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Page Index: General History Information. - University Courses (Related Issues & Examples). - Antiquity. - Medieval / Middle Ages. - Europe: United Kingdom & Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Scandinavia, Russia. - Middle East / Central Asia / North Africa. - South Asia. - Southeast Asia. - East Asia. - North America. - The United States. - USA Cities: San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Seattle, Philadelphia, New Orleans. - Canada. - Mexico. - Latin America. - Australia / New Zealand. - Africa. - Full Text Articles / Papers / Studies.

Some of the Books Available Free Online

Another Kind of Love: Male Homosexual Desire in English Discourse,
1850-1920 - by Christopher Craft (1994)

The Erotic Whitman
by Vivian R Pollack

American Homo: Community and Perversity
by Jeffrey Escoffier (1998)

Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis (First Published: 1896)
First book on homosexuality in the English language.

General Information

Lesbian and Gay Histories: Defining the Fields (1997). - Some related problems: Origins may be difficult to trace for gays, lesbians & bisexuals (1995). - Future of the Queer Past’ conference will examine history of gay life worldwide (2000). - Deviant History, Defiant Heritage. GLBT History Quizzes. - The Denial of Gay History (2005). Jonathan Ned Katz's "The Invention of Heterosexuality." - Wikipedia: Homosexuality - History. - History of Homosexuality. - History of Homosexuality (Wikipedia). - Homosexuality (2011): History & Historiographical Debates. - Know Your Queer History! - The Strange, Strange Story of the Gay Fascists (2008). - History of Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Social Movements.

Fabricating Heritage by David Lowenthal (1998, History & Memory 10-1, Reference & Excerpt) - David Lowenthal's: Fabricating Heritage Narratives: Locale, Region, Nation & Dennis Frenchman's: Designing Local and Regional Heritage Narratives. - You Can't Be a People Unless You Have a History (2004). - Teaching "Straight" Gay and Lesbian History. - Queer Theory's Heist of Our History (Larry Kramer). - Kramer on Theory: Rebuttal and a Defense. - Queer physiognomies; or, how many ways can we do the history of sexuality? - Queering the Seventeenth Century: Historicism, Queer Theory, and Early Modern Literature (2008). - Sexology, the Homo/Hetero Binary, and the Complexities of Male Sexual History (2006).

Swade's tribal Voice: Lesbian History. - 1970s Lesbian Feminism. (Alternate Link) - Austin Lesbian Activists of the 70's Herstory Project (1969-1983). - Finding ‘Her Story’ in History: A Gay Man Looks for Lesbian Role Models. -  Same-Sex Unions throughout Time: A History of Gay Marriage (2010).- African American Lesbian And Gay History: An Exploration N/A (1994-95). - From 'Woman-Loving Woman' to 'Queer': Historiographical Perspectives on Twentieth-Century British Lesbian History (2007).

Hidden History (2009, A True To Life Films Production): Few people realize that the history of the world is filled with same-gender-loving spirituality. Ancient civilizations, tribes and sects revered homosexuals as spiritual guardians. Then, as religion became more organized, millions of these shamans, priests and priestesses were exiled, brutalized and even killed by the church. Just for being same-gender-loving. This is one of the great, ignored stories of human history. A story that is ready to be told. “HIDDEN HISTORY” will be a 90-minute documentary film that will tell this remarkable story, by exposing one of the great lies of human history—promoted by the churches for centuries: that those who do not identify as heterosexual are not worthy of spirituality. This perception of “unworthiness” has persisted for hundreds of years, even to this day, causing internalized homophobia, self-loathing, high rates of suicide, and heavy drug use in the lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-intersex-queer (LGBTIQ) community. By using powerful interviews with noted scholars, historians, and Indigenous spiritual leaders, as well as uncovering archival images and shooting location footage--where these Indigenous people and their leaders live, “HIDDEN HISTORY” will chronicle the early sacred roles of these enlightened beings, through the demonizing by various religions as they struggled with hatred and prejudice, and, ultimately, to the awakening and reclamation of their ancient spiritual heritage...

Early Church Responses to Lesbian Sex. - A History of Lesbian Unions. - Herstory of the Dyke March. - Historical Lesbian Couples. - From Passionate Friendship to Gay Liberation: 1891 to 1974. - History of same-sex unions (Wikipedia).

A brief history of the WCGLJO The first gay and lesbian Jewish organizations in the world. - History of Gay Israel: Queer in the Land of Sodom.

Nations grapple with the gay lives of their greatest muses; In Germany : Goethe, in U.S.A. : - Whitman, in Britain: Wilde. German Intellectuals Furious, Americans Nervous, Britain Alone is Prideful

Timetable of Lesbian and Gay History (2007). - Lesbian and Gay Movement History (2007). - Timetable of Lesbian and Gay History (Word Download). - Stonewall UK History Timeline: History of lesbian, gay and bisexual equality. - Timeline of LGBT [World] history (Wikipedia). LGBT History Month Timelines

Homodok GLB Archives (To 2006). - The Suppression of Lesbian and Gay History. - Whitewashing Gay History: Liberals applaud themselves for championing gay marriage. But there are ghosts at the weddings (2012). - Vintage Male Physique & Hollywood Photographs, 1947–1958 (some nudity).

Introduction: A Short, Personal History of Lesbian and Gay Experimental Cinema (2003). - People of color activists organize across the U.S. (2006): "Militant activists of color played a leading role in early multinational gay liberation groups and formed their own caucuses and organizations..." - Timeline of Duke's LGBTQ History (1972 to 2010). - A Living Memory LGBT History Timeline (1920 to 2006).

Gay and Lesbian Archives for South Africa (Archives to 2007). - Jewish GLBT Archive. - Les Archives Gaies du Québec: Bibliographie de l'homosexualité au Québec avant 1990. - Lesbian Herstory Archives. - GLBT Pride Symbols & History. - A Brief History of Homosexuality in America (1996, PDF Download) (Alternate Link). - The Gay History of Planet Earth (2001). - Lesbian and Gay Historical Society of San Diego (Archives): Lambda Archives of San Diego. - International Museum of Gay & Lesbian History. - Why support lesbian and gay archives? N/A. - Where our history lives: from New York to Minneapolis, Chicago to San Francisco, gays and lesbians are building archives that will preserve queer history for future generations (2005).

Gay/Lesbian Historical Documents, Research and Sources (To 2011).-  The ONE Institute's  International Gay & Lesbian Archives. - James C. Hormel Gay and Lesbian Center. - GLBT Historical Society Of Northern California & International LGBT Museum Project. - UWM's Golda Meir Library "The Academic Study of the History of Homosexuality" Exhibit. - A Brief History of Homosexuality (PDF Download).- Gay and Lesbian History at the National Archives (UK): An Introduction. - A Brief history of homosexuality in Australia. - Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives: The biggest repository of historical materials about homosexuals and homosexuality in Australia.

Gay and lesbian people in history: Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals in History at - Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Historical and Celebrity Figures (with important commentary). - History of Homosexuality... and Homosexuality in History N/A. - Homosexuality in History. - Overview of Queer History: Sears' Queer Century (or so) Timeline with particular emphasis on the Ol' South. - The Blacklist: African Americans

Out On The Screen: Queer History Project. - A Brief History of Queer Cinema (2007). - Celluloid Cupboard: A History of Gay and Lesbian Cinema. - The Hidden History of Homosexual Australia (2005).- The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: History/Herstory). -  The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Subject: Biographies).

Homosexuality in Film. - From the "Russian Gay Culture" site: Gay-themed Films in Russia & Russian Gay History. - Hollywood Homosexuals: Annamarie Jagose interviews Brett Farmer about His New Book, Spectacular Passions: Cinema, Fantasy, Gay Male Spectatorships. - Hollywood Lesbians: Annamarie Jagose interviews Patricia White about Her Latest Book, Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability

Transgender: - Trans History Timeline. - A Brief History of Transsexuality (2003). - Transhistory (To 2001). - TransHistory: A Colourful Past and Present. - TransHistory... Timeline of Significant Events (Word Download).

Born Eunuchs: The purpose of this page is to make readily available literature excerpts and articles from all periods of Western history pertaining to homosexuality and eunuchs, that is otherwise not easy to access, and to allow the reader to get a sense of how cultural views of homosexuality have changed over time.

The Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History: an affiliated society of the American Historical Association. The Committee on Lesbian and Gay History was founded in 1979 to promote the study of homosexuality in the past and present by facilitating communication among scholars in a variety of disciplines working on a variety of cultures. The name of the committee was changed to Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in January 2009. - The CLGBTH Newsletter. Dissertations and Theses (From 1972 to "In Progress"). - List of Dissertations and Theses on Lesbian History written between 1968 and 1995 N/A. - LGBTQ History Dissertations: 1978-2002. - Queer Fictions of the Past - History, Culture and Difference: Opportunities and Dangers in American Postmodernist Historiography (1997 / 2000).

LGBT history (Wikipedia). - GLBT Historical Society: Often referred to as San Francisco's "queer Smithsonian," the GLBT Historical Society houses one of the world's largest collections of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender historical materials. The society's GLBT History Museum is the first full-scale, stand-alone museum of its kind in the United States. - Websites on Gay and Lesbian History (1998).

Gay History, Gay Art, Homosexual Mythology and Literature - World History of Male Love. - & GLBTQ.comGay History, Gay Art, Homosexual Mythology and Literature - World History of Male Love. - The World History of Male Love. - The Pop-Up Museum of Queer History. - Anti-Gay & Ex-Gay History: Throughout history there have been waves of negative reaction to GLBT individuals and our sexual practices. In spite of the persecution, GLBT people all over the world make their distinctive mark on every society they inhabit. Many books and web sites explore this history. See Links. The purpose of this page is to mention moments in history when the homophobic establishment targeted GLBT people. They sought to change our behavior and sexuality. They criminalized our lovemaking, and in some times and places, they strove to exterminate us completely.

People with a History An Online Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans* History:

The Internet History Sourcebook - Index of 3 Major Sourcebooks and Many Secondary Sourcebooks: - Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. - Internet Medieval Sourcebook. - Internet Modern History Sourcebook.

