kong (2009, YouTube). - Different Love Stories: Hong Kong films take gay life beyond camp (1997).

20th Hong Kong gay film festival kicks off Nov 20 (2009). - The best of Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival 2009. - Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival (2010): The British Council is committed to equal opportunity and diversity. This year, with a focus on sexual identity, we are supporting Asia’s largest Lesbian and Gay Film Festival by bringing five outstanding UK productions to be screened in Hong Kong. These include the closing film FIT, coming to Hong Kong along with a sharing session by its director Rikki Beadle-Blair part of the UK queer cinema establishment.  Further highlights among the UK movies are The Secret Diaries of Miss Anne Lister, a new production based on a nineteenth Century lesbian story as well as other classic UK queer films that you won’t want to miss such as Nighthawks, My Beautiful Laundrette and Prick Up Your Ears.. - Asian showcase at the Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival (2011). - Hong Kong Lesbian and Gay Film Festival Trailer 2011. - Hong Kong film festival sheds light on gay Asia (2011): Two weeks after Malaysian police effectively outlawed an annual gay rights event, HKLGFF organiser Joe Lam said Malaysia's first 'queer film', entitled In the Bottle, would be one of the festival's highlights. Vietnam's first gay film, Lost in Paradise, and Thailand's first lesbian film, Yes Or No, were chosen to open the event as a way of showcasing the work of little-known Asian filmmakers, he said.  - Lan Yu: a gay-themed Hong Kong-Chinese film by Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan in 2001 (YouTube: Part 1 of 9). - End Of Love (2009).

Amphetamine (Film, Wikipedia): A 2010 Hong Kong film starring Byron Pang and Thomas Price. It revolves around the story of a Chinese fitness trainer, Kafka, who meets Daniel, a business executive. The film is directed by acclaimed Hong Kong Chinese film-maker Scud, the stage name of Danny Cheng Wan-Cheung. It was nominated for a Teddy Award at the Berlin International Film Festival of 2010. It explores several themes traditionally regarded as 'taboo' in Hong Kong society in an unusually open, convention-defying way, and is one of four such films by Scud. The three others are: City Without Baseball, released in 2008, Permanent Residence in 2009, and his most recent, Love Actually... Sucks!, in 2011.

Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong (2000): Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality... Paper also publihed in the book, Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade - 2000 - edited by Andrew Grossman (Google Books).

Leung, Helen Hok-sze (2005). Unsung Heroes: Reading Transgender Subjectivities in Hong Kong Cinema. PDF Download. In:  Masculinities and Hong Kong cinema - 2005 - edited by Laikwan Pang & Day Wong (Google Books) (Amazon).

Ho, Jason (2007). A Queer (Re)evaluation: Stanley Kwan and The Island Tales. Cultural Studies Montly. Full Text. When Hong Kong gay director Stanley Kwan’s Hold You Tight (Yue kuaile, yue duoluo, 1997) was shown various gay film festivals, it was heavily criticized as lacking some ‘authentic’ gay essences. For instance, when it was taken to the Berlin Film Festival, it was condemned as “not gay enough.” While Lan Yu (2001) is better received (especially by homosexuals), we can come to grasp the idea that even though Kwan’s recent works are supposed to be queer ones, there is a lot more to say about politics and the society. This may be intentional or unintentional, and is up to the free interpretations among different critics. After all, the filmmaking industry is not politically free. And bits and pieces of political voices, be it for or against the dominant ideology, will be delivered by many filmic works. The use of gay figures and sexually undetermined protagonists is exceptionally effective in telling politics - perhaps not ‘real’ politics in terms of political science but the many changes and struggles one experiences in the midst of dominating heterosexual ideology. This essay tries to offer a new angle, a queer perspective facilitated by the coming-out of the filmmaker in 1996 to look at these issues differently, particularly on the politics of identity: we are then able to see how the director’s personal identity as an alienated homosexual is represented on screen... In his previous works, Stanley Kwan used to employ women as icons of the victimized, to symbolize the fragile identities of Hong Kong people. After his coming-out, by means of homosexual characters, this sense of vulnerability is furthermore amplified. This is why we witness traces of political incidents in both Hold You Tight (the handover of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to China in 1997) and Lan Yu (the June Fourth incident), which were equally influential to Hong Kong, its society, and its people. Indeed, Kwan has close ties with the Hong Kong society as well as the film industry: the legalization of homosexual intercourses in 1991 plus the growing recognition of homosexuals echo with his coming-out; he belongs to the second-wave of Hong Kong directors and has witnessed the growth, development, and decline of Hong Kong’s film industry. He also came out around the handover, politicizing his personal proclamation, with his autobiographical documentaries Yang ± Yin: Gender in Chinese Cinema and Still Love You After All These (Nianni ruxi, 1997) channeling his sentiments of coming-out vis-à-vis the political atmosphere of Hong Kong at that time. The filmmaker has gone through ups and downs in his career. While Rouge (Yan zhikou, 1987) and Centre Stage (Ruan lingyu, 1991) have become the classical masterpieces among Stanley Kwan’s works, similar to many directors’ oeuvres, there are always other texts that have been left out from worthwhile discussions. I do not mean at all that the two abovementioned are overrated, as their success has been proven by film festivals worldwide, and their status as classics of Hong Kong art cinema cannot be overemphasized...

A Queer Argument (2008): His second film spurs Simon Chung to talk about prejudice and what it means to make a gay film... You don’t need to be French to enjoy a French film, so you don’t need to be gay to enjoy a gay movie – right? The logic might be sound but unfortunately it doesn’t do much for the perception that anything gay is for gays only. Independent filmmaker Simon Chung should know. His second full-length feature, The End of Love, which is screening in the Lesbian and Gay Film Festival 2008, has been predominantly marketed at the gay community, even though he didn’t intend it to be so. As one of the founding members of the independent film organization Ying E Chi, Chung has been making independent short films since 1996. His earlier works, Life is Elsewhere (1996), Stanley Beloved (1997) and First Love & Other Pains (1999) are mainly explorations of homosexuality among coming-of-age Chinese youth. Following his full-length debut Innocent (2005), which focused on the cultural shock experienced by a 17-old-year Chinese gay teen in Toronto, The End of Love touches on two other sensitive issues in Hong Kong’s gay community: drugs and prostitution... So, how do we define a film as gay? Is a movie in which two same-sex characters make out a ‘gay film’? From a filmmaker’s point of view, Chung believes the genre is about sensibility: “It is a way to see the world,” he says. He is particular impressed by the work of American director Todd Haynes – most notably Far From Heaven – and Alan Ball’s American Beauty. “They are about the heterosexual world but the attitude is gay – for example, their criticisms on marriage. That you grow up in a straight world and you see the hypocrisy in the straight world. It is more than men having sex with men.” .. “People often think if a film has a gay character then it is for gay people. You cannot do anything about it, especially with straight guys – they won’t come to a film like that,” he says. Brokeback Mountain, however, was a watershed that bears out Chung’s point: “Ang Lee demonstrates that with a good script, good cast and good marketing, people don’t mind watching a gay film at all.” ... And if one wants to talk about the change in local queer cinema in the last two decades, Chung thinks there is nothing to discuss. “There are too few gay films. People are still comparing [films to] Wong Kai Wai’s [Happy Together (1997)] and Stanley Kwan’s [Lan Yu (2001), Hold You Tight (1997)] and say there is progression. But there is actually nothing after those.”

Director talks about gay culture in Hong Kong (2007): When Lam returned to Asia from Europe in the mid-1990s, he hit the theater scene with a number of productions that explored issues of sexual identity. In 1996, he used the word tongzhi (同志) — a term coined by Sun Yat-sen (孫逸仙) meaning 'comrade' — to refer to gays in Taiwan with the aim of fostering awareness of homosexual issues and solidarity. The issue of sexuality led him into a broader investigation of heterosexuality and its influence on the gay world. "It was in '97 I had the feeling that I should not keep on doing gay-oriented theater because all the sufferings that the gays are sharing are based on [the ideology] of [heterosexuals]," he said. "Gay men are looking for men who are strong, who are masculine, who are wealthy, who are powerful. They are still looking for something very hetero in their lives."... There seems to be a parallel between sexual identity and Hong Kong. When I mentioned how people in Hong Kong must have experienced a crisis of identity back in the nineties before the British returned the territory to Hong Kong, Lam redirected my observation by pointing out how citizens of Hong Kong don't have a framework within which to think about themselves as individuals. "When you grow up in a place like Hong Kong you just don't think identity could become something like a crisis. You are not brought up [with] any sort of education to tell you that you have to think about who you are, you have to question yourself and the relationship between you and history. We simply don't have that concept of "what is history," so if you don't have that concept, how would you have the concept of who you are? You've got to have the idea of the bigger environment and then you try to find your position." The absence of this kind of reflection of history — where we are intimately tied up with its unfolding — is what he hopes audiences in Taiwan will think about when watching What Is Man? ...

Let's Love Hong Kong (2002) Ho yuk (original title). - Ho Yuk: Let's Love Hong Kong: It is very rare for a film to resonate within me as much as Hong Kong independent filmmaker Yau Ching's Ho Yuk: Let's Love Hong Kong (Chinese title: Hao yu).[3] Set in Hong Kong and a not-so-distant future, the film is often referred to as the first feature-length experimental film to depict lesbian desires in Hong Kong. There have been other Hong Kong productions such as Wong Kar Wai's Happy Together (1997), and Stanley Kwan's Lan Yu (2001) along with more recent ones like Yan Yan Mak's Butterfly (2004) and Simon Chung's Innocent (2005) that contain representations of queer desires.[4] But what makes Ho Yuk: Let's Love Hong Kong somewhat different from these productions is its depiction of lesbian desires and their contentious relations with the city of Hong Kong itself. Chan Kwok Chan (played by Wong Chung Ching), Zero (Erica Lam) and Nicole (Colette Koo), as the female protagonists of the film, are intimately connected and disconnected in their social relations and erotic matters. In this essay, I bring together notions of lesbian intimacies, disappearing city spaces and mobile bodies as depicted on the film through its narrative and cinematography... - Floating City, Floating Selves: Let's Love Hong Kong (2003, PDF Download): "As its English title suggests, Yau Ching's Let's Love Hong Kong entwines questions about sexuality and place. Its story concerns a group of young Hong Kong lesbians and their relationships with each other and the city they live in, but the film also raises broader issues about location and dislocation, homeliness and unhomeliness, and about the sexual subjectivities produced by a city culture marked by a volatile sense of inbetweenness and displacement..."

"Marc Siegel in “The Intimate Spaces of Wong Kar-Wai” (Page 1 of Book Review) analyzes Hong Kong cinema’s politics of representation from a gendered context; his essay deals with the interconnections of global, gay/queer and sexualized identities in the context of the film Happy Together, which garnered Wong Kar-Wai the Cannes 1997 Best Director Award... At Full Speed is a provocative, stimulating volume. Positioned at the crossroads of an altered global terrain, this anthology analyzes the evolving issues of the social and cultural context of 90s Hong Kong cinema, reconsiders the concept of "local" identity in a new global framework, and examines the dynamics between the intercultural movement of images..." (Book Review (2002): At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in the Borderless World (2001).

The Queer Cosmopolitics of Hong Kong Cinema (Helen Hok-Sze Leung, Simon Fraser University) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "This paper considers queer representations as a form of ‘cosmopolitics’, which Bruce Robbins elaborates as ‘a domain of contested politics’ in which cosmopolitanism is not opposed to, but negotiated within and beyond, the nation. In Hong Kong, homophobic resistance against the decriminalization of sodomy during the 1980s was expressed as anti-colonial patriotism. In response, activist Samshasha penned A History of Chinese Homosexuality, writing as ‘an angry Chinese’ tracing a queer past that has been eclipsed by colonial Christian values. Yet, in 1997 when Hong Kong was ‘returned’ to China, Samshasha refocuses his critique on the ‘implicit homophobia’ of Chinese culture while exploring queerness as a cosmopolitan ideal. When the configuration between nation, state, and power shifts, so does the dynamics of queer politics. The recent rise in independent filmmaking in Hong Kong has fueled a renewed interest in exploring queer themes in relation to issues of nation, identity and belonging. This paper explores the queer erotics of Island Tales (2000), Maps Of Sex And Love (2001) and Ho Yuk: Let’s Love Hong Kong (2003) as an intricate expression of love for Hong Kong. In the films, queer relationships are played out in the cosmopolitan experience of diaspora and incessant transnational movement, and in a postcolonial city’s struggle for autonomy that is at every turn challenged by a nationalist demand for its patriotism. The paper analyzes the films‚ cosmopolitics whereby queer sex, bodies, and relationships become emblematic of the trauma, contradictions, and possibilities of life in postcolonial Hong Kong."

Stringer, Julian (1997). Centre-Stage: Reconstructing the Biopic. cineACTION, 42. Reference. Full Text. As Hong Kong prepares to become a special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, the city's filmmakers struggle to define and preserve its cultural identity. In the run-up to 1997, this historical project has tended to focus around two areas of concern, namely the search to establish forms of localized subjectivity and the desire to explore issues of space and mobility. Ackbar Abbas, who has written one of the best general accounts of contemporary Hong Kong cinema, (1) claims that such concerns are "exemplified most outstandingly" (68) in Stanley Kwan's Rouge (1987) and Centre Stage (a.k.a. Ruan Lingyu, or Actress, 1991). As well as offering unique conceptualizations of space and subjectivity, these two titles have done much to secure Kwan's reputation as one of the true auteurs of Hong Kong cinema... My reading of how Centre Stage breaks the generic constraints of the bio-pic is premised upon a rudimentary analysis of its high style. In virtually every scene, Kwan's aesthetic impulse favors opulent production design over humdrum realism, which can be seen as one strategy for preserving the memory of Hong Kong: as the city disappears from view, its cinematic afterimage shines through the dark. Center Stage is the fifth of Stanley Kwan's six feature films to date, and in line with most of his other work it embodies a distinctly melodramatic imagination (it is telling that he is most often compared to another gay director of "women's pictures", George Cukor). However, unlike three of his earlier titles--the generally neglected Women (1985), Love Unto Waste (1986), and Full Moon in New York (1990)--Centre Stage has succeeded in restoring high style to the prominent position it used to occupy on the international film festival circuit.

Happy Together (1997 Film, Wikipedia). - Wong Kar-wai Exclusive Interview (1997): Two lovers embrace one another and make love. Just moments later, one abandons the other on the roadside. So begins the trajectory of "Happy Together", the latest film by director Wong Kar-wai. It is a road fraught with loss, sadness, and the misplaced expectations of not just the two characters of the film, but the film itself, which explores these elements to find things not quite as they are expected to be. The image of Argentina, where the film takes place, of homosexuality (the two lovers are male), are just two of these elements. We talked to Wong Kar-wai about his film and about misplaced expectations. . - Hong Kong director dissects gay breakup (1997): It's hard to decide whether Wong Kar-Wai is great or just momentarily fashionable. His films are confidently made, to the point of being cocky, yet it's their very bravado that makes them suspicious. Part of the dilemma is that Western moviegoers are extremely plot-dependent, and Wong is a filmmaker who has absolutely no use for narrative cinema as we know it, so adjustments have to be made. One thing is clear, and that is with Wong there are no half measures, only contradictory ones. His latest film, "Happy Together," is about a gay couple, but never mentions homosexuality. It is seemingly plotless, yet there is a definite linear progression. It is an art film in color and black-and-white, with adventurous and often jarring editing, but it's as accessible as any paint-by-the-numbers action film. Wong won the award for best director at the Cannes Film Festival in May, a major coup not only for the filmmaker but also for a struggling Hong Kong film industry...

"To Love, Honor, and Dismay": Subverting the Feminine in Ang Lee's Trilogy of Resuscitated Patriarchs (1995): This paper is divided into three major sections: "Dismaying," "Honoring," and "Loving." In the first section, I situate heterogeneous audiences' reception of this trilogy in the U.S. by briefly rehearsing mainstream press coverage of the films and identifying the filmmakers' comments regarding the making of the films as part of a critique of the mainstream U.S. film industry. As such, I take inspiration from Janet Staiger's work in outlining "a contextual and materialist approach to the study of historical [film] spectators and [their] interpretative strategies" (Staiger xi), a kind of "reception studies... [which] seeks to understand textual interpretations as they are produced" by particular audiences (Staiger 9). In "Honoring," I test the porosity of feminist and queer-friendly2 readings invited by Lee's trilogy in the interests of establishing a feminist-antihomophobic inquiry. Reasserting the patriarch as the privileged point of identification in Lee's most ambitious film of the trilogy, I argue, raises questions regarding the expectation of "visual pleasure" derived from filmgoing by gendered and sexualized Asian American audience members. And finally, in "Loving," new investigations into these differentiated subject positions demand a closer examination of queer valorizations of Banquet, from which I provide revised articulations of hegemonic heterosexism structuring Asian American gender and sexuality. By working through likely queer and feminist readings of Lee's trilogy, I account for variations within an Asian American cinematic social audience, members of which elect, on some level, to enter into the subject positions of the film's gendered address (Staiger 49)-and, not all of whom, surprisingly, are "resisting readers" of the trilogy's strategy of privileging patriarchal identification...   

Resources: Conferences / Universities / Books / Internet

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to Hong Kong: - Survey on Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation for Women in Hong Kong (Connie Man Wai Chan, Women’s Coalition of HKSAR). - On the Edge of Culture: Sex and Sexualities in Taiwan and Hong Kong Science Fiction (Kit Sze Amy Chan, Hong Kong Shue Yan College). - Half Full or Half Empty? Legal Status and Activism of the Transgender Community in Hong Kong (Robyn Emerton, University of Hong Kong). - Theatrics of Cruising: Bath Houses and Movie Houses in Tsai Ming-liang’s Films (Guo-Juin Hong, Duke University). - Public Perceptions of Transgender in Hong Kong: Social, Psychological, and Emotional Sources of Biases (Mark King, University of Hong Kong). - Power and Subjectivity Beyond the Blurring of Boundaries: Experiences in Cyberspace and Daily Life of Lesbians in Hong Kong (Lap Man Law, Chinese University HK). - The Queer Cosmopolitics of Hong Kong Cinema (Helen Hok-Sze Leung, Simon Fraser University).  - Sexing the Cinematic Space: Films from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (Sean Metzger, Duke University). - Beyond Identity Politics: The Making of an Oral History of Hong Kong Women Who Have Same-sex Desires (Day Wong, National University of Singapore).   

Asian Homosexuality - 1992 - edited by Wayne R. Dynes and Stephen Donaldson (Table of Contents). Contains: "Lesbianism in the Chinese of Hong Kong," 99-108. - Lesbian Identity Development, Parental Acceptance, and Self Esteem among Hong Kong Lesbians - 2002 - by Fiona Ho Man Lam, Catherine McBride-Chang: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Word 97 Download N/A). - IGLHRC Book Hong Kong (2003, PDF Download). - GLB Hong Kong -> Publications. - Hong Kong Connection: Tongzhi in Schools (2000, Video, Cantonese). - Tongzhi Literary Group: The Tongzhi Literary Group (TLG) aims to foster local tongzhi writing by introducing writers to a wider public and by helping them with publishing issues and translation. The Tongzhi Literary Group (TLG) was born in March 2008 following two sessions on LGBT literature held by the Man Hong Kong International Literary Festival at the Fringe Club... This event encouraged the participants to set up a literary group to continue their association and to foster tongzhi literature in Hong Kong.

Books: Undercurrents: Queer Culture and Postcolonial Hong Kong - 2008 - by Helen Hok-sze Leung (Google Books) Introduction & Chapter 1: PDF Download. (Review): Leung explores Hong Kong cultural productions cinema, fiction, popular music and subcultural projects and argues that while there is no overt consolidation of gay and lesbian identities in Hong Kong culture, undercurrents of diverse and complex expressions of gender and sexual variance are widely in evidence. Undercurrents uncovers a queer media culture that has been largely overlooked by critics in the West, and demonstrates the cultural vitality of Hong Kong amidst political transition. - Homo undercurrents in Hong Kong culture (2009): Hok-Sze Leung set out to examine Hong Kong’s gay and lesbian cinema, only to find that what she was looking for didn’t exist. “I discovered that I couldn’t find the kind of expected images that I was used to,” she admits. Undeterred, Leung soon came to recognize what she calls “queer undercurrents” running through Hong Kong’s film, new media, and cultural traditions. The resulting book, Undercurrents: Queer Culture and Postcolonial Hong Kong, is an engaging and thoroughly queer academic project. - Review: Connected with the grounding of this book in these local commentaries, is Leung’s rejection of the ‘belief in the universality and linear progression of gay and lesbian liberation’ assumed to follow a western trajectory (p. 1). She says early on in her study she ‘abandoned “gay and lesbian” as a rubric’ and ‘became fascinated by everything that did not “fit” into the project before: all the representations that seemed too closeted, too ambiguous, or too understated now appeared to me in all their nuance and complexity’ (p. 1). She sees this nuance and complexity as profoundly challenging to sex and gender orders, rather than inadequate or undeveloped. Leung draws on Peter Jackson’s formulation of “pre-gay, post-queer”: ‘By “pregay” Jackson means ways of understanding gender and sexual practices in many Asian societies that predate the advent of gay and lesbian politics in the West and that remain irreducible to its terms and trajectories. These notions are also ‘post-queer’ in the sense that they exceed, escape, or at the very least confound Anglo-American understanding of sexual identity, sexual orientation and gender difference’ (p. 66). This formulation disrupts the linear understanding of gay and lesbian liberation which Leung finds so colonialist and constraining, and suggests that the Hong Kong cultures she describes may go even further than queer frameworks in illuminating possibilities for non-conforming sexual practice and meanings... - Tracking the history of queer cinema: But Professor Helen Leung offers an explanation for this with her definitive study on queer-Kong, entitled Undercurrents: Queer Culture in Post Colonial Hong Kong. In it, she makes a very clear parallel between the queer experience and what was stirring in the public’s mind in the years prior to the handover. Darker, more brooding entries, like mainland China’s Behind the Forbidden City (1996), use bleak love stories of a disenfranchised population to show how messed up the lives of the straights were at the time. While on the other hand, queer characters in mainstream Hong Kong cinema were pigeonholed as victims, villains, whores or sissies. These are stereotypes that have been prevalent in fluff movies since the 80s and still persist today. From Simon Luoi in The Sting (1992) to Eason Chan in Lavender (2000), ‘it was all good exposure’, which led the way to a new era in queer cinema, according to Professor Leung.  “Healthy, more positive characters are seeping into these movies,” she says. “It’s working on many levels… it is helping Hong Kong come to terms with their fears and it is creating the groundwork for a Hong Kong queer identity – not one that is defined by Western ideals.” Another critic, Professor Travis Kong from the University of Hong Kong, takes a different perspective. As a specialist on gender identity and queer theory, Professor Kong is concerned about LGBT characters becoming increasingly exposed in the media, commoditised and ‘absorbed into straight culture’, which would ultimately render subversive resistance in a civil rights movement ‘to mere consumption’...

Leung, Helen Hok-Sze (2007). Let's Love Hong Kong: A Queer Look at Cosmopatriotism. In: Cosmopatriots: On Distant Belongings and Close Encounters - 2007 - edited by Edwin Jurriens, Jeroen De Kloet (Google Books) (Contents) (Introduction). Abstract: This chapter draws on an analysis of three queer Hong Kong films: Island tales, Maps of Sex and Love and Ho-Yuk: Let's Love Hong Kong. They all represent an ambiguous yet strong love for the postcolonial city that cannot be reduced to Chinese patriotism, given their focus on cosmopolitan queer subjects and the underlying yet pervasive trope of the everyday and the mundane. In the context of dramatic and unstable political, economic and social upheavals that continue to haunt Hong Kong, the love for Hong Kong cannot be reduced to patriotism. At the same time, the cosmopolitan aspirations of the city produce rather than reduce social insecurity. The films studied in this chapter respond to the crisis, not by attempting to harmonize contradictions, but, instead, they explore more radical, creative and queer ways of living with each other. The terrain of erotic desire, as explored in the films, offers space for expressions of "rooted cosmopolitanism." Note: Reproduced (with editing) as part of the first chapter in another book: Leung, Helen Hok-Sze (2008). Undercurrents: Queer Culture and Postcolonial Hong Kong - 2008 - by Helen Hok-sze Leung (Google Books) (Review). "An earlier draft of one section in Chapter 1 appeared as “Let's Love Hong Kong: A Queer Look at Cosmopatriotism,” in Cosmopatriots: On Distant Longings and Close Encounters," ed. Jeroen de Kloet and Edward Jurriens (Amsterdam: Rodopt, 2007), 21-40." Introduction & Chapter 1: PDF Download. - Red Is Not The Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction On Love & Sex Between Women, Collected Stories - 2001 - edited by Patricia Sieber (Google Books) (Review).

'The Gay We Were': Two Hong Kong authors launch their books and a queer culture fest (2009):’s Hong Kong correspondent Nigel Collett meets authors Brian Leung Siu Fai and yezhiwei to discuss their new books and their project to foster queer culture in Hong Kong... I met up with Brian and yezhiwei at FINDS restaurant in Lan Kwai Fong to ask them about their books and their ground breaking cultural series. Brian told me first about his book, Straightly Gay, which is a collection of the opening monologues from the RTHK shows he’s presented over the last three years...  Yezhiwei is undoubtedly the gay novelist of Hong Kong’s current generation. He’s been writing novels in Chinese since 2000 and published his first gay novel, Suddenly Single, in 2003. His early promise led to his being taken on by Kubrick as their first contract writer and they’ve published seven of his novels... he novels yezhiwei has written so far are not all about love, though that figures pretty heavily throughout, but encompass every aspect of gay relationships in the wider network of what he has labelled the ‘friendmily’, the larger circle of friends who sustain a gay man throughout his life. The books are a unique record of the evolution of his ideas on the subject, a progression still far from over. He’s even looking at writing a novel on gay marriage, an institution he’s far from convinced about... After the success of their first queer cultural session, both authors are now sold on the idea of further gatherings, not so much to publicise their books (they’re a bit shy about doing that) but to help expand local gay culture. They hope to begin to emulate Taiwan’s much more massive gay literary output by encouraging new authors to take up their pens. Starbucks, too, is keen to extend the series and it looks like it may be possible to expand to other branches. There’s talk of a monthly event, but in truth both are so heavily engaged that without help that would become a burden.

Books: Conditional Spaces: Hong Kong Lesbian Desires and Everyday Life - 2011 - by Denise Tse-Shang Tang (Google Books) (Review). Abstract: Dense living conditions in Hong Kong do not provide much privacy for lesbians and other sexual minorities living with their families. As a result, lesbians often locate alternative spaces to develop support networks with other women. Others reject the notion of lesbian spaces and instead assert their visibility in different aspects of everyday life. Based on life history interviews with several dozen lesbians living in Hong Kong, this book maps the complex relations between personal subjectivities and spatialities as they emerge and interact with various social justice movements and alternative communities. - The space between us all (2012): Conditional Spaces is the newest publication in the Queer Asia series, which started in 2008 from HKU Press. The series is a first of its kind and provides a platform for university academics to publish their findings on queer culture in Asia. While queer theory originated in, and has typically been dominated by North America and Europe, Tang and her fellow authors prove that the queer cultures and practices in Asia are equally of interest. The Queer Asia series has opened a serious door into investigation of not only a particular sexuality but also a particular ethnographic group. Denise Tang is hopeful the series will promote Asia as a valuable place for queer study. “It’s so hard to find a series so dedicated not only to queer study, but to Asia. I think academically… the trend is like in business – you can see a lot more interest now in Asia than before.”

Books: Gay Specificity in Hong-Kong - 2010 - by Lau Hoi-Leung. Lau Hoi-leung: Introduction to Gay Specificity in Hong Kong: In this book, Mr. Lau Hoi-leung presents a pioneering ethnographic study on how the roles and perceptions of gay men are constructed in Hong Kong. Through his participant-observation, Lau discovers the mechanisms in which sissy gay men experience “double marginalization” in the Hong Kong society in general and in the gay community in particular. By reading this ethnographic work, readers can understand the internal dynamics and interactions of the present Hong Kong gay community, which is fundamental to explore the possibility in the creation of a discrimination-free social environment. To seek for a Pluralistic and Discrimination-free Society. (This book is based on a thesis submitted to Tha Chinese University of Hong Kong for the author’s research master degree in Sociology in 2004)... This research is a study on the specific culture of the gay community in Hong Kong.  Mainstream academic research on Hong Kong gay community has mostly focused on the construction and formation of gay identity and gay culture especially under the postcolonial context of Hong Kong (Ho 1995; Zhou 1997; Chou 2000; Jones 2000; Ho and Tsang 2000; Kong 2002).  By adopting narrative analysis of the life histories of gay men, the research focus has been placed upon their self-recognition of gay identity, closet practices[3], coming out process, and sexual and intimate relationship (Zhou, Mai and Jiang 1995; Zhou 1996).  In response to such mainstream agenda, this study purposes to fruitfully explore two relatively neglected empirical phenomena[4] concerning Hong Kong gay community.  By using a qualitative research method, I would like to pinpoint the specific culture generating from these two under-explored phenomena among Hong Kong gay community, which I would conceptualize as “gay specificity”.  It is hoped that this may contribute to the paradigm shift in the study of homosexuality or other non-normative sexualities in Hong Kong sociological discourses, i.e. what and how sexual nonconformists actually do with their own bodies and desires. - As Normal As Possible: Negotiating Sexuality and Gender in Mainland China and Hong Kong - 2010 - edited by Yau Ching  (Google Books) (Contents) (Review).