Essay Collections on Gay History and Literature by Rictor Norton: - The Homosexual Pastoral Tradition. - The Great Queens of History. - The Queer Canon. - Queer Culture.  - Bibliography of Works. - Queer History Links. - Mother Clap's Molly House: The Gay Subculture in England, 1700-1830. - Queen James and His Courtier. - Critical Censorship of Gay Literature.- The Life and Writings of John Addington Symonds (1840 - 1893). - Excerpts from Rictor Norton, "Enter Willie Hughes as Juliet: or, Shakespeare's Sonnets Revisited", The Queer Canon.

Halifax exhibition looks at gay subculture at sea in 50s and 60s (2011). - Gay life at sea exhibit to make North American debut (2011). - Buggery and the British Navy Is it true the ships had "peg boys"?  (2008).

Toward A Global History of Same-Sex Sexuality (2004):  I favor the term “same-sex sexuality” as one that gets beyond the use of terms such as “queer,” “gay,” “lesbian,” or “homosexual.”  Yet I would like to proceed by looking at manifestations of what we call “same-sex sexuality” in different times and places in order both to explore global patterns and to consider how those patterns problematize the two parts of the term “same-sex sexuality.”  That is, sometimes such manifestations cannot really be considered “same-sex.”  And sometimes they should not really be labeled “sexuality.”  These complications suggest that even the attempt to avoid assumptions about the meanings of desires and acts and relationships by using a term such as “same-sex sexuality” may inadvertently lump together phenomena that are quite different.  This is the difficulty of thinking about a global history of same-sex sexuality.

Journal of the History of Sexuality. - Journal of the History of Sexuality (With "Search" and Abstracts or Excerpts): - History of Sexuality: Resources in the Special Collections Library at Duke University. - Canadian Committee on the History of Sexuality. - Committee on Lesbian and Gay History (CLGH), an affiliated society of the American Historical Association (To 2007. - To 2009). - Fachverband für Homosexualität und Geschichte  (Federation for Homosexuality and History): the parent federation for the various initiatives and projects doing research on and documenting same-sex history. It is the confederation of men and women interested in the history of same-sex love, eroticism and sexuality. - Famous Bisexuals in History. - Queers in History

History Links: -  DMOZ GLB Links. - Search the QRD.All GLBT info Search Engines. - San Francisco Queer History Links (Home Page). - Overview of Queer History (2002). - Chicago Gay History. - Rictor Norton's Queer History Links. - Ian's History Links.

Bibliographies: - Books (Abstracts): GLBT History - From Berlin to Paris to New York to San Francisco; from closets to liberation to assimilation. This is just a sample of our gay/lesbian history section... - Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual History Books. - Bibliography; GLBT History Books. - Bibliography (New York Public Library): GLB History. - Australian lesbian and gay histories: bibliography. - Science and Homoeroticism: 19th-Century Bibliography Project - Including new English translations of important texts. - Homosexuality in History: A Partially Annotated Bibliography. - Gay's the Word Bookshop: History. - Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals: Bibliography. - Publications on the history of same-sex love. - Literary Representation and the History of Homosexuality: Reading List. - Bibliography: Colonial America, The Age of Sodomitical Sin.

Bibliographies: - Homosexuality inEarly Modern Europe: General - Lesbianism - Britain - Eastern Europe - France - Germany - Italy - Low Countries - Scandinavia - Spain and Portugal - Switzerland - Colonies and "Others" - Cross-dressing - Hermaphroditism - Masturbation. - Links to Reviews of Books on Queer History. - Books: Homosexuality, Male, in literature. - Lucy Chesser’s Bibliography of Australian Lesbian History (PDF). - Bibliographie sélective sur l’homosexualité: Un choix de ressources autour du thème de l’homosexualité : documentaires et fictions à lire ou à voir... ainsi que des ressources en ligne.Actualisé en mai 2008 et juillet 2009. - Lucy Chesser’s Bibliography of Australian Lesbian History. - LGBT Resources in the Princeton University Library: History. - University of Chicago: Guide to Gay and Lesbian Resources: II History and Ethnology. - Bibliography: Histories of Homosexuality. - Amazon: Gay History Books. - Links to Reviews of Books on Queer History. - A Gay Lesbian Bisexual Transgender (GLBT)  Arts Bibliography (2011).

Queer Histories Books: General HistoryBisexual History - Gay History - Lesbian History - Transgender History - History of Drag - History of Film - History of Women - Political History - Cultural History.

Books: - A Queer Reader: 2500 Years of Male Homosexuality - 1993 - edited by Patrick Higgins. - Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II (Vol 1) - 2000 - edited by Robert Aldrich, Garry Wotherspoon (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review)- Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals - 2009 - by Keith Stern (Book Home Page) (Google Books).- Gay Life & Culture: A World History - 2006 - edited by Robert Aldrich (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Great Events From History: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Trangender Events - 2006 - edited by Lillian Faderman, Yolanda Retter, Horacio Roque Ramirez, Stuart Timmons, Eric C. Wat (Google Books). - Homosexuality: A History - 1979 - by Vern L. Bullough. - Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present - 1981 - by Lillian Faderman (Google Books) (Review) (Review) - Sapphists and Sexologists; Histories of Sexualities: Volume 2 - 2009 - edited by Sonja Tiernan, Mary McAuliffe.

Books: - Hidden from History : Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past - 1990 - by Martha Vicinus, George Chauncey, Martin Bauml Duberman (Google Books). - A Natural History of Homosexuality - 2004 - by Francis M. Mondomore (Abstract/Comments) (Google Books). - We are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay & Lesbian Politics - 1997 - edited by Mark Blasius and Shane Phelan (Google Books). - Gay Roots: An Anthology of Gay History, Sex, Politics & Culture Volumes 1 and 2 - 1993 - edited by Winston Leyland (Google Books) (Review). -  Blossom of Bone: Reclaiming the Connections Between Homoeroticism and the Sacred - 1993 - by Randy P. Conner (Review) (Google Books). - Homosexualities - 2000 - by Stephen O. Murray (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (University of Chicago Press). - Pacific Homosexualities - 2002 - by Stephen Murray. - Born to Be Gay: A History of Homosexuality - 2006 - by William Naphy (Google Books). - The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations In Human Societies - 2009 - by James Neill (Google Books).

Books: - Gay Warriors: A Documentary History From the Ancient World to the Present - 2002 - edited by B. R. Burg (Review) (Review) (Read Online). - A History of Gay Literature: The Male Tradition - 1998 - by Gregory Woods (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries - 1998 - edited by Rictor Norton (Google Books) (Review) (Excerpts). - Homosexuality and Civilization - 2003 - by Louis Crompton  (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Free ebook).

Books: - Before the Closet: Same-Sex Love from "Beowulf" to "Angels in America" - 1998 - by Allen J Frantzen (Abstract & Table of Contents) (Amazon) (Google Books). - Hello Sailor!: The Hidden History of Gay Life at Sea - 2003 - by Jo Stanley, Paul Baker (Review) (Google Books) (Hello Sailor! Museum Exhibit) (Hello Sailor! Canadian Edition: Oral History Project). - No Straight Lines: Four Decades of Queer Comics - 2012 - by Justin Hall (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview, YouTube). - Who's a Pretty Boy Then? : One Hundred & Fifty Years of Gay Life in Pictures - 1997 - by James Gardiner (Google Books). - Between the Acts: Lives of Homosexual Men, 1883-1967 - 1991 - edited by Kevin Poter & Jeffery Weeks. 

Books: - Still Acting Gay: Male Homosexuality in Modern Drama  - 2000 - by John M. Clum (Google Books) (Review). - Drag: A History of Female Impersonation in the Performing Arts - 1994 - by Roger Baker, Peter Burton, and Richard Smith (Abstract & Contents) (Google Books). - A Queer History of Ballet - 2007 - by Peter Stoneley (Google Books) (Review) (Free ebook). - Queer Sites: Gay Urban Histories Since 1600 - 1999 - edited by David Higgs (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Another Country: Queer Anti-Urbanism - 2010 - by Scott Herring (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Secret Sexualities: A Sourcebook of 17th and 18th Century Writing - 1997 - edited by Ian McCormick (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Becoming Visible: A Reader in Gay and Lesbian History for High School and College Students - 1994 - edited by Kevin Jennings (Google Books) (Review). - Queer Masculinities, 1550-1800: Siting Same-Sex Desire in the Early Modern World - 2006 - edited by Katherine O'Donnell, Michael O'Rourke.

Books: - How to Do the History of Homosexuality - 2002 - by David M. Halperin (Google Books) (Review). - Queer Fictions of the Past: History, Culture and Difference - 1997 - by Scott Bravmann (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity - 1998 - by Rictor Norton (Google Books)  (Abstract) (Extract) (Review). - The History of Sexuality Sourcebook - 2007 - edited by Mathew Kuefler (Google Books). - Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present - 1995 - by Neil Miller (Google Books) (Review) (Review: Video). - Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century - 2004 - by Graham Robb (Review) (Review) (Review). - Queering the Underworld: Slumming, Literature and the Undoing of Lesbian and Gay History - 2008 - by Scott Herrin (Google Books) (Review).

Books: - Sanctity and Male Desire: A Gay Reading of Saints - 2004 - by Donald Boisvert (Review) (Review). The Invention of  Sodomy in Christian Theology by Mark Jordan  (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Feeling backward: loss and the politics of queer history - 2007 - by Heather Love (Content / Introduction) (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault - 1991 - by Jonathan Dollimore (Oxford University Press) (Contents) (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Sex, Literature and Censorship - 001 - by Jonathan Dollimore (Google Books) (Contents)

Books: Gay and Lesbian Studies in Art History by Whitney Davis (Editor). Also published as the Journal of Homosexuality, v.27, nos.1/2 (1994). - The Sexual Perspective: Homosexuality and Art in Last 100 Years in the West, Second Edition - 1994 - by Emmanuel Cooper. - Hard to Imagine : Gay Male Eroticism in Photography and Film from Their Beginnings to Stonewall (Between Men-Between Women) - 1996 - by Thomas Waugh (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Pictures and Passions: A History of Homosexuality in the Visual Arts - 1999 - by James M. Saslow (Review). - Art and Homosexuality: A History of Ideas - 2011 - by Christopher Reed (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Christopher Reed - YouTube: presenting his paper " Imagining Identity: Sexuality, Regionalism, and Legacy in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Art" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery). - Outlaw Representation: Censorship and Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century American Art - 2002 - by Richard Meyer (Google Books) (Preface & Chapter 1) (Review). - A Hidden Love: Art and Homosexuality - 2002 - by Dominique Fernandez (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Human Rights Watch (2008). This Alien Legacy: The Origins of “Sodomy” Laws in British Colonialism. New York, New York: Human Rights Watch. PDF Download. PDF Download. This 66-page report describes how laws in over three dozen countries, from India to Uganda and from Nigeria to Papua New Guinea, derive from a single law on homosexual conduct that British colonial rulers imposed on India in 1860.

Bérubé A (2003). The history of gay bathhouses. Journal of Homosexuality, 44(3-4): 33-53. Abstract. PDF Download.The transformation of Turkish baths, Russian baths, public baths, health resorts and spas into gay institutions began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States. - The History of Gay Bathhouses, Surrounding Controversy and Famous Patrons, Including Justin Fashanu, Harvey Milk and Michel Foucault - 2011 - by Caroline Brantley.

Lagrange, Joseph (2003). Sexualities and Queer Studies. PDF Download. Interest in the various aspects of and possible common points between sexualities in the Islamic world through the ages has been a minor but continuous academic concern during the last three decades, boosted by the emergence of women’s and gender studies, almost synchronously with gay/lesbian studies in the mid-1980s and then queer studies in the 1990s. Three groups of epistemological issues pertaining to gender and sexual identity in Islamic societies are addressed here: the constructionist vs. essentialist approach, the relevance of constructing “Islamic sexualities” as a field of research, and the interactions between Western and traditional constructions of sexual identity in modern Islamic societies. This article will deal mainly with sources in Arabic, which remained the language of the cultured elite of the Islamic world until the twelfth century. Sources for other regions will be mentioned in the bibliography. 

Garber, Linda (2005). Where in the World Are the Lesbians? Journal of the History of Sexuality, 14(1/2): 28-50. Reference/Excerpt. PDF Download. Left out of histories of homosexuality because of lack of evidence, excluded from cultural constructions of sexual agency because of gender stereotypes, unnamed because of scholarly prohibitions against imposing anachronistic or culturally inappropriate terms, women who love women face an uphill battle for scholarly recognition, which in turn leads to their underrepresentation in queer studies curriculum... Lesbian scholars must look outside the boundaries of queer studies, must even (or especially) question theoretical insights based on the study of men in European history, if we are to go beyond the sort of hopeful but idle speculation voiced by Hinsch but characteristic of other historians, that “in ancient times . . . with thousands of women locked in the palace together with only the emperor and eunuchs, it seems inevitable that some should have formed deep attachments to one another.”76 Hunches and creative research may lead us down some dicey paths, and some will surely end in cul-de-sacs of undocumentable speculation. But if we merely stick to the main roads, we will never know what we have missed, whatever caches or fragments of the lesbian story are waiting for the intrepid traveler. Queer studies in the United States benefits from drawing on an international constellation of sources. As the field goes global—in classrooms as in scholarly tomes—we would do well to remember the wealth of diversity of material coming from women, among varied queer activists and scholars from around the world, whom we purport to represent but too often shortchange.

Arrivo, Nicholas Martin (2005). Selling Sexuality: A Critical Genealogy of Homosexuality and Capital. PDF Download. Contrary to what a quick stroll through the GAP or five minutes of watching Queer Eye for the Straight Guy would suggest about homosexuality’s exalted status in modern consumer culture, the history of the relationship between homosexuality and the capitalist mode of production has been a complex and troubled one. Homosexuality has occupied positions both inside and outside the capitalist system, functioning both as a weapon of capital and an outcast from the entire system. A common element throughout this dynamic relationship, however, is the capitalist control of homosexuality and homosexuals in increasingly insidious ways. In this essay, I will analyze the development of American homosexuality’s link to the relations of production in two parts—first, an objective genealogy of the intertwined evolution of homosexuality and industrial capitalism, and second, a critical analysis of their current relationship in the era of commodity culture. Finally, I will outline a political strategy, based on queer theory, that may offer radical possibilities for liberation from the domination of capital.

Chiang, Howard Hsueh-Hao (2009). Double Alterity and the Global Historiography of Sexuality: China, Europe, and the Emergence of Sexuality as a Global Possibility. e-pistene, 2(1): 33-52. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF Download. I am referring to the rise of such frameworks as transnationalism and globalism to a position of unprecedented prominence in the historian’s craft. This change in historians’ topical and methodological preoccupations has prompted historians of sexuality to consider non-Western regions of the world ever more seriously. At the same time, to borrow Davidson’s words, without backtracking toward the set of conceptual problems that get passed over so easily, “one will quite literally not know what one is writing the history of when one writes a [global] history of sexuality”. With respect to the well-studied topic of homosexuality, an excellent example of the most current and sophisticated effort in producing a global history of sexuality can be found in Gay life and Culture: A World History (2006), a collection of essays edited by Robert Aldrich. The framing of the volume might first appear to depart radically from the methodology of an earlier book, Louis Crompton’s Homosexuality and Civilization (2003), in which each chapter is devoted to a specific country, civilization, or example of other implicit forms of geopolitical organization. But if one reads the chapters in Gay Life and Culture carefully, one soon realizes that certain underlying methodological assumptions actually unite, rather than differentiate, the two books. Both books essentially approach the global history of sexuality in a way that takes as its point of departure the nation-state system that continues to define the division of labor in the modern historical profession. In this vision of the analytic boundaries with which historians are expected to operate, a global history of homosexuality would simply be a history of homosexuality that covers as much world geography as possible, without even attempting to question or historicize the nation-state system itself. Given that scholars of nationalism have for a long time identified the genus of the modern nation-state system in the nineteenth century,1 a period during which, according to Davidson (2001), the very conceptual space of sexuality was only made possible (p.37), it is somewhat surprising, then, to learn that significant conversations have barely begun to take place between historians of sexuality and historians of nationalism.

Blank, Paula (2009). The Proverbial “Lesbian”: Queering Etymology in Contemporary Critical Practice. Modern Philosophy, 109(1). Full Text. My own choice would be to continue to use “lesbian,” risks and all. For one thing, there is work left to do, which I have only initiated here, in tracing its relations within the larger semantic fields of sexual discourse, past and present, here and elsewhere across languages. Meanwhile, for now, I am tempted to make one further etymological argument about the modern English word “lesbian.” In fellowship with earlier arguments about the word, this one also returns “lesbian” to its sources in ancient Greece. Perhaps the word “lesbian,” even now, even as a term within our contemporary sexual vocabulary, continues to denote the adjectival form of “Lesbos,” but in ways we have not yet acknowledged. I follow here the lead of Terry Castle, who writes of the “islanding” of female homosexuals, “their segregation or seclusion in some location or institution relatively apart from the world of men,” an association that ultimately derives from “the island of Lesbos.”87 Our current use of “lesbian” goes back to Lesbos, I would add, because we keep talking about the word as if it were an island of language, curiously untouched by the full range of its past and therefore its present meanings. We treat it as an island, perhaps, because our vernacular lexicon has relatively few terms for female same-sex love and desire; apart from slang words such as “dyke,” or “femme,” or “butch,” “lesbian” is practically all we have, and we are protective of it. Though we may alternatively call ourselves “gay” or “homosexual,” such terms are, for some, invariably and problematically gendered male. Sedgwick has argued, in fact, that the problem with “homosexual” is what she calls its “etymological macaronic”—our habit of confusing the Greek root homo, meaning the “same,” with the Latin root homo, meaning “man.”88 My own desire has not been to limit or reduce further the vocabulary we have by making “lesbian” problematic as well, even as I hope to have exposed the complexities in continuing to use it. But perhaps the risks we take in further queering “lesbian” may be a source of a further pleasure, of a kind—the feeling of taking control of a language that is ours by surrendering to it as also not ours, the satisfaction of knowing more about where it has been and whom it has been with, and thus, perhaps, what it might yet mean to us. As long as there are texts to read and words proliferating in them, and as long as we continue to use those words to make literal identifications across time, Erasmus's “lesbian” remains proverbial, though my latest etymological argument for “lesbian” must then prove groundless—since no word, not even one from Lesbos, is an island.

From SQS: Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran Lehti - Tidskrift för Queerforskning i Finland - Journal of Queer Studies in Finland:
Kangasvuo J, Karkulehto S (2006): Preface: Querying Queer. SQS [Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran Lehti - Tidskrift för Queerforskning i Finland - Journal of Queer Studies in Finland], 1: 1-6. PDF Download. Download Page. The Journal of Queer Studies in Finland is trilingual: it publishes articles, commentaries and reviews written in Finnish, Swedish and English. Finland, being a bilingual country, has a long history of coexistence of two official languages, Finnish and Swedish... Being an academic journal published in Northern Europe, in a small country whose official language is not Indo- European, the Journal of Queer Studies in Finland claims that studying peripheries and spatial and temporal marginalities can be read as a queer project in itself. While Anglo-American queer theories have focused mostly on Anglophone countries and urban centers, the Journal of Queer Studies in Finland aims to provide a broader perspective for Queer Studies. Texts about local and peripheral situations, relationships, experiences and people that can be labeled ‘queer’ reveal and confirm the unconformity of queerness – the very effectiveness of the concept. The study of centers gains depth when the centers are critically compared and negotiated with peripheries and margins. Therefore SQS is by no means restricted in its area - whether that area is geographical or mental. While the Journal of Queer Studies in Finland reminds US about the instability of existing normativities, it still yields to certain academic norms that ensure the validity and reliability of research. Hence the Journal of Queer Studies in Finland is a peer-reviewed academic journal.