Chopsticks: Hong Kong’s first lesbian-themed musical (2012): Inspired by the '70s hit Hong Kong girl band duo Chopsticks Sisters, Perry Chiu Experimental Theatre presents Chopsticks, the first lesbian-themed musical in Hong Kong. Fridae's reporter Tony Ed Lo talks to the show's producer, director and one of its leads, Perry Chiu about how the sisters' relationship evolves from friendship to love via music... Can you tell me more about the musical? Chiu: During the ‘60s and ‘70s, relationships between two girls were not accepted. Not to mention, of course, that it is still difficult now. So the story is about how the two overcome their adverse circumstances while being in the limelight as growing superstars. For instance, there is a scene where the Chopsticks are caught kissing in public by the paparazzi. Afterwards they get reprimanded by their manager, who tells them how disgusting they are, how the public will despise them and how behaving like that will destroy their careers. So they have to control their feeling for each other and cannot truly express themselves...

The life of a lesbian in Hong Kong (2012): We interview the author of Come and Go, a novel about the lesbian scene in Hong Kong. Come and Go, released this month, follows Lee Harlem Robinson through a promiscuous couple of months after heartbreak in Hong Kong, presenting an image of an alcohol-dependent and incestuous gay scene there. Gay Star News interviews the author Hannelore Arbyn, who says the book is definitely not autobiographical and explains why she is glad she was already married before moving to Hong Kong... Yes the blog is completely fictional, as is the book. The places are real, but the characters are fictional. - A Chinese gay boy`s love story "Tightrope Walker": a short film filmed by the students of the university of Hong Kong (2009, YouTube, Alternate Link).

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Hong Kong: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS

Resource Links: Gay Hong Kong. - Gay Hong Kong. - LGBT Hong Kong. - Gay Hong Kong: DS Magazine.- Utopia's Resources on China and Hong Kong. - GLB Hong Kong: Gay and Lesbian Organizations. - Gay and Lesbian Hong Kong HKQueer News : Articles and Press Releases. - Grey Gay Guide - Hong Kong. - Selected News relating to HK Gays and Lesbians In Chinese). - Susana Marques Transgender Directory for Hong Kong. - Civil Rights for Sexual Diversities. - Coming Out: Resources for GLBT Chinese, families and friends. - HK Pride Parade. - Hong Kong GLBT Organizations- TimeOut: Gay & Lesbian. - Hong Kong's Gay Scene! (2009).

LGBT Hong Kong: Chronology / Timeline: Chronology of events in the LGBT history of Hong Kong and important events around the world. - Hong Kong Gay Youth N/A. (Archive Link) -  Prospectus on HORIZONS N/A: Hong Kong's Comprehensive Resource on Lesbian & Gay Counselling, since 1992 (Archive Link). - Les Peches: Hong Kong’s premier lesbian social organisation (2010)... Interview (2008). - Lesbian Hong Kong.

Gay Station is the pioneering gay & lesbian based in Hong Kong. It now offers livestreaming webcast daily

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay Hong Kong (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 1997-Present. - ILGA Report. - LGBT Rights in Hong Kong

Gayscape. - Pridelinks. - Open Directory.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

TAIWAN: - Gay Taipei: Taipei, Taiwan’s vibrant capital, has opened itself up as the flourishing gay capital of Taiwan, with a gay and lesbian scene that has seen it dubbed the new San Francisco of Asia. The Taiwanese people are amongst the friendliest in the world and have a good sense of humour and the gay scene is friendlier and more relaxed than Singapore’s or Bangkok’s. Like most gay capitals, Taipei is home to the Taiwan LGBT Pride Parade, the largest gay pride parade in Asia. Dubbed Love Out Loud! The Power of Love Conquers Discrimination, Taipei’s seventh annual gay pride parade was held on October 31, 2009. More than 25,000 people showed up to march. - Taipei: a rising star for gay travelers (2010): With a recent wave of gay Asian tourists flocking to Taipei for holiday, the city is being dubbed the San Francisco of Asia, and the government might do well to take notice. - Japanese gay porn stars to promote safe sex in Taipei (2012): Two Japanese porn actors promoted safe sex in the gay community at a party in Taipei on Saturday, organized by a local group to mark the launch of its new services for gay people. The two actors, Koh Masaki and Kong, will attend the party held at a gay club, according to the Taiwan AIDS Foundation, which is organizing the event. "They have been invited to promote the importance of health education and the use of condoms," said Bevis Tseng, director of the foundation. Compared with more formal campaigns, "having the film stars talk about health education will be more effective among the gay community," Tseng added.

Groups call for gay-friendly laws, gender equality education (2011). - Taiwan Queer Education 台湾酷儿教育 (2010, Video). - Taiwan groups welcome inclusion of gay issues in school curriculum (2010). - Taiwan Schools Won’t Instruct on Sexual Desires (2011): Wednesday’s press conference followed a phone call from legislator Chu Fon-chi requesting a halt to the plan. According to FocusTaiwan, Chu wasn’t opposed “to the idea of teaching children about gender equality, but thought it would be too much to include issues such as homosexuality and sexual desires.” The section chief of the ministry’s Student Affairs Committee, Eric Ker, addressed the crowd, saying the plan was to instruct students on "understanding sexual orientation" and that the topic of sexual desires was not on the curriculum. The Gender Equity Education Act, passed in 2004, prohibits gender discrimination in schools and requires them to educate on gender equality. - Taiwan could lead Asia with full recognition of gay rights (2011). - Taipei hospital fined $1,670 over firing cross-dressing employee (2011).

Gay euphemisms dismissed from Taiwan's obits (2012): Taiwan ministry says euphemisms should not be used in obituaries of gay people... In a paper on funeral etiquette to be released in June, the government suggests that obituaries avoid euphemisms like 'close brotherly or close sisterly relationship' to refer to gay partners. - Taiwan Slammed Over GLBT Rights (2012): An alliance of civic groups on Friday criticized Taiwan’s government for dodging the issue of recognizing civil partnerships of same-sex and heterosexual couples in the country’s first human rights report. - LGBT pride parade held on NTU campus (2011): Ahead of the annual Taiwan Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Parade in Taipei on Saturday, dozens of National Taiwan University (NTU) students from various student organizations yesterday held their own version of the LGBT parade on campus, to raise awareness among students on gay rights issues. Chanting slogans and beating on drums, the “Small LGBT Pride Parade,” as the organizers called their event, drew the attention of their fellow students as they marched through the campus, with some students giving them the thumbs-up or joining them along the way.

Taiwan's first gay bookstore flies its own way (2010): In a quiet small lane near a noisy metro station in southwest Taipei City, you can find Gin Gin's, Taiwan's first gay and lesbian bookstore which opened more than 11 years ago. Going up a short stairway and through a big glass door, you can see people shopping in the 132-square-meter store for gay and lesbian literature, magazines, comics, audio and visual products, as well as T-shirts, accessories, tank tops, and even condoms and sex toys. "Apart from local residents, we also have many customers from Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Europe and America," said the bookstore's owner Lai Jeng-jer, who himself is gay. "More customers from the Chinese mainland have been coming to the store in the past years," the 44-year-old said. - Sales of gay-themed books surge in Taiwan (2012). - Gay Comics Boom In Taiwan (2012). - Taiwan's lesbian (tomboy) group Misster (2011, Video).

Central Taiwan LGBT Health and Culture Center (2011): Yet something agonizing has happened to the LGBT community in Taichung. Over a month ago, the Central Taiwan LGBT Health and Culture Center (also known as "Taichung Rainbow Paradise") was told by the landlord to move away from its premise. The LGBT community is appalled by the landlord's decision which was based upon apparent discrimination against sexual orientation.  We believe that discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation should be prohibited.

Taiwan Pride (Wikipedia). - Taiwan Gay Pride/Taipei Gay Pride 2012. - Talking Gaga over gay rights question (2012). - Gaga’s Gay Pride In Taiwan (2012). - Lady Gaga Gets the Royal Treatment in Taichung (2012). - Thousands march in Taiwan gay rights parade (2011). - Taiwan Gay Pride Parade in Taipei (2011). LGBT Pride Parade draws 30,000 people in Taipei (2011). - 2011 Taiwan gay pride (Video). - 2011 Taiwan gay pride videos: 1, 2, 3. - Taichung’s First Gay Pride (2011). - 1ère Gay Pride à Taichung (Taïwan) (2011, Translation). - Gay pride parade set for Kaohsiung (2011). - 30,000 join Taiwan's gay pride parade (2010): bout 30,000 people participated in Taiwan's annual gay pride parade in Taipei Saturday afternoon and called on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to show their political power to demand more LGBT-friendly policies from governments. They shouted slogans -- "We are proud to be gay," "We want to get married," and "Vote for LGBT policies" -- along the way. - 2010 Taiwan Taipei LGBTQ gay Pride 台北 台灣同志大遊行 練舞功 (YouTube). - Taipei's gay pride parade attracts 30,000 (2010): While gay rights activists seem to be struggling in mainland China, Taiwan's homosexual scene is experiencing a renaissance. People from all over Asia took to the streets of Taipei to rally for gay rights on the weekend. Around 30,000 activists and supporters marched in what the Taiwanese media are calling the largest gay pride parade ever to have taken place in Asia on Saturday.

Taiwan holds its first gay parade (2003): Gay rights activists have marched through the Taiwanese capital Taipei, in what organisers describe as the Chinese world's first gay parade... Nearly 500 people in fancy dress and waving rainbow-coloured flags took part in the rally, in support of government plans to legalise same-sex marriage. The mayor of Taipei assured homosexuals that they would not suffer harassment. Some participants marched with pushchairs to highlight their demand for the right to adopt children. Mayor Ma Ying-jeou hailed the march as "the first such parade in Taipei, the first in Taiwan, even the first in the Chinese world". - Thousands march in Taipei for gay rights (2007). - Anti-gay march met with counter-protest (2009): Religious conservatives in Taipei City yesterday beat homosexual activists to the punch, leading an anti-gay march ahead of next week's scheduled gay liberation parade, local media reported. The event saw attendance by over 2,000 members of various Christian denominations including Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist groups, said a report by the Central News Agency (CNA). Gay rights supporters did not shy away from a counter-protest, with many of them carrying crosses, a symbol of burden, on their backs, said the report. - Gay pride throngs Taipei streets (2009): From 500 revelers six years ago, the Taipei LGBT Pride Parade drew an estimated 25,000 participants this year, the largest such parade in Asia... The slogan this year was “Love Out Loud” (同志愛很大) as parade organizers hoped to encourage members of the public to love and not discriminate against their lesbian, gay, transgender, transsexual or transvestite relatives, colleagues and neighbors. They also called on the government to do more to protect their rights and lifestyle choice. They went on to say that both of the nation’s main parties have neglected their demands. “We want to emphasize that we love this society and its people,” said Ann Tung (童楚楚), convener-in-chief of this year’s parade. “We want to exchange our love for the public’s recognition.” This was a frank reference to an anti-gay march held last Saturday by several Christian groups. The groups were led by two former Presbyterian Church pastors who emphasized the traditional definition of marriage.

Taipei's yearly gay pride parade has share of closeted marchers (2006): A geisha wearing a cream-colored kimono and hot-pink wig, a samurai robed in black, a gothic Cleopatra with gold-beaded hair, aboriginal tribesmen in traditional garb: These were the people in a downtown Taipei neighborhood Sept. 30. True, it was a month too early for Halloween, even if Halloween were widely celebrated in Taiwan, meaning only one other occasion could collect such an amalgam of eccentric characters, and that is the annual Taiwan Pride Parade. Thousands of people from across the country, as well as guests from overseas, joined in the spirited parade alongside regular downtown traffic. The marchers were given a single lane for their 3.5 kilometer march, which began at 2 p.m. at Taipei City Hall and ended at Huashan Culture Park with a festival, a symbolic wedding ceremony between four lesbian couples and several parties that lasted until dawn. Members of Taiwan's gay and lesbian community have held a parade in the fall each year since 2003, with participants journeying from countries across the region, including China, Singapore, Japan and Australia, to attend the event. Despite lingering social stigma surrounding the issue of homosexuality, gay and lesbian awareness is alive and well in Taiwan, which many consider to be one of the forerunners of gay rights in Asia... - Taipei mayor hosts opening of gay pride festival N/A. - Taipei holds massive gay pride march (2008).

Gay Taiwanese couple make bid to be registered as same-sex household in landmark hearing (2012). - Taiwanese gay couple to appeal unsuccessful marriage registration in court (2012): A Taiwanese gay couple, who had unsuccessfully applied to the Department of Household Registration to be officially recognised as a household, has filed a petition for the case to be heard in court. - Mothers of Taiwanese gay couple appear in court to show support (2012): The mothers of Chen Jing-hsueh and Gao Jhih-wei – a gay couple who filed a legal petition to seek legal recognition of their marriage – appeared in court on Wednesday with their sons for the first time, and spoke to the media about accepting and supporting their sons' sexuality and decision to be married... Last week, Fridae reported that Chen Jing-hsueh and Gao Jhih-wei decided to take legal action after their appeal to the Taipei City Government to have their marriage registered at the Taipei City Zhongshan District Household Registration Office last year was unsuccessful. The couple had already held a public wedding ceremony in 2006 to celebrate their marriage. They filed a lawsuit in August 2011 and named the Taipei City Zhongshan District Household Registration Office as the defendant in the court case. The case was first heard on 27 March 2012 during which an officer representing the Household Registration Office denied having made any mistake in rejecting the couple’s application.

Taiwan report slammed for dodging gay rights issues (2012): An alliance of Taiwanese civic groups on Friday criticized the government for dodging the issue of recognizing civil partnerships of same-sex and heterosexual couples in the country's first human rights report, published earlier that day. - Legalizing same sex unions will benefit all (2012): The lawyer C.V. Chen (陳長文) recently wrote in support of gay marriage, calling on President Ma Ying-jeou (馬英九) to pull out all the stops to amend the law to allow same-sex marriages... In the middle of last month, Denmark became the 11th country to recognize same-sex marriages. A local gender rights group, the Taiwan Alliance to Promote Civil Partnership Rights, is soon set to propose a draft amendment to the Civil Code allowing for the legalization of same-sex marriages. This proposed amendment, together with a previously announced draft partnership law, which addressed both homosexual and heterosexual partnerships, would be the first of its type in Asia. In Taiwan we like to think we have made great strides in human rights, but is the progress as impressive as we would have others believe? The legislation of same-sex marriages and partnerships will be the real test. - Taipei gay rights groups and conservative Christian group clash over new gender equality school curriculum (2011): Several groups including the Taiwan Gender Equality Education Association (TGEEA) has filed a lawsuit with the Taipei District Prosecutors’ Office on Thursday morning, reported the Taipei Times newspaper. The lawsuit was filed against the Taiwan Union for True Love which gay rights groups say was deliberately spreading falsehoods to undermine a new gender equality curriculum originally set to be introduced in schools in September. - Taiwan denies gay foreign diplomats immunity for their spouses (2011). 

Taiwan's Gay Community: One In Five Of Nation's LGBT Residents Have Attempted Suicide (2012): Correction??? from "One in five Taiwan gays has attempted suicide: Poll": About 30 per cent have considered taking their own lives, and of these 18 per cent have actually tried to kill themselves, according to the survey sponsored by Gender/Sexuality Rights Association of Taiwan and other groups. [30% x 0.18 = 5.4%]. - Gay people in Taiwan subject to several types of stress: poll (2012). - Groups call for gay rights protection and awareness (2012): The survey showed that 58 percent of respondents had been victimized  -  notably in the form of verbal abuse and social isolation. A total of 29 percent said they had contemplated suicide, with 18 percent having attempted to take their own life. The survey also showed that 23 percent of respondents did not receive any gay-friendly resources before the age of 18. On the subject of social pressures, 79 percent of respondents cited uncertainty about family acceptance, and 68 percent pointed to the burden of society’s expectations that they should marry. The survey collected 2,785 valid responses in just 10 days, the alliance said, showing the urgency and significance of the issue.- Taiwan school curricula to include gay issues (2011).

Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality and related factors in three Asian cities (2012): From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions... The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. - Japanese gay porn stars to promote safe sex in Taipei (2012): Two Japanese gay porn actors are set to promote safe sex among the gay community at a party in Taipei Saturday, organized by a local group to mark the launch of its new services for gay people. The two actors, Koh Masaki and Kong, will attend the party held at a gay club, according to the Taiwan AIDS Foundation, which is organizing the event. "They have been invited to promote the importance of health education and the use of condoms," Bevis Tseng, a director of the foundation, told CNA. Compared with more formal campaigns, "having the film stars talk about health education will be more effective among the gay community," Tseng added.

Barbie, a transgender with difficult life in Taiwan, ETnews (2008, News Video). - Transgender refuses to serve in military (2010). - Top model admits being transsexual  (2008): Taiwanese model Alicia Liu (Xun Ai) has admitted that she is a transsexual. The 24-year-old model-cum-actress, nicknamed Xiao Ai, said she underwent sex-change surgery at the age of 18. "My ex-boyfriend paid for it," she said in an interview with a Taiwan magazine on Friday... - Transgenders Protest New Policy in Taiwan (2008): A government policy in Taiwan has made it more difficult for transgenders to get an ID, creating panic in the community. The policy, which went into effect last year, stipulates that female-to-male transgenders cannot get an ID card that identifies them as male unless they have undergone all three parts of gender reassignment surgery. - A transgender warrior spreads the word to Taiwan (2003): Leslie Feinberg, a pioneer in the gay, lesbian and transgender liberation movement, is in Taiwan to meet fans and sign copies of her translated book. - Being Transgender in Taiwan (2001). - Same-sex unions promoted (2008): Around a hundred people attended an engagement ceremony for a gay couple on International Human Rights' Day to urge the government to squarely face homosexual rights issues in Taiwan, including legalizing same-sex marriage and giving rights to homosexual couples. Taiwan's Gay & Lesbian Political Caucus Chairman Nelson Chen said that in an attempt to get the public's blessing for his relationship, he intentionally picked Sunday to host a party that would raise public awareness of the importance of legalizing same-sex marriages. - Taiwan lesbian and gay groups protest lack of freedom of expression (2004). - Taiwan Radio Station Fined For Lesbian Sex Sounds: Sister Radio in sex sounds row (2004): The radio station has vowed to fight to the end after being chastized by the GIO for broadcasting two minutes of faked orgasmic noises.

Heterhomo: Taiwan (Translation): Taïwan va accueillir une cérémonie collective pour 60 mariages homosexuels (2011). - Des milliers de manifestants pour le mariage homosexuel (2009). - Le président poursuivi par la rumeur d’un scandale sexuel gay (2009). - Le Taïwanais Ang Lee président du jury de la 66e Mostra de Venise (2009). - 10 000 manifestants à Taipei pour revendiquer les droits LGBT (2007). - Gay pride pour le mariage gay (2006).

Gay Taiwanese sues parents, hospital over lockup (2006): A Taiwanese university student has accused his parents of drugging his coffee, then committing him to a locked psychiatric ward after he told them he was gay, the Taiwan News reported Tuesday. Su Ming-che, 22, was kept against his will in Shin Kong Memorial Hospital's psychiatric ward for 56 days, state the lawsuits against Su's parents and the hospital... - Gay groups in Taiwan to set up "Rainbow Republic" (2006, Alternate Link): Gay groups in Taiwan are so angry that the government is not protecting their rights, they plan to set up a country for gay men and lesbians called the Rainbow Republic, Deutsche Presse-Agentur reported Friday... - Taiwan chief cites "Brokeback" in speech: In a speech to U.S. business leaders (2006):Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian cited the film "Brokeback Mountain" to illustrate the potential for U.S.-Taiwan relations.... - Chinese gay rights activists encouraged after Taiwan visit (2006): Before Bing Lan came to Taiwan as part of the first Chinese gay rights group to visit the island, he had heard a lot about the freedom homosexuals enjoyed here. But nothing prepared him for what he saw when he arrived in Taipei. On December 30, Bing Lan and the other three Beijing gay rights activists joined the annual Gay Pride March in Taipei, the fourth since it was launched in 2003. Under a blazing sun, some 5,000 gay men and women, carrying rainbow flags and shouting slogans, marched through downtown Taipei to demand more rights, including the right to get married. The march climaxed with a group wedding of four lesbian couples in a ceremony, presided over a gay priest and cheered on by friends, family members and onlookers...

Demand Taiwan's Court to Open Up Its Doors in Gay Bookstore Obscenity Trial (2005): Taiwan's only gay and lesbian bookstore has been unreasonably charged with obscenity and is currently under trial behind closed doors... - Chen eyes abolishing death penalty, legalising gay marriage: Taiwan President Chen Shui-bian said on Sunday he is considering abolishing the death penalty and legalizing marriage between homosexuals...  - Taiwan Gays March For Civil Rights (2006): Thousands of gays, lesbians and transsexuals marched through the streets of Taipei on the weekend, showing their pride and calling for marriage and civil rights protections. The parade marked the climax of two weeks of pride celebrations in the capital that featured human rights forums and cultural events... In 1987, a few years after their fantasy of retaking China faded, the Nationalists ended martial law. Taiwan's first democratic legislative elections were held in 1992, signalling the beginning of a new era for lesbians and gay men...  - Sporting Gays and the Gay Movement: The Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Sports Groups in Taiwan (2003).

In Taiwan, Gay Life Has Zest (2000). - Taipei holds its first gay pride parade (2003). - Taiwan holds its first gay parade (2003). - Straight-talking at Pride Parade (2004): The second Taiwan Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Pride Parade put a spotlight on homosexual issues. - Lesbian and Gay Taiwan: A Yardstick of Democracy: An overview of lesbian and gay Taiwan including the half century of martial law when any gender irregularity could mean prison or worse, and the first years of democracy. - Taiwanese gays protest (2003): Gay-rights groups protested Dec. 23 outside the headquarters of Taiwan's ruling Democratic Progressive Party demanding that a lawmaker be punished for antigay remarks and that the government present a timetable for enacting gay protections, the China Post reported. - Taiwan moves to abolish death penalty, legalise gay marriages (2003): Taiwan's government is drafting legislation to abolish the death penalty and legitimise gay marriages, a cabinet official said Monday. If the laws are approved by parliament, Taiwan would be the first in Asia to legalise marriages among people of the same sex..

Taiwan "Exodus Center" Holds Seminar on Homosexuality (2001). - A Lighthouse in the Dark Taiwan Church (2001): In most mainstream churches in Taiwan homosexuality would be classed as sinful.  There is only one "out of the closet" congregation for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered persons on the island. The independent Tongkwang GLBT Presbyterian Church has been meeting for more than three years.  It has now published the first indigenous homosexual theology, entitled "A Lighthouse in the Darkness".  The book had its debut on the day prior to the opening of Taipei's Gay Pride Festival last week.  Celebrities attended the book signing. - First gay Christian minister ordained n/a: "A Presbyterian priest became Taiwan's first openly gay Christian minister at a ceremony here yesterday, news reports said." - Taiwan’s 1st gay minister (2004). - Taiwan's gay campaigners (2001): Taiwan's parliamentary election taking place on Saturday will includes for the first time two openly gay candidates. - Homosexuality Far from Accepted (2001, Related): While the recent high-profile coming out of a high school teacher in Taoyuan might appear to indicate Taiwan's increased tolerance of homosexuality, the incident reveals a culture of non-acceptance in the nation's education system .

First ever Taipei Gay and Lesbian Forum slated (2001): The Taipei Homosexuality Forum, the first of its kind ever held in any Chinese community around the world, is scheduled for Sept. 3 and will be participated in by noted homosexuals from home and abroad, sources from the Taipei City Government said on Friday. Renowned American homosexual activist Michael Bronski and civil rights activist Nan Hunter have been invited to speak at the forum, the first ever conference of its kind sponsored by Taipei City Government, said officials from the municipal Bureau of Civil Affairs. - Rainbow Flags in Taiwan (2002): Chia-wei Chi, a well-known AIDS activist and advocate for gay rights, requested his legal same-sex marriage several times and was repeatedly rejected since 1986.The legislature told him, “Homosexuals are a minority of perverse people who are driven by lust.It would be unhealthy for the country and might even shake the foundations of the state if homosexual marriages were ever recognized.”In spite of the kind of insult, Chi has continued over the past few years to fight for putting same-sex marriages on an equal footing with heterosexual couples. (Lin, Oct. 19, 2000) Even though lots of homosexuals fight for their own equal rights boldly, whether or not Taiwan people will break their fixed, conventional ideology to accept homosexual marriage sincerely is still left unknown... In the end of the movie “Hsi yen,” after witnessing the plight of homosexual marriage, Wei-Tung’s father, who is a typical tradition-conserver, modifies his mind to recognize Simon, Wei-Tung’s counterpart, and tells him “ Wei-Tung is my son, so you are my son” (Huang, 8).The tear-jerking scene arouses our full sympathy and the movie ends with happiness and warmth.When will the scene of striving for same-sex marriage in real world in Taiwan end to the satisfaction of all? 

Boisterous Taiwan (2002): Lesbian, gay, bi and transgender (lgbt) activism has also gained momentum. Last month, when the Taiwanese media uncovered the Armed Forces Police Command's ban on gay men serving as military police, there was an immediate outcry from the increasingly vocal lgbt community, and human-rights organizations. The next day, facing strong protests from all sides, the Minister of National Defense, Tang Yao-ming, promised to lift the ban. Lgbt people are also making their presence felt in electoral politics. An activist group formed before the December legislative elections endorsed a list of gay-friendly Taipei City and County legislative candidates. Two openly gay candidates even ran for legislative seats, James Jan, in Kaohsiung City's southern constituency, and Webster Chen, in Taipei City's southern district. Their campaigns succeeded in making lgbt issues visible, even though they weren't elected. The 2001 publication of Chang Chiao-ting's "The Taming and the Resistance" offered scandalized Taiwanese a glimpse of the lives of lesbian high school students. The book includes a series of interviews with 10 lesbians that attended the elite Taipei First Girls' Senior High School. Tuan Chien-fa also made history in 2001 as the first teacher to publicly come out as a gay man in Taiwan..

Same Sex Desire and Society in Taiwan, 1970–1987: This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the discourses of same-sex desire which predominated in Taiwan in the two decades preceding the lifting of martial law in 1987.

Taiwan lesbian and gay groups protest lack of freedom of expression: University-based lesbian and gay groups in Taiwan criticised the government for suppressing freedom of expression, especially on issues related to sexuality.  (Must Scroll) (Related Information: Protecting a Free Space for Academic Research and Internet Freedom of Expression: Urgent Call to Help Leading Taiwanese Feminist Sex Radical/Scholar Under Prosecution/Persecution). - What Happened Next? - Updates on the TJ Retrospective: Ten years ago this month, the Free China Journal--the forerunner of this paper--ran a short article under the headline, "First church for homosexuals gives members peace of mind." It covered the founding, by "three pastors sympathetic to the gay rights movement," of Taiwan's first church specifically geared toward meeting the needs of the country's homosexual community...

Asia's Silence on Gays in Military Broken by Taiwan (2002): Following an announcement by the Taiwanese Military that it would end a policy banning gays from guarding high level officials and government installations, scholars and military officials said the decision signaled a bold step for an Asian military force. The policy change was announced after a local newspaper revealed the discriminatory practice, prompting protest demonstrations in Taipei, the nation's capital... Col. Liu of the Taiwanese Naval Attach said that ending the ban on gays in the military police was "a good thing for a democratic society like ours. I don't think this is really a big deal," he said. "It just means Taiwanese society is more open and there are different choices now. If you're gay and you can do the job, that's fine."

Gay Orgy Raid Raises Privacy Questions in Taiwan: Gay rights and AIDS awareness groups in Taiwan are outraged at the local media's handling of a police raid on what was called a gay orgy. The video of 92 men wearing only underwear and hiding their faces was rebroadcast several times after blood tests ordered by authorities found that 28 of them had HIV. (2004, Alternate Link) - Policeman Raid Gay Gymnasium in Taipei (1999). - The Apartheid of Homosexuality (1999): Homosexuals, Dogs, Smoking, Pants, Shorts, Slippers Are Not Allowed In This Restaurant. Sign on the door of an Italian restaurant in Taiwan. (Sydney Star Observer, 13 August 1998).  - Archbishop Tutu, the apartheid of homosexuality, and being human (2000). - Tongzhi, Queers, Gays and Lesbians in Taiwan N/A. (Archive Link to 1997, On Tripod to 2001) - History of the Gays and Lesbians in Taiwan after 1986 to 1997. - History of the Gays and Lesbians in Taiwan. - In Taiwan, Gay Life Has Zest (2000): Nowhere else in the Chinese-speaking world are homosexuals as free to be open as they've become since the end of martial law in 1987. Yet a sense of duty leaves many people closeted within their own families. - Both Sides of the Mirror - the Public Discourse on (Homo-)sexuality and Gender in Taiwan. - Taiwan: Masculinity, Sexuality (2007): This is the sixth installment in a series of essays by jet-setter Jordan Barber, who is currently studying Mandarin at Donghai University in Taichung, Taiwan. Masculinity in the United States may be defined by the loner, antihero ideals of the Marlboro man, but Jordan finds that, in Taiwan, the patriarchal family hierarchy establishes one’s male bravado.Wang FT, Bih HD, Brennan DJ (2009). Have they really come out: gay men and their parents in Taiwan. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 11(3): 285-96. PDF Download. PubMed Abstract. Thirty-two men in total were interviewed. Findings demonstrate that the decision to come out was often motivated by the son's perception of his parents' attitude towards homosexuality. Respondents worked hard to prepare for coming out and to minimize the risk and the impacts of the process, their report shows that some parents go through their own process of coming out and/or hiding in the closet after their gay son's coming out. Although many parents still see homosexuality as illness, some adopt alternative discourses to reinterpret the meaning of being gay as a spiritual path to eternal enlightenment or friendship. These findings imply sites of resistance to the privileged discourse of filial piety in constituting the experiences of coming out for Taiwanese gay men and their parents.