Juvonen, Tuula (2006). Introduction: Queering the Hegemonies of LGBT Historiography. SQS [Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran Lehti - Tidskrift för Queerforskning i Finland - Journal of Queer Studies in Finland], 1: 7-16. PDF Download. Download Page. Recent works written about the history of European homosexualities of the twentieth century have undoubtedly been influenced by U.S. theorizing. However, at the same time they have self-consciously sought their own particular agendas. The articles in this special issue of SQS, Queering Hegemonies in LGBT Historiography, make it possible to problematise our received ideas of LGBT communities by taking a closer look at the ways that samesex desires have been negotiated in some lesser-known European countries. Together these articles can be read as a further step in the existing queer critique of the biases inevitably inherent in local history studies. As we have seen, metropolitan subcultures have been, and continue to be, a breeding ground for diverse, visible LGBT communities. Yet the cultural formations evident in these communities cannot be taken as a universal point of departure for queer theorizing. In particularly the sparsely populated Nordic countries and other “peripheries” provide radically different conditions for any subcultural life (Löfström 1998b, 7). Hence the following texts will show in detail the workings of heteronormativity but also demonstrate the innovative strategies used by homosexually inclined women and men in such settings. The incentive for putting together this issue was the conviction that context matters, both that of a researcher and her research object. Therefore the empirical cases presented here are firmly located in particular places, when the pre-structured systems of thought, spatial conditions and social (im)possibilities of same-sex identifications, sexual identities, and communities are discussed. Taken together the texts also allow the reader to acknowledge the difference that cultural, religious, linguistic or national contexts make for the construction of concepts, practices and communities around same-sex sexuality (here the main focus is roughly 1930s to 1970s) – an aspect that often gets overlooked in works which relate to one country only, even when the racial and ethnic differences within that country are accounted for.

Sex and Social Order: The Transformation of Intimacy by Anthony Giddens (2006): Each of these authors reinforce Giddens' theory that men and women have a long way to go towards developing total sexual emancipation, and towards creating a world in which intimacy is the ultimate basis for relationships and hence society itself. These stories prove that sexuality is indeed a social construct that is indistinguishably connected to power and hierarchy. Modern social institutions continue to sustain traditional values of sexuality, both feminine and masculine. Yet the evolution of the aforementioned characters provides hope that radical changes in society can one day be achieved. Although it occurred slowly, the shift of female identification from Perley to Lorelai offers immense encouragement. As Giddens writes, "The possibility of intimacy means the promise of democracy… The structural source of this promise is the emergence of the pure relationship, not only in the area of sexuality but also in those of parent-child relations, and other forms of kinship and friendship. We can envisage the development of an ethical framework for a democratic personal order, which in sexual relationships and other personal domains conforms to a model of confluent love"(188). Many social, psychological and economic barriers still stand in the way of this ideal future, but as society develops it becomes more and more clear that intimacy can one day be reconstructed into its most pure form, a form which includes all people regardless of sex, class or race.  

University Courses
(Related Issues & Examples)

Out in the Academy: Why Teach Queer History? Which brings us back to the first question: Why teach queer history? Very often, history is in fact the study of the present. Our research and publications can inform heated questions that society must still deal with. Is this not also the case with same-sex marriage? And is it not incumbent upon us to include gay and lesbian histories in our courses, syllabi, and overall department catalogues? Opposition to issues like gay marriage might be based on personal values, faith, and other perspectives. It is not our job to “correct” these positions. But, opposition can also be based on false histories, lack of knowledge, and ahistorical arguments that deny the past. A reconceptualization of our teaching strategies that incorporates gay and lesbian histories into courses as part of the diversity of our nations and communities, rather than as a theme week or small graduate seminar, necessarily promotes understanding and sensitivity to difference in the past, and perhaps the present too. - Gay History Bill: California Senate Votes For Mandatory Gay History In Schools (2011)

Teaching LGBTQ History: Two Situations (2010): I teach courses primarily in American history at a small university. I am one among four historians who are part of an interdisciplinary division. Our classes are small (30–50 students in surveys, 6–25 students in upper-level courses) and we know our students and they know us. I begin the essay with these details because they are among the factors that probably shaped my experiences teaching LGBTQ history over the past 20 years. Add to this the fact that I am openly lesbian and for years was the only visibly queer faculty/staff member. I have taught this history in three venues: the upper-level “era” or topic course designed for majors, but rarely exclusive to them; the U. S. survey since 1865; and a course I introduced around 1990 entitled “Gay American History.” For this essay I am treating only the latter two; and I proceed on the assumption that the “controversy” involved is not in a specific topic for discussion (“Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legal?”) but is embedded in the effort to include any queer material anywhere, much less teach a whole course around it. - Queer Germany, 1871-1945 (UCLA, 2009)

Yale University: 2011-2012 Courses in LGBT Studies: WGSS 200a [HIST127|AMST135]  U.S. Lesbian and Gay History. WGSS 348b Selected Topics in Lesbian and Gay History... - McGill University: HIST 433 British Queer History. - IHST 214: Homosexuality and Civilization, archaic Greece through 18th century (2010, Maryland Insitute College of Art).

Yale's Conspiracy of Silence (2009) by Larry Kramer: It took a long time for Yale to accept Kramer money. After a number of years of trying to get Yale to accept mine for gay professorships or to let me raise funds for a gay student center, (both offers declined), my extraordinary straight brother Arthur offered Yale $1 million to set up the Larry Kramer Initiative for Lesbian and Gay Studies and Yale accepted it. My good friend and a member of the Yale Corporation, Calvin Trillin, managed to convince President Levin that I was a pussycat. The year was 2001. Five years later, in 2006, Yale closed down LKI, as it had come to be called. Yale removed its director, Jonathan David Katz. All references to LKI were expunged from Web sites and answering machines and directories and syllabuses. One day LKI was just no longer here. When this happened I thought my heart would break. I wanted gay history to be taught. I wanted gay history to be about who we are, and who we were, by name, and from the beginning of our history, which is the same as the beginning of everyone else’s history...

UNT Libraries to host gay history archives in deal with Resource Center Dallas (2012): The past 60 years of LGBT history in North Texas will have a new home, at UNT. Under an agreement with the Resource Center Dallas, materials chronicling the gay social movements in Dallas-Fort Worth will be housed at University of North Texas Libraries.

History Courses: The History of Homosexuality in the West. - Homosexuality in Antiquity. - Soc. 390: The Social Organization of Sexuality (SUNY).  ".. the class focused on a historical review of the way social science and "sexologists" have approached sexual matters. The three required texts were Michel Foucault's The History of Sexuality....(1997). - Gender and Sexuality in Antiquity (University Course, 2003). - Introduction to Human Sexuality (2001). - Queer/Anthropology: Ethnographic Approaches to Queer Studies (2010). - Space and sexuality: queering syracuse: geo / qsx 500: spring 2009. - Queer Music History 101… the Lesson Plan. - UCLA: Queer Germany, 1871-1945 (2009).

HIST/WGST 476.500: Sex and Sexuality in History (2012, Texas A&M University. -  ARTS2906: History of Sexuality (2012, The University of New South Wales)

Queer Histories/Queer Cultures (University Course, London, England): This module explores ‘homosexual’, ‘lesbian and gay’, ‘trans’ and ‘queer’ histories in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries; our personal, cultural and political investments in such histories; and the theoretical and methodological issues at stake in pursuing them. Focusing chiefly on London, we explore key moments, figures, and subcultures, and consider the limitations and possibilities of different perspectives and methodological approaches. What happens when we use legal records, or oral histories, or the built environment, or literature, or film to piece together the ‘queer’ past?  How might our current understandings of gender and sexual identity distort our vision of that past? What is to be gained by focusing on one city and on the local and the particular? What, conversely, do we miss by approaching queer histories in this way?  Most importantly, perhaps, how and to whom do these histories matter: is this a minority project or one which might give us broader insight into British society and culture?


L’homosexualité dans l'Antiquité Grecque et Romaine (Translation). -  Essays on Antiquity, some with information about sexuality. -- Born Eunuchs: Homosexual Identity in the Ancient World. - Histoire de l'homosexualité au cours des âges: De l'Antiquité au Moyen Age (Translation). - Historia Thématique: Un Moyen Age inattendu - Les moeurs: Etre homosexuel n'est pas tabou (Translation). - History and Herstory by Brett Humphreys. - Early Greek Men and Women Record Homosex and Love in Rock and Pottery: Almost half of the earliest Greek inscriptions record same-sex erotics. - The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration, and the Kynodesme. - Gay Greek myths, newly uncensored, as experimental theater on AUDIO-CD.

Sexuality in Fifth Century Athens (1994, Alternate Link) - Pederasty in Ancient Greece (Wikipedia). - Saphisme et homoérotisme chez Erinne ou Erinna et Solomon peint Sappho et Erinna (Translation). - Sappho, first lady of Lesbos, survives the scrutiny of the ages.

Histoire de l'homosexualité au cours des âges: (Translation): l'Antiquité - Grèce, Rome, Mésopotamie - Les amours grecques : le rite et le plaisir (Translation). - La chair et la flèche - Le regard homosexuel sur saint Sébastien tel qu'il était représenté en Italie autour de 1500, Karim Ressouni-Demigneux, Mémoire de Maîtrise en Histoire de l'Art, Paris I, 1996. ( PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download).

Regards sur l'amour entres hommes (Translation): 9 chapitres: De la Grèce et la Rome antiques au PACS, 2500 ans d'histoire de l'Occident revisitée, en passant par le Moyen-Âge chrétien, la Renaissance, la Réforme, le Siècle des Lumières, les précurseurs de la libération homosexuelle, les pre-mières théories médicales, le monde des arts, des procès et des scandales de mœurs, l'âge d'or de Weimar, la barbarie nazie et les émeutes de Stonewall. - Chronologie sommaire de l'Histoire de l'amour entre hommes: De la Grèce antique à l'an 2000 (Translation). - Plus de 150 gays, lesbiennes et bisexuel-le-s célèbres (Translation).

Books: - Lovers' Legends: The Gay Greek Myths - 2002 - by Andrew Calimach (Read a story, Contents, About the Author) (Amazon) (Google Books) (Wikipedia) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Lesbian Desire in the Lyrics of Sappho - 1997 - by Jane McIntosh Snyder (Google Books) (Review). - Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World - 1990 - edited by David M. Halperin, John J. Winkler, Froma I. Zeitlin (Google Books) (Review). -  Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece - 1998 - by William Armstrong Percy, III (Google Books) (Contents / Outline) (Review). - The Greeks and Greek Love: A Radical Reappraisal of Homosexuality in Ancient Greece - 2007 - by Davidson James (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - One hundred years of homosexuality: and other essays on Greek love - 1989 - by David Halperin (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Bisexuality in the Ancient World - 1992, 1996 - by Cantarella by Eva Cantarella, Cormac Ocuilleanain (Translator) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review).
- Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity.- 1999 - by Craig A. Williams (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook of Basic Documents - 2003 - edited by Thomas K. Hubbard (Google Books) (Chapters 1 & 2). - Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art, 100 B.C. - A.D. 250 - 1998 - by John R. Clarke (Google Books). - Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West - 2006 - edited by Beert C. Verstraete,  Vernon Provencal (Google Books) (Contents /Abstracts) (Review).

Middle Ages / Medieval Europe

Homosexuality in medieval Europe (Wikipedia). - Saint Aelred the Queer: The Surprising History of Homosexuality and Homophobia.

Queer Middle Ages, November 5-7, 1998: The Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies (CLAGS), the Society for the Study of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages (SSHMA),and the Society for Medieval Feminist Scholarship are pleased to announce Queer Middle Ages, November 57, 1998,The Graduate Center, City University of New York, (CUNY). CoSponsor: New York University. This conference is dedicated to "queering" the Middle Ages: to the pursuit of methodologies of interpretation and documentation of the same-sex choices of women and men who resisted heteronormativity in their sexual and affective bonds during the period we have come to call the "Middle Ages." We seek to expand knowledge of resistance to compulsory heterosexuality in a wide range of the globe's cultural areas, such as the Arab and Islamic worlds, China, and the pre-colonial Americas. We understand "Middle Ages" to be a flexible, not prescriptive term, which can begin, depending on the area under consideration, as early as the 4th century CE and end as late as the end of the 16th century.

Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reforming Practice - 1999 - by Merry Wiesner-Hanks (Google Books). From the Introduction: This study draws on research and analysis from many fields of history, fields that sometimes overlap or interact synergystically, yet that at other times are hostile to one another. Prime among these is the history of sexuality, which, until recently, was viewed as a questionable or at best marginal area of scholarly inquiry. Vern Bullough, one of the first investigators of medieval sexuality, reports that throughout the 1960s— that decade of the “Sexual Revolution” - his research on such topics as homosexuality, prostitution, and transvestism was rejected by historical journals as unsuitable, while books which avoided any discussion of sex, such as Edith Hamilton’s The Greek Way, were best-sellers. This attitude began to change in the 1970s for a number of reasons. 

Halsall, Paul (1988). The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages.
Full text. Homosexual sex was widespread in the Middle Ages and there is abundant information on what church writers and secular legislators thought about it. Shoddy or partisan scholarship and a distinctly modern disdain of homosexuals by scholars until recently marked much of the discussion of the history of this medieval homosexuality. Since 1955, and especially since 1975, much work has been done that is of reasonable quality [1]. The concentration has tended to be on the Church's, or society's, attitude to homosexuality. This paper takes a different tack and looks at the personal experience in the Middle Ages of those we would now call homosexuals and the structures in which they were able to experience their sexuality. Their experience fits in with the wider experience of sexuality in Middle Ages and this also will be considered. Naturally, we can say little about what sexuality felt like for individuals, but a possible framework for their experience can be reconstructed from existing sources. This will be, necessarily, a framework for the experience of homosexual males for significant information exists only about men and boys [2].

Krueger, Derek (2011). Between Monks: Tales of Monastic Companionship in Early Byzantium. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 20(1): 28-61. Download Page. PDF Download. The narrative representation of monastic intimacy prompts further reflection on the manipulation of eros in ascetic literature. Stories of monastic companionship advance an understanding that the construction of ascetic ideals not only incorporated desire into the ascetic life but also incorporated desire into the texts in which the ascetics themselves were portrayed as desirable objects.96 In Moschos’s seventh-century Spiritual Meadow, for example, narratives of monastic pairs become desirable to a reading or listening audience, which then replicates the pleasure that Moschos and Sophronios took in hearing the stories for the first time and that Moschos offered again to Sophronios in presenting him with the anthology containing these stories. The stories themselves and the texts that contain them also further problematize the use of modern conceptions of sexuality as a paradigm for interpreting representations of eros in premodern and, specifically, early Byzantine texts. The companions in the text and their lifelong love become objects of readerly desire. As with Stephen the Cappadocian’s vision of the naked pair, the gazing reader’s desire is aroused and directed toward that monastic ideal: the gazer wants them to dwell together, and the gazer desires to dwell together with them. The monastic eros and the readerly eros at play in these accounts converge, seeking and sustaining fulfillment in companionship and cohabitation.

Raninen, Sami (2008). Queer Vikings? Transgression of gender and same-sex encounters in the Late Iron Age and early medieval Scandinavia. SQS [Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran Lehti - Tidskrift för Queerforskning i Finland - Journal of Queer Studies in Finland], 2: 20-29. Download Page. PDF Download. My intent is to give a brief presentation of the recent research regarding the role of gender-transgressing or gender-mixing practices, often of an openly sexual quality, in the Viking period Scandinavian society and religion. This presentation is not based on any first-hand research, and is intended essentially as an information piece. My ambition is limited to presenting this interesting field of queer history for a new readership, and guiding the intrigued readers to the rich research literature of this topic

Dinshaw, Carolyn (2001). Got Medieval? Journal of the History of Sexuality, 10(2): 202-212. PDF Download. In writing Getting Medieval I tried to discern and work with personal and intimate motives of doing queer history, the deep desires for history that many queers (including me) feel. Years ago I began to feel such a desire to be able to extend somehow into the past, and I witnessed such desire in others, as expressed in passionate readers’ responses to that landmark of gay history, John Boswell’s 1980 Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. That book was infused with and energized by a 1970s post-Stonewall enthusiasm that triumphantly uncovered same-sex sexuality (as it turned out, a very ’70s-style gayness) throughout the ages; ...  Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Postmodern - 1999 - by Carolyn Dinshaw (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Queer Relations (Alternate Link): This paper draws on materials from my book, Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Postmodern).

Dinshaw, Carolyn (1992). The Heterosexual Subject of Chaucerian Narrative. Medieval Feminist Newsletter, 13(1): 8-10. Download Page. Download Page. PDF Download. What does this lesbian/gay theory stuff have to do with Chaucer? I'm of the mind that 8 we can talk about "sexuality" in the Middle Ages (pace Halperin), and I'm willing to use the term "homosexuality" "as generically as possible," as Leonard Barkan has recently written, to denote "erotic relations of any kind between those of the same gender, whatever mentality concerning psyche, society, or identity may accompany them." I want to free up these terms "sexuality," "homosexuality," and "heterosexuality" from any necessarily modem constructions, for use as tools in historical analysis; I thus have taken a position in the class in the Boswell/Halperin debate. One crucial thing lesbian/gay studies has done-parallel to the great leap forward feminist studies made years ago with gender-is to denaturalize heterosexuality. (An influential document in this process was Adrienne Rich's still-powerful, if necessarily contested, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.") And an enormously rich era in Western culture in which to study the promotion of normative heterosexuality-that is, intermeshing matrices of normative gender identity and "properly directed desire"-is the late Middle Ages, with its increasing emphasis on conformity.

O'Rourke, Michael (2003). Becoming (Queer) Medieval: Queer Methodologies in Medieval Studies: Where are we now? Medieval Feminist Forum, 36:9-14. PDF Download. Download Page. ..... "Roundtable: Queer Methodologies and/or Queers in Medieval Studies: Where Are We Now?" Aroundtable discussion with this title took place at the International Congress of the European Middle Ages, University ofLeeds, UK, in July 2002... Reflections by O'Rourke (introductory), Gi//ney, Weston, Morris, and a response from Sarah Salih (University ofEast Anglia) are included here... According to some commentators we are now embarking upon the second wave of queer studies (it's now even possible to talk about old school queer theory) I and it seems a timely and important opportunity (two years after the publication of Burger and Kruger's Queering the Middle Ages to interrogate the meeting-placers) between queer theory and Medieval Studies. The two have not always been happy bedfellows. The synthesizing of two radically opposed disciplines, one marked by (seemingly) staunch traditionalism, the other by anti-normativizing discourses, is bound to be ungainly. Yet the coming together of queer studies and Medieval Studies has often been as productive as it has been hostile...