Yeh, Nei-Ching (2008). The social constructionist viewpoint on gays and lesbians, and their information behaviour. Information Research, 13(4). Full Text. Introduction. Explores the social construction processes of gay and lesbian worlds and the characteristics and meanings of their information behaviour during the construction processes. Method. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were utilized to explore homosexuals' information behaviour from January to March 2006. In total, there were fourteen participants: ten gays and four lesbians living in Taipei.
Analysis. The study adopted an inductive method for data analysis, which is based on the constant comparison approach of Glaser and Strauss. Results. Gays and lesbians used information to find others of the same sexual preference to construct their homosexual worlds and become members of the homosexual community. The two major information channels of the respondents are the Internet and their personal mentors. Their information behaviour had four purposes: self awareness, construction of their homosexual world, accumulation of social capital, and confronting the structure of the heterosexual-dominated society. Conclusions. The model for the characteristics of gays' and lesbians' information behaviour is explored. This study suggests a new perspective on the role of information behaviour, which may not help people face certain situations but which facilitates their construction of meaning amidst daily living. This can help them become agents who are able to successfully confront the structure of a heterosexual-dominated society.

Never Say I Love You - The Gay Western Man in Taiwan Who Dates Taiwanese Guys - The Gay Taiwanese Man in Taiwan Who Dates Western Guys - Us and Them.(Alternate Link): "One  the most important lessons I've learned is that the more a GWM comes to understand Taiwanese culture and the Chinese language, the more the differences between GWM and GAM in Taiwan become apparent. My experiences have taught me that we are not at all unified by our common gay experience, rather we are philosophically very, very different... The tragic irony is that most of the cultural things that attract GAM to GWM end up causing the most distress. While initially attracted to all of these differences, most gay Taiwanese men ultimately find them intolerable in the long term. Open communication is great when it's the GWM expressing himself, but when it comes time for the GAM to open up to his inner-most feelings and take a Western-style 'good, hard look' at his own behavior, he crumbles. It's virtually impossible to have a constructive argument (or even a 'heated discussion'), because Taiwanese people loathe confrontation between lovers. Any expression of dissatisfaction is perceived as a direct criticism of character. They are offended when their behavior is questioned in any way. The fact that discord even exists in a relationship is an indictment of the relationship as a whole...

The Regime of Compulsory Gay Masculinity in Taiwan (Dennis Chwen-der Lin, University of Warwick) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Since the 1990s, Taiwan has seen dynamic progress in lesbian and gay activism. Nonetheless, as local gay men become anxious to achieve equal rights, a hegemonic discourse emerges as an ideological regime exerting considerable influence upon their thinking about the femininity in gay men and male-to-female transgenderism. According to the very discourse, if a gay man aims to gain acceptance from the mainstream society, he must demonstrate masculinity and then develop sexual/romantic relationships with other masculine gay men. Thus all the effeminate dispositions need to be devalued, suppressed, and ultimately eradicated. However, the ideological regime has found itself haunted by the subversive challenges from the sissies such as Top Gay Aunties‚ King Kong Barbies‚ Mirror-Rubbing Gay Sisters‚ and so forth. Confronting those challenges, the framework upon which the regime bases itself turns out problematic and tenuous. In this paper, I shall examine the contexts within which the regime of compulsory gay masculinity arises, and the ways through which it functions to discipline local gay men. Furthermore, I am to look into how those sissy queers are galvanised to “fuck” the masculinised gay agenda. My paper employs a queer methodological approach, using different methods in order to collect and produce information on the marginalised subjects. Practically speaking, there are three modes of research methods adopted in my paper: in-depth interview, documentary analysis and participation and observation. All the methods bring into relief the locality and contextuality of contemporary Taiwanese society, in which my paper situates itself."

Taiwanese aboriginal gay male subjectivity: The life stories of a Paiwanese gay man named Dakanow (Danubak Matalaq, HLTC, Taiwan) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "My study aims at looking into the process of the construction of Taiwanese aboriginal gay male subjectivity, by focusing on the life stories of a Paiwanese gay man named Dakanow. Also, it intends to initiate a discursive dialogue between the two academic fields of aboriginal studies and LGBT studies in the contemporary Taiwanese context. There are three conclusions arising from my research on the life stories of Dakanow. First, it is contemporary Paiwanese social structure that exerts considerable influence on the formation of Dakanow's sexual identity. So to speak, the social hierarchal system and its derivates such as power relationships and patriarchal authorities all function to shape the sexualities of Paiwanese people. In addition, the fact that both the media coverage and the Christian disciplines play the key in stigmatizing sodomy contributes to the aboriginal people‚s hostility toward homosexuality. Second, for Dakanow, the de-stigmatized ethnic term of “Yuan-Chu-Ming” at large level represents a significant symbol in order to resist the racist ideology spreading through the mainstream society dominated by the Han people. More importantly, it enables Dakanow to construct a strong sense of aboriginal community, and therefore inform his ethnic hybridity. Third, Dakanow's positive identity as a gay man involves multiple socio-cultural factors such as developing intimacy, romance and friendship with his LGBT peers, receiving supportive information from the LGBT communities, entering college, and participating in the LGBT activisms. Key words: Paiwan tribe, aboriginal, gay, gay identity, ethnic identity, aboriginal LGBT activism."

Hans Tao-Ming Huang: Articulating Niezi: Sex, Gender, National Culture and the Politics of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Taiwan. - From Glass Clique to Tongzhi Nation: Identity Formation and Politics of Sexual Shame - A Rearticulation of Crystal Boys. - Interpellating the Male Homosexual: Epithets and the Cultural Signification of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Taiwan, 1970-1990...

Abstracts: Global metaphors and local strategies in the construction of Taiwan's lesbian identities (2000). - Drink, Stories, Penis, and Breasts: Lesbian Tomboys in Taiwan from the 1960s to the 1990s (2001). - Father-son attachment and sexual partner orientation in Taiwan (2007): In particular, paternal overprotection played the most important role in the developmental process of male homosexuals. - Attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and related factors among nurses in Southern Taiwan (2006). - Emerging homosexual conduct during hospitalization among chronic schizophrenia patients (2000). - Glossy Subjects: G&L Magazine and `Tonghzi' Cultural Visibility in Taiwan (2001). - 'How come I can't stand guarantee for my own life?': Taiwan citizenship and the cultural logic of queer identity (2002). - Gay and Lesbian Couple Relationship Commitment in Taiwan: A Preliminary Study (2010). - Queer Existence under Global Governance: A Taiwan Exemplar (2010).

Politics, Community Activism, The Internet

Chang, Yin-Kun 2006. Out of the Closet and into the Political Arena: Can the Internet Become a Location for Queer Movements? PDF Download. PDF Download Many papers have closely examined cyberspace facilitates queer subjectivity. Cyberspace constitutes a contested space in which new discursive practices are developed. This paper follows the previous discussions and focuses on radical democracy and new social movements. Then, this paper discusses mainly whether the Internet can become a location for social movements, particularly for queer folks. I also explores following questions: How will the Internet influence the development of social movements? Why do queer movements do always choose the Internet as their location? Can the goals of these movements be realized through the Internet? To answer these questions, this paper analyzes the case of Taiwan’s queer movement case to shed light on potential advantages stemming from the Internet use. Finally, this paper proposes a further question—the relationship among capital, habitus and queer movements... In general, the Internet’s capacity for information dissemination and mobilization has profound consequences for politics. It has resulted in a medium that represents a tremendous increase in the ability to disseminate information and mobilize. For instance, the Internet strengthens people’s ability to obtain primary documents that they previously relied on journalists to interpret. Likewise, blogs are online journals or e-newsletters in which the most recent entries are added to the top of a document. Blog authors, or bloggers, can write on any subject matter. A number of people outside traditional journalism have created blogs that emphasize news, especially commentary (Klotz, 2004).

Queering Taiwan: In Search of Nationalism’s Other (2011): This article deals with the formation of Taiwan’s homosexual cultural politics in the 1990s, the impact and implications of which are yet to be examined within the larger context of Taiwan’s cultural and political development and ethnic relationships. It is argued that the rise of this cultural politics is both a reflection and a source of a growing sense of identity crisis on the island. By examining the configurations of “queer” in various discursive domains, this interdisciplinary study seeks to delineate the cross-referencing ideological network of this cultural movement and its entanglement with the complexity of Taiwan’s nationalism. At the same time, to the extent that this movement tends to present itself as a radical politics from a privileged epistemological and cultural standpoint, this claimed radicalism is also scrutinized for its problematics and ironies.

He, Terri (2007). Cyberqueers in Taiwan: Locating Histories of the Margins. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 8(2): 55-73. PDF Download. In this paper I direct the focus to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) online communities in Taiwan. On the one hand, I argue that such online communities in Taiwan are worthwhile researching and deserve special academic attention because they touch upon Taiwan’s perpetual difference in the world as a de-facto, thereby questioning how a transnational perspective permanently influences or even changes the way national identity is or is not formulated. On the other, against the backdrop of globalisation, I highlight the fact of under-theorisation of issues and politics of sexuality dissidence in a non-western, non-dominant location and culture such as Taiwan. As I start to bridge the current gap of such insufficiencies in unevenly distributed research interests in some parts of the world rather than others, I also make a point of fighting against surveillance and control in cyberspace. Ultimately, such studies on Taiwanese LGBT online communities are not possible without continuous attempts and efforts in trying to keep freedom of expression and anonymity to certain extent.

Hou, Cheng-Nan (2005). Creating the Internet as Alternative Media:A Study of the Role of Gay Virtual Community in Taiwan’s Political Participation.  網路社會學通訊期刊 [Internet Journal of Sociology communications]. Full Text. The symbolic and real impact of the alternative media in the Taiwanese transition is perhaps best illustrated by its role in an event that transpired in the 2000 presidential election period. Not only did news coverage of alternative media help to promote the advocacy of opposition party, but it also stood as a symbol of how far political change in Taiwan had progressed. After the 2000 presidential election, the alternative media had reached their goal after the former opposition party got the ruling power, and then the leading issue of opposition political media in the 1990s had turned into social movement ones. Due to the transition of alternative media technology and the coming of the Internet age, various virtual communities replace the traditional media form, and become the leading alternative media since 2000. After examining from the case study of gay virtual community, we find that social movement webs as gay communities use computer-mediated communication to construct their identities and communities on and even off the net. The members of gay virtual community provoke their alternative voice and transform into the power of political mobilization in Taiwan's political participation.

Queer Marxism in Taiwan (2007): This paper refutes the dominant assumption that Taiwan, unlike Mainland China, has developed a greater degree of tolerance for non‐normative sexual expressions as a result of its democratization. Recent legal and cultural changes indicate that Taiwan’s democratization consists of tendencies and repressive countertendencies. At the same time, this contradictory development has uniquely enabled a body of indigenous Marxist writings that mobilizes different senses of ‘queerness’ to demonstrate that the official celebration of diversity and human rights has actually further alienated and disempowered sex workers, promiscuous homosexuals, gay drug‐users, and other social subjects that are considered to be a threat to the liberal‐democratic order. I offer a reading of the critical writings of Josephine Ho, Yin‐bin Ning, Ding Naifei, and Wang Ping since the 1990s to explain why Queer Marxism in Taiwan is founded on a strong a‐statist discourse. I argue that a Queer Marxist intellectual practice emerged in Taiwan because liberal pluralism, institutionalized in what these critics call ‘state feminism,’ has failed to redress effects of social exclusion that (1) persist not despite of, but precisely because of, post‐martial law liberal reforms, and that (2) diverge in significant ways from individual experiences as members of officially defined minority groups (women, aborigines, migrant workers, or homosexuals)...

Liou Liang-ya (2005). Queer Theory and Politics in Taiwan: The Cultural Translation and (Re)Production of Queerness in and beyond Taiwan Lesbian/Gay/Queer Activism. NTU Studies in Language and Literature, 14: 123-154. PDF Download. PDF Download.This paper seeks to discuss queer theory and politics in Taiwan in terms of culturaltranslation, production and reproduction. For this end, Iwill focus on issues such asgay/lesbian/queer movements, translating queer theory, naming, queer activists’co-operation with the media and popular culture, queer literature, queer activists’connection with postmodernism and postcolonialism, and queer studies in the academy.I argue that, as one of the key theories flourishing in Taiwan’s cultural and academic scenein the 1990s, queer theory has helped transform the public discourse on sexuality andgender. To have queer theory and gay/lesbian theory translated to Taiwan almost at thesame time is to contribute to gay-positive awareness with more resourceful tactics, togenerate a carnivalequely gay-friendly atmosphere, to address the differences withinlesbians and gays, and to even break down the homosexual/heterosexual divide almostfrom the beginning. By connecting with the media, popular culture, and postmodernism,queer politics has succeeded in presenting itself as at once the avant-garde and the most progressive and trendy at the cultural front. But queer politics also finds the need toconnect with postcolonialism by tracing the history of local gay/lesbian/queer communities and cultivating new ones, and by thinking about the transnational politics of translation. The translation of queer theory is always already indiginized for the specificneeds of the lesbian/gay/queer movements in Taiwan in the 1990s. And the success of the lesbian/gay/queer movements within a very short time is indicative not only of thedynamic, pluralist cultural atmosphere right after the lifting of the martial law in 1987, butalso of the resourcefulness of the activists in cultural production of queerness.

Reticent poetics, queer politics (2005): This is a preliminary rethinking of the interface of tolerance and reticence as a dominant aesthetic‐ethical value with the maintaining of ‘proper’ sexual relations and the keeping of deviant sex(ualities) in the realm of ghosts and wangliang. The paper is a descriptive analysis of certain effects of homophobia as the latter is re‐figured through ‘silent words and reticent tolerance’, passing for the most ‘traditional’ of virtues in modern ‘democratic’ guise. We think that just as person‐hood is in Taiwan (and perhaps in other Chinese‐ness marked worlds) inextricably entangled with paternalist familial relations in impure modern forms, so too have the rhetoric and politics of tolerance and reticence retained seemingly old powers while articulating new disciplinary and rhetorical forces, especially in the field of sexuality in and around the family. Contemporary novelistic representation, such as the acclaimed popular novel of ‘queer’ desire, The Unfilial Daughter, may be read as both representing and complicit with just such reticent aesthetic and political powers. We are also concerned with how new regimes of progressive knowledge‐production in the fields of gender and queer theorizing and historical analyses can be inadvertently complicit with these same reticent shadowy homophobic forces to the extent the former posits culturally essential ‘Chinese’ non‐homophobic subjects and situations.

Hou, Cheng-Nan (2006)The Influence of Gay Sex Websites on the Sexual Identity Development of Gay College Students in Taiwan: A Qualitative Study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Jun 16, 2006. Full Text. This qualitative study examines the sexual identity development and the coming-out experiences of college male students who participated in gay sex websites and the meanings they attributed to those experiences. A descriptive study design is used to explore the experiences of gay college students in Taiwan, who participated in gay sex websites as a way to develop their sexual identity. It seems reasonable to conclude that gay sex websites influence on the sexual identity development of gay college students in Taiwan, and the gay sex websites are places where they “learned” and were “taught” to be gay when using the Net. In this study, the gay college students were using gay sex websites to socialize, realize themselves, develop friendship networks, and even find long-term romance. Furthermore, gay sex websites served an anonymity way for gay college students to come out and transfer into a gay lifestyle. It may be worth pointing out that the researchers who work with Taiwanese gay college students can expand their concept of the online and offline gay community, or social context. Due to the gay community continued to be as a minority in Taiwan, the impact of social conventions and constructs around gender and sexuality can be viewed as paramount in our understanding of identity and how it is formed in the Confucian society.

Hou, Cheng-Nan (2009)Fighting for a mission impossible: A study on media relations strategies of gay and lesbian movement in Taiwan. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY. Full Text. The gay and lesbian movement in Taiwan has blossomed in recent years with public gatherings, social and political activism. Gay and lesbian groups have been trying to cooperate with mass media to raise awareness of issues affecting homosexuals and to stimulate gay-straight communication. THA (The Tongzhi Hotline Association) is the gay/lesbian movement group in this case study, and the group has been managing to attract media coverage of gay and lesbian movement events. In the case of military's ban on gays (May 1, 2002), THA had expected much in media coverage. The case shows they believed that concerns of gays and lesbians were topics of interest to the mainstream media, and so they devoted maximum resources to media outreach. For news coverage and public attention, movement organizers have to be more aware of the function of mainstream media to shape a powerful message and of the necessity for a movement to launch significant events to forward their message.

Martin, Fran (2000). Surface tensions: reading productions of Tongzhi in contemporary Taiwan. GLQ: a Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 6(1): 61-68. Abstract & Download Page. It is probably impossible to think about the English term homosexuality in a contemporary context without addressing at some point the shadowy enclosure of “the closet”; in Taipei’s tongzhi activist and academic circles it has become increasingly difficult to ignore the presence of “the mask.” While it would be difficult to argue simply that the mask operates in Taiwan where the closet does in Europe, the United States, and Australia - since, for one thing, the language of the homosexual closet [yigui] coexists with and interpenetrates that of the mask [mianju] in Taiwan - I nevertheless hope to hold the tropes analytically distinct to a certain degree. This essay, then, considers the mask and the closet and is particularly concerned with some specific questions, which include the following: If the closet is organized around an irresolvable tension between secrecy and disclosure, how does the mask operate in relation to these terms? Is it possible that the mask has other, different investments instead of or alongside them? What perverse relationships might there be between the tongzhi mask and the idea of tongzhi “identity”? What kind of subject and what kind of “homosexuality” are projected by the trope of the tongzhi mask in its various deployments? My project is to chart some of the logics of the tongxinglian/tongzhi mask, not necessarily in decisive distinction to those of the homosexual closet, but nevertheless to take account of the mask’s cultural and historical specificity. I am aided in these speculations by a consideration of Ta-wei Chi’s 1995 novella The Membranes, which appears in the final section of this essay as a text inhabited by a logic and a subject analogous to those suggested by the mask.

Martin, Fran (2000). From Citizenship to Queer Counterpublic: Reading Taipei's New Park. Communal/Plutal, 8(1): 81-94. Abstract & Download Page. This paper focuses on the ways in which official narratives of the 'global city' in 1990s Taipei project models of sexuality which are negotiated and contested by gay and lesbian (tongzhi) activist practices and discourses. Analysing the densely symbolic site of Taipei's New Park and particularly the Democratic Progressive Party City Government's plans for its redevelopment (1995-96), the paper considers the tense relation which the liberal male homosexual cruising which traditionally takes place in New Park and the surrounding city block. Examining the City Government's liberal rhetoric on homosexuality (tongxinglian), the paper contrasts this rhetoric with the more conservative and overtly homophobic sexual policies espoused by other regimes in the region. It also attempts to unpack the logic that enables such a self-consciously 'tongzhi-friendly' administration nevertheless to continue harshly to discipline men who practise homosex in the newly 'public' spaces of the park and the street. Finally, the paper discusses some critical responses by tongshi writers and activists to the City Government's rewriting of the 'public' and the 'private' for the new Taipei.

Yang, Chung-Chuan (1996). The Internet as a liberating technology: The use of the Internet among homosexual communities in Taiwan. Paper presented at the INET96 Conference, Montreal, Canada. Abstract: Homosexuality is taboo in Taiwanese society. Most homosexuals are forced to stay in the closet. The mass media either completely shun this topic or take a straight perspective when reporting news about gay communities. As a result, homosexuals in Taiwan are forced to go underground. Although several gay pride or awareness activities are held in Taiwan, gay communities here, until now, have had no control over any television, radio, or cable channels to voice their concerns. The underrepresentation of gay communities in the mass media has led to several undesirable effects on news reporting: underrepresentation, stereotyping, bias in news selection, and lack of objectivity, accountability, and content diversity. Although in the United States, ensuring that minorities have access to the media has become a vehemently debated topic in the communication and public policy fields, there are no such discussions in Taiwan. The road to gain access to the media can be long and treacherous. With the emergence of the Internet, gay communities have found an outlet in which to voice their opinions and in which they can form a strong sense of community among themselves. In reality, the Internet has partially achieved what mass media have failed to do--allowing the voices of homosexuals to be heard on an equal and objective basis. With the Internet, homosexuals have assumed the control of presenting their opinions in the marketplace of ideas without the mediation of reporters and existing media organizations. Currently, there are more than 13,000 Usenet newsgroups on the Internet dedicated to addressing the concerns of various segments in society (i.e., sexuality, religion, political viewpoints, races, etc.). More than 400 computer bulletin boards can be found in Taiwan. The Internet may become what Ithiel de Sola Pool called the technology of freedom for the gay communities in Taiwan. This paper examines (1) the status of gay access to the mass media in Taiwan, (2) the limitations of existing regulatory models for ensuring gay access to the media, (3) the status of gay BBSs and Web sites in Taiwan, (4) the use of the Internet among homosexuals in Taiwan, and (5) the factors that influence gays' use of the Internet. This paper employs a combination of extensive literature review, focus group, and in-depth interview methods to collect data for answering these questions. Findings from this study can be used to understand how and why homosexuals in Taiwan use the Internet. They can also show if the Internet has empowered this group. In terms of public policy implications, this paper will provide background for government to ensure minorities access to the new communication technologies. It will provide government with an alternative regulatory model for ensuring minorities access to the media.


Taiwan: Lesbian Couples Plan Mass Wedding (2011): An estimated 60 lesbian couples will marry in Taipei later this month in a ceremony inspired by the new marriage equality law in New York and designed to push the Taiwanese government to act on the issue. According to Agence France-Presse, “Around 1,000 people have purchased tickets for the private event, which will take place at an overnight party in Taipei later this month, including visitors from China, Thailand and the US, said organiser AJ Wang.” Organizers said they did not expect a crackdown although same-sex marriage is not legal in Taiwan. Last year, LGBT rights groups hosted the largest Pride parade in Asia with 30,000 attendees. - Taiwan gears for biggest same-sex mass wedding (2011). - Taiwan hosts biggest lesbian wedding (2011): About 80 lesbian couples tied the knot in Taiwan’s biggest same-sex “wedding party”, with organisers saying today they hoped the island will become the first place in Asia to legalise gay marriage. Many of the couples donned white dresses and veils for the “Barbie and Barbie’s wedding”, which was held overnight in downtown Taipei, attracting about 1,000 visitors, including friends, relatives and curious onlookers. “I feel very hopeful that Taiwan will legalise same-sex marriage soon,” said one of the brides, 32-year-old stylist Celine Chen, who plans a honeymoon in New York, which in June became the sixth US state to legalise gay marriage. Even though same-sex unions are not allowed in Taiwan, the ceremonies - which had no legal force - went on smoothly without police interference or protests. Many of the couples kissed, hugged and posed for photographs while receiving an unofficial certificate from the organisers that stated they were now “united in holy matrimony”.

First locally produced lesbian magazine appears in store (2011): Taiwan's first lesbian magazine hit bookshelves yesterday, as part of the minority group's efforts to take a more prominent role in the society. The quarterly magazine "LEZS" features topics that range from fashion trends to gender issues in the field of art. "We are tired of the 'don't ask, don't tell' tradition in our society, " said the magazine's editor-in-chief Wang An-i, adding that the launch of the magazine marked the beginning of a revolution. - Taiwanese lesbian magazine founder Wang An-I speaks out (2012): Wang An-I is a celebrity in Taiwanese lesbian circles, as chief editor of a Taiwanese magazine for lesbians as well as the organizer of a famous large-scale lesbian party. Yet she actually has another name, Wang Anjun, and is granddaughter of Wang Tiwu, the founder of United Daily News, one of Taiwan's largest news agencies. Wang talked about her dedication to gay issues in an interview with our sister paper the China Times. - First Lesbian-Themed Comic Book in Taiwan (2011).

Lesbians in Taiwan: A bed of roses (2003): Academic Sang Tze-lin says the country is the most progressive place for a gay and lesbian identity in East Asia, except for Japan... Subtitled Female Same -- Sex Desire in Modern China, The Emerging Lesbian holds Taiwan in reserve until its final chapters. But when it eventually turns to the island, it comes out with all guns blazing. Taiwan, Sang Tze-lin (桑梓林) proclaims, has since the early 1990s pioneered the emergence and definition of a lesbian identity in a way that's unique in the Chinese-speaking world. American-style its arguments may be, but in a pan-Chinese context they are crucially important. The future, she argues, may show that Taiwan sowed the seeds of a modern Chinese lesbian identity which the mainland's same-sex-oriented women eventually followed. The book, which started life as a Ph.D. thesis at Berkeley, California, is an academic work that looks at the evolution of lesbian politics in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. It doesn't, despite its title and subtitle, find evidence of very much of an unbridled nature being done or publicly said in China. The absence of the free interchange of ideas there means that such groups as exist have had to express themselves in guarded, and especially non-political, language. In Taiwan, however, things could hardly be more different. Taiwan's fiction about lesbian and gay sexuality in the 1990s became "voluminous" the author claims.

Taiwan: Asia's First Lesbian Festival Opens (2005): The first Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival (ALFF) (第一屆亞洲拉子影展) is set to give rise to a new wave of homosexual movies at Spot -- Taipei Film House (台北光點) from tonight through Wednesday. Organized by the Gender and Sexuality Rights Association Taiwan (台灣性別人權協會), with support from the Institute for Tongzhi Studies, City University of New York and Spectra Studio for Asian Queer Media, New York City, ALFF is an international, collaborative showcase aimed at establishing a venue for media works made by or about lesbians and homosexual communities in the Asian region.

In Taiwan, 'Spider Lilies' fuels a small gay renaissance (2007): Homosexuality is nothing new in Taiwanese cinema. Ever since 1986, when Yu Kan Ping's "Outcasts" became the first local gay film to receive approval from the government, there has been a regular trickle of gay films from Ang Lee's iconic "The Wedding Banquet" in 1993 to Yee Chin-yen's "Blue Gate Crossing" (2002) and Chen Yin-jung's romantic comedy "Formula 17," the highest grossing fiction film in Taiwan in 2004. Last year "Reflections," directed by Yao Hung-i, told the story of a lesbian relationship broken apart by the appearance of a man in the women's lives, while a coming-of-age melodrama, "Eternal Summer," by a young director, Leste Chen, involving a love triangle between two men and a woman, proved a massive hit at the Taiwanese box office. Both films won best acting nods at the Golden Horse Award 2006... - Spider Lilies (2007). - Interview With Zero Chou (2008): Out director Zero Chou is one of the few openly lesbian filmmakers in the world, and the only one in Taiwan. Her first film, Splendid Float (2004), which was about drag queens, won three of Taiwan's Golden Horse Awards, including Best Taiwanese Film of the Year. Her second film, Spider Lilies (2007), won the Berlinale Teddy Award for Best Queer Feature, and comes out on DVD in the United States on May 6.Chou's next film, Drifting Flowers, which premiered at the Berlinale in February 2008 and will be screening at festivals this year, brings together three loosely connected stories about sexuality and gender. It stars newcomer Chao Yi-lan, a Taiwanese acting student who brings an authentic, natural butch presence to the screen.

Lesbian in Taipei: A Deeply Closeted Life (1991): “I didn’t come out to my friends until last December. Only two or three close friends knew I told several friends. Most of them said, ‘Oh, I already know.’ This made me feel very relieved.” “I always thought I didn’t need friends, that I was a rock. That was until I started to come out. Then I found, ‘Oh, I’m in paradise. Communication is so important.’ I feel closer to my friends.” Few lesbians in Taiwan have gone as far as Roberta in coming out, that is, telling people they are gay. (Like everyone else in this article, Roberta asked that her real name not be used. No lesbian in Taiwan has gone that far in coming out). Roberta’s comment helps convey some of the relief and sense of freedom that comes from not having to constantly hide one of the most important aspects of one’s existence. For most of Taiwan’s lesbians that relief is far from sight. Most lesbians in this country live lives that are even more deeply closeted than those of Taiwan’s gay men, if that is possible. - For Taiwanese lesbians, out is in (2007): Hidden from the eyes of the media, Taiwan's lesbian community has sprouted into a diversity of groups that operate services and activities geared towards expressing identity through lifestyle choices... On a Thursday night at Mango nightclub, groups of young women drink and sway to a pounding techno beat while a chic hostess invites members of the all-female crowd onto the dance floor to French kiss for a free drink. This no-man's land is the second installment of the first weekly lesbian party night organized by the bar Lez's Meeting. Since June last year, the same organizers have been running popular lesbian parties held every three to four months.

Ho, Aaron KH (2009). The Lack of Chinese Lesbians: Double Crossing in Blue Gate Crossing. Genders, 49. Full Text. Full Text. However, given the hegemonic academic hold of Western discourses and the lack of lexicon regarding sexuality in the Chinese language, it is impossible that terms are not translated. "Queer" is translated into "ku'er" and "homosexuality" into "tongxing ai" or "tongxing lian" (which literally means same-sex love). Even though "tongxing lian"is translated from the West, in its mistranslation, something is transmogrified, lost, and reconfigured for "tongxing lian" or same-sex love, an emotion, is not the same as the clinical species of homosexuality. Furthermore, in translating Chinese back to English, there is a double crossing, a doubly "lost-in-translation"-ness. In the Chinese lexicon, "lesbian" is a translated word from the West. If thoughts are defined by words, then in the Chinese imagination, there are no "lesbians." In this article, I will examine the consequences of the nondescript "lesbian" in Chinese societies through Blue Gate Crossing (2002), a contemporary coming-of-age Taiwanese film about a teenage "lesbian" and the film's engagement with Western discourses. While I appreciate that China and Taiwan (and other countries with large Chinese populations) are affected by globalization in different ways, I have conflated the countries as "Chinese societies" since my analysis focuses on how the Chinese language acts as a reverse discourse to Western theories.

A Taiwanese Christian lesbian everyone should know (2012): About a month ago Fang-yi Hung, a Taiwanese doctoral student who writes the Chinese-language blog Love Has No Boundaries, wrote to ask for permission to translate some of my writings into Chinese. Of course I gave it; and she very quickly translated into Mandarin my essay The Best Case for the Bible NOT Condemning Homosexuality. (You can learn a bit more about that—and see the results of her work thus far—by scrolling to the bottom of my Translations page.) ... Tell us what it’s like to be a lesbian in Taiwan. From 2010 to 2011 I lived in Australia. As you know, Australia is a “gay-friendly” country. Although the LGBT community there is still trying to attain full equal marriage rights, and each state has different laws and rules, there gay couples surely have many rights equal to those of heterosexuals. Viewed legally, I envy the protection of Australia’s sexual minority. But in daily life, honestly speaking, I still found myself, in the several Australian cities that I visited, uncomfortable holding a girl’s hand in public; not many same-sex partners in those cities did so. For that reason I am happy to be back in Taiwan. On the other hand, in Taiwan we have almost no laws protecting the legal rights of our LGBT community. It’s great that basically anyone here in Taiwan has the freedom and safety to cuddle, hold hands, and even kiss in the street. But I surely wish we in the LGBT community had equal rights when it comes to marriage and adopting children. When it comes to fighting for our equal rights in Taiwan, one of the biggest obstacles is the fundamentalist Christian churches. Unlike in America, most of Taiwanese “conservative” churches are also “charismatic”— which means they passionately keep praying for God’s mercy and healing to save all those with the “sickness” of being gay. Some of them are mega-churches. Nearly all of the churches support the viewpoint of Exodus. I’ve known church leaders who publicly announced that gay people are not welcomed at their churches; I know gay people who were expelled from their church.

A Study of the Identity Practices from Taiwan's "Femme's" Life Narratives: Taking Age Thirties and Actives in Femme-Related Social Communities as Examples (2012): The aim of this thesis is to delve into how Taiwanese femmes in their thirties and active in femme-related social communities construct their identities and to attempt to understand how differently femme identity can be formulated. The research is conducted by interviewing six femmes by focusing on five areas: personal background, identity development, come-out experiences, experiences in the lesbian community, and romantic relationships. After the examination is carried out, we can have a full picture of how those femmes construct their identities and how differently this process can be, whereupon I want to conclude that the construction of femme identities is of varieties.
  My discussions will show that most femmes will not realize differences between ¡§butch¡¨ and ¡§femme¡¨ until they become members of the lesbian community. Thus, the construction of their lesbian identity is prior to the development of their femme one. Owing to this, these femmes are no strangers to stereotypes and misunderstandings imposed on characteristics of femmes in the lesbian culture. No matter whether they have heterosexual relationships before they come to lesbian ones or not, the construction of their femme identity is essential and important to these femmes in the way of helping them situate themselves in society.

Mass Lesbian Wedding Planned in Taipei (2011): About 1,000 people are expected to attend a mass wedding for 60 lesbian couples planned for later this month in the Taiwanese city Taipei, an Aug. 9 story reported. The mass wedding will not have any legal weight, but organizers and participants hope to encourage the Taiwanese government to take action on a long-simmering bill, first introduced in 2003, that would grant marriage equality to gay and lesbian families, an Aug. 9 On Top Magazine article said. "We are celebrating the recent legalization of gay marriage in New York, and we hope that Taiwan will make the same move in the near future," even organizer AJ Wang told the AFP. "We also want the public to see that so many gay couples are committed to each other and they deserve to be recognized and treated fairly." - Lesbian couples tie the knot in Taiwan's biggest same-sex 'wedding party' (2011). - Taiwan hosts its biggest same-sex ‘wedding’ party (2011): Talk is Cheap: The chief executive editor of a lesbian magazine, which hosted the party, said politicians only pay lip service to gay rights because they are a minority.

Chang, Ivy I-chu (2009). Mourning Love: Queer Performativity and Transformation in Zero Chou’s Spider Lilies and Splendid Float. Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies. 35(2): 277-307. PDF Download. This paper looks at the role of gay and lesbian performativity, mourning and (individual and communal) transformation in Zero Chou’s Spider Lilies (2007) and Splendid Float (2004). Chou shows us the close relation between loss of the love object, the ambivalence or destabilization of self-identity and the need for mourning that marks the gay and lesbian collective imagination. On the line between male/female, straight/gay, life/death and mourning/melancholia, the lesbian Po (Femme) in “Spider Lilies” and gay drag queen in “Splendid Float” perform a hyperbolically feminine role, thereby confusing heterosexual desire and parodying the binary logic of heterosexual representation. Also, through the force of their queer performativity, they transform their own shame and grief. Little Green as Po transforms her shame and is reconciled with the inner child of her past, thus re-affirming her lesbian desire and identity. Ai-wei/Rose and his drag queen friends open up a space of hybridization: their nightly show absorbs the force of communal, native Taiwanese village culture, and the patriarchal Taoist funeral for Rose’s lost love Sunny is infiltrated with queer desire, proliferating the possible forms of gay performativity and representation.

Wang, Chun-Chi (2007). Lesbianscape of Taiwan: Media History of Taiwan's Lesbians. PHD. Dissertation, University of Southern California. PDF Download. Lesbianscape: Media History of Taiwan’s Lesbians is a historical and theoretical study of discourses and media representations of sexuality around female intimacy, desire, and contemporary lesbian/nu tongzhi identity in the cultural context of post-war Taiwan. It argues that the subject of nu tongzhi/lesbian identity in contemporary Taiwan is a hybrid product resulting from constant negotiation and dialogue with Anglo-American ideologies of homosexuality, as well as contestations over the disputed national identities of contemporary Taiwan. Addressing the role of the media in introducing and advocating liberal sexual politics, this dissertation describes a process both of the reinscription and reappropriation of Western discourse and representations of sexuality. The examination that this project undertakes includes, but is not limited to, the past two decades that have seen the rise of a tongzhi (gay and lesbian) subject in Taiwan. Engaging in multiple methodologies, including textual analysis, discourse analysis, and survey research, this study reveals queer moments in the socio-cultural context of postwar Taiwan that can be of value for nu tongzhi/lesbians to construct their identities and articulate their desires. Linking these queer moments proposes a possible Chinese epistemology of nu tongzhi/lesbians that reflects and challenges the global dominance of Western ideologies and theories of homosexuality. Furthermore, those queer moments that enable a new way of comprehending sexual identities outside a Western cultural context have to be understood as tactics embedded in everyday life practices in order to be perceived. While many critical studies on non-Western lesbians, gays, and queers focus the spotlight on the activist perspective, this project proposes another counter-argument against the heterohegemony of popular culture. Exploring the cultural representation of female homosexuality in Taiwan thus suggests a strategy that goes beyond a series of binaries, such as East vs. West, local vs. global, and high vs. low, in order to mobilize dominant powers and ideologies as mediation to re-theorize the experience of a transnational (or postcolonial) sexual subject.

Wang, Chun-Chi (2007). Lesbianscape: Media History of Taiwan’s Lesbians. PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California. PDF Download. PDF Download. Download Page. Lesbianscape: Media History of Taiwan's Lesbians is a historical and theoretical study of discourses and media representations of sexuality around female intimacy, desire, and contemporary lesbian/nu tongzhi identity in the cultural context of post-war Taiwan. It argues that the subject of nu tongzhi/lesbian identity in contemporary Taiwan is a hybrid product resulting from constant negotiation and dialogue with Anglo-American ideologies of homosexuality, as well as contestations over the disputed national identities of contemporary Taiwan. Addressing the role of the media in introducing and advocating liberal sexual politics, this dissertation describes a process both of the reinscription and reappropriation of Western discourse and representations of sexuality...

Chao, Antonia (2005). Moving House: The Relational-Materialistic Aspect of Queer Cultural Citizenship. Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies. 57: 41-85. PDF Download. Over the past decade, two competing models have gained increasingly stronger currency in the field of queer studies: the model of globalization (or that of transnationalism) and the model of cultural citizenship. While problematizing the Euro-centric tendency inherent in the globalization scheme, the cultural citizenship model essentializes nonetheless a sense of “cultural belonging” which is nearly irreplaceable for any “cultural queer.” In the field of China Studies, scholars have prioritized unanimously the over-determining efficacy of “the family” (or “patrilineal ideology”) in molding queer identities. While recognizing the significance of patrilineal regulation in producing both straight and gay subjectivities in Chinese society, this paper is meant to be a critique of the family model as mentioned above. Based on ethnographic research with Taiwan’s “first generation of lesbians” (i.e., lesbians growing up during the first decade of post-WWII era), it examines the material base upon which a typical Taiwanese family can be constructed an analytical aspect that has been generally overlooked by queer and China scholars alike. It also takes into analysis the specific historical and political context of the 1950s to the 1970s a period of time that is now commonly termed that of “White Terror” which penalized, among other things, transgender acts and cross-dressing.

Kuang M-F, Nojima K (2003). Mental Health and Sexual Orientation of Female in Taiwan: Using Internet as the research tool. Kyushu University Psychological Research, 4: 295-305. PDF Download. This study is focused on the mental health of female in Taiwan with different sexual orientation using the Internet as the research tool. The result presented that the same sex orientation female in Taiwan are feeling more stress for being female and lesbian in the family, school and work. However they also showed more reluctant to seek the professional psychological help and medication. This study also analyzed the difference between selfidentified lesbian gender role in order to have more understanding about the relationship between lesbian subculture and mental health. The result showed that the butch lesbian reported the highest stress but the lowest mental health concems. On the other hand the pure lesbian expressed the highest rate of mental health problems... Considering the lesbian role-play as the influence factor of mental health, the femme lesbian reported the highest suicide intentions among the three role groups. The pure lesbian represented the highest mental health problems and highest need of seeking professional psychological services. However the butch groups showed the highest rate of pressure felt in the family, school, work place and peers. The result showed that the people who felt the highest stress but reported the Iowest rate of help seeking. There is need and necessity for considering the lesbian mental health and take the gender role as an influence factors since the lesbian tend to have different identity, psychological and behavior patterns. 

Global Metaphors and Local Strategies in the Construction of Taiwan's Lesbian Identities (2000, Abstract / First Page): Over the past four decades, two forms of lesbian community have come gradually into exis­tence in Taiwan: the T-Po community which revolves around butch-femme distinctions, and the (eminist lesbian community which advocates women's liberation through same-sex prac­tises. This paper examines the ways in which each community has come into formation. It highlights how, via a process of 'domestic colonialism', the feminist lesbian community has appropriated many of the gender and sexual roles performed by the T-Po community so as to establish a global and progressive 'queer' identity. The paper end by exploring a number of issues that remain problematic in Taiwan's feminist lesbian discourse today. These include notions of social class and the relevance of concepts of globalization for an understanding of contemporary lesbian identities and practises.

Lesbian’s Ecriture: the identity and subversion in Miao-jin Qui’s: The Journal of a Crocodile and Dying Testament in Monmatre﹙邱妙津的《鱷魚手記》與《蒙馬特遺書》): For the lesbian’s literature of Taiwan, Miao-jin Qui is undoubtedly an outstanding and controversial writer. Qui builds the lesbian’s power/ realm by using lesbian as the center and subject of her works. She reinforces the lesbian’s discourse and wins the Taiwan lesbian’s identity. For instance, the web site named “Lez’ Heaven” is from the protagonist in her The Journal of a Crocodile. And it is the space for the lesbian’s writing and sharing life experience. From The Journal of a Crocodile, the crocodile’s masquerade and ‘comic parody’ points out the mass’ ambivalence—homophobia and voyeurism. On the other hand, as Liang-ya Liu said, “Lez has the strong male identity. She controls the love, eros, life and the text with the identification of a writer/ artist. .. and end in self abuse and self destruction. However, what does it conceal behind her male identity? Moreover, Liu mentioned if we change Lez into a male character, it becomes the Qiong-yao romantic fiction. But Lez is a female. We can’t miss the oppression of homoeroticism from the compulsory heterosexuality. In other word, for the readers, the center of Qiong-yao’s novels is the torture in the male-female romantic love. But the core of Qui’s novels is the homosexuality. From the perspective of lesbian’s roles, Qui presents the unstable and changeable ‘sexual performativity’, demolishing the conventional idea of the binary position of butch and femme and the myth of sex=gender. In Qui’s quest of self identity, she rejects the arbitrary heterosexual apparatus by means of the individual dignity of existence. In my paper, I’ll focus on the public gaze, male identity, and the copy/ mimic of the heterosexual performance from Qui’s The Journal of a Crocodile and Dying Testament in Monmatre, and discuss the significance of its subversion.


His and her royal highness (2005): Taiwan's 'Queen of the Shopping Channel' isn't about to relinquish her crown just yet and is busy preparing to host Taiwan's first Oprah-style talk show... As the most instantly recognizable host of the Eastern Media Group's Shopping Channel (東森購物), Li Jing's face is beamed into millions of households seven days a week. And since she first stepped in front the camera to peddle jars of dried mushrooms and other popular shopping channel products, she has become a phenomenon.While Li Jing has no plans to relinquish her title of "Queen of the Shopping Channel" anytime in the near future, she will be branching out in the coming months. - Watch the Taiwan transgender variety show (2009): Now, on every Friday 8pm, channel U, you may watch the very popular Taiwan Variety Show “Diamond Club”. It is hosted by the very famous Taiwan Transgender host Li Jing. In case you do not know who she is, she is one of the pioneer host in Taiwan who was voted as one of the top and favourite host. She is already a popular host long before the others like Tao JingYing, Da S etc were popular. She is still as popular now. - Transexual Li Jing’s hubby threatens to split up (2010): Li is one of the busiest girls on the celebrity circuit as the host of a couple of prime time TV shows, Diamond Club (鑽石夜總會) and Gossip Queen. In addition she has a punishing schedule of promotional, modeling and shopping channel work to contend with. Earlier this week she appeared on a show and said she had just rowed with her man. The couple has been together eight years. Li told viewers that Hsu said they didn’t have much money when they first got together, but at least they were happy. And he wanted her to cut down on work. - Li-Ching sizzles at Golden bell (2010).

Barbie, a transgender with difficult life in Taiwan, TTVnews (2010, YouTube). - The Woman under the Burial Quilt - Death of a Trans Warrior (2005): December 11, 2003. As the transgender community of Taiwan eagerly awaited the first public appearance by Leslie Feinberg in Asia two days later at a transgender conference, news came that a local transgendered person had thrown herself in front of an on-coming express train and was killed instantly. Several transgender friends tried frantically to confirm the identity of the deceased, but no one expected it to be Tsai Ya-Ting, perhaps the most actively “out” transgender activist in Taiwan. Ya-Ting first “came out” to the media when she submitted an official petition to the President’s office in 2002, requesting that she be allowed to use a photo that reflected her actual appearance on her identification card... Ya-Ting’s move made her well-known all over Taiwan and put her in touch with Taiwan’s only but burgeoning transgender support group, The TG Butterfly Garden (Translation), through which she soon joined other actions to promote the transgender cause. In December 2002, when marginal sexualities groups announced the ten worst cases of sex right violations in Taiwan that year, Ya-Ting acted as the transgender delegate who reported on two cases that involved the transgendered: one, the rejection of her application for an ID card that would bear a photo that matched her real life identity, and two, the suicide of a transgendered youth after suffering family scolding and exile. In March 2003, Ya-Ting wrote and presented an education program at a training camp for activists in an effort to help other marginal groups understand the specificities of trans oppression and the realities of transgender existence... On December 17, 2003, GSRAT activists bid farewell to Ya-Ting at her funeral and cremation. She left a legacy of clear thinking, careful analysis, persistent effort, and outstanding bravery, which makes her suicide all the more enigmatic. Despite unanswered questions, the transgender community will always remember Ya-Ting and will continue her fight for basic human rights and dignity for all trans persons.

A transgender warrior spreads the word to Taiwan (2003): Leslie Feinberg, a pioneer in the gay, lesbian and transgender liberation movement, is in Taiwan to meet fans and sign copies of her translated book...Leslie Feinberg made her name in 1993 with her lesbian novel Stone Butch Blues (Firebrand Books, Ithaca, New York). The book described how in the 1950s and 1960s lesbians in the US were sent to psychiatric hospitals by their parents, beaten and raped over and over again by the police after raids on their bars, and routinely discriminated against, often violently, at work and in public places. Feinberg is currently in Taiwan for the first time, addressing audiences, meeting people, and signing translated copies of her novel. On Saturday she gave the keynote address at a one-day conference organized by the Center for the Study of Sexualities at the National Central University in Chungli, Taipei County... - Sex, gender, sexuality & socialism (2004): Transgender lesbian author and activist Leslie Feinberg recently spoke in Taiwan on the interconnections between issues of gender, sex, sexuality and socialism. Feinberg is also a managing editor of Workers World newspaper. The Center for the Study of Sexualities of the National Central University organized a series of events featuring Feinberg. They ran from Dec. 11 to Dec. 14 at the university in the town of Jungli and in the capital, Taipei. Feinberg's appearance coincided with the center's publication of "Trans," the first Chinese-language anthology on transgender. Two chapters from her non-fiction Marxist analysis of the roots of gender and sex oppression, "Transgender Warriors" (Beacon), were part of the anthology. Feinberg's novel "Stone Butch Blues"--a ground-breaking look at working-class lesbian, gay, bi and trans oppression--is known by many on the island because it was serialized three years ago in Chinese in a leading Taiwanese daily newspaper. Subsequently, it was published as a book, was required as summer reading for all high school students, and was selected as one of the 25 books of the year in Taiwan. Feinberg wrote a special preface for the Taiwanese edition of "Stone Butch Blues" for Chinese readers, with comments on how the McCarthy-era anti-communist witch hunts, which stepped up attacks on gay and trans people, were linked in part to U.S. ruling class rage at the successful revolution in China..

Wu, Chao-Jung (2007). Performing Postmodern Taiwan: Gender, Cultural Hybridity, and the Male Cross-Dressing Show. PhD Dissertation, Wesleyan University. PDF Download. Download Page. In the mid-1990s, a new trend--the so-called fanchuan show, a male cross-dressing show--made a great impact on Taiwan's entertainment industry. In my study, I examine cultural representation within and politics surrounding a male cross-dressing performance troupe called Redtop Arts. Redtop, established in Taipei in 1994, is a case study through which I scrutinize gender ideology and modernist cultures at large in Taiwan. Redtop's organization, politics, representation of females, multicultural programs, and selection of various musical materials from around the world highlight the Taiwanese public's perceptions of sexuality and gender, as well as exemplify the democratic hybrid culture of postcolonial Taiwan... Relying on the media reports, I assumed that the interrelationship between cross-dressing and homosexuality was clearly not applicable in this particular case study. I believed that Redtop Arts members were an excellent example of the fact that Asian male cross-dressing performance could be distinguished from Western drag queens. The performers articulated that for them, male cross-dressing performance was one type of acting, and nothing more. Therefore, issues such as cross-dressing performers’ psychological analysis, gender identity, and offstage life were not a serious concern in my early research plan... If the latter was likely to be closer to reality, then these “clean” reports might further imply another doubt: whether members of the troupe were “safely” heterosexual men at all. Perhaps the Redtop Arts members chose to present their best “face” - but not necessarily the truth? I wondered whether the members purposely concealed their homosexual orientation in order to keep their fame and respectable appearance, and to “protect” the troupe and themselves from a hegemonic society full of sexual prejudice. Such pre-fieldwork questioning turned out to be essential for me to revise my interview questions, not to mention the anthropological treatment of this research subject... A special case is my in-depth interview with Romansa, a member of Top Arts Entertainment. Romansa runs a website offering professional advice relevant to male cross-dressing performance and transvestites. On his webpage, he clearly states “homosexuals and ‘third-sex’ are all welcome to join his web-family,” openly indicating the link between male cross-dressing performance, homosexuals, and third-sex. He works at a third-sex nightclub in Taiwan and often flies to Japan working as a “barmaid” and occasionally gives crossdressing performances there...

Ho, Josephine (2006). Embodying gender: transgender body/subject formations in Taiwan. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 7(2): 228-242. PDF Download. PDF Download. ‘A soul trapped in the wrong body’ is a common description employed by trans subjects to explain their unusual condition. While useful in illustrating the often contradictory feelings, perceptions, self-images, and social expectations that trans subjects have to negotiate as they move through social space; the body–soul imagery also obscures the manifold differences in endowment and resources among trans subjects that may limit their embodiment. Important aspects of contemporary socio-cultural culture also add to the complexities of trans existence or even seriously hamper the logistics of their body/identity-construction. The present paper demonstrates such specificities of Taiwanese transgender existence in relation to body- and subject-formations, in the hope to not only shed light on the actualities of trans efforts toward self-fashioning, but also to illuminate the increasing entanglement between trans self-construction and the evolving gender culture that saturates it.

Gender Embodiment: Transgender Body/Subject Formations in Taiwan (Josephine Ho, National Central University Taiwan) (2005, Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "‘A soul trapped in the wrong body’ is a common description employed by trans subjects to explain their unusual condition. This self-characterization includes two important premises: that the body and the soul (or identity, self-image, etc.) are two separate and independent entities whose correct alignment makes up the effect of gender; and that the soul occupies a higher position than the body, to the extent that any mismatch between the two is to be resolved by modifying the body (through cross-dressing, hormonal therapy, SRS, or other procedures) to match the soul. The body-soul imagery may help illuminate the awkward situation of trans subjects by graphically presenting the often contradictory feelings and images that trans subjects have to negotiate as they move through social space. Yet the simple graphic of the body-soul imagery also tends to obscure the manifold differences among trans subjects, differences that may very well affect the credibility of their claim to ‘a soul trapped in the wrong body.’ More importantly, the imagery further conceals ‘the daily effort of doing gender in everyday interactions that all of us engage in.’ The present paper presents the various ways in which Taiwanese transgender subjects have forged out of limited social means and support their own constructions of gender and identity. As the contradictory and disharmonious body/identity of the transgender subjects struggles to assert itself despite existing gender stereotypes and prejudices, their self-reflexive project of doing gender are also constantly ‘trans’-gressing/’trans’-forming existing gender/sexuality categories."

HIV/AIDS & Safer Sex

Taiwan's gay activists outraged by attitudes towards HIV (2004): Reacting to the recent arrest of 92 men at an orgy in Taipei, gay activists claimed the Taiwanese media still reflected a good deal of anti-gay sentiment and linking of gay men with HIV. - AIDS is god's wrath against gays: Taiwan vice president (2003). - Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviors among men visiting gay bathhouses in Taiwan (2006): Irregular use of condoms during oral sex, condom inaccessibility at bathhouses, unprotected sex at public venues, no prior HIV test, and 5 or more visits to bathhouses every month were independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Conclusion: Men attending gay bathhouses report engaging in unsafe sex practices and are at substantial risk of acquisition of HIV/STIs. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive prevention efforts at gay bathhouses. - AIDS in Asia: The Continent's Growing Crisis. Prosperous Taiwan fights HIV with education. Free condoms in gay gathering places to keep infection rate low... At the end of 2002, gay and bisexual men made up 49 percent of Taiwan's 4, 666 HIV/AIDS cases, followed by heterosexuals with 42 percent and intravenous drug users with just 1.7 percent. In all, only a minuscule .03 percent of the island's 17.6 million adult residents are infected, according to Taiwan's Center for Disease Control (CDC)... - HIV/AIDS in Taiwan (Wikipedia).

Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health, R.O.C. (Taiwan) (2011). Annual Report 2011. PDF Download. The largest number of infections in 2010 was in the 20 to 29 age group, accounting for 847, or 47.2%, of all cases. The second largest group was the 30 to 39 age group, numbering 543, or 30.2%, of all cases (see Table 1). An analysis of risk factors showed that in 2010, the highest percentage of HIV infections was a result of sexual transmission, with men having sex with men (MSM) accounting for 70% of all cases. The second largest percentage of infections was heterosexual contact, accounting for 16% (see Figure 2). Of Taiwanese nationals infected by HIV in 2010, 1,730, or 96%, were males and 66, or 4%, were females. The ratio of infected males to females was 26:1.

Chen YJ, Lin YT, Chen M, Huang SW, Lai SF, Wong WW, Tsai HC, Lin YH, Liu HF, Lyu SY, Chen YM (2011). Risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion among Taiwanese men visiting gay saunas who have sex with men. BMC Infectious Diseases, 11: 334. AbstractPDF Download. PDF Download. Men having sex with men (MSM) accounts for 33.6% of all reported cases of HIV-1 infection in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection among MSM in gay saunas in Taiwan. Patrons of 5 gay saunas were recruited for a weekly volunteer counseling and testing program from 2001 to 2005. Questionnaires were collected for a risk factor analysis. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. HIV-1 prevalence rates among MSM in gay saunas in 2001 through 2005 were 3.4%, 5.1%, 8.9%, 8.5%, and 8.3%, respectively. In total, 81 of 1, 093 (7.4%) MSM had HIV-1 infection... Overall, 7.4% Taiwanese MSM participating in this study had HIV-1 subtype B infection. Uncircumcised, being versatile role during anal intercourse, and having sex with more than one person during each sauna visit were main risk factors for HIV-1 infection.

UNAIDS (2010): Taiwan: MSM Country Snapshots – Country Specific Information on HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG). PDF Download. There appear to be no estimates available for the size of the combined MSM and TG population in Taiwan. • Country-wide HIV prevalence estimates for MSM and TG between 2004 and 2009 were between 4.2% and 10%. (References: 19,21) • There is higher HIV prevalence among MSM who use bathhouses, with estimates ranging from 5.2% to 15.8%. (11,12) • The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM and TG is significantly higher than the general population prevalence rate of 0.02% (as reported in 2004). (19,21) • From 2004 to 2008, between 48.2% and 57% of HIV cases were among MSM. This is likely to be an underestimate, as MSM in Taiwan may be unlikely to report their sexual orientation due to social stigma. (5,19,21,22)

Ko, Nai-Ying (2009). HIV infection of MSM in Taiwan. PowerPoint Presentation: HIV Seroprevalence rate among MSM in Taiwan, 1985-2000 - Sex & City Project in Gay Bathhouses 2004-2008 - 41% Gay bathhouse attendees has one of HIV/STIs in 2004 - HIV prevalence and incidence among gay bathhouse attendees in Taiwan, 2004-2008 - Prevalence of STIs among gay bathhouse attendees in Taiwan, 2004-2008. - Changes of risky behaviors among gay bathhouse attendees in Taiwan: 2004-2008. - HIV infection among MSM in Taiwan. HIV surveillance programs in Taiwan. - Anonymous HIV Tests. - Community-based VCT. - Peer Education among MSM. - Educational Materials. - Pa-Pa Bag for gay bathhouse, circuit or rave parties. - Opportunities of HIV prevention for MSM.

Li, Charlie Chia-Lin Li (2009). Global Governance and the Constructions of Safe Sex Epistemology: A Rearticulation of AIDS Politics in Contemporary Taiwan. Dissertation Proposal. Word Download. In Taiwanese context, the Chinese translation of MSM used in HIV epidemiology research also varies from time to time, causing even more discrepancies in the discourses of MSM.  Different translations embed various (and sometimes conflicting) temporalities and relationships, and would therefore result in disparate discursive effects.  Inspired by Foucaultian approach to discourse, the thesis will analyze the translations of MSM in terms of what they signify and how they work in Taiwan’s contemporary AIDS politics. For example, in the task of HIV/AIDS prevention, targeting at men who have sex with men can be different from focusing on men who have sex with men, or even from men who have had sex with men. This very sloppy and liminal characteristics of MSM open up a door for the thesis to intervene into the global governance of MSM when the designated population is re-coopted and refashioned as the main target by UNAIDS/WHO’s Guidelines for Second Generation HIV Surveillance: The Next Decade. Furthermore, I will investigate what distorting effects are engendered while Taiwan’s public health officials realign their HIV/AIDS prevention research and policy with the governance of MSM provided in this “well-thought-out” and “easy-to-use” international template material.  The concrete cases concerning the MSM-effects in Taiwan, such as gay bathhouses MSM HIV epidemiology research backed by CDC and the Criteria for Donor Selection formulated by Department of Health (DOH), are to be examined and problematized in this thesis.

Abstracts: - The stress and coping strategies of Taiwan's gay men when they encounter AIDS and AIDS stigma (2006). - Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviors among men visiting gay bathhouses in taiwan (2006): Irregular use of condoms during oral sex, condom inaccessibility at bathhouses, unprotected sex at public venues, no prior HIV test, and 5 or more visits to bathhouses every month were independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Men attending gay bathhouses report engaging in unsafe sex practices and are at substantial risk of acquisition of HIV/STIs. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive prevention efforts at gay bathhouses. - Comparison of sexual behaviors between male homosexuals and male heterosexuals in Taiwan (2000): Similar to western studies, our study found that the study group in Taiwan adopted more risky sexual behaviors. Each group had its particular sexual behavioral pattern and subculture of sexuality. However, a longitudinal follow-up study with ethnographic perspective is necessary for a more sophisticated understanding of the trends and changes of sexual behavior in homosexuals. - Estimating the Number of HIV-Infected Gay Sauna Patrons in Taipei Area (2006) (PDF Download): The median estimates for the number of HIV-positive patrons of the five gay saunas increase from 120 (95% CI: 76.5–159.0) during the first half of 2000 to 224 (95% CI: 171.0–265.5) for the second half of 2002. The result, indicating two-fold increase within two and half years, confirms that the gay sauna patrons in Taipei area are at high risk for HIV infection. - Maximising the potential of voluntary counselling and testing for HIV: sexually transmitted infections and HIV epidemiology in a population testing for HIV and its implications for practice (2012): This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among persons who attended voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service for HIV and to assess whether the VCT programme reached the right population at risk in Taiwan... Male clients, men who have sex with men and clients with one-night stand and casual sexual partners were more likely to re-attend VCT service in the next 12 months. The overall STI prevalence was 3.5% for HIV infection, 2.2% syphilis, 1.0% amoebiasis, 4.7% chlamydia and 0.7% gonorrhoea. In logistic regression model, men who have sex with men were consistently independently associated with HIV infection, syphilis and amoebiasis.