Schibanoff, Susan (1993). Mohammed, Courtly Love, and the Myth of Western Heterosexuality. Medieval Feminist Forum, 16(1): 27-32. Download Page. PDF Download.  When Europe of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries began to display increasing hostility to its own flourishing "gay subculture" (Boswell 243), I would argue that the West was at the same time formulating the myth of heterosexuality, the rhetoric of which sought to banish same-sex erotic passion as a source of anything-virtue, art-<leemed culturally or morally valuable. When Andreas Capellanus, for instance, defines courtly or ennobling love as "a certain inborn suffering derived from the sight of and excessive meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex" (28, italics mine), it is hard not to hear the myth of straightness in the making. Andreas and a host of other writers ranging from Peter Damien to Alain de Lille and Jean de Meun give expression to a paradigm shift that evidently took place in the high Middle Ages: the older classical ideal of same-sex (male) love and friendship as the model of virtue gives way to the medieval one celebrating heterosexual passion as the sole source of goodness. The causes for this shift are not yet well understood, although the efforts of Boswell, James A. Brundage, David F. Greenberg and others have begun to yield plausible, albeit partial, explanations. The effects of the paradigm shift also await full exploration .. Especially interesting is the possibility that the new genre of romance (and perhaps courtly love itself) register the displacement of classical male homoerotic passion into medieval homosocial bonding and/or heterosexual activity. Nor have we yet fully 28 examined the ways in which sodomy and (male) homoerotic passion were defended in this period, often by means of the discourse of friendship. My point here, however, must be restricted to the observation that Europe's creation of the myth of heterosexuality coincided with the construction of one of its central and enduring images of the East-the depiction of Mohammed and Islam. When European authorities deemed Islam a threat to Christianity, the myth and rhetoric of heterosexuality were available to them to combat the putative dangers of the new religion.] In effect, Europe invented two Others at the same time: the Muslim and the homosexual (cf. Camille 90).

Kruger, Steven F (1993). Racial/Religious and Sexual Queerness in the Middle Ages. Medieval Feminist Forum, 16(1): 32-36. Download Page. PDF Download. What was at stake in defining both the sexually queer "sodomite" and the religiously and racially queer Jew as effeminate, possessing debased bodies threatening to others, and as debasing the meaning of texts through misreadings and distortions? Given Christianity's traditional self-identification with the persecuted (embodied most strikingly in the crucified Christ), the position of the Church in the late Middle Ages-its situation as an enonnously powerful institution-presented it with real problems of self-definition. How to maintain power while still claiming an identification with Christ the victim'! One way was to consolidate the "enemies" of the Church-Jews and "sodomites," "heretics" and "Saracens" -as one immense bodily and intellectual threat. Such a massive threat on the one hand helped justify the Church's position as world power; at the same time, it recast the Church in the traditional role of "imitator Christi," beset by enemies intent on its destruction. Even as it intensified its persecution of Jews, gay men, lepers and others, late-medieval European society, and particularly the Church, could thus deny its own power and claim the moral high-ground of the persecuted.

Boyd, David Lorenzo (1993). On Lesbian and Gay/Queer Medieval Studies. Medieval Feminist Forum, 15(1): 12-15. Introduction. PDF Download.  A graduate student sitting next to me at an MLA panel on “Lesbian and Gay/Feminist Approaches to Middle English Texts” turned to me happily and said: ”Thank God, at last it’s the year of the queer for medieval studies!” As I thought about his comment, I realized that he was right. Conference papers, scholarly articles, heated e-mail discussions, classroom syllabi, a newly formed scholarly society, books in progress, have been heavily informed by Lesbian and Gay/Queer approaches to texts and culture. MFN’s participation in this exciting new cultural project not only marks the relationship and profound indebtedness of such approaches to a vibrant feminist scholarship but also indicates some of the directions in which Lesbian and Gay/Queer Medieval Studies is heading. While I agree wholeheartedly with the content of most of the MFN essays, I also think there are other issues, not raised sufficiently or explicitly enough in the comments, which must be considered carefully as we begin to shape this field. The remarks that follow should not be considered a critique but rather an addendum to and expansion of those points first enumerated in MFN’s Spring 1992 issue.

Bennett, Judith M (2000). “Lesbian-Like” and the Social History of Lesbianisms. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 9(1/2): 1-24. Abstract. PDF Download. In Queer Studies, social history is “queer.” Gay and lesbian histories abound with insightful analyses of texts produced by the powerful and privileged, but they are relatively poor in scholarship about the ordinary lives of average people.’ I offer here a proposal that might adjust this balance a bit. The rich insights brought by intellectual, cultural, and literary studies of same-sex love are invaluable, but I seek to complement these with more complete understandings of the same-sex relations ofpeople who were more real than imagined and more ordlnary than extraordinary.

Boone, Marc (1996). State power and illicit sexuality: the persecution of sodomy in late medieval Bruges. Journal of Medieval History, 22(2): 135–153. AbstractPDF Download. With ninety executions of sodomites and a proportion of about 15% of all executions and bodily punishments relating to this offence, Burgundian Bruges (1385–1515) ranks among Europe's most important centres for the repression of sodomy, a mostly hidden aspect of its rich social history. If these figures allow a comparison of the northern commercial metropolis of the late middle ages with some better known Italian cities, such as Venice and Florence, the actions of the authorities charged with the organization of the repression give an insight into the ideological apparatus behind this repression. Bruges occupied a most important position both as an economic centre and as one of the big Flemish cities opposed to princely centralization. It therefore served on several occasions as the ideal setting for the manifestations of the Burgundian theatre-state. The exceptional repression against the illicit form of sexual behaviour par excellence may be linked with the need to control the city and impose state authority.

Ashurst D (2002). The transformation of homosexual Liebestod in sagas translated from Latin. Saga-Book., 26: 67-96. PDF Download. The focus of this article will be on a series of texts in which one warrior dies clasping the body of a fallen comrade; but before concentrating on that theme I must explain the term liebestod, ëlove- deathí, and its currency in relation to the Tristan legend. Lovers of classical music will recognise the term as the name usually given to an extraordinary passage, at once orgasmic and transcendental, which concludes Wagnerís opera Tristan und Isolde. This opera, for which Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music as was his custom, and which he finished in 1859, was one of the most influential art-works of the nineteenth century. Wagner himself, oddly enough, originally used the term liebestod to designate the Prelude of the opera; and he habitually referred to the closing scene as Isoldes Verklarung, ëIsoldeís Transfigurationí, emphasising its erotic mysticism rather than its pathos (Wagner 1987, 489 and 548ñ59). It was Liszt who borrowed the term liebestod for the title of his 1867 piano transcription of Isoldes Verklarung; but it is Lisztís title, not Wagnerís, which has stuck to the final scene of the opera itself, and so has passed into common usage. The context and content of the scene are that Isolde has rushed to be by the side of her wounded lover, Tristan, but she arrives too late to share with him more than a fleeting word before he dies. Filled with love and sorrow, Isolde enters a state of ecstasy in which she feels herself to be at one with Tristan; then she sinks down onto Tristan’s body, and is dead... The detailed treatment of the liebestod topos in these works, which may be called ‘the Tristan pattern’, would make an interesting study in itself. There is, however, another group of liebestod texts, less well known today but quite well represented in Old Norse–Icelandic literature, which embody what may be termed ‘the homosexual pattern’ in respect of its origin, but which I shall call ‘the all-male pattern’ in view of how it is handled in the sagas. It is this other group, stemming from a root more ancient, more venerable and even better known than the Tristan legend, to which I shall now turn...

List of articles that are available online about same-sex relations in the Middle Ages.

Books: - Queering Medieval Genres - 2004 - by Tison Pugh (Review). - Sexuality and Its Queer Discontents in Middle English Literature - 2008 -  by Tison Pugh (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Queer Love in the Middle Ages - 2005 - by Anna Klosowska (Review) (Review).- Sodomy, Masculinity, and Law in Medieval Literature: France and England, 1050-1230 - 2004 - by William Burgwinkle (Google Books) (Review). - Love Between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism - 1996 - by Bernadette Brooten (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality : Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century - 2005, 8th edition - by John Boswell (Google Books) (Review).

Books: - The Boswell Thesis: Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality - 2006 - edited by Mathew Kuefler (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe - 1994 - by John Boswell (Google Books) (Wikipedia) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Sex, Dissidence and Damnation: Minority Groups in the Middle Ages by Jeffrey Richards  (Google Books) (Review) (Review).- Sodom and Gomorrah : On the Everyday Reality and Persecution of Homosexuals in the Middle Ages - 2001 - by Bernd-Ulrich Hergemoller, John Phillips (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Between Medieval Men: Male Friendship and Desire in Early Medieval English Literature - 2009 - by David Clark (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Free ebook). - Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross Dressing in Medieval Europe - 1999 - by Valer Hotchkiss (Google Books) (Review) (Medieval Cross-Dressing).


Premiers Salons Littéraires Européens de l'Homosexualité (Translation).

Four in Gay History is a Peremptory Publications ebook - 2003  by Hubert Kennedy: Latter-Day Hadrian: Fitzroy Davis and Der Kreis. - German Gay Activist Visits San Francisco – In 1931. - Karol Szymanowski, His Boy-Love Novel, and the Boy He Loved. - Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: The Queer Marx Loved to Hate.

Books: - Colonialism and Homosexuality - 2003 - by Robert Aldrich (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review)- Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest - 1995 - by Anne Mc Clintock (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).
- Imperial Desire: Dissident Sexualities and Colonial Literature - 2003 - edited by Philip Holden, Richard J. Ruppel (Google Books) (Review). - The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe - 2007 - edited by Kenneth Borris, George Rousseau (Review).

Books: - De-Centring Western Sexualities: Central and Eastern European Perspectives - 2011 - edited by Robert Kulpa and Joanna Mizielińska (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related: Introduction: Why Study Sexualities in Central and Eastern Europe? & 'Contemporary Peripheries' - Queer Studies, Circulation of Knowledge and East/West Divide). - History of Homosexuality in Europe, Vol. I: 1 - 2004 - by Florence Tamagne (Google Books).
- The Pursuit of sodomy: male homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe - 1989 - edited by  Kent Gerard, Gert Hekma (Google Books). - Sodomy in Early Modern Europe - 2002 - by Tom Betteridge (Google Books). - The Pursuit of Sodomy:  Male Homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe - 1989 - by Kent Gerard, Gert Hekma (Google Books). - Desire: A History of European Sexuality - 2008 - by Anna Clark (Google Books) (Review).

United Kingdom & Ireland

Gay History: London Museum. - Brighton: OurStory. - Timeline of LGBT history in Britain (Wikipedia). - 'Gross indecency' conviction mars Oscar Wilde's rich legacy.  LGBT History Project (UK). - Homosexuality between Men in Britain since the Eighteenth Century (2007). - Timetable of British Lesbian & Gay History. - MDMA - Queer Noise A Hidden History of Manchester's Gay Music Culture. - Gay Belfast History. - London's Lost Gays History: West End Boys. - Gay Birmingham Remembered. - Francis Bacon and the Evolution of Early Modern Homophobia.