Films / The Arts

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Taiwan). - Asian Dykes Take to Celluloid (2005): An interview with an organizer of the upcoming First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival to be held in Taiwan... A lot has changed in Taiwan since the 1950's, when the nationalist ruling party, the Kuomintang, used to jail lesbians and gay men for "degeneracy" and "subversion." In 2000, Taiwan held its first democratic presidential election, and in mid-July this year, the capital, Taipei, will play host to the First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival. The lineup will include the 30-minute long, "The Girls That Way" by Beijing filmmaker Shadow Zhang, and shorter pieces that run the gamut from expressionist to documentary works, personal essays, and fiction. - An alternative film festival (2002): The festival, which is actually the second following a small-scale festival last year held in a handful of gay bars, will feature 11 movies, eight of which were made by local filmmakers with the remaining three coming from the US... As another way to attract a crowd, the festival has placed its focus on the recent works of Taiwanese filmmakers, who are quickly adding to a small, yet significant stock of locally made gay films. - "Flee" circus: The gay-themed Chinese-Taiwanese film "Fleeing By Night" has some touching moments but is too close to "Farewell My Concubine" for comfort. - A Week in Gay Taipei (1998): "Films about gay life, including The Wedding Banquet, Wong Kaiwai's Happy Together, and Lin Cheng-sheng's Murmur of Youth, are relatively easy channels through which to get some information about homosexuality..."  - A lesbian film set in Taipei and Hamburg (2009): The three-way love relationship movie is directed by a female director Monika Treut. The story is about Sophie from Hamburg whose Taiwanese lover is murdered. Then a journalist shows up who is also from Taiwan and who is investigating the murder. Sophie falls in love with the journalist but finds something mysterious about her new lover. Ghosted (曖昧) starts playing today. - Ghosted: Summary. - Taiwan censor approves Scud's controversial gay drama, "Amphetamine" (2010). -

Taiwan: Asia's First Lesbian Festival Opens (2005): The first Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival (ALFF) (第一屆亞洲拉子影展) is set to give rise to a new wave of homosexual movies at Spot -- Taipei Film House (台北光點) from tonight through Wednesday. Organized by the Gender and Sexuality Rights Association Taiwan (台灣性別人權協會), with support from the Institute for Tongzhi Studies, City University of New York and Spectra Studio for Asian Queer Media, New York City, ALFF is an international, collaborative showcase aimed at establishing a venue for media works made by or about lesbians and homosexual communities in the Asian region.

Happy alone? Sad young men in East Asian gay cinema (2000):This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause. .

Cinema: Gay Teens In Taiwan (2000, Alternate Link): A rosy hued documentary gets a mixed reception in the Lion City... "Documentary filmmakers are very political," declares Taiwan director Mickey Chen. He is also gay and proud. Hence Boys for Beauty, his cinematic celebration of homosexual youth, which, he says, performed creditably at box offices in the island last year. And if the documentary is any sort of indicator, 33-year-old Chen stands at the more accommodating end of the political spectrum. Boys focuses primarily on the lives of three teenagers - a drag dancer, a straight-A scholar from an elite institution and a student from an average school. Chen had ruthlessly whittled the "leads" from a shortlisted series of interviews with 12 boys and their families. Those choices, however, came under some fire at a special screening of his film organized in Singapore last month in conjunction with his visit. "Why is it that you depict only effeminate gays?" demands one member of the predominantly male audience. The boyish Chen quips: "Because I believe in the power of sissyhood."  - I Am by Nature a Boy: Portrayals of Gays in Recent Chinese Film and Literature (1997): The most remarkable portrayal of gay men in recent Chinese film is Ang Lee's The Wedding Banquet. A tremendous success both in the United States and its native Taiwan (it is the highest grossing Taiwanese film ever), this film is marked by many pe culiarities. Winston Chao, the premier Taiwanese leading man, plays a gay Chinese-American, Gao Wai-Tung living in New York City with his Caucasian lover Simon. Wai-Tung enters into a farce of a marriage with illegal immigrant Wei-Wei in order to appeas e his parents' wishes. All goes afoul, however, when the elder Gaos arrive in America for their only son's wedding and subsequent wedding banquet. The Wedding Banquet's portrayal of a gay couple is truly revolutionary, not only in the Taiwanese context but also in the American context. Rarely are gay men portrayed in such relationships as Simon and Wai-Tung are portrayed here. This film suc ceeds because the "gay issue" is taken at almost face value and not flaunted. Rather, it is the cultural crossroads combined with the farce of maintaining this facade of a heterosexual marriage that gives this film its humor, drama and strength. This is another example of a Chinese artist succeeding where even Westerners have failed in the portrayal of gay men. The film was revolutionary for gays on the island of Taiwan as well. The dialogue it opened up regarding sexuality in general and gay sexuality in particular paved the way for a groups of students at universities in Taiwan to organize in gay issues study groups for the first time. This film illustrates the ability of filmmakers and other artists to affect their own culture in a positive manner.. - Hard Times Ahead for Taiwan Gays, Predicts Film Director (2000): The election of Chen Shuibian as Taiwan's President may spell ill for the island's gay, lesbian and bisexual community, says famous gay director Mickey Chen. Mickey Chen, speaking at a private screening of his latest film, "Boys for Beauty" in Singapore in March, related three incidents that indicated that Chen might be unfriendly to the GLB - or tong-zhi - community. All the three incidents happened when Chen was Mayor of Taipei between 1996 and 1998. - Taiwan-made film enjoys awards feast in Berlin: The Taiwan-made film "The Wedding Banquet," directed by Ang Lee and produced by the Central Motion Picture Corp., won a Golden Bear award for Best Picture Feb. 22 at the 43rd annual Berlin International Film Festival. - The Current State of Queer Cinema: Taiwanese Tomboys to Singing Campers (2003): Taiwanese tomboy flick "Blue Gate Crossing".  - Blue Gate Crossing (2002, Wikipedia, Trailer). - [퀴어영화] 艾草 Artemisia, 2009 bed scene (Taiwan gay movie drama, YouTube). - Taiwan gay drama "Summer" heats U.S. theaters (2007). - Twenty Something Taipei (2011, Trailer): Major lesbian characters... Short Take: The world of hip young club hoppers in Taipei. The DJ and her girlfriend become Taiwan’s first lesbian couple to get married.

Lesbian Factory (2010, Documentary): In late 2004, 125 Philippines women migrant workers came to the Taiwan International Workers' Association (TIWA) to file complaints for not receiving their salary. While filming, there were sweet scenes of lesbian couples cuddling each other in front of the camera. This documentary of a labor struggle unexpectedly became love stories. These women courageously fight against the state policies while struggling for love!

Formula 17: Testing a Formula for Mainstream Cinema in Taiwan (2005): ... However, a flicker of hope: every few posts, one encounters the names of a few titles of local films that “aren't too bad”, as one poster puts it. Double Vision (Chen Kuo-fu, 2002) and Blue Gate Crossing (Yee Chin-yen, 2002) come up regularly, as does Formula 17 (Chen Yin-jung, 2004), which was a surprise hit among teenage and college-aged audiences, grossing NT$6 million, making it Taiwan's highest grossing fiction film in 2004. Like Blue Gate Crossing, Formula 17 is a romantic comedy with homosexual themes made by young filmmakers who have no expectations when it comes to attracting audiences, yet somehow their breed of quirky, charming comedy appeals to its target demographic...  - Formula 17 (Wikipedia). - Gay Taiwan comedy banned in Singapore (2004): The Taiwan-produced comedy Formula 17, in which the entire cast of characters is gay (and male), has been banned in Singapore. The Singapore Films Appeals Committee ruled that the film "conveys the message that homosexuality is normal and a natural progression of society." The film, the directing debut of 23-year-old Chen Yin-jung, a woman, has been a huge hit in Taipei, where it grossed nearly $250,000 in four theaters, and was screened at the Cannes Film Festival in May to decent reviews...

In Taiwan, 'Spider Lilies' fuels a small gay renaissance (2007): Homosexuality is nothing new in Taiwanese cinema. Ever since 1986, when Yu Kan Ping's "Outcasts" became the first local gay film to receive approval from the government, there has been a regular trickle of gay films from Ang Lee's iconic "The Wedding Banquet" in 1993 to Yee Chin-yen's "Blue Gate Crossing" (2002) and Chen Yin-jung's romantic comedy "Formula 17," the highest grossing fiction film in Taiwan in 2004. Last year "Reflections," directed by Yao Hung-i, told the story of a lesbian relationship broken apart by the appearance of a man in the women's lives, while a coming-of-age melodrama, "Eternal Summer," by a young director, Leste Chen, involving a love triangle between two men and a woman, proved a massive hit at the Taiwanese box office. Both films won best acting nods at the Golden Horse Award 2006... - Spider Lilies (2007). - Interview With Zero Chou (2008): Out director Zero Chou is one of the few openly lesbian filmmakers in the world, and the only one in Taiwan. Her first film, Splendid Float (2004), which was about drag queens, won three of Taiwan's Golden Horse Awards, including Best Taiwanese Film of the Year. Her second film, Spider Lilies (2007), won the Berlinale Teddy Award for Best Queer Feature, and comes out on DVD in the United States on May 6.Chou's next film, Drifting Flowers, which premiered at the Berlinale in February 2008 and will be screening at festivals this year, brings together three loosely connected stories about sexuality and gender. It stars newcomer Chao Yi-lan, a Taiwanese acting student who brings an authentic, natural butch presence to the screen.

Progression or Regression?: The ‘Gay Teen Summer Romance’ as Popular Phenomenon in Taiwanese Cinema (K.K. Seet, National University of Singapore) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Despite increasing media reports of Taiwanese authorities busting private gay parties on the pretext of narcotic raids, a curious phenomenon has transpired in contemporary Taiwanese cinema, what I shall label ‘the gay teen summer romance.’ Featuring gay protagonists still in school or barely out of school, the genre is shrouded in the golden haze of youth and conveyed in a pastel palette, where treatment of issues are as sugar-coated and downy-edged as the summer days are long. Two examples, both of which garnered considerable critical as well as commercial success, are Blue Gate Crossing and Formula 17. While ostensibly encoded in the template of the bildungsroman, they avoid its necessary rites of passage by the deliberate postponement (in the case of Blue Gate Crossing) or evasion (in the case of Formula 17) in their confrontations with heteronormativity. This paper studies the strategies of erasure involved in the creation of a faux utopia that results in a kind of infantilism instead of affirming an alternative queer reality. In particular, Formula 17 can be read as both an exercise in commodification and an extended trope of political self-delusion or national myopia when juxtaposed with another teen (albeit heterosexual) romance of mainstream appeal that opened in the same period but failed miserably in the box office: Love of May, which dissects the poignant encounter between a Taiwanese boy and a PRC girl against a larger canvas of the cross-straits relationship between the two Chinas." 

A Week in Gay Taipei (1998): Where can you begin in trying to understand homosexual life? Coming into contact with gay literature has always been a place to start for many homosexuals. Cheng Mei-li, who has done field research into the history of gay life in Taiwan, notes that there were books about homosexual life as early as the 1970s, or even earlier. These were considered an element of "modern literature." They included Pai Hsien-yun's Taipei People and Lonely 17, Lin Huai-min's Cicada, Hsuan Hsiao-fo's Outside the Circle, and others. In addition, the collection The Letters of Hsi Teh-chin (a famous painter) was an important work in the history of gay life in Taiwan. Works of importance in the 1980s included Pai Hsien-yung's Sinful Child, Chen Juo-yi's Paper Marriage, and Kuo Liang-hui's The Third Sex. Sinful Child was even made into a film. Nevertheless, it was only in the 1990s that homosexual writing really became prominent in literary circles in Taiwan and became a fad. G&L Magazine founder James An points out that in recent years there has been a flurry of Chinese-language homosexual literature. Works of gay literaure have won lucrative prizes in all categories-novels, novellas, and short stories. It is impossible to deny the achievements of this body of work.

Liu, Julian (1998). Queer Deviance as Critical Method. Discourses, 3: 5-9.  PDF Download. Any understanding of contemporary gay cultural formations in Taiwan must consider the role of Western cultural influence on the island. Taiwanese gay and lesbian movements have adopted much of the rhetoric of their western role models. Rainbow flags, pink triangle pins, and buttons stating “chenmo dengyu siwang” (silence equals death) are displayed and sold at Taipei bookstores. “Chu yigui” (coming out of the closet) is a theme often discussed in articles about gay and lesbian life. Yet the emergence of modern gay identities in Taiwan has not been a unified, linear, process whereby western notions have been transplanted, in toto, into the local context. Authors in Taiwan writing on gay themes have drawn from Chinese “tradition” even as they have adopted Westernized discourse surrounding homosexuality. Our attempts to locate a gay presence in fiction from Taiwan must begin with the ironic step of avoiding the use of an essential “gay” identity as a starting point of analysis.  

New Park: Gay Literature in Taiwan (2002, PDF Download): The majority of gay-themed literature in Chinese is produced in Taiwan. Especially in the last decade many Taiwanese gay-themed works have been acclaimed, translated into other languages, and/or adapted into films. As homosexuality in fiction can be explicit or implicit, an exhaustive examination of homosexuality in Taiwanese literature is virtually impossible. Thus, this short survey will only centre on the works where explicit representation of homosexuality is identifiable.. - The Legacy of the Crocodile: Critical Debates over Taiwanese Lesbian Fiction (2002, PDF Download): Since the early 1990s Taiwan has witnessed a remarkable explosion of queer cultural production. A spate of gay, lesbian, and transgender-themed films was released, spanning a range of styles from popular to art-house and independent documentary, by directors including Ang Lee, Tsai Ming-liang, Mickey Chen, and Li Xiangru. Graphic artworks appeared deconstructing normative sexuality and gender, by artists including Tung-lu Hung, Mei-hua Lai, and Chun-ming Hou.

Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction from Taiwan: Lesbian and gay--or queer--fiction (known in Mandarin as tongzhi wenxue) constitutes a major contribution to Taiwanese literature, as evidenced by the remarkable number of prestigious literary awards won by many of the authors of the short stories presented here. Indeed, the meteoric rise of this new genre was a defining feature of Taiwan's literary scene in the 1990s. Queer fiction was also instrumental in forming self-identifying subcultural gay readerships, thus serving a significant political function. But most strikingly, this fiction has been immensely popular with general readers in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, as well as in diasporic Chinese communities worldwide. The startlingly fresh, brave voices that speak through these stories attest to the powerful social ferment of the past ten years in Taiwan, which have witnessed a revolution in discourses on sex and sexuality in the public sphere. - Taiwan's literature of transgressive sexuality: Introduction Chapter for Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction from Taiwan (PDF Download. PDF Download.).

Chou, Dienfang (2010). Exploring the Meaning of Yaoi in Taiwan for Female Readers: From the Perspective of Gender. Intercultural Communication Studies XIX: 1: 78-90. PDF Download. The purpose of this study is to explore the meaning of Yaoi in Taiwan. Yaoi is a Japanese phrase that describes a group of females who enjoy creating and reading the male homosexual comic books or novels. This study uses an intensive interview method to examine the meanings behind the females’ enjoyment of reading Yaoi texts. Based on the literature, this study uses the perspective of genders to examine the interview data by six concepts: reciprocity, substitution, and social taboos in love relationships as well as conversion, initiative, and wantonness in sexual discourse. The result of this study shows that the primary meanings to Yaoi readers are: to practice the doubts from the established gender conventions; to enjoy the freedom from breaking free of gender constraints through those stories without any gender differences; to gain joy and satisfaction by crossing the standard gender norms through fictional homosexual love stories. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed as well...  Boy’s Love (BL) is one kind of male homosexual romantic love story, usually written and read by women, that exists in the form of comics and novels in Taiwan. These kinds of stories originated from the non-professional creation and adaptation of parody works in the 1970s in Japan. These adapted works were privately published without the jurisdiction and supervision of publishing houses together with the adaptation of well-known works... Yaoi stories can be traced back to Taiwan since 1992, when the Copyright Law was amended, and comic books went from piracy to legitimacy. With the market booming, a large number of Yaoi were introduced to Taiwan via Japanese comics. Other than Yaoi comics from Japan, the privately published Doujinshi in Taiwan was also an important resource. After establishing a good readership, the number of readers of the original work from Japan or privately published Doujinshi, as well as parodied male homosexual love stories, grew steadily over time. The autograph signing session of Japanese Yaoi comic writer, Shungiku Nakamura, caused quite a sensation by the long queues of readers at the Comics Fair in 2006 (United Daily News, 2006, August 12). Another example: a Yaoi forum was held at the 2007 Taipei International Book Exhibition, and the degree of popularity of Yaoi in Taiwan could be witnessed by how many avid readers burst into the exhibition hall on that day (United Daily News, 2007, February 2).

Liou, Liang-ya (2003). At the Intersection of the Global and the Local: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Fictions by Pai Hsien-yung, Li Ang, Chu Tien-wen, and Chi Ta-wei. Postcolonial Stidies, 6(2): 191-206. PDF Download. PDF Download. Before I discuss Taiwan fictional representations of male homosexuality, a brief introduction of Taiwan’s lesbian/gay/queer movements in the 1990s is needed, even though the fictions I deal with are not limited to those of the 1990s...  Writers whose fictions deal with male homosexuality, lesbianism, and queer sexuality are not necessarily involved in the movements. They may draw from personal experiences, books, movies, or MTVs. Here again the global and the local intersect. Gay and lesbian subcultures already existed in Taiwan in uni-sex communities such as girls’ middle schools, boys’ middle schools, the army, prisons, etc. Classic Chinese and Western fictions about male homosexuality are also well known. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a wave in Europe and North America of movies and MTVs portraying gays, lesbians, and queers. After the lifting of the martial law, these Western cultural commodities were more quickly imported than ever. The prestigious Golden Horse international film festival, the largest and most important one in Taiwan, has included gay and lesbian movies since 1990.. Pai Hsien-yung’s Crystal Boys aims at a “collective coming out,” but its liberal humanism and reconciliation with paternal authority undercuts its subversive potential. Both Li Ang’s “A Romance about Forbidden Desire” and Chi Ta-wei’s “Rituals” shake off the familialism that obsesses Crystal Boys, and is much gayer in tone, while Chu Tien-wen’s Notes of a Desolate Man is ambivalent and ambiguous, as the dissembling narrator both endorses heterosexual family values and celebrates decadent aesthetic. Partly because it focuses on homosexual prostitutes, Crystal Boys to some extent still conflates male homosexuality with curse, guilt, lust, or tragedy. The other three texts all take for granted gay men’s sexual identity and pleasure, even though the narrator of Notes of a Desolate Man sometimes denigrates male homosexuality. And “A Romance about Forbidden Desire” rewrites Crystal Boys by satirizing L. A. gay men’s linking the Taipei homosexual prostitute with curse and tragedy. “Rituals” is even more defiant and seductive than “A Romance about Forbidden Love,” since it satirically reveals that a smug heterosexist, homophobic married man is a closeted gay man.

Martin, Fran (2000). Surface tensions: reading productions of Tongzhi in contemporary Taiwan. GLQ: a Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 6(1): 61-68. Abstract & Download Page. It is probably impossible to think about the English term homosexuality in a contemporary context without addressing at some point the shadowy enclosure of “the closet”; in Taipei’s tongzhi activist and academic circles it has become increasingly difficult to ignore the presence of “the mask.” While it would be difficult to argue simply that the mask operates in Taiwan where the closet does in Europe, the United States, and Australia - since, for one thing, the language of the homosexual closet [yigui] coexists with and interpenetrates that of the mask [mianju] in Taiwan - I nevertheless hope to hold the tropes analytically distinct to a certain degree. This essay, then, considers the mask and the closet and is particularly concerned with some specific questions, which include the following: If the closet is organized around an irresolvable tension between secrecy and disclosure, how does the mask operate in relation to these terms? Is it possible that the mask has other, different investments instead of or alongside them? What perverse relationships might there be between the tongzhi mask and the idea of tongzhi “identity”? What kind of subject and what kind of “homosexuality” are projected by the trope of the tongzhi mask in its various deployments? My project is to chart some of the logics of the tongxinglian/tongzhi mask, not necessarily in decisive distinction to those of the homosexual closet, but nevertheless to take account of the mask’s cultural and historical specificity. I am aided in these speculations by a consideration of Ta-wei Chi’s 1995 novella The Membranes, which appears in the final section of this essay as a text inhabited by a logic and a subject analogous to those suggested by the mask.

Martin, Fran (2000). From Citizenship to Queer Counterpublic: Reading Taipei's New Park. Communal/Plutal, 8(1): 81-94. Abstract & Download Page. This paper focuses on the ways in which official narratives of the 'global city' in 1990s Taipei project models of sexuality which are negotiated and contested by gay and lesbian (tongzhi) activist practices and discourses. Analysing the densely symbolic site of Taipei's New Park and particularly the Democratic Progressive Party City Government's plans for its redevelopment (1995-96), the paper considers the tense relation which the liberal male homosexual cruising which traditionally takes place in New Park and the surrounding city block. Examining the City Government's liberal rhetoric on homosexuality (tongxinglian), the paper contrasts this rhetoric with the more conservative and overtly homophobic sexual policies espoused by other regimes in the region. It also attempts to unpack the logic that enables such a self-consciously 'tongzhi-friendly' administration nevertheless to continue harshly to discipline men who practise homosex in the newly 'public' spaces of the park and the street. Finally, the paper discusses some critical responses by tongshi writers and activists to the City Government's rewriting of the 'public' and the 'private' for the new Taipei.

Martin F (1999). Chen Xue's queer tactic. Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique, 7(1): 71-94. Abstract & Download Page. In recent years, "queer" (e.g., tongzhi, ku’er, guaitai, or xie) has become the focal point for discussions about sexuality in Taiwan, alongside the older terms lesbian and gay. Queer also appears in Taiwan in queer theory, a literary-political movement to draw on poststructuralist identity theory as a means of breaking down essentialized sexuality and gender categories, and advocating a sexual-identity politics on the basis of difference and multiplicity. Like any theory, queer theory emerged from a specific epistemological context, in this case the Anglo-American academy. Like other signs, queer can move from one conditioning context to another conditioning context, where inevitably it will take on different meanings. This article maps some of the different conditions queer is encountering in contemporary Taiwan, in order to illustrate how rewriting queer under new conditions shows up the earlier projects' very limits. My hope in discussing how queer is being reproduced in Taiwan is to make the limits more apparent and thereby to contribute to the project of queering globalized queer theory. The less globally circulated text I consider here is Taiwan lesbian writer Chen Xue's 1995 story "Searching for the Lost Wings of the Angel". - In Search of the Lost Wings of the Angels (2012): Summary: “In Search of the Lost Wings of the Angels” is a story that focuses on two stories,  one about the  relationship between a mother and daughter dealing with grief and the narrator and her female lover. Register: In Search of the Lost Wings of Angels was really deep to me and shows the connection and even dependance women have on men. It showed the balance a father adds to a house hold and the disconnect that occurs between mother and daughter once a father is absent. This is exactly what happened between Caocao and her mother when Caocao father died. Instantly Caocao mother abandoned  her “I hated the fact that after I lost my father, she unexpectedly made me lose respect for her as a mother...

Lai, Chia-chih (2007). Deciphering the Abjection of ○ in Notes of a Desolate Man. PDF Download. It all starts from an expressive symbol, ○, which is a polysemous pictograph with infinite signifieds varying with the readers’ insight. Under its diverse presentments, ○ has abundant metaphysical implications in various cultural contexts. I intend to exploit geometry as a methodology that envisages a geometric figure, to be the main concern of reading as well as the diagram of interpreting texts. Utilizing an ○filter, this paper aims at ○-reading the most representative scripture of Taiwanese queer writing  - Notes of a Desolate Man, in which the versatile author, Zhu Tian-Wen, has woven her allusions of ○ into a luxuriant text instinct with heterogeneity and intertexuality. The paper contains two parts: I. Reading ○ in Notes of a Desolate Man; II. ○ Writing in Notes of a Desolate Man. The main task of the first part is to closely read the novel in an ○ point of view, to explore all ○ elements in the novel, and to particularize possible connotations of both the abstract and concrete ○s. The second part is to question the ○ myths pointed out in the first part by analyzing the abject and sublime writing scenes of the main character in the novel. 

Resources: Conferences / Books / Internet

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to Taiwan: - Made in Taiwan: Gay Rights of the Western Body with Oriental Soul (Hong-cheng Maurice Chang, University of Milan). - ‘Queer’ that Matters -What is Queer Culture in Taiwan? (Pei-Jean Chen, National Chiao-Tung University). - Queer(ing) Taiwan and Its Future: From an Agenda of Mainstream Self-Enlightenment to One of Sexual Citizenship? (Wei-cheng Chu, National Taiwan University). - Gender Embodiment: Transgender Body/Subject Formations in Taiwan (Josephine Ho, National Central University Taiwan). - The Regime of Compulsory Gay Masculinity in Taiwan (Dennis Chwen-der Lin, University of Warwick). - Guess Who I Am? A perspective on the Gay Male Gaze and Drag Queen in Taiwan Gay Culture in 1990s (Eric Ching-Yao Luo, National Chiao-tung University). - Taiwanese aboriginal gay male subjectivity: The life stories of a Paiwanese gay man named Dakanow (Danubak Matalaq, HLTC, Taiwan). - Sexing the Cinematic Space: Films from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan (Sean Metzger, Duke University). - Progression or Regression?: The ‘Gay Teen Summer Romance’ as Popular Phenomenon in Taiwanese Cinema (K.K. Seet, National University of Singapore). - A Copy or Mimicry? The Differences of Landscapes in the Gay Pride Parade in Taiwan (Wen-yu Wu, University of Sheffield).  

Center For the Study of Sexualities (National Central University, Links given to related publication information written in Chinese): Bulletin of Sexuality Education, published three times a year for elementary and middle school teachers--temporarily suspended due to workload difficulties. A book length journal, Working Papers In Gender/Sexuality Studies, published three times a year for scholars and students in this area (nos. 1 & 2 joint issue on "Sex Work--Prostitute Rights" (1998.1); nos. 3 & 4 joint issue on "Queer: Theory and Politics" (1998.9); nos. 5 & 6 joint issue on "Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence" (1999.6). To enhance circulation and access by the general public, the journal is now transformed and continued by the following book series. A book series on Sexuality and our conference proceedings.  Titles include: Stories of 12 Working Girls (1997); Visionary Essays in Gender-Sexuality Studies (1998); From Queer Space to Education Space (2000).  Gender/Sexuality Politics and Subject Formation (2000); Tongzhi (Queer) Studies (2001); Sex Work Studies (2003); Transgender ?2003). A 280-page basic reading material, The Gender/Sexuality Campus: Radical Education for the New Generation (1998), written especially for middle school teachers who are keen on promoting radical gender/sexuality education. 

Books: - Situating Sexualities: Queer Representation in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture - 2003 - by Fran Martin (Google Books). Martin, F. (trans.) Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction From Taiwan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press (Review). - Angelwings: Contemporary Queer Fiction from Taiwan -2003 - by Fran Martin. - Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan - 2011 - by Hans Huang (Hong Kong University Press) (Google Books) (Review: Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan: Hans Tao-Ming Huang's new book seeks to chronicle five decades of queer related cultural history and politics of sexuality in Taiwan by examining literary works including Pai Hsien-yung's Crystal Boys, one of Taiwan's first recognised gay novels; Taiwanese newspaper observations of same-sex issues; the influence the feminist movement has in Taiwan; among others.) - Utopia Guide to Taiwan (2nd Edition): the Gay and Lesbian Scene in 12 Cities Including Taipei, Kaohsiung and Tainan - 2007 - by John Goss. - Notes of a Desolate Man - 1994, 2000 - by Chu T'ien-wen (Google Books) (Review) (Review: Named one of 1994's best books by the `New York Times,' `Notes of a Desolate Man' is an ambitious meditation on one man's experience of gay life in Taiwan... This novel isn't new, but it has recently become accessible online in digital form in two different formats, as well as being issued in paperback. As it has never been reviewed in the Taipei Times it seems appropriate to take a closer look at it now. When Howard Goldblatt was in Taipei last month he pointed to this book as the most challenging he'd ever translated (he tackled it along with his wife, Taiwan-born Sylvia Li-Chun Lin). This, and the fact that it's a Taiwanese novel about gays, written by a woman, that has been voted one of the best books of the year by the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times, makes it something we should sit up and take note of.) - The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China - 2003 - by Tze-Lan D. Sang  (University of Chicago Press) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Red Is Not The Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction On Love & Sex Between Women, Collected Stories - 2001 - edited by Patricia Sieber (Google Books) (Review).

Book reveals lesbian lives (2001): The sex lives of lesbian students at Taiwan's top high school for girls came under the spotlight yesterday following the publication of a book chronicling their experience. The Taming and the Resistance (馴服與抵抗) is a collection of interviews with 10 lesbian women who graduated from the Taipei First Girls' Senior High School (北一女), all of whom later went on to study at Taiwan's top university -- National Taiwan University (NTU). The interviewees, aged between 23 and 32 and appearing under pseudonyms in the book, also reveal how the school authorities suppressed the sexual orientation of lesbian students and how they found outlets to express themselves later in college. - Book reveals high school lesbian lives (2001): "The reputation of the top high school for girls in Taiwan has been shaken by the publication of a book chronicling the sex lives of lesbian students at the school, the Taipei Times reports. Entitled "The Taming and the Resistance," the book is a collection of interviews with 10 lesbian women who graduated from the Taipei First Girls' Senior High School, all of whom later went on to study at Taiwan's top university - National Taiwan University (NTU)..."

Resource Links: - Utopia's Resources for Taipei. - Utopia's Resources for Taiwan. - Resources from - Gender & Sexuality Rights in Taiwan. - GLBTQ: Taiwan. - Taiwan Tongzhi Hotline Association: March 1998, a news report regarding a gay adolescent committing suicide brought shock and pain to several LGBT rights activists. The news inspired friends and allies from four different organizations including Gay Counselors Association, Queer & Class, LGBT Civil Rights Alliance and Gay Teachers’ Alliance to establish a permanent organization. As a result, Taiwan Tongzhi Hotline Association was given birth to provide LGBT members a channel for recognition and emotional support. However, Hotline soon came to realize that taking phone calls was not enough, many gays and lesbians were still faced with serious discrimination and prejudice in Taiwan. Hence, Hotline filed a registration application to the Ministry of Interior on June 9, 2000, becoming the first registered national LGBT organization. With ideas of peer counseling, support network and community center, Hotline anticipated eliminating discrimination and unjust treatment towards the LGBT community.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay Taiwan 1, 2 - Gay Taiwan - (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 2000-Present. - ILGA Report. - Mixcloud: Listen to great Gay radio taiwan radio shows, DJ mixes and Podcasts.

Pridelinks. - QRD.

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 

MACAU - ILGA Report N/A. - The Eastgarden. - Is there a gay bar in Macau China? - Gay Macau is a bit boring, but also a dangerous place (2008). - The Lack of Macau Gay Bars Doesn't Mean You Can't Enjoy Your Holiday: If you are looking for gay nightlife then Macau might not be the best holiday destination for you. Whilst there used to be a gay establishment in the past, it was eventually shut down. Many of the locals frown upon homosexuality, but this doesn't mean that there aren't any options for a great night out. - Wikipedia: Homosexuality in Macau.

TIBET: - Gay in Lhasa: (2007, Alternate Link) Fridae’s Beijing correspondent Dinah Gardner travels to Lhasa, Tibet and speaks to young gay and lesbian Tibetans about their lives in the city's small yet flourishing queer scene.... It’s hard to find, but the city does have a gay bar. Yeshe, a 20-something gay Tibetan who is working as a bar manager for a tourist restaurant in Lhasa, says Lanse Tian Kong (Blue Sky) is quite hidden, but “there are so many gay boys who go there, especially on Friday’s and Saturday’s. It’s packed.” To protect it, its location won’t be given here...According to a local lesbian, there are no dyke bars, and girls will rarely go to Blue Sky bar. “We meet each other through friends, or normal bars, or through the Internet,” says 30-year-old Lhundrop... “Some people – the younger generation accept homosexuality, but most Tibetans cannot accept it,” says Lhundrop. “I have never told my parents. They are really traditional. They don’t have any experience of this, but I think if I told them they wouldn’t reject me.” Whereas many closeted Chinese lesbians and gays are pressured by their families to get married, Lhundrop says her parents have given up pushing her... - Queer politics and Tibet (2011): As promising as such a partnership may be for the project of international LGBTQ rights, as a reader of Fridae and member of the LGBTQ as well as the Asian community, I have some concerns. “Gay In Lhasa,” is a 2007 article by Fridae on the subject of gay Tibetans. In my first encounter with this article, I was frustrated by its problematic framing, which I felt sure would spread over the years, and the long-term political consequences of such framing. Now, reading the press release, I feel the problems first made visible in the article can no longer be ignored, as they are problems not only for the subject of LGBTQ rights and Tibetan rights, but for the larger conversation of political or “human” rights that so many have wrapped up the future of the world with...

Gay Tibet Speaks out (2006): On 9th December, two members of the Tibetan gay community, Tenzin and Jampa went on air on a Tibetan webcasting forum TIbetan Bridges and spoke openly about their lives as gays. This was the first time for the Tibetan youth community to witness such an open discussion to take place. Homosexuality in the Tibetan community is as common as in any other community in the world but like most asian countries, Tibetans have so far refused to acknowledge the fact that we do exist.

Forbidden fruit in the forbidden land. (1996, Alternate Link) (Alternate Link) (Part 2) - On Homosexuality and Sex in General (1997). - "Update: The Dalai Lama and Sexual Minorities: A Personal View". - Gay Buddhists Meet With Dalai Lama - Leader may re-examine doctrine on sex (1997). - Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods: An Exploration into the Religious Significance of Male Homosexuality in World Perspective (PDF Download)

The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering - 1997 - by William Siebenschuh, Tashi Tsering, Melvyn C. Goldstein, Tashi Tsering: "As a 13-year-old member of the Dalai Lama's personal dance troupe, he was frequently whipped or beaten by teachers for minor infractions. A heterosexual, he escaped by becoming a drombo, or homosexual passive partner and sex-toy, for a well-connected monk. - Book Preview (Google Books).

Completely out of the Closet, An Interview: “We are not special” says Tenzin Jigdel (name changed), a Tibetan Gay who finds no reasons to hide his identity from anyone...  am not sure if I can speak about Tibetan community as a whole. I have lived only among Tibetan exiles in India which is much smaller than the community in Tibet. Yes it does remain a taboo but among those who are more educated and those who’ve seen the world, does understand the real issue...

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Global Gayz: Tibet. - Gay Tibet (Lhasa). - Gay Tibet. - Gay Tibet: Old Site. - Queer Tibet. - LGBT Rights in Tibet

MONGOLIA: - Mongolia Rebuffs Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Organization (2009): The Mongolian minister of justice should overturn a state agency's decision to deny the official registration request of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Center, a national nongovernmental organization, Human Rights Watch said in a public letter today. The center cannot operate in the country without this registration... - Mongolia: First LGBT Advocacy NGO Registered and Recognized by Government (2009): After three years of effort and at least ten attempts in 2009, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) human rights organization, the LGBT Centre, has been officially registered and recognized by Mongolia's Legal Entities Registration Agency (LERA). Located in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, the Centre was previously denied registration because LERA declared that the name conflicted with "Mongolian customs and traditions and has the potential to set the wrong example for youth and adolescents." The Centre will be the first NGO in Mongolia dedicated to social, legislative and institutional change in relation to discrimination, persecution, and abuse against Mongolia's lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people... - Mongolia's LGBTs face hate crimes and discrimination (2010): The Lies of Liberty is a 20-minute documentary which highlights the challenges of the Mongolian LGBT community and features a transgender woman, two lesbians and three gay man who spoke of the realities of their lives. Although there are no legal prohibitions, LGBTs face possible violence on a day-to-day basis by members of ultra-nationalists parties. The transgender woman in the documentary, who related an incident in which herself and two other transgender women she knew were bundled into a car and taken to a desolate place where they were assaulted, had since received serious death threats since the documentary was shown..

Mongolia LGBT Centre and Jeff Sharlet Receive Prestigious LGBT Human Rights Award (2011): At this year's gala event, the LGBT Centre of Mongolia will receive IGLHRC's signature human rights award, the Felipa de Souza Award. This award, which includes a cash award to further the recipients' work, is given annually to an outstanding grassroots organization or individual in recognition of their courage and activism for the promotion and protection of human rights for all people. The LGBT Centre in Ulaanbaatar is Mongolia's first and only LGBT human rights organization. It registered in 2009 after three years of resistance from state authorities. In a country where working for LGBT rights is not only difficult but also dangerous, the LGBT Centre is building a better and safer society for Mongolia's lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. Under constant threat of violence by ultra-nationalist right-wing movements, the courageous leaders, staff and volunteers at the Centre provide legal, advocacy, and social support services for LGBT Mongolians and their families. - Gay Rights - LGBT Centre Mongolia Advocacy Video (2011).

Art Exhibition Highlights the Harsh Realities of Life for Mongolia’s Sexuality Minorities (2009): The first art exhibition dedicated to Mongolia’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community will be held at the Modern Art Gallery in Ulaanbaatar from July 3-8. The exhibition, “Beyond the Blue Sky”, created by American Fulbright Fellow Brandt Miller in collaboration with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) community and local and international artists, will for the first time in Mongolia’s history express through art the realities of life for a largely hidden sector of society who daily face discrimination, oppression and persecution. The exhibition will feature photographs of Mongolian lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in a range of settings that challenge traditional notions of gender and sexuality. To ensure the safety of participants, and to also represent the hidden nature of LGBT people’s lives and their invisibility in society, their faces were covered with khadag. The use of khadag that traditionally covers the faces of those who have died also symbolically mirrors the present reality in which many LGBT people feel they are not fully living... - “Behind the Blue sky” exhibition. - Different Shades of Blue: Gay Men and Nationalist Discourse in Mongolia (2010, PDF Download).

Mr. Beauty’ Revealed: A Glimpse Into Mongolian Gay Life: On November 15 an intentionally hidden and exclusive party was held at Amazon Club, in Bayazurkh Palace. Gay men, lesbian women, bisexual and transgender individuals (LGBT), and friends of these minorities, congregated to socialize with one another and to celebrate their sexual identities. The main festivity was the annual “Mr. Beauty’ contest. With a pool of eleven male-to-female cross-dressers, judges determined who made the most beautiful woman through a sequence of swimsuit, gown, and talent competitions. ‘Mr. Beauty’ is one theme in a series of monthly parties for the LGBT community of Mongolia. The event is hosted by two organizations focusing on gay male health issues: Youth for Health and Together. There are two additional LGBT organizations in Ulaanbaatar, We are Family and Support Group, whcih attract their own participants, adding to an unnecessary rift in the already marginalized community. Youth for Health focuses on the health and emotional well-being of gay men through educational workshops, a support hotline, live counseling, and creating a safe-haven for sexual minorities. The organization receives funding from the National AIDS Foundation, Global Fund, and Mongolian Red Cross Society, and works in close conjunction with Together, another community-based organization that provides HIV/AIDS/STD testing and counseling. The project manager of Youth for Health believes “it is difficult for gays in Mongolia because they are not accepted by the public, and so they don’t accept themselves.” The organization’s aim is to “start with the individual, to make people feel they are not alone, and to develop outreach that will educate about gay life and prevent risky behaviors...”

Gay men murdered in Mongolia (2011): Two brutal murders of Gay men have shocked Mongolia's small LGBT community. The Mongolia LGBT Center, based in Ulaanbaatar, the country's capital, identified the first victim as 'A Gay male of 40 to 50 years of age who went by the nickname 'S' in the community, a dentist by profession who had a practice in Zuunkharaa town, Selenge province.' The second victim was 'an HIV-positive Bisexual male 'E,' of 40 to 45 years of age, one of the founders of a community-based non-governmental organization working for HIV-positive people.' ... - Mongolia gays face uphill battle for acceptance (2011): Zaya is not alone in her fear. Discrimination and abuse toward sexual minorities in Mongolia is widespread, according to a report presented to the UN Human Rights Council in November last year. "Every aspect of their life is filled with discrimination," said Robyn Garner, executive director of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Centre in Ulan Bator, Mongolia's first non-governmental organisation for LGBT rights. "There are very few people that don't have a tale to tell of discrimination and violence," said Garner, an Australian who has worked for gay rights in Mongolia for seven years. There are no reliable data on the number of homosexuals in the country, which has a population of roughly 2.7 million, as many remain in the closet due to the social stigma associated with a gay lifestyle.

Mongolia: LGBT Activists Cheered by Potential Gay Rights Gain (2010): Despite the trauma she endured, Zaya feels many other lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people living in Mongolia have had it much worse. She proceeded to recount a series of stories of friends who have been physically attacked and even sexually assaulted. The situation may be grim now, but there are signs that things may soon improve. Activists are hailing the recent signal sent by the government concerning LGBT rights. Their optimism is rooted in the fact that, for the first time, Mongolian officials discussed LGBT issues at a Geneva meeting of the UN Human Rights Council’s first Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the country. At the November 2 gathering, seven member states offered Ulaanbaatar recommendations for passing anti-discriminatory legislation that would enhance legal protections for sexual minorities. Discrimination and human rights abuses against sexual minorities are widespread in Mongolia, according to the Mongolian Minorities Report that was presented at the UPR..

Mongolia: Country Situation on ‘MSM and HIV’. Prepared by : Mongolian Delegates, the United Nations Theme Group on HIV/AIDS (2006): Obstacles that hinder establishing and/or scaling up of “MSM and HIV” –specific programs and interventions: the issue is hidden; diversity of community groups, lack of self-recognition and empowerment, limited resources and capacity... - Mongolia (2010): MSM Country Snapshots – Country Specific Information on hiv, men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG).

Gays organize in Mongolia (1999, Alternate Link): Mongolia has its first gay organization, Tavilan (Destiny, in English). The group formed in response to police harassment and "improper sentencing procedures that violated civilian rights," organizers said. The 22 members have opened a small office in downtown Ulan Bator from which they plan to create a social network, communicate with foreign gay groups and educate the general public. So far, they are offering a weekly social night and weekend basketball and volleyball games, and they participated in the Run/Walk for AIDS. - Gay hotline opens in Mongolia (2001). - Gay Mongolia N/A.(Archive Link)  - Mongolain Gay Planet. - Gay Mongolia Online. - Queer Mongolia. - Mongolian Boys. - American based Mongolian Gay Blog. - The best little drag show in Outer Mongolia (Alternate Link).

Queer Mongolians: Is Isolation Their Destiny? (PDF Download): This article explores the development of organized queer spaces during the rapid social change in the 1990s. Increased contact with international media, foreigners, and international organizations provided a catalyst for the formal incorporation of a gay and lesbian human rights organization. Also, the Internet provided more informal ways of communicating privately. Just as this anonymous space brings queers together, it also isolates... - Diversity and cross-cultural issues in Mongolia (Peace Corps).

The Status of Lesbian and Bisexual Women and Transgendered Persons in Mongolia. Shadow report for the 42nd CEDAW Committee Session 2008. Prepared by Anaraa Nyamdorj and Robyn Garner Representing a Coalition of Mongolian LGBT Rights Activists (PDF Download); There is widespread societal and institutional discrimination against, and intolerance of, lesbian and bisexual women and transgendered persons in Mongolia which is manifested in varying forms, from ostracism and harassment to physical and sexual violence. The discrimination is endemic in the public, private and non-governmental sectors and encompasses the police and the judiciary, health services, education, the housing sector and the media. There is a demonstrated need to practically redefine the concept of human rights in Mongolia to ensure the inclusion of the rights of sexuality minorities in light of the State-sanctioned and social marginalisation to which they are subject...

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay Mongolia (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 1999-2008. - News/Reports 1999-2012. - Gay Mongolia: A Remote Path. - ILGA Report. - The Eastgarden. - QRD. - Utopia Resources. - LGBT rights in Mongolia

SOUTH KOREA: - Gladder to be gay - A multinational’s job advert stirs controversy (2012): In late September, the South Korean arm of IBM, an American computing multinational, put out an advertisement soliciting applicants for a round of job vacancies. The text was standard fare in every aspect except one: sexual minorities - gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people - were to be given “extra points” in the screening process, according to Asia Kyeongjae, a South Korean financial newspaper. Such a policy might raise eyebrows in many places. But South Korea is a country where, in a poll by the Pew Research Center just four years ago, 77% of people agreed that “homosexuality should be rejected”. The combination of the country’s Confucianism (which holds marriage and childbirth as an obligation) and the power of its conservative Protestant lobby have long made South Korea a hard place to be gay. - South Korea bans under-18s from Lady Gaga concert (2012). - Lady Gaga's Gay Rights Advocacy Draws Protest In South Korea (2012). - Gay South Korean finds peaceful refuge in Canada (2012). - South Korean Lesbian Drama Schocked (2011).

South Korean actor throws open closet door (2012): After a brutal reaction to his coming out, Hong Seok-cheon decided to fight back. Slowly, especially from the young, he and other gays gained more acceptance... When Hong came out in 2000, the reaction was swift and brutal: Within 24 hours, the network summarily fired him from his jobs as a regular guest on several talk shows and slapstick host of the children's show "Po Po Po." No one would take his calls. Hong says he received so many death threats he shut himself up at home and began drinking heavily and contemplating suicide. Previously a nonsmoker, he began going through three packs a day. "I knew my career was over," he said. "It was like somebody suddenly dropped a bomb on everything I had worked so hard for. One day it was there, and the next it was gone." - Breaking the Gay Taboo in South Korea (2009). - Korean Actor loses jobs after coming out (2000) N/A. - Gay Korean actor is de-blacklisted (2003). - Comeback for gay TV star (2003). - South Korea: Gay confession ignites debate- Openly gay celebrity triggers debate on morality in deeply religious society (2001). - South Korea's First Openly Gay Celebrity Gets The Last Word (2012).

South Korea: online haven for gays (2011): The internet has allowed for some sexual freedom, though Korean gays still struggle... When Suh Eun-pil was being harassed at school last year because of rumors he was gay, the internet was one of the few places he felt safe. One website in particular, called Rateen, provided a haven from critical eyes and verbal abuse. Suh began visiting Rateen regularly, and six months later his life had completely changed - for the better... “The site has helped me a lot,” Suh said. “I met a lot of good friends through it and was able to talk freely about my problems and worries for the first time.” The internet has allowed for sexual minorities across South Korea to express themselves and build communities to support one another, but it wasn't always this way and struggles for the minority remain. Many of those same people still keep their sexuality a secret from certain family members and friends, while others fear the internet could, at some point, stop helping and start holding people back... Less than a decade ago, sites like Rateen would have been banned in Korea for being “harmful” to young people, according to government laws. One act called for the blocking of gay and lesbian internet sites on the grounds they were a threat to young people. Rights groups not only in Korea but around the world protested the censorship, and it was eventually repealed in 2003. - The King and I: Overcoming South Korea's gay love taboo (2010): In the weeks since, our relationship has been under greater suspicion. Despite being a soldier he has most weekends off, and we typically spend them together. When the King’s mom asked him three times why I didn’t have a girlfriend, each time he said I was too busy. Unsatisfied, she asked me the same question. Eventually she asked him if I was gay, but not if he was. A month later his sister confronted him about us and he reluctantly confirmed it. He had hoped she would be supportive. Instead, she threatened to tell their parents.

To Fight to Let South Korea’s Gay Soldiers Be Sexually Active (2010). - South Korea bar district offers a safe haven for gay servicemembers (2010): Outside, it feels more like a street festival than a bar district, as customers  -  both South Koreans and foreigners, but mostly young, male and gay  -  mingle with drinks in hand, flirting and occasionally kissing on the narrow road known locally among gays and straights alike as “Homo Hill.” Among them are U.S. soldiers, who on recent visits by a reporter to the area made up a noticeable number of the Hill’s clientele despite the threat they face of being discharged from the military for having homosexual relationships. This cluster of trendy bars, with names like “Queen” and “Always Homme,” is a 10-minute walk from Yongsan Garrison, the U.S. military’s flagship base in South Korea. - Debate over gay conscripts in South Korea military (2010): A debate is heating up in South Korea over homosexuality in the military as the country's National Human Rights Commission declares the current military code that imposes a one year jail term to be a violation of soldiers' rights.- South Korea Constitutional Court upholds law criminalizing homosexuality in military (2011). 

Being gay in South Korea (2011): Ten years ago, an actor named Hong Suk-chun became the first mainstream celebrity in South Korea to come out. At the time, many thought that Hong’s revelation might usher in a new era of openness about sexuality in the traditionally conservative country. That hasn’t happened. It’s still very difficult to be gay in South Korea - especially young and gay... - Being gay in South Korea (2008, Alternate Link): Like neighbouring China and Japan, South Korea doesn't criminalise male homosexuality, but nor does it have antidiscrimination laws that cover gay men, lesbians or members of the transgender community. In addition, military service discrimination and discriminatory censorship of LGBT publications is also a problem. - Boy Meets Boy (Korean gay short film) part 1 (2008, Part 2). - 2010 Gay Pride in South Korea (YouTube).- Homosexuality in South Korea in LA Times (2012). - Gay Life in South Korea (2012): The shift is slight, compared to the weight of Korea’s long and heavy history of homophobia. But it’s a shift nevertheless in the right direction. The power of the Internet’s technology, the desire for Saturday night entertainment, courageous and beautiful crossdressers, the impact of a TV personality, a defiant film festival and the quiet validation of support groups–no one of these will break the prejudice of Korea’s anti-gay conceit. But together in motion with the accumulations of future endeavors and campaigns, they will bend the narrow rigidity of the old stick and make room for a fresh slender reed (with apologies to an old Korean proverb).

South Korea sees first openly gay politician, but challenges persist for the nation's lesbians (2008): Choi Hyun-sook hopes to become South Korea's first openly gay legislator. Although her historic candidacy is another sign of Korea's changing attitudes about homosexuality, the social climate for the country's lesbians still presents many challenges. Matt Kelley reports from Seoul... It may be surprising that Choi and others' efforts on behalf of LGBT Koreans are not universally embraced by their intended beneficiaries. Zoe Kim is a 20-year-old student at Ewha Womans (sic) University. At a coffee shop popular among young lesbians near her campus, Kim says that while she was inspired by Choi coming out, she, and many young Korean lesbians like her, are wary of anything that brings a spotlight to their lives. "We're really secretive and like it that way," Kim says about her lesbian coterie. Like most gay Koreans, Kim remains in the closet and uses a fake name even among her queer friends. She says that the older generation are not ready to accept homosexuality. Although she wishes she could snap her fingers and instantly make Korea as gay-friendly as some Western nations, her life as a Korean lesbian is generally comfortable, and she doesn't want to come out. "I don't really see the need of lesbians to become [activists]," she says. - South Korea Grants Refugee Status to Gay Pakistani Asylum Seeker (2010).

Seoul Declaration (2006: PDF Download): "... In every region of the world, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people face systematic and persistent violations of fundamental human rights. Though widely documented by UN Special Procedures and other UN mechanisms, these rights violations are all too often met with silence by our governments and the international community as a whole. We celebrate recent advancements in Asia in this regard, and welcome the leadership shown by South Korea in the promotion and protection of human rights, especially on the basis of sexual orientation. We encourage other Asian governments to follow this leadership, particularly within United Nations human rights mechanisms. We also acknowledge advancements in other regions, such as Latin America, where religious fundamentalisms can create a difficult climate for advancing human rights for all persons..."

Bourne, Jenny (2007). Korean Lesbians and Heteronormativity: From the Experiences of Six South Korean Lesbians. Master's Dissertation, Athabasca University. PDF Download. The aim of this research is to use queer theory as the basis to answer the question ‘what are the effects of compulsory heterosexuality on contemporary Korean 1 lesbians?’ More specifically, ‘does heterosexism have any effects on how Korean lesbians self-identify, and how they live their lives?’ In assessing the breadth and scope of this question I hoped to discover what, if any, affect their sexual identities have on the daily lives of Korean lesbians and their interactions with others in Korean society. Undertaking an investigation into the experiences of lesbians in the context of South Korean culture, it is imperative to first gain a basic understanding of Korean culture. Along with discourses important to Korean culture, in the following paper I outline the theory that informs my work, ethical considerations, methods of data collection, and my findings including some suggestions for future consideration... The six research participants who participated in qualitative interviews regarding their experiences of living as sexual minorities in South Korea provided a series of rich dialogues excavating what is termed by Foucault as subjugated knowledge (Foucault, 1980). While these interviews and my analysis cannot represent an entire minority group of a country, they can be said to represent themselves. As a Canadian womyn doing this research in Korea I cannot assume to fully understand and represent the life and experience of the Korean lesbian individuals or community. What I have accomplished is the provision of a forum for six Korean lesbians to share their personal lives, opinions, and experiences living within a Confucian, patriarchal, hetero-normative culture.

Heterhomo: La Corée du Sud (Translation):  La Corée reconnaît le statut de réfugié à un homosexuel pakistanais (2010). - Choi Hyun-sook, première candidate lesbienne aux législatives (2008). - La Corée du Sud autorise les trans à changer officiellement de genre (2006). - Interdiction d’un site internet gay (2002).

Gay life in Korea. - LGBT rights in South Korea. - The Lesbian Rights Movement and Feminism in South Korea (2006). - Gay movie's success echoes in Seoul's closet (2006). - South Korea rests Oscar hope on gay-themed film. - Road Movie and The King and The Clown. - Korea Moves To Ease Gay Military Restrictions (2006). - Korea Gay Military/KATUSA Group in Seoul: I created this group to provide a forum for guys in the military out here in korea to have a safe and convenient way to meet others in the same situation. - Gay Marriage in Korea? - Lesbian pies in Korea.

Gay and Lesbian Life in Korea.  - Korean Queer Culture Festival (2004). - Korea Queer Cultural Festival Web Site. - Homosexuality in the Korean Historical Record  - First Korean queer magazine, "Buddy": March, 1998 (Magazine Home Page). - The 1st Seoul Queer Film and Video Festival N/A, scheduled from September 19 -25 (1997), was shut down by the Korean Government the day before it was to begin (1997, Alternate Link) (Related Information). - Korean Government Cancels Queer Film Festival (1997). - My Queer Korea: Identity, Space, and the 1998 Seoul Queer Film & Video Festival.- Queer Film Festival: Emerging from the Shadows (1998). - Gay Koreans Confronting Fear & Isolation N/A. - Rice Queens and Potato Queens and a 'Totally Gay' Life N/A (2002). - Korea: The Time Has Come to Talk (2003, Peace Corps). - Mapping the vicissitudes of homosexual identities in South Korea (2001).

Queer - but not at all strange (2005): Since middle school, Shini felt there was something seriously wrong with him ― he knew he was attracted to men. He tried to have a relationship with a woman, but it failed. He thought he had some sort of disease. "I tried to save up money to check myself into a mental hospital," Shini says. Only when Shini entered university in 2001 and realized that there were hundreds of other men like him, did he begin to question his suffering and shame. Even today, the 22-year-old, angular, sharply dressed student at Chung-Ang University does not use his real name, for fear of what his family might say. He says he's worried that if his mom knew, she might faint. But at least Shini has Rainbow Fish, a gay community in his university, which works to promote human rights for gays and lesbians and fights against social prejudices. Many universities in Korea have gay-rights groups, but understanding is hard to come by, especially once one leaves the cloistered campuses...

The Gay Situation in Korea (1999). - The Fight for Openness and Acceptance. - South Korea eases restrictions on homosexuality (2004, Alternate Link). - Korean homosexuals struggle with barriers. - The first open wedding of a gay couple in Korea was held yesterday in Seoul (2004). - South Korean court nixes gay marriage (2004).

Court Makes It Official - He's Now a Woman (2002): Request by transexual Ha Ri Su, familiar to Korean drama fans, to change gender is finally granted. - Manufactured Transgender Pop Group 'Lady' Set to Debut (2005). - Lady: Korea's hot transgender music group (2005). - Transgender pop group Lady set to take Korea by storm (2005). - Asia falls for a girl band of former boys (2005). - S. Korea's top transgender beauty ties knot (2007). - Transgender news from Korea (2005): Manufactured Transgender Pop Group' , 'Lady', Right: Arguably manufactured transgender celebrity, Harisu (Hari-Su) is pimping feminine hygiene products. 

The South Korean government said Feb. 4 it will remove homosexuality from its list of unacceptable sexual acts that harm teenagers. - Life and Death in Queer Korea: Intro: Appetite for Conformity: Isolated South Korea fears and rejects difference. - Life and Death in Queer Korea: Part 1: A Queer Exorcism:How religion and violence shadow lgbt Koreans. - Life and Death in Queer Korea: Part 2: Homo Koreanus Under the official microscope. - Life and Death in Queer Korea Part 3: Civil Rights and Wrongs Taking on Korean law, imagination, and Internet. - Life and Death in Queer Korea: Part 3: Civil Rights and Wrongs: Taking on Korean law, imagination, and Internet.- Life and Death in Queer Korea: Part 4: Gender Traitors Gay men lower than second-class citizens: women.

Chingusai, NY. - Invisibly Gay in Kwangju. - Viewing the Invisible Minority: The State of LGBT Persons In Korea. - IGLHRC: Censorship of Gay and Lesbian Internet Sites Takes Effect N/A. - Korean Gay Activists Challenge Web Site Ban.- On-Again and Off-Again: Korean On/Off-line LGBTQ/Iban Community Blocked. - Group Announces `Turning Point' in Gay, Lesbian Rights N/A. - Gay Korea: A Paradigm is Shifting. - South Korea Loosens Its Collar: Social Norms Change as Liberal Ideas Are Embraced. - Gay festival enters fourth year with panache (Alternate Link). - Korea queer culture festival, June 19-30, 2004.

Viewing the invisible minority: (Alternate Link) "Despite - or perhaps due to - this, Harisu has become an idol in a nation renowned for its conservative outlook on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, two-spirited and queer (LGBTTQ) persons. LGBTTQ Koreans often refer to themselves as iban, a slang word derived from the Chinese character for "different people." Human rights activists claim that the Korean public generally regards homosexuality as a mental disorder, with gays and lesbians seen as oversexed perverts and a source of AIDS... Bigotry against LGBTTQ persons in this manner has been the norm in Korea for decades. By contrast, overt physical violence against queer people is rare, merely because of the iban community's lack of visibility. Due to the fact that same-sex contact is considered natural and acceptable in Korean society  -  that is, women frequently walk hand-in-hand and men with their arms across each other's shoulders  -  it is more difficult to "spot the homosexual" in a crowd. Still, Lim also points out that the difficulty of identifying homosexuals based on their outward appearance often contributes to their marginalization...  Despite the rise of iban voices over the past decade, the recent formation of laws that openly deny the rights of homosexuals implies that the future is still grim for the LGBTTQ community."

Research on Queer Girls’ Identity Formation in South Korea (Ji Eun Lee, Yonsei University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In South Korea, the number of youth identifying themselves as queer has been growing since 2000. Among them, some girls are distinguished by their characteristic styles and others call them fanfic iban. This combination of ‘fanfic(fan fiction mostly dealing with homosexual relationships among boy band members)’ and ‘iban (self-identifying word in Korean queer community)’ is a negative notion within lesbian youth community implying fanfic iban people’s superficiality. People say they are girls just affected by male stars and ridiculous fanfic, pretending to be lesbian without serious affliction and just following fashion. However, the emergence of fanfic iban‚ is a very interesting and important cultural phenomenon. It has three aspects; (1) Style: Their style is expression of their desire for performing, playing with gender and making community, and it has become a struggling point for the fanfic iban since mass media and homophobic people stigmatize the style. (2) Internet space: They can meet each other, get information, and form community via the internet, and they can extend the limits of their imagination. (3) Fandom culture: Fanfic and other plays in fandom community provide resources for their style and self-identifying (as lesbian) process unintentionally. In this paper, interrelation among these three aspects in their identity formation will be analyzed. They cannot be explained in old framework, they have to be analyzed in contemporary Korean context, especially with fandom and internet culture. In this paper, the subversive aspect of their queerness will be examined in concrete context."