The National Archives (UK): Gay and lesbian history... Why use this guide?... This is a guide which will help you find records relating to gay and lesbian history. It offers an introduction to the historical and institutional contexts in which documentary evidence of gay and lesbian experiences, and official responses and attitudes to those experiences, have entered specific areas of collections at The National Archives. Researching gay and lesbian history is a time consuming and difficult task, presenting considerable problems for anyone working in the field. This guide offers a series of suggestions for potentially productive series of documents. Compared to other historical fields, gay and lesbian history is still in its infancy. We would welcome feedback from researchers on their experiences working in this area. - British Queer History Conference (2010, Montreal, Presentation Titles).- The Mysterious East: East London has generally kept its gay history secret…until now! (2006).

Books: - A Gay History of Britain: Love and Sex Between Men Since the Middle Ages - 2007 - by Matt Cook, Robert Mills, Randolph Trumbach, H. G. Cocks (Google Books).
Mother Clap's Molly House:  The Gay Subculture in England, 1700-1830 - 1992 - by Rictor Norton (Google Books) (Abstract / Contents) (Wikipedia) (Review) (Related Play: Mother Clap's Molly House). - The Sodomite in Fiction and Satire, 1660-1750 - 1997 - by Cameron McFarlane (Review) (Review). - The Worst of Crimes: Homosexuality and the Law in Eighteenth-Century London - 1999 - by Netta Murray Goldsmith (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford - 1994 - by Linda Dowling (Google Books) (Review). - Byron and Greek Love: Homophobia in 19th-century England - 1985 - by Louis Crompton (Google Books) (Free Full Text Online: PDF Downloads) (Review) (Review). - Edward Carpenter: A Life of Liberty and Love - 2008 - by Sheila Rowbotham (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Books: - Another Kind of Love: Male Homosexual Desire in English Discourse, 1850-1920 - 1994 - by Christopher Craft (Google Books) (University of California Press) (Read Online) (Free ebook). - Before Wilde: Sex between Men in Britain’s Age of Reform - 2009 - by Charles Upchurch (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - London and the Culture of Homosexuality, 1885-1914 -  2003 - by Matt Cook (Google Books) (Review) (Review) - Queer London: Perils and Pleasures in the Sexual Metropolis, 1918-1957 - 2005 - by Matt Houlbrook (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Excerpt). - A Spiritual Bloomsbury: Hinduism and Homosexuality in the Lives and Writing of Edward Carpenter, E. M. Forster, and Christopher Isherwood - 2006 - by Antony Copley (Google Books) (Review). - Alan Turing: the Enigma by Andrew Hodges (Notes by author from his website) (Amazon). - The Alan Turing Homepage.

Books: - The Lesbian Premodern - 2011 - edited by Noreen Giffney, Michelle M. Sauer, Diane Watt (Palgrave Macmillan). - The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England - 2002 - by Valerie Traub (Google Books) (Contents / Chapter 1). - A Lesbian History of Britain: Love and Sex Between Women Since 1500 - 2007 - by Rebecca Jennings (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Excerpt). - Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714 - 2001 - by Harriettte Andreadis (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Lesbian dames: Sapphism in the long eighteenth century - 2010 - edited by John C. Beynon, Caroline Gonda (Google Books) (Review). - Passions Between Women: British Lesbian Culture, 1668-1801 - 1993 - by Emma Donoghue (Google Books) (Review) (Review).

Books: - Invisible Relations: Representations of Female Intimacy in the Age of Enlightenment - 1999 - by Elizabeth S. Wahl (Google Books). - Between Women: Friendship, Desire, and Marriage in Victorian England - 2007 - by Sharon Marcus (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Interview With Author). - Citizen, Invert, Queer: Lesbianism and War in Early Twentieth-Century Britain - 2010 - by Deborah Cohler (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Tomboys and Batchelor Girls: A Lesbian History of Post-war Britain, 1945-71: A Lesbian History of Post-war Britain - 2007 - Rebecca Jennings (Google Books) (Review) (Review: Radio). - Fashioning Sapphism: The Origins of a Modern English Lesbian Culture - 2001 - by Laura Doan (Google Books) (Review) (Interview With Author). - Britannia's Glory: A History of Twentieth-Century Lesbians - 1996 - by Emily Hamer (Google Books).

Rooney, Richard (2000). Male homosexuality in Britain: The hidden history. Paper presented at the Association for Journalism Education Conference. PDF Download.  This paper investigates the coverage of male homosexuality by the British press. It concentrates on three periods of significance to homosexuals: the Wolfenden Committee on prostitution and homosexuality of 1954-7, the Sexual Offences Act of 1967, and the separate emergence of gay civil rights and the Aids crisis in the 1970s and 1980s. A survey of the press across six decades concludes that all newspapers had the tendency to ig-nore homosexuals. Such coverage as there was iden-tifies homosexuals as either inverts or perverts. This not only taught non-homosexuals to view homosexuals as a social menace, but also had the potential toteach homosexuals themselves of their own worth-lessness.   The paper demonstrates that newspapers assume that everyone is heterosexual and this is the only natural, normal, decent way to be. Throughout the six decades there is an almost total lack of recognition of the gay viewpoint and experience. Newspapers discourage homosexuality as a political movement and frame all discussion in terms of morality rather than politics.

Walshe, Eibhear (2006). Invisible Irelands: Kate O’Brien’s Lesbian and Gay Social Formations in London and Ireland in the Twentieth Century.  SQS [Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran Lehti - Tidskrift för Queerforskning i Finland - Journal of Queer Studies in Finland], 1: 39-48. PDF Download. Paradoxically Ireland, the country of his birth, is almost a blank space when it comes to any identifiable social history of twentieth-century lesbian and gay culture. Recently some valuable sources for Irish lesbian and gay history have emerged, for example a collection of essays of Irish lesbian and gay voices called Lesbian and Gay Visions of Ireland: Towards the Twenty-First Century edited by Ide O’Carroll and Eoin Collins. Also of great value is a study by Irish political activist, Kieran Rose called Diverse Communities. The Evolution of lesbian and Gay Politics in Ireland, published in 1994. Otherwise there is a great deal of social history unwritten on this aspect of modern Ireland and recent scholarship is attempting to locate submerged lesbian and gay cultures. A few noted queer figures stand out from this invisible history of Ireland, the rebel Irish patriot Roger Casement (1864–1916) the poet Eva-Gore Booth (1870–1926), the lesbian novelist Kate O’Brien (1897–1974) and the theatre directors Michael MacLiammoir (1899–1978) and Hilton Edwards (1903-1982) and my essay collection Sex, Nation and Dissent, published in 1997, deals with many of these figures. Otherwise lesbian and gay communities and cultures in Ireland in the twentieth-century are simply recorded in police records, prosecutions of men for same sex activities or medical records of institutional committals of men and women for the mental illness of inversion’.

Polari: A Gay Slang that Flourished out of Prejudice (2012): Here’s one way to say hello: “Bona to vada your dolly old eek.” That means ‘nice to see your pretty face’ in Polari, a slang with roots in the theater that for decades functioned as a kind of secret code within Britain’s gay community. Clayton Littlewood has written a number of books about London’s Soho neighborhood and in particular its gay community. He remembered, for instance, sitting in a coffee shop with an elderly gay man, watching the world go by... The slang remained popular in British theater into the twentieth century, used by straight and gay alike. But Polari became something more, a necessity for Britain’s gay community after the second world war. Homosexual acts were illegal in England until 1967 and the post-war period was particularly oppressive. “A lot of this was actually influenced by the Americans,” said Bryant. “They were telling Churchill that homosexuals were a security threat and that there needed to be a clamping down. And as this culture of clamping down happened so Polari flourished because it became dangerous to be openly gay.” Polari was a private language that gay men could use in public without fear. - Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men. - Polari (Wikipedia). -  Related Books: Baker P (2002). Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men. London: Routledge (Amazon. Google Books). Baker P (2002). Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. London: Continuum (Amazon. Google Books).

Catamite Coolies and Chinese Sodoms: British Investigations into Chinese Labourers‚ Sexuality in the 19th & 20th Centuries (Ross Forman, School of Oriental and African Studies) (Abstract, Must Scroll: PDF Download. Full text): "A common accusation levelled against Chinese labourers brought to various British colonies at the end of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century was that they were undesirable because of their penchant for pederasty. From sites as geographically disparate as Guiana and Malaya and South Africa, there emerged a discourse about ‘catamite coolies’ that typed Chinese labourers as problematic and promoted their repatriation over more usual patterns of settlement at the end of their indentures. Often relying on testimony from missionaries or other interested parties and often focusing on the role played by cross-dressing troupes of Chinese actors (who were presumed to serve as male prostitutes), British officials carried out a number of investigations into ‘unnatural vice’ in mining compounds and plantation settings. These investigations yield important historical information about colonial understandings of Asian sexualities and patterns of sociability. This paper offers an overview of these inquiries, focusing especially on the 1906 investigation into Chinese labourers in the Transvaal, whose ramifications were so explosive that Winston Churchill actually uttered the word ‘sodomy’ in Parliament. The paper considers what the moral and political implications of Asian male-male sexuality in workers’ enclosures were; what developmental theories of homosexuality were invoked (for instance, the claim that working-class men from Northern China learned about sodomy by sleeping in close proximity to one another during the cold winters); and how the workers were and were not able to represent their subjectivities through interpreters within the legalistic environment in which these colonial investigations were conducted."