The Hanyang Journal: One Step Out,  Let's Enjoy Ourselves! "The sexual minorities of society have endured suppression from the majorities because their love and sexual identity are different from the normal. Rainbow 2001-Queer Cultural Festival was established to provide a free space for the minorities to put on a play, dance, and for the enjoyment of their culture. Rainbow 2001 is a festival which will remove the twisted prejudice and redundant interference between the majorities and the minorities." - Mujigae 2002 - Korean Queer Festival. - Korean Queer Studies Forum: A Call to Convene: "Queer life in South Korea is at a crossroads.  2003 has seen both the suicide of a 19-year-old gay man named Yun Hy?-s?, who chose to die rather than submit to the oppressive norms imposed on him by Korean society, and a parade of jubilant queer men, women, and their friends, who marched together from the symbolically significant Pagoda Park down Chongno..." - Showing Gay Pride, With Limits. - queer films in Korea.. - Film Fest Spotlights Sexual Minorities.

No More Déjà Vu: Western Nostalgia Meets Eastern Queerness (Huso Yi, Korean Sexual-Minority Culture & Rights Center) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Understanding local queerness requires the careful examination of specific domains that are not yet theorized and/or recognized as constraints on idiosyncratic heteronormativity in global context. In the current queer movements of Korea, one of the most salient discussions is the US dominant essentialist view of minority based on sexual orientation, which is strategically used as a tactic of identity politics. Despite such representation of minority in human rights interest in Korea, less visibility of self-identified lesbians or gay men in public and over-emphasized political environments that stimulate coalition for social justice and change rather than individuality made different pathways of queer culture and community from those of the West (US). In the meantime, a nostalgic queer discourse of “back to the 70s” of mobilizing collective movements against compulsory heterosexism has been emerging in the US as well as some other Western countries as reaction to self-limiting (some say, self-defeating) identity politics. It is criticized that “self-regulated normalized gay” that was produced by neo-liberalism may end up with mere achievement of imaginary equality. At the crossing line of the minoritizing and universalizing of queer subjectivity between Korea and the West, I’d like to construct an argument and discuss a new possibility of “West Meets East” in queer politics as to how Korean queers achieve sexual citizenship by not assimilating heteronormative norms and values but liberating their own quotidian sexual subjectivities and reforming institutions to further recognition of sexual diversity and inequality. "

Imag(in)ing Homos: Representing and Imagining Homosexuality in Korean Popular Cinema (Jin-hyung Park, Koran Sexual-Minority Culture & Rights Center) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Homosexuality is not unfamiliar any more and it seems to be less inhibited in current Korean society. However, representation of homosexuality is often told that it is yet rare and less visual in Korean popular culture, especially in cine/televisual culture. This situation often leads us to talk about the difficulties of reading homosexuality in Korean popular culture. These difficulties were sometimes described as being based on cultural/literary/queer comparative studies in terms of cultural visibility of homosexuality in Korea, or in search of ‘essence’ of queer representation. However, questions from the approaches mentioned above can’t explain complexity of experiences/imagination of homosexuality in current Korean culture, whose central issues are now competition of various social forces. Given this, I would like to explore representation of homosexuality in Korean popular cinema and television as a place or ‘scape’ of negotiation, especially by re-reading of Korean popular ‘masculine’ genres like ‘army movies’ and ‘same-sex high school movies’ like Joint Security Area, Spirit of Jeet Keun Do, etc. Based on the Korean Peninsula’s division, and the cold-war ideology and military dictatorship in 70s and 80s Korea, these films are obviously connected with male homosocial desire, conspiring with Korean masculine nationalism. However, there are some moments of exhibitions of male sexuality, eroticism and body that cannot be fully articulated in the narrative of normative heterosexual masculinity. I will focus their films with moments of fissure and spasm as a field where we can negotiate with institutional representation of heterosexuality and imagine homosexuality."   

The backstreets: "Talk about beginners' luck.  Billed as the first Korean "gay film", and the first feature by writer-director Kim In-Sik, Road Movie is one of the most moving and memorable gay-related films made anywhere in the world, in years..."

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: South Korea: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS. - Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea. (Full Text: PDF).

Asian Homosexuality - 1992 - edited by Wayne R. Dynes and Stephen Donaldson (Table of Contents). Contains: "The Korean Namsadang," 81-88. - Korean Gay and Lesbian History. - Remembered branches: towards a future of Korean homosexual film. - Le premier téléfilm lesbien et bisexuelle sud-coréen provoque un tollé (2011, Translation).

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to South Korea: - Playing in the Dark: Korean "Gay" Men and "Gay" Korean Bathhouses (Song Pae Cho, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign): "Even though the mainstream gay and lesbian movement in South Korea has often disparaged these spaces in favour of more “formal” rights and markers of “gay citizenship,” in this paper, I argue that it is, in fact, the “wild” and “unregulated” spaces that often exist only provisionally and both within as well as outside the field of gay commodification, that we can see the practices of gay democracy and public gay society-making. Using ethnography from “gay” bathhouses in Seoul, Korea, I argue that these spaces where queer desire sometimes takes us by surprise can open ourselves up to the pleasure of inter-class and inter-generational contact as well as the possibility of imagining other forms of sociality. However, they can also reveal the limits of Western notions of “gay identity,” and “gay community.” - Research on Queer Girls’ Identity Formation in South Korea (Ji Eun Lee, Yonsei University). 

Resource Links: - Utopia's Korean Resources. - Utopia: Korean Lesbian Resources. - Buddy, the center of Koreas gay and lesbian community. - OutProud Korea: Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Federation. - Grey Gay Guide - Korea. - GayRice. - Queer Eye Korea Blog. - Chingusai ("Between Friends"): the only gay men's rights organization in Korea. - HK's Korea Resources.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay South Korea (Archive Link) (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 1999-2008. - ILGA Report. - The Eastgarden

Gayscape. - Pridelinks

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!   

NORTH KOREA: - Living in silence: Gay North Korea (2011). - Gay in North Korea. - Gay Rights and Human Rights in North Korea. - LGBT rights in North Korea.

Global Gayz: - News/Reports. - ILGA Report. - The Eastgarden.

JAPAN: - Thousands march in Japan gay pride parade (2012). - Tokyo gets double dose of gay pride for 2012: LGBT community deserves to be spoilt for choice after a parade-free 2011. - Disneyland: Japan’s gay pioneers (2012): In one respect, the decision by Tokyo Disneyland to allow a gay couple to hold their “wedding” at the theme park is a sign of progress in a country that has, until recently, largely ignored the issue of same-sex unions. - Japan's gay parade returns after 3 years in bid for acceptance (2010). - A Rare Gay Rights Victory in Japan, via Disneyland (2012). - Polite prejudice: LGBT life in Japan (2012): Gay Star News interview one of the first gay elected politicians in Japan, Taiga Ishikawa... The way that societies treat LGBT people varies as cultures vary across nationalities. In Japan, a very polite and reserved culture, name-calling and playground punches are not such a problem for LGBT youth, but the silent treatment and behind-your-back bad-mouthing is. - Taiga Ishikawa is Japan's first openly gay elected official (2011). - Risque AKB48 commercial draws fire for lesbian overtones (2012). - Japan's lesbians still scared to come out (2010): Despite public parades and celebrities among their number, social pressures continue to keep many of Japan's gay women in the closet. - Japan to take official steps in support of LGBT youths (2012).

Japan’s homosexuality is becoming common (2012): A greater amount of gay and transgender characters have begun appearing on Japanese television, with positive portrayals. There are highly successful television series. A number of gay or transgender cultivate such an image as part of their public persona, now. A number of artists, nearly all male, have begun to speak publicly about their homosexuality, appearing on various talk shows and other programs, their celebrity often focused on their sexuality; twin pop-culture critics Osugi (which means free love and scandals) are an example. Akihiro Miwa, a drag queen and former lover of author Yukio Mishima, is the television advertisement spokesperson for many Japanese companies ranging from beauty to financial products. Kenichi Mikawa, a former pop idol singer who now blurs the line between male and female costuming and make-up, can also regularly be seen on various programs... In Japan there is no laws against homosexual activity, and has some legal protections for gay individuals. There are some legal protections for transgender individuals, too. Consensual sex between adults of the same sex is legal. However, The major political parties express little public support for gay rights issues. - Entre libertés et tabous : zoom sur l'homosexualité au Japon (2011, Translation).

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Japan: A Shadow Report (2008). - The boys of Shinjuku: Is Tokyo's gay district doomed? (2010): Tokyo's gay scene is 300 bars and clubs packed into two blocks, where, perhaps surprisingly in an otherwise regimented society, it has been anything goes for decades. So why, asks our Tokyo correspondent David McNeill, is the wildest party in town coming to an end?. - Who do you come out to? Individuals' struggle over coming out in Japan and the role of sexual minority groups (2011, Disssertation). - Kamingu Auto: Homosexuality & Popular Culture in Japan (2002). - Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan (2000). - Intersections Home Page.- Boys Love--Die with you (Japan Cinema)--Beautiful Gay Story--Eng Sub (2009, Video).

Japanese politician opens closet doors (2006). - Lesbian politican takes on Japan (2007): With a wedding ring on her finger and a party endorsement on her back, Kanako Otsuji is on a mission to become Japan's first openly gay member of parliament and change the way the country treats sexual minorities. - Lesbian candidate a first for Japan (2007). - Japanese lesbian fails to win election (2007). - Lesbian politician Kanako Otsuji talks about gender issues in Japan (2007). - Thousands celebrate Japan's annual gay parade (2007). - New magazine says 'yes' to bringing gay industry out of the closet (2006). - Aya Kamikawa enjoys freedom of new transgender law in Japan (2005). - Indians pitcher: Gay porn video was mistake (2004): Indians minor leaguer Kazuhito Tadano is asking for forgiveness for what he called a one-time mistake  -  his appearance in a gay porn video in which he engaged in a homosexual act. Tadano took part in the video three years ago when he was a college student. Sitting in the Cleveland clubhouse Tuesday, the pitcher said he hoped to put his actions in the past. “All of us have made mistakes in our lives,” Tadano said, reading a statement in English. “Hopefully, you learn from them and move on.” Shunned by Japanese baseball teams, the 23-year-old Tadano signed with the Indians last March. They think he can make their club this spring. Tadano gave few details about the video, which he made after his sophomore year at Rikkyo University.

Heterhomo: Le Japon (Translation):  Taiga Ishikawa est le premier élu ouvertement gay au Japon (2011). - Ma vie de lesbienne au Japon (2010). - Les homosexuels japonais vont pouvoir épouser leur partenaire à l’étranger  (2009).

Gay identity in university EFL courses in Japan by Jane Joritz-Nakagawa (2000). - Images from "Otoko", associated images and some texts. -  ‘Selectively Out:’ Being a Gay Foreign National in Japan (2001). - Gay Iranian Desperate to Stay in Japan (2001). -  Japan Refuses Refugee Status for Gay Iranian (2004). - Japan Refuses Sanctuary to Fleeing Gay (2004). - Yoichi Hayase:  I run the first and only gay travel agency in Japan, True Travel (2003). - GLBTQ: Japan. - The Newhalf Net: Japan's “Intermediate Sex” On-Line (2002). - Japan NewHalf Guidebook: You will meet beautiful Newhalf in Japan. - Lesbian Animation: Plica-chan: "Back in February of 2006, I reviewed a 4-panel comic called Plica-chan. Plica-chan is a serialized comic that currently runs on the Love Piece Club website and in the newsletter for the LOUD organization. Unlike Yuri manga, Plica-chan is a realistic, bitter and funny take on actual lesbian life in Japan - complete with closet and internal and external homophobia and cluelessness..." - The ‘Gay Salaryman’ at Work: Negotiating with Hegemonic Ideologies of Sexuality in the Japanese Workplace (2010). - Salarymen Doing Queer: Gay Men and the Heterosexual Public Sphere in Japan (2005).

Challenges for gay-MSM programs in Japan (2005 PowerPoint Presentation as PDF): Social recognition of homosexuality still remains low in Japan. "Mild Discrimination:" would lead to the misconception that homosexuality is being accepted in Japan. Many gay people are strongly afraid of getting their sexuality known by others. Even when victimized in gay bashing, they feel difficulties in asking anyone around for help...  Jaopan is by no means an easy p[lace to live equally with the heterosexual. -Being Gay In Ehime (2007): Homosexuality in Japan is still taboo. Hence, the closets here are big enough for you and your lover to sleep inside. Even if the younger generation is more open-minded, you will probably encounter a lot of ignorance and misunderstanding in the rural areas of Ehime. For many, a gay person is a witty comedian who dresses up as an old grandmother on TV to make people laugh. It is therefore not surprising to see their bewildered faces when you tell them the big news...

Some observations on gay life in Japan (2005, Osaka): I won't say that the gay community is public here, but its not hard to find. Gay personalities on TV are of the "liberace/little queen" variety and are seen as entertainment. To take homosexuality serious is still a trying issue...There's lots of bars and a couple "saunas" here. You'll get hundreds of men - of ALL ages - gathering together at the saunas at night for ambiguous sex. Not all of them "gay"... These books are fairly popular. But, they don't break the cardinal rule. That being, homosexuality, no matter how entertaining on tv, gay is actually something that is a bit perverse and "underground culture-ish". The idea of a Castro Street is really not welcome. Gays are almost in the same league as prostitutes, blow-job bar girls, their pimps and the crime syndicate. Basically, its a fringe group..." - Tolerance toward gay people, especially toward lesbians, in Japanese society (5005, Must Scroll). - Interpretation and Orientalism: Outing Japan's Sexual Minorities to the English-Speaking World (2003): The growing visibility of Japanese gay men and lesbians who articulate their identities in a manner similar to activists in the West has been heightened by two recent English books Queer Japan and Coming Out in Japan. While acknowledging the need to listen to a plurality of voices from Japan, this essay critiques the manner in which the coming-out narratives in these books have been framed by their Western translators and editors. In the introductions to both books, Japan is (once again) pictured as a feudal and repressive society. In their efforts to let the homosexual subaltern speak, the translators fall into the common Orientalist paradigm of once again homogenizing the Japanese people even as they attempt to use the stories of their homosexual narrators to break down the myth of Japanese homogeneity. - Introduction to Queer Japan  (2004, Index Page: Queer Samurai Japan for Gay Youth)

Is this really just good fun? (2006): In a sense, Hard Gay (real name Masaki Sumitani) is just like Japan's countless other tarento (talents), who keep the TV-glued masses entertained with ham acting, mind-numbing banter and slapstick. What is provocatively different about Hard Gay, of course, is that he parodies a social minority -- homosexuals -- with erotically charged antics, the most outrageous being his trademark koshifuri (pelvic thrust) that makes him look like a squirrel in heat. - Hard Gay: The Man, The Myth, The Legend (2006). - Neither gay nor hard but definitely Japanese (2006).

Gays in Japan Stay In The Closet (2007): "As a country, Japan isn't sure how to relate to gay people, so their solution is to not do so. Social conformity is paramount in Japan, and social conformity requires gay people to stay in the closet. Part of the reason for this is a great deal of ignorance of what being gay is all about. Most Japanese think all homosexuals have opposite-sex gender identification - all gay men are queens and all lesbians are butch. When I explain to students (I'm a straight American English teacher in Japan) that this isn't true and that only a minority are queens or butch, students are very surprised. They are surprised because this isn't what they see on TV. The only gay men they see on TV are queens. They never see men who look and act normal in every respect except that they're attracted to men. So if you ask them how they'd feel if it turned out that their brother or friend was gay, in their mind, they're imagining their brother or friend as a flaming queen... Bullying is considered a big problem in Japanese schools, and the most common form of 'bullying' is one in which most or all of a class ostracizes one child. In America this wouldn't really be considered 'bullying,' but in Japan, students have committed suicide because of it. It's a very big deal. Gay Japanese know that the more out they get, the closer they get to that..." 

Queer Japan (2004). - The Love Between ‘Beautiful Boys’ in Japanese Women’s Comics (2004). - Is there a Japanese 'gay identity'? (2000) - Women-loving Women in Modern Japan (2004). - Jyosei Jyoi Banzai! (2000) -  My Queer Career: Coming Out as a 'Researcher' in Japan (2002): "I have been trying to write this paper on and off for some years now. It has been an attempt to tell an account of my personal experiences of carrying out my doctoral research in Japan among self-identified Japanese lesbians.[1] When I tell snippets of the story to friends and colleagues, overwhelmingly the response is 'you must write it down, it's as interesting as the research itself.'..." - From sailor suits to sadism: representations of "Lesbos love" in Japan's postwar perverse press (Word Download, Must Scroll) (Alternate Link). - The transgender world in contemporary Japan: the male to female cross-dressers' community in Shinjuku (2007): This paper not only gives an overview of the transgender word in contemporary Japan but also attempts to illustrate the male to female cross-dressing (MTFCD) community in Shinjuku, Tokyo, which plays an important role in the overall transgender world and how people in the community think and live, by conducting comprehensive fieldwork. The MTFCD community consists of amateur cross-dressers and their patrons, and it is formed around about ten bars/clubs in Shinjuku. This community differentiates itself from the gay community in their customs and consciousness; they tend to recognize gender based on gender performance rather than biological sex, which is usually accepted for distinguishing sex. Therefore, a MTF cross-dresser with feminine performance is considered as a 'woman,' regardless of one's physical and biological conditions. Because of this recognition of gender based on gender performance, people in the community are able to develop the 'quasi-heterosexual' relationships as men and 'women.'  - Transgendered woman wins seat in Tokyo Assembly (2003): Aya Kamikawa, a transgendered woman, won a seat in Tokyo's Setagaya ward assembly on Sunday - making her the first transsexual official in Japan.

The low rate of HIV infection in Japanese homosexual and bisexual men: an analysis of HIV seroprevalence and behavioural risk factors (1992). - Little Taiko Boy: Little Taiko Boy combines Western holiday traditions, Shinto mythology and Japanese gay culture to advocate a very different way of wrapping gifts for a loved one.. - Gay men and HIV in Japan (1997). - HIV rises in Japan's gay community (2003). - HIV/AIDS Situation among Gay/MSM Communities in Japan (2006). - In Japanese, there is no word for abstinence. Report from the 12th World Congress of Sexology (1995). - Challenges for gay-MSM programs in Japan (2005 PowerPoint Presentation as PDF),  presented ay: The Gay/MSM Challenges Satellite at the Kobe ICAAP: Challenges in developing gay-MSM HIV prevention programs in complex environments (PDF Download). - Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: a nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan (2006).

Androgyny and Otherness: Exploring the West Through the Japanese Performative Body [Excerpt, Asian Theater Journal, 18(2), 2001] Related Issues: Contemporary Colonialism - A View from the East.. - The Beautiful Way: The Roots of Homosexuality in Japan. - Review Essay: Discourses and practices of homosexuality in Japan: recent contributions to the literature (Social Science Japan Journal, 4(2), 2001): PDF Download.

1994: My name is Miwa Machino. I am 44 years old and living in Tokyo Japan. I would like to speak about Japanese Lesbian situation now, telling you something about my life and something about my work in the Lesbian movements... - Lesbianism & Feminism. - My experience at Tokai Lesbian Weekend. - Coming out at work. - Coming out to my parents.  (More Articles).. Women-loving Women in Modern Japan. - Emerging Lesbian Voices from Japan. - My Queer Career: Coming Out as a 'Researcher' in Japan.  - Entering the Lesbian World in Japan Debut Stories. - Lesbian Mothers in Japan: An Insider's Report (2005).

Gender Cleansing (2004): The Innocent World of Young Girls in Suzuki Izumi's "The Age of Woman and Woman": "The story alludes to another parallelism with the author’s world. In Yuko’s society, lesbianism is the accepted, “natural” way of life, and heterosexual love is nonexistent. Contrariwise, in the author’s world, lesbianism was almost never openly discussed (Yoshizumi 192). Similarly, in Yuko’s society, heterosexuality, and men outside of those in the ghetto or in manga must never be discussed. Flipping lesbian and heterosexual love between the story world and the author’s world highlights how Japanese society has suppressed lesbianism and the people who find it “natural.” The question “How can Yuko tell her story?” becomes the same as how can a lesbian in 1970s Japan tell her story and have her sexual persuasion accepted by society. More generally, this question becomes how people with non-standard sexual persuasions can successfully have their stories and identities accepted by society..."

Ore wa ore dakara ['Because I'm me']: A study of gender and language in the documentary Shinjuku Boys (2003). - Tolerance, Form and Female Dis-ease: The Pathologisation of Lesbian Sexuality in Japanese Society (2001). - Who’s That Girl? Lesbian In/visibility in Japanese Society (2002).

Gender Gymnastics: Performers, Fans and Gender Issues in the Takarazuka Revue of Contemporary Japan{Download Page):  "This thesis analyses the Takarazuka Revue, an all-female musical theatre company, seeking to investigate its relation to broader issues of gender in contemporary Japan. Takarazuka has simultaneously reinforced and challenged the gender norms of Japanese society for the past ninety years, and indeed provides insights into the construction of those very norms. Takarazuka takes images of masculinity and femininity from mainstream society, the media, arts and popular culture, in both Japan and other countries, and reconstructs them according to its own distinct notions of how gender should be portrayed, both on and off its stage, not only by its performers, but also by fans and creative staff.  Unlike in other single-sex theatrical genres featuring cross-dressing, such as Kabuki, gender is the essential focus of every performance in Takarazuka.  Takarazuka's practices show that gender is not inherent, but must be learned through observation, imitation and direct instruction, and that various versions of male gender can be assumed for specific purposes, even temporarily, by biological females (and vice versa). Takarazuka's relationship with gender extends well beyond the stage itself; and one of the ways in which this thesis goes beyond other studies is its focus on the whole life-course of Takarazuka performers, including their girlhood and post-retirement years..." Wikipedia: Takarazuka Revue. - Japan's Takarazuka Theater makes women, and men, of talented girls.

Interview with Teiji Furuhashi, Performanceartist:: - Carol: Do you consider the Takarazuka theatre drag? Teiji: Yes, I love them! But maybe their budget is too large for it to be called drag. (Laughs) Those girls do not seem to have any gender politics. A few of them came to my drag parties just out of curiosity and they were caught off guard because a couple of lesbians came on to them. Maybe it has never occurred to them that real sex happens! - Carol: Tell me more about these drag parties. Teiji: In the late 1980s, I was not really open in Japan about the fact that I was working in New York as a drag queen. I could see that there was a cultural mix-up in Japan between transsexuals and drag queens. - Carol: So what happened? Teiji: In 1989, I decided to bring drag back to Japan to the late Bubble Period nightclubs like gold, Endmax and Yellow in Tokyo and Genesis and Paranoia in Osaka. We threw drag parties and called them 'Diamonds are forever'. They had the longest waiting lines of all. - Carol: I saw this underground drag video, Diamond Hour, in which you play a heroine called Ms. Glorias who is a goofy, devious blend of a rag doll and Carol Channing. Is that your drag persona? Teiji: I don't have one definite persona. I am sometimes Julie Andrews, sometimes Barbra Streisand or Barbarella. These are my conventional drag persona. Sometimes I become a space cowboy or invader or whatever, any outrageous character I can invent with make-up and clothes. - Carol: How did the Diamond Hour project get started? Teiji: It was shown at the Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in New York and was directed by D.K. Uraji, a professional illustrator and full-time drag queen. It is really a no-budget movie, but it looks beautiful in a way, which I guess is the philosophical point of drag...

Doing ‘Couples’ in Lesbian Communities and Doing ‘Lesbian Couples’ in the Japanese Society (Saori Kamano, National Institute of Population & Social Security Research) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In this paper, I will depict ways in which lesbians construct ‘lesbian couples’ in Japan. First, I will focus on what goes on within a ‘lesbian community’ by examining how ‘couples’, ‘partners’, and/or ‘romantic relationships’ are being understood and depicted. I will specifically analyze the behaviors, meanings and values that are associated with being in a couple relationship and the language used in discussing such relationships among lesbians. Second, I will examine how lesbians construct ‘lesbian couples’ vis-à-vis heterosexual couples and/or gay male couples by looking at how ‘lesbian couples’ are juxtaposed against heterosexual and gay men’s relationships. For example, I will identify various social and interpersonal contexts in which lesbians claim ‘lesbian couples’ to be similar to and/or different from heterosexual and gay male couples and delineate the characteristics of ‘lesbian couples’ that are being emphasized through making such claims. In my analyses, I will rely on published materials, such as newsletters (e.g., Regumi Tsushin) and magazines targeting sexual minority women (e.g., Anise), and major Internet sites by and for lesbians, in addition to face-to-face interviews I conducted in 2002 of more than 20 self-identified lesbians. It is my hope that the paper takes the first step in understanding and defining what it means to be ‘lesbian couples‚’ in today’s Japan by taking a more ‘insider’s approach’ than merely looking at how lesbian couples are seen and understood by the larger society."

From Bar to Clubs: Discourses of Women-Only Space (Claire Maree, Tsuda College) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In 1994 the first Gay and Lesbian Parade was held in Tokyo, Japan. Fronted by a huge banner reading ‘Come Out’, over 1300 people walked in what marked the first major demonstration of gay and lesbian pride outside Shinjuku ni-choome, the so-called gay area of central Tokyo. The mid-nineties also saw the use within the lesbian of the phrase debyuu (to debut = go to a lgbq event for the first time as a lgbq). Against this backdrop a range of new clubs and bars began to spring up in Shinjuku and beyond. Among these was a women’s-only club event operating monthly in venues outside of ni-choome that remains popular today. Although the 1990s emerges as a time of change and innovation, of greater access and visibility, women-only space had been in operation since the 1970s. Lesbian bars began opening in ni-choome in the 1980s. In this paper I will examine the discourse of women’s only club and bar spaces from the 1970s to the present. Focusing on flyers, advertisements in magazines, mini-komi (community zines) and more recently the internet, I will examine how imaginings of women-only space in Tokyo have shifted during the 70s, 80s and 90s. I will specifically focus on the intersections of ‘female’ and ‘queer’, to explore the language of ‘women-only space’ and issues of lesbian (and women-woman desire) within those spaces."

My Different ‘I’s: Survival, Subversion and Non-Visual Queerness (Akiko Shimizu, Chuo University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The main objective of this paper is to examine how, and to what extent, one can re-present and re-construct one’s gendered self by appropriating existing sets of gender norms. In particular, I will insist on the importance of the roles the non-visual, or verbal, gendered practices may play in the attempts of self-re-presentation, and argue that, when combined with visual gendered practices that may or may not be consistent with them, they can open up a space for non-traditional, non-normative configurations of gendered experiences. Using examples from girls‚ novels‚ pop music, and other cultural texts in modern Japan, I will demonstrate how the choice of different first person pronouns can allow Japanese women to project different gendered images, and discuss how, and to what extent, it can be used strategically in order for the self to avoid or loosen the grip of existing gender norms. I hope this paper will not only demonstrate one possible way of re-appropriating Anglo-American queer/gender theories in a Japanese context with the view of unsettling the fantasy of solid and coherent genders, but also question the current emphasis in queer theories on visibility of gender and sexuality."

Individualization and Japanese Gays (Tomoyuki Kaneta, Tokyo Metropolitan University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "This article arms about individualization among Japanese gays. Individualization is a concept explaining a uniqueness of modernity or late-modernity(not post-modernity). this concept mainly used by Ulrich Beck, German sociologist. According to Beck, modernity drives individualization to any persons. With individualization, any events is experienced as a individual event, and individualization regard individual choice as most important in modern life and state. In our era, Individualization infiltrate into any social system, of course, into sexuality and intimacy system, without exception. modern democratic society needs individuals as components of society, at the same time, individualization emerge in modern society. So, on Japanese gays, individualization has been infiltrating thoroughly. In Japan, basically, "coming out" is not seen as a political action, but as an individual choice, individual selective action. this situation dose not means what Japanese gays can not have politicized "coming out" ever. a few famous Japanese gay leaders has made effort to politicize a gay issue, including "coming out". but these trials dose not seem to succeed sufficiently, by reason that individualization become a political gay issue to a simple individual issue. I think individualization infiltrated among Japanese gays, before some political claims emerged. therefore, Japanese gays dose not form a obviously political consciousness. In these situation, we must reconsider "gay politics" in Japan."

Oppressive Effects on Pre-sexual minorities (Hisashi Kubo, Kobe University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Pre-sexual-minorities in Japan experience much difficulty in acquiring sexual minority identity, and this paper explores the causes of this difficulty. I have used the word ‘pre-sexual-minorities’, referring to those who feel their sexuality is somewhat different from that of other people, but who are unable to identify themselves as sexual minority. Drawing on data from empirical research, this paper hypothesizes that this is mainly an effect of the invisibility of sexual minorities in social space, especially suburban space in Japan. Although queer people are discriminated against in Western societies as well, these societies at least recognize that queer people exist. By contrast, in the Japanese society many people are not even aware of the existence of sexual minorities so that these minorities are rendered invisible in daily social life. It should be argued that this situation oppresses pre-sexual-minorities in a latent way. This paper focuses on the suburban space as a typical setting where this oppressive process takes place. This place is made up of nuclear families and homogenous, especially in ‘New Towns.’ Compared with the central city, the suburban space is less diverse in terms of kinds of activities, and less tolerant toward heterogeneity, especially in terms of sexual life-styles. Gendered division of labor is distinct and parents put large energy into better educating for their children. This normative sense of values renders sexual minority invisible. Consequently, it is hard for pre-sexual-minorities to accept their own sexual queerness by identifying themselves as a sexual minority."

Tokyo, Japan: "The Gay community in Tokyo is large and thriving. Although "Gay bashing" is rarely reported, most Japanese people still seem very uncomfortable with "non-traditional" sexual orientation. Despite numerous historical and present-day examples of homosexuality in Japan, it is still often considered to be a "problem unique to foreigners". Gay students on the program have found the Gay community in Tokyo to be very supportive, though most have chosen to remain "in the closet" with their host families and teachers." - Kamingu Auto: Homosexuality & Popular Culture in Japan: PDF Download.

Masashi Harada: Japanese male gay and bisexual identity (Journal of Homosexuality, 42 2 , p. 77-100, 2001): "This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men... The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay ."  ...A significant number of respondents have careers of vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan." (Abstract at Medline). - Attempted suicide, psychological health and exposure to harassment among Japanese homosexual, bisexual or other men questioning their sexual orientation recruited via the internet. - Mental health and school-based verbal abuse among Japanese gay and bisexual men (Related PowerPoint Download).

Bubbling under: Not having to explain chopsticks: Masa Sato, 22, came from Japan to study and experience life in a Western country. His mother knows he’s gay, but she has sworn him to secrecy since his father wouldn’t approve.  "Japanese people are very homophobic," Sato says. "They consider homosexuality to be bizarre. Japanese people do not understand why two people of the same sex can be attracted to one another." Sato points to an incident in Japan last year when a young man was killed because he was gay but, as Masa says, "the Japanese media didn’t mention the sexual orientation of the young man, they just treated the murder as an accident."

From Closet to Classroom: Gay Issues in ESL/EFL: (The Language Teacher, 1998) "It goes without saying that consciousness about the varieties of relationships and even families is growing here in Japan. Partially as a result of the media and feminist and human rights movements, our students have an interest in gay relations (Ishino & Wakabayashi, 1995). Some of our students are gay themselves, understandably cautious about coming out in a still homophobic society..." - Two Japanese Roundtable Conversations on Gay Life and Identity. - Self-Censorship. - Out on the Global Stage: Authenticity, Interpretation and Orientalism in Japanese Coming Out Narratives - by Mark J. McLelland. - Secrets of Japan.

Sensei, I Slashed My Wrists Last Night: "Mike, I slashed my wrists last night," Kaoru announced, "But don't worry. I'm okay now. I didn't cut that hard." Shock? Confusion? Anger? What was I supposed to feel? More importantly, what was I supposed to do? We talked long into the night, and even when my head was falling from exhaustion, I was too terrified to hang up. This particular story, at least, has a happy ending. Over the following four months, Kaoru came out to family and friends, founded a sexuality discussion group at the university, and began volunteering for gay and lesbian cultural projects. Kaoru's struggles are far from over, of course--rebuilding a life can take years--but now the challenge is being met with optimism and confidence. I sometimes reflect on my role seeing Kaoru through this ordeal. What a lucky turn of fate that Kaoru guessed I would offer a supportive ear, and was able to reach out to me. For several months, I was Kaoru's primary lifeline and counsellor, and together we worked through many rough spots, including the suicide attempt. It horrifies me to think what would have happened had I not made myself approachable..."

Research Summary: GLB Japanese in U.S: "In Queer Studies, research is beginning to focus on minority and cross-cultural issues, yet little has been done about glb Japanese living in the U.S. The Japanese make up one of the largest groups of international students studying here in the U.S. For glb Japanese who come for academic study, the journey overseas often brings with it different challenges and, many times, a realization that their sexuality places them between two cultures...  In Japanese, there is no word which embodies the meaning that gay, lesbian or bisexual hold here in the U.S. Once in the States, most glb Japanese students report isolation, marginalization and a sense that they are the only one. No major group exists which organizes glb Japanese in the U.S. There are many glb Asian groups, but most Japanese don't feel a connection with other glb Asians. Most Japanese are in relationships with Americans adding the cross-cultural dimension to their relationships..."

Intersections, Special Issue: Queer Japan (2006). Introduction to the Queer Japan Special Issue. - Japan's Gay History. - The Social Situation Facing Gays in Japan. - AIDS and the Gay Community in Japan. - Japanese Lesbian/Gay Studies. - Festival of Sexual Minorities in Japan: - A Revival of the Tokyo Lesbian & Gay Parade in 2005. - Determined to Live as a Man. - The Legal Situation Facing Sexual Minorities in Japan. - The Process of Divergence between 'Men who Love Men' and 'Feminised Men' in Postwar Japanese Media. - Itō Bungaku and the Solidarity of the Rose Tribes [Barazoku]: - Stirrings of Homo Solidarity in Early 1970s Japan. - Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography. - Penisism and the Eternal Hole: (Homo)Eroticism and Existential Exploration in the Early Poetry of Takahashi Mutsuo. - A Short History of Hentai. Interactive Practices in Shinjuku Ni-Chōme's Homosexual Bars. -- Interviews... Clandestine Wandering in the World of Women: An Interview with Freelance Journalist 'Y'. - Celebrating Lesbian Sexuality: Interview with Inoue Meimy. - Interview with Takahashi Mutsuo. -- Poetry... Confessions of Madame Ursula Bearine. Book Reviews...  Fushimi Noriaki, Matsuzawa Kureichi, Kurokawa Noboyuki, Yamanaka Toshio, Oikawa Kenji, Noguchi Katsuzō 'Okama' wa sabetsu ka: 'Shūkan Kinyōbi no Sabetsu Hyōgen Jiken [Does 'okama' have discriminatory connotations? The discriminating expression case in the weekly magazine Shūkan Kinyōbi].

Typology of Male Homosexualities in Contemporary Japan and Its Mediatized Expressions (Erick Laurent, Gifu Keizai University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The ‘categorization’ seems to be a major characteristic of the Japanese homosexual world. This paper analyzes the ways such a typology is formed, transmitted and mediatized. The methodological tools include participant observation in bars, formal interviews and content analysis of the gay press. The ‘logic of the types’ is created and reinforced in 3 areas in the gay world: the bars, the press, and self-presentation. In guides, classification of bars is precise, according to the dominant mood, age of customers, and type of encounter. In such a milieux, the first thing one is asked is ‘What is your type?’ It is not unusual to be asked to drink elsewhere should one’s preferences not match the bar’s characteristics. Similar is the case in gay magazines. Seven are published monthly, each dedicated to the various types. The vocabulary used, pictures, stories and news in each magazine tend to maintain barriers between the types. During self-presentation, a Japanese gay has to announce to which ‘type’ he belongs. Finally, advertisements on websites are often classified according to more than 20 types. It is my claim that the existence of the typology has a certain influence in shaping aspects of gay sexuality and life in Japan. One reason for its success is that it mirrors Japanese society in general, where nearly everything has to be ‘classified’ to be dealt with. In such a way, encounters are channelled, ‘the other’ is situated; the culture of secrecy is maintained."

LGBT rights in Japan. - Gays won Japan's first gay-rights lawsuit. - Lesbian and Gay rights in Japan. - Gay Rights Emergence Forces Issues Japan Has Avoided. - Tokyo Gays' Rights Dumped: "It was big news when the government had GLBT activists help write human rights guidelines, but their issues have disappeared from the draft document." - Japanese court rules against Mishima book N/A.

Gender and sexualities in Japan workshop (Word Download): The past decade has seen growing interest within Asian Studies regarding previously overlooked "marginal" or "liminal" sexual and gender identities in societies of the region... Abstracts: Ordeal by Roses: The Other Side of Yukio Mishima. - Working With Heterosexuality: Work, Marriage, Fatherhood and the 'Salaryman' in Japan. - From sailor suits to sadism: representations of "Lesbos love" in Japan's postwar perverse press. - eminist Futures and Future Feminists. - Professional 'kyoiku mama': Being a good mother via the practice of 'ojuken' among educated women in modern Tokyo.

The Power of Repression and the Power of Foreclosure: Foucault and Lacan vis-à-vis Japan: "In France, it seems that gay people are accepted--or sometimes adored--only aesthetically. The situation is more so in Japan. There is a tradition of homosexual love dating back to premodern times; and today, transvestites and gays are stars on popular TV programs, and women cartoonists prefer to draw stories about male homosexuality. These phenomena create the appearance of homosexuality being widely accepted in Japan. The acceptance is nevertheless limited to the aesthetical domain. Old and ugly gay lovers are out of the question. In this situation it is rather that the aesthetic affirmation of homosexuality blocks the liberation of gay men and women as humans..."

Queer Life in Cool Places: Kevyn's Semester at Sea: Japan. - My Life Has Been Sad: One man's struggle against bigotry: Peeco - As He is known to the whole of Japan - is a leading television commentator on fashion and film. The 53-year-old also writes on society and music. He talked with Asiaweek Contributor Suvendrini Kakuchi about being a homosexual in a convention-bound society like Japan. What made you decide to openly declare your homosexuality?..." - Striving to de-exoticize Japanese marriage avoiders: "After graduating, he returned to Japan in 1988, contacting feminist, lesbian, and gay people. The assumption that all adults must be married was problematic to feminists, lesbians, and gay men he met and he decided to study those "whose ideas, feelings or lifestyles are at variance with Japanese constructions of marriage" (p.2). The pressure to wed is so great that, as Lunsing detailed, gay male magazines include advertisements for wives. Most want something like a traditional marriage (in which males spend few waking hours at home)..." (Book Review: De-exoticizing Japanese sexuality - 2001 - by Wim Lunsing) 

History: -Homosexuality in the Japanese Buddhist Tradition. - Homosexuality and Theravada Buddhism. (Alternate Link) - Some Notes on Buddhist Views of Sexual Minority Orientation and Behavior. - Are you worthy to be a Samurai? - The beautiful way of the Samurai: Native tradition and Hellenic echo. - Homosexuality in Japan. - Homosexuality in Japan. - Cannes: Oshima explore la voie du samouraï! - Academic News (PDF Download): Indiana University turned into a hot spot for the research of sexuality in Edo culblre when it hosted the international conference". Sexuality and Edo Culture. 17S0-1850" from August 17 to 20, 1995. As the organizer, Sumie Jones mentioned in her opening remarks, sexuality in Edo cUlnare has been largely ignored by adademicss in the U.S. and to an even greater extent, Japan. - Making Japanese by Taking off Clothes. - The World of Sex in Tokugawa and Meiji Japan. - Japanese Erotic Fantasies: Sexual imagery of the Edo period (PDF Download). - A World History of Homosexuality (U3A course SBS19-2006): The Beautiful Way, Homosexuality in Japan. (PDF Download).

Reynen, Scott (2002). Lesbian Suicide and Shortcomings ofSocialism in Interwar Japan. Undergraduate Review, 14(1): Article 4. PDF Download. There were 342 cases of "female same-sex double (or 'love') suicide" reported in the Japanese daily press between 1925 and 1935 (Komine 1985). Assuming unreported and individual cases, the actual number of lesbian suicides during this period was probably much higher than twice this number. Still, these recorded lesbian double suicides alone constitute about thirty-one percent of all suicides in Japan during this time period (Komine 1985, 174-5). The disproportionately high rate of suicide among lesbians in interwar Japan is an indication of widespread exclusion of lesbians from the social and economic trends during this time.

Japanese History For Gay Men: There are divergence of views in fact. - Tale of Murasaki - Homosexuality. - Session 9: Homoeroticism and Modernity from Kansei to Showa: The Boys of Kansei - Genbun'itchi and Modern Sexuality - Male Homosexuality in Meiji Literature: Its Traditional Aspects and Change Through Meiji Modernization - Seventy Years of Japanese Homosexuality? On "Compulsory Nationality." - Homosexuality in the Japanese Imperial Armed Forces. Fallen Warriors as Mass Media Stars: Paper on Japanese gay samurai iconography, with prints depicting "nanshoku" and homosexuality in military society.

A Mirror for Men? Idealised Depictions of White Men and Gay Men in Japanese Women's Media (PDF Download): Abstract: This paper argues that Japanese women's media which portray images of foreign (nearly always white) men and Japanese gay men as objects of desire and fascination for Japanese women function as rhetorical mirrors whose real intent is to reflect back the supposed deficiencies of 'traditional' Japanese men. The paper concludes that women's media are being used as a vehicle for anti-male rhetoric, a channel for an indirect discourse of complaint whose main purpose is to critique the perceived shortcomings of ordinary Japanese men.

Why Are Japanese Girls’ Comics full of Boys Bonking? by Mark McLelland. - Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics. (More information on Shôjo Manga) - Local meanings in global space: a case study of women's 'Boy love' web sites in Japanese and English. - Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon. - "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy. - Eroticism for the Masses: Japanese Manga Comics and Their Assimilation into the U.S. - No Climax, No Point, No Meaning? Japanese Women's Boy-Love Sites on the Internet. - Male Homosexuality in American Comic Books and Japanese Manga. - What is Bara? In online discussions about yaoi and gay men appreciating yaoi, the subject of bara - Japanese gay male comics targeted at a gay male audience - invariably gets mentioned, but rarely does anyone seem to have much information to offer.

Anime with Gay, Lesbian, & Trans themes/characters- Gay Anime, gay hentai, gay yaoi. - Gender and sexuality in Japanese Anime. - A Resource and Guide To Homosexuality, Bisexuality, and Transgenderism in Anime. - Homosexual Male in Shoujo Anime. - Otaku Corner: Homosexuality in Anime and Anime Fandom Part 1: A Glossary. - An open letter to gays, lesbians, and bisexuals new to anime. - GLBTQ: Manga. - Beautiful, Borrowed and Bent:  Boys Love as Girls Love in Shoujo Manga (Must Scroll).  Manga Men: On May 25 some 15,000 anime fans will be flooding Toronto for the annual Anime North convention. Throw in the yaoi and you've got the makings of a gay 'ole time. But where do the real live homos fit in? "Ya-what?" you ask? Yaoi, pronounced yah-oh-ee, is the North American term for man-on-man anime, ranging from the romantic to the hardcore. - Manga Talk on Anime Bento. - Transgendered Anime. Yuricon and ALC Publishing - creating, disseminating and celebrating yuri and shoujoai - lesbian images and stories - in anime and manga since 2000! - Essays. - Yuricon Celebrates Lesbian Anime and Manga. - A Beginner's Guide to "Must-See" Yuri anime and Manga. - An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime. - Yuricon: As we contemplated this year's theme, Chicks with Weapons, we couldn't help but notice more strong female role models in anime, manga, television and movies than ever before. - 100% Yuri Manga Anthology Yuri Monogatari 5 Available for Pre-Order., Anime, Manga, and Japanese Culture: The Function of Woman-Authored Manga in Japanese Society: "In its year 2000 White Paper, Japan’s Ministry of Education ranked anime (animation) and manga (comics) “among the most important forms of artistic expression in the modern Japanese cultural environment” (“Education White Paper”). Some anime and manga fans have praised this pronouncement because they perceive it to mean the two media are finally receiving the critical attention they so richly deserve. However, along with official recognition can come increased homogenization of the medium as it becomes a cultural product ready for consumption; it stands to reason that manga and anime would not be lauded so highly if they did not represent sanctioned cultural norms..." - Gay Love in Japanese Manga. - Anime, mon amour: forget Pokemon - Japanese animation explodes with gay, lesbian, and trans themes.

Yaoi Fans As ‘Queer’ Women in Japan (Akiko Mizoguchi, University of Rochester) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "Starting in the early 1960s, yaoi fictions, male homosexual comics and illustrated novels created by women for women in Japan, cater to at least half a million women today. Though many stronger works of the 1960s and 1970s have proven to be crossover hits with readers of both genders, more recent yaoi comics and illustrated novels which feature explicit depiction of male homosexual acts have excluded straight male. Today over 95% readers and 100% writers and artists are women for the yaoi genre as a whole, and as such, yaoi provides a female gendered and fully sexualized discursive space. What female yaoi fans communicate in this space through the representations of male homosexual romance narratives are their sexual desires and fantasies. Regardless of their sexual identities such as straight, lesbian, bisexual and others, these women operate in the yaoi space together. For example, a married woman who reads yaoi fictions and shares her fantasies with other yaoi fans on a daily basis, and claims that such acts feel more ‘sexual’ than her actual sex acts is not at all rare. Instead of calling these women straight women who like yaoi fictions, or women who belong to ‘lesbian continuum’ with lesbian fans of yaoi fictions, this paper proposes to call them ‘queer.’ By examining women’s words from magazines, face-to-face interviews and email correspondences, this paper explores this ‘queerness’ that exceeds conventional categories of sexual orientations in the hope of expanding the discussions of women’s ‘queer’ sexualities in contemporary Japan." - "Stop, My Butt Hurts!" The Yaoi Invasion.

Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love: Some of today's edgiest male homosexual images and stories are being composed by women and girls-- for their own pleasure. Because it's (mostly) young women who've thronged to the burgeoning yaoi underground. What's yaoi? It's homegrown fan fiction based on Japanese cartoon characters. But it's not just Made-in-Japan anymore. Mark McHarry looks at the growing world of yaoi-- and Japan's centuries-old tradition of same-sex love that nourishes its roots. Around the world, millions of girls are conjuring tales of boys in love with each other. What's up with sex and gender in the 21st century? ...

Boy's Love: En studie av maskuliniteter och maktrelationer i yaoi manga (PDF Download): Abstract: My study deals with a genre of Japanese comics called yaoi, or boys’ love. My aim is to study masculinities appearing in this genre and how they interact. In my stories, a younger boy and an older one, or a grown man, fall in love and sometimes go as far as intercourse. The young boy behaves in a way that could be interpreted as him being a girl under cover. Because of that I also discuss if yaoi is a challenge to heteronormativity, or if it actually confirms it. In support of the view that the boy could be read as a girl is the inequality in power between the two lovers, but also the way the young boy is depicted; he is always drawn as smaller, with large eyes, whereas the older part is taller with broad shoulders. The older boy/man may represent one of two kinds of masculinity. Either cruel, brutal and violent, or kind but manly. Both these kinds of personality are very protective, sometimes in a way difficult to separate from controling, and they also harass the younger part with kisses and caresses and sometimes rape. The younger boy represents a masculinity which is more passive and sensitive. The harassment and even the rapes are accepted without further comments as acts of love.As I see it, with the help of Janice Radway, the young boys’ accepting of their lovers scorn and violence, legitimizes male dominance over women and subordinated masculinities. That’s why yaoi may be seen asconfirming heteronormativity instead of questioning it.

Reaching Out from the Margins: Queer Community Formation in an ‘Aesthete’ Magazine for Teenagers (James Welker, Nanzan University) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "The popularity of the shounen ai (boys’ love) genre of shoujo manga (girls’ comics) has drawn significant critical attention. While shounen ai has been described as offering a liberatory sphere within which readers are freed to experiment with romance and sexuality, what has little been noted is the genre’s appeal to young people whose sexual desire and identities transgress heteropatriarchal norms. Given the popularity of this genre, with its focus on beautiful, often androgynous boys in love with each other, it is unsurprising that the end of the 1970s saw the appearance of a few magazines aimed at teenage girls and focused on these bishounen (beautiful boys) and their romantic, sometimes sexual relationships with each other. Among the readership of these ‘tanbiha’ (cult of aesthetes) magazines were young women and men drawn to depictions of a range of homosexual and transgender desire and identities. The existence of these readers is evidenced by their contributions to the magazines, sometimes as editorial commentary, sometimes as confessional testimony. Aran (Allan) specifically published a ‘lesbienne’ personals column, which first appeared literally on the margins of the magazine, and which eventually made space for male readers. In allowing readers to make textual if not physical contact with each other, these magazines functioned as sites where queer young people were able to find or create communities of others like themselves. This paper examines reader contributions to these tanbiha magazines and explores their role in community formation among young people resisting heteronormativity.

Photographer Kyle Sackowski travels to Japan, focuses lenses on gay underground in Tokyo. - Masters of Japanese Gay Erotic Art. - History of Japanese Gay Erotic Art-Menu. - History of Japanese Gay Erotic Art-Early Era. - Gengoroh Tagame: Artiste érotique gay du Japon..- Gay Erotic Art in Japan (vol. 1): Artists from the Time of the Birth of Gay Magazines. - Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography.  - Gay erotic art in Japan, Vol 2 (PDF Download). - glbtq: Japanese Art

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Japan). - Bright Lights Film Journal: Gay Pink Films from Japan. - I Like You... I Like You Very Much: Revolutionary film maker Oki Hiroyuki has created the 'Pink Films,' the first gay, sexually explicit films to come out of Japan.- Love's Layers: Oki Hiroyuki's Inside Heart (Kokoro no Naka). - Oki Hiroyuki: Interview. - Waterboys. - The Tokyo Intl Lesbian & Gay Film Festival: 1999. - Tokyo International Lesbian & Gay Film & Video Festival Web Site: Film Archive & Interviews ro 2004. (A Brief History of TILGFF). - The (temporary?) queering of Japanese TV. - Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema. - Obscenity and homosexual depiction in Japan. - Two Japanese variants of the absolute transvestite film. - The Many Faces of Eve: Lesbians in Japanese film finally come to life.- Tokyo 2005 International L&G Film Festival. - Kansai Queer Film Festival.

Notes from Chanbara Queen: a queer critique of 1950-1960 Japanese cinema (Marou Izumo, Independent Scholar) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "In this presentation I present my work Chanbara Queen (Pandora, 2003) which offers a queer critique of mass produced popular, swashbuckling movies from the Golden Era of Japanese cinema in the 1950s and 1960s. In particular I will focus on the portrayal of drag kings/drag queens in imaginary Edo period settings and gender representations therein. I will also discuss the fanatic consumption of those films by the Japanese public. Films to be discussed include Hanagasa Wakashu (The Young Man in the Flowered Hat, 1958) starring Misora Hibari, the greatest singing star of the post-war period, and Yukinojoo henge (The transformations of Yukinojoo, 1963) featuring the eternal screen beau, Hasegawa Kazuo." - Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

Shinjuku Boys: From the makers of Dream Girls, Shinjuku Boys introduces three onnabes who work as hosts at the New Marilyn Club in Tokyo. Annabes are women who live as men and have girlfriends, although they don't usually identify as lesbians. As the film follows them at home and on the job, all three talk frankly to the camera about their gender-bending lives, revealing their views about women, sex, transvestitism and lesbianism. - Two Japanese variants of the absolute transvestite film. - Gohatto or the end of Oshima Nagisa.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Japan: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies (2005): Papers available for download. - The 2005 Conference Abstracts: Many of these possible papers were either not presented or not made avaible as full text papers (PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - Titles for abstracts of these paper: related to Japan: - ‘Homosocial Desire’ versus ‘Heterosexual Hegemony’ in Corporate Japan (Romit Dasgupta, University of Western Australia). - Women’s Activism Against Homophobia: Christian Discourse in the Non-Christian Society of Japan (Yuri Horie, Osaka University). - The 3-D Rigid Structure (1990s) and The Flexible Network (1950s): Two Interpretative Frameworks on Marginal Sexualities in Post War Japan (Hitoshi Ishida, Meiji Gakuin University). - Notes from Chanbara Queen: a queer critique of 1950-1960 Japanese cinema (Marou Izumo, Independent Scholar). - Doing ‘Couples’ in Lesbian Communities and Doing ‘Lesbian Couples’ in the Japanese Society (Saori Kamano, National Institute of Population & Social Security Research). - Individualization and Japanese Gays (Tomoyuki Kaneta, Tokyo Metropolitan University). - Lesbians Depicted in Newsletters of Lesbian Groups Before and After the Gay Boom in Japan (Noriko Kohashi, Independent Scholar). - Oppressive Effects on Pre-sexual minorities (Hisashi Kubo, Kobe University). - Typology of Male Homosexualities in Contemporary Japan and Its Mediatized Expressions (Erick Laurent, Gifu Keizai University). - Networking Among Postwar Japanese Queer Communities (Mark McLelland, University of Queensland). - From Bar to Clubs: Discourses of Women-Only Space (Claire Maree, Tsuda College). - Yaoi Fans As ‘Queer’ Women in Japan (Akiko Mizoguchi, University of Rochester). - My Different ‘I’s: Survival, Subversion and Non-Visual Queerness (Akiko Shimizu, Chuo University). - Naming Themselves or Being Named?: Articulation of Indigenous Queer Politics of Modern Japan (Katsuhiko Suganuma, University of Melbourne). - ‘Transition Story’ in Person with GID (Sachiko Wakui, Kyoto University). - Reaching Out from the Margins: Queer Community Formation in an ‘Aesthete’ Magazine for Teenagers (James Welker, Nanzan University). .

Resource Links: - Gay/Lesbian Web Sites.- Gay Japanese Magazines. - Queer Samurai/ Gay Youth Japan - Japanese study resources links & Support. - Century Gay Student Union: Japan-based international GLBT student organization. - - JguyUSguy is the web meeting place for Japanese and non-Japanese men. - GayNet Japan (GNJ), founded in 1988. - Gay Tokyo Homepage. - Gay Kyoto. - Information from a NAFSAn in Japan. - Travel & Resources: Japan. - BJC's Gay Japan. - Reference: GLB articles/books in Japanese. -" Japan Resources. - Lesbian Feminism in Japan N/A.(Archive Link)  - GLBT Resources. - Google Directory: Pre-Modern Japan. - Google Directory: History.

GLBTQ, Japan: - Art. Film. Literature. Kabuki. Manga. Yukio Mishima. Ihara Saikaku. Mutsuo Takahashi. Takarazuka. Tokyo. Social Sciences.

Utopia's Japanese Resources. - StickyRice. - GLBT Links in Asia / IU and Bloomington GLBT Community. - GLBT Japanese Links. - Nobu's Gay Guide to Japan.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country: - Asia: Afghanistan. - Bangladesh. - Bhutan. - Brunei Darussalam. - Cambodia. - China. - India.- Indonesia. - Japan. - Lao. - Malaysia. - Maldives. - Mongolia. - Mongolia. - Myanmar. - Nepal. - North Korea (DPRK). - Pakistan. - Philippines. - Singapore. - South Korea (ROK). - Sri Lanka. - Thailand. - Timor-Leste. - Viet Nam.

Gay JapanGay Japan to 2008. (Global Gayz): - News/Reports 2000-04. - ILGA Report. - The Eastgarden

QRD's Japan Resources. - Gayscape. - Pridelinks.

Tokyo's Gay Variety Shop: Books Rose. - "Kanojotachi No Ai Shikata N/A," which bears the English subtitle, "Bye, Bye Sexuality" [Tokyo: The Massada, 1997; 1400 yen], not only contains the tales of women who love other women, but also includes the real names and photographs in a very rare case in which gay women have gone public. The book is authored by Toro Kitao and the photographs are attributed to Kangoro Nagakawa. Both of the book's creators are heterosexual men in their 40s. 

Books: - Queer Japan : Personal Stories of Japanese Lesbians, Gays, Transsexuals and Bisexuals. - 1999 - translated and edited by Barbara Summerhawk,Cheiron McMahill and Darren McDonald (10 Sample Pages) (Review) (Alternate Links) (Review) (Related Information) (Review) - List of papers and other publications on Japan's sexual minorities by Mark McLelland. (Alternate Link).  He is author of a book, Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan: Cultural Myths and Social Realities, Richmond: Curzon Press (2000).  (Japan Times Review) (Review) (New UQ book examines media perceptions of Japanese gays.) - Mark McLelland's Index page. - Review: Takarazuka: Sexual Politics and Popular Culture in Modern Japan - by Jennifer Robertson (1998) (Amazon). - Queer Japan from the Pacific War to the Internet Age - 2005 - by Mark J. McLelland (Review) (Author Interview). - Gay Japan Exploring Queer Spirits - 2007 - by Masashi Harada (Review) (Amazon).

Books: - Coming Out in Japan - 2001 - by Satoru Ito and Ryuta Yanase, translated by Francis Conlan (Review). - Sadao Hasegawa - 1996 -  by Sadao Hasegawa. - Kitchen - 1994 - by Banana Yoshimoto, Megan Backus (Translator) (7 Sample Pages). - The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics: National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement - 1999 - edired by Barry D. Adam, Jan Willem Duyvendak, Andre Krouwel. Contains: "Japan: Finding Its Way" by Wim Lunsing. - Emerging Lesbian Voices from Japan - 2002 - by Sharon Chalmers (Review) (Amazon). - Love Upon the Chopping Board - 2000 - by Marou Izumo and Claire Maree (Review) (Review) (Related Information) (Amazon).

Books: - Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature - 1996 - edited by Stephen Miller (Review) (10 Sample Pages). - Great Mirrors Shattered: Homosexuality, Orientalism and Japan. - 1999 - by John Whittier Treat (Review). - Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950 - 2000 - by Gregory M. Pflugfelder (41 Sample Pages) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Confessions of a Mask - 1972 - by Yukio Mishima, Meredith Weatherby (Translator) (About the Author). - The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima - 1995 - by Henry Scott-Stokes. - Novels of Yukio Mishima. - Genders, Transgenders and Sexualities in Japan - 2005 - by Mark Mclelland (Review).  - Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Dislocating the Salaryman Doxa - 2003 - edited by  James E. Roberson and Nobue Suzuki (Review).

Books: - Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan - 1997 - by Gary P. Leupp (20 Sample Pages) (Review) (Review). - Gay Tales of the Samurai - 1995 - by E. Powys Mathers, Henry M. Christman (Translator), Ihara Saikaku. - The Great Mirror of Male Love - 1991 - by Ihara Saikaku, Paul G. Schalow (Translator) (21 Sample Pages). - Life of an Amorous Man - 1964 (Reprint Edition: 2001) - by Ihara Saikaku. - Comrade Loves of the Samurai: Songs of the Geishas - 1972 - by Saikaku Ihara, Edward P. Mathers (Translator). -  Gay Erotic Art in Japan (vol. 1): Artists from the Time of the Birth of Gay Magazines - 2003 - by Tagame Gengoroh, with English translation by Kitajima Yuji (Review). - Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950 - 2007 - by Gregory Pflugfelder. - In the Company of Men: Representations of Male-Male Sexuality in Meiji Literature - 2006 - by Jim Reichert (Content) (Review) (Review). 

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. many free full text articles and papers. -

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available -

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports. 


ASIAN RESOURCES  - Moved to A New Page



Search all GLBT Resource Directories. - The "Proteus" Super-Search System is recommended (See also Proteus Original). - Best Search Engine on Proteus is: Google!  If you are searching for a string of word together, such as a title, forget not to place what is sought in quotation marks. Example: "Death by Denial". - Bing Search by MSN is also a good search engine. For all types of search engines, see Wikipedia listing. - Search the QRD.

  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located.

Computer time was also supplied by Rick Reist & Glenn Lynas, and Glenn also supplied other forms of assistance.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.


The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.

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