Camp, Briana  (2012). Negative Attitudes Toward “Molly” Subculture in Eighteenth Century London: An Analysis of Textual Agencies Regarding the Emerging Gay Community. Paper presented at: (1) the Mid-America Humanities Conference in Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, March 9-10, 2012; and (2) the Social History Society Annual Conference at the University of Brighton, in Brighton, England, UK, April 3-5, 2012. PDF Download. In eighteenth-century London, the oppression of homosexuals, known as “mollies,” was prevalent, thus creating negative social environments that produced negative behaviors toward homosexuals as well as negative stereotypes in print media. This paper considers how text and diction used in eighteenth-century British print culture, specifically street ballads and court cases, acted as active agents of these negative environments. This paper combines emotional geography, linguistics, and social history, and proposes a new method for the emerging field of emotional geography by data mining historical primary sources, looking at language theoretically, and conducting statistical analyses of data.

Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo (2003). Same sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. PDF Download. During the diverse stages of the dictatorship of Franco (1939-1975) homosexuality in Spain was synonymous of persecution, exile and even murder. The Crook and Idler Law was modified in 1954 to include the category of homosexuals (next to the gypsies, drug addicts, vagabonds) 1 and to allow the repression and punishment of the homosexual practices during the first part of this period. In 1971 the Law of Dangerousness and Social Rehabilitation took effect. This statute considered homosexuals dangerous people and caused their separation from the society in an attempt to rehabilitate them. During the period in which this law was reinforced (1971-1979) approximately 1,000 homosexual men were locked up. They were taken to jail or to special disciplinary centers for homosexual men. At the same time lesbians, once again at the cost of its invisibility, escaped repression during the dictatorship (Calvo, 2002).

Poole S (2007). Bringing great shame upon this city: sodomy, the courts and the civic idiom in eighteenth century Bristol. Urban History, 34(1): 114-126. PDF Download. During the 1730s, Bristol acquired an unenviable reputation as a city in which sodomy was endemic and rarely punished by the civil power. Although the cause lay partly in difficulties experienced in securing convictions, the resolve of magistrates was exposed to fierce scrutiny. Taking an effusive curate’s moral vindication of the city as a starting point, this article examines the social production of sodomy in eighteenth-century Bristol, analyses prosecution patterns and considers the importance of collective moral reputation in the forging of civic history.

Robinson, Lucy (2003). Carnival of the Oppressed: The Angry Brigade and the Gay Liberation Front. University of Sussex Journal of Contemporary History, 6: August. PDF Download.  According to the main bodies of Leftist thought and practice there is no relation between the politics of homosexuality and the revolution. In fact, prior to the liberation movement of the 1970s the development of a political homosexual identity was seen as the antithesis of the worldwide working class revolution. Even following the emergence of a visible and dynamic gay liberation movement, the political potential of sexuality was seen as a diversion from the class struggle. This has been replicated in the dominant Leftist histories of the period. There is some acknowledgement of the significance of the Women’s Liberation Movement in these histories, for example in the writing of Tariq Ali. However, the role of gay liberation, its theories and the way in which it informed a radical shift in political activism, is more or less wholly absent from these histories. For if identity, as Alan Sinfield describes it, is ‘fluid, unstable, elusive and self-parodying’, it constitutes the antithesis of objectively defined grand narratives of class. However, behind these silences there lies a highly integrated relationship between the shifts and restructuring of the Left and the development of a homosexual political identity. Gay Men as a political identity shared a development with, and directly intervened in, the perceived decline of the Left. The relationship between homosexual self-perception, organisation and the revolutionary Left became the dynamic behind what was to become identity politics. The development of a gay Left identity therefore illuminates the specificity of the interaction between the Left’s demise and the wider personalisation of politics. It is possible to interrogate the assumptions behind both gay and Leftist histories by bringing them into play together. In so doing, the relationship between the personal and the political can be understood as a process of ongoing reproduction.

Knowles, Jeremy Joseph (2009). An Investigation into the Relationship Between Gay Activism and the Establishment of a Gay Community in Birmingham, 1967-97. Master's Dissertation, Department of Modern History, University of Birmingham. PDF Download.  This study charts the establishment of a gay community in Birmingham from the introduction of the Sexual Offences Act 1967, which partially decriminalised male homosexual acts in England and Wales, to the 1997 general election. This election saw New Labour end eighteen years of Conservative governments in Britain, which had frequently pursued an anti-gay agenda. This investigation examines the impact of the national Gay Liberation movement in Birmingham and particularly how gay activism, as both individual and collective acts of resistance, contributed to the development of a sense of community among the lesbian and gay inhabitants of the city during the 1970s and 1980s. It then documents the moves towards the development of a gay ‘village’ in Birmingham in the 1990s, with a brief comparison made to Manchester’s own Gay Village. This study blends oral history testimonies with archive material drawn from both local and national gay archives, as well as newspapers and local council records. The thesis ends in 1997 with the organisation of the city’s first official Gay Pride Festival. The Gay Pride Festival represented a watershed for Birmingham’s gay community, symbolising a kind of mass ‘coming out’ process during which Birmingham’s gay community established a long-term physical and cultural location for itself within the city.

Hilliard, David (1982). UnEnglish and Unmanly: Anglo-Catholicism and Homosexuality. Victorian Studies,Winter: 181-210. PDF Download. Despite the traditional teaching of the Christian Church that homosexual behaviour is always sinful, there are grounds for believing that Anglo-Catholic religion within the Church of England has offered emotional and aesthetic satisfactions that have been particularly attractive to members of a stigmatised sexual minority. This apparent connection between Anglo-Catholicism and the male homosexual subculture in the English-speaking world has often been remarked upon, but it has never been fully explored. In 1960, for example, in a pioneering study of male homosexuality in Britain, GordonWestwood stated: Some of the contacts maintained that the highest proportion of homosexuals who are regular churchgoers favoured the Anglo-Catholic churches. ... It was not possible to confirm that suggestion in this survey, but it is not difficult to understand that the services with impressive ceremony and large choirs are more likely to appeal to homosexuals.1 More recently, in the United States, several former priests of the Episcopal church have described some of the links between homosexual men and Catholic forms of religion, on the basis of their own knowledge of Anglo-Catholic parishes.2 This essay brings together some of the historical evidence of the ways in which a homosexual sensibility has expressed itself within Anglo-Catholicism. Because of the fragmentary and ambiguous nature of much of this evidence only a tentative outline can be suggested.

Elfenbein, Andrew (1998). Stricken Deer: Secrecy, Homophobia, and the Rise of the Suburban Man. Genders Jounal, 27. Full text. The emergence of a suburban role for men during the first half of the nineteenth century in Great Britain gave homophobia a new and potent role as part of middle-class masculinity. The century as a whole witnessed a marked increase in the systematic surveillance and persecution of men who had sex with other men. As Louis Crompton notes, "During the period 1805-1835, when the annual number of executions for all crimes dropped from about seventy to thirty, sodomy was the only crime for which the number of hangings remained more or less constant."1 By 1885, while sodomy was no longer a capital crime, the Labouchère amendment to the Criminal Law Amendment Act increased the courts' ability to punish sex between men by making acts of "gross indecency" illegal when they occurred not only in public, as had been the case previously, but also in private. This essay will describe how the rise of suburbia provided a background for this dramatic growth in institutionalized homophobia. Life in the suburbs had as a precondition the ability to distinguish sharply between the respectable character of the suburban man and the deviant character of the homosexual.

Muriqi, Luljeta  (2007). Homoerotic codes in The Picture of Dorian Gray.  A60 Literary Seminar Spring 2007 Department of English Lund University. PDF Download. Wilde could not write an openly homoerotic book so we have to read between the lines for things that can be read one way or the other and thus can divert a reader, mostly his critics, from viewing the book as homoerotic. The aim of this essay is examine some of the different codes used by Wilde to show a homoerotic theme in The Picture of Dorian Gray. By codes I mean indications – consciously or unconsciously inserted by the author – towards a homoerotic theme. The focus will be placed on major codes, such as aestheticism, Hellenism, secrecy and shame and effeminacy. The reason I chose to call them codes is that an attempt will be made to decipher the different themes as one does with codes.

de Vries, Swaeske(2011). (Un)Natural Love: Homosexuality in Late Medieval English Literature: Langland, Chaucer, Gower, and the Gawain Poet. Master's Dissertation, Faculteit der Letteren, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Introduction / Download Page. PDF Download. In the end it remains problematic to draw up a concrete conclusion on the matter of homosexuality in fourteenth-century English literature, as we have but a limited amount of text available to us. In other words, more texts on homosexuality may have existed, and perhaps these texts had stronger positive or negative views than the texts discussed here. Unfortunately there has been no further evidence to indicate this, and even if these texts existed they may have gone lost with the passing of centuries. But the texts that have survived may teach us something about what fourteenth-century Englishmen and English society in general had to say about homosexuality. By exploring the four authors I have come to the conclusion that the degree of openness about homosexuality in these texts was very dependent on the author. These four authors with their different backgrounds, if not socially then professionally, have all used different means through which they could hide homosexuality or, in the case of Langland, omit it altogether. As different as their writings, such are too their opinions.


Gay rights movement born in 19th century Germany, scholar says (2011). - 

Homosexuality and the Nazi Party - The Annotated Pink Swaztika Exposing the Lies.  - The "Homosexual Holocaust" - Another Gay Militant Myth?  - The DC Homosexual Holocaust Bibliography. - Nazi persecution of young gay in wartime Poland described. - The history of homosexuality in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. - Event remembers gay Holocaust victims.  - Quand l'homosexualité était un crime (Translation). - Lesbians during the Third Reich. - Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust (Wikipedia).

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (Born August 28, 1825) 182 Years of Pride in 2007 - Introduces gay people young and old to the heritage that Ulrichs said is rightfully theirs. Let Gay people imbed it in their conscience that Gay rights have been so hard-won, beginning with one lone voice seemingly calling in the desert. Now, Gay people have a rich tradition of such voices, and it all began with Ulrichs. - Ulrichs' Urania Manuscripts.

Journal of the History of Sexuality, 17(1), 2008: Special Issue: Masculinity and Homosexuality in Germany and the German Colonies, 1880-1945: Introduction: The study of germany's gay history has come a long way since its meager beginnings in the 1970s. Drawing vitality from the gay and lesbian liberation movement that sprung to life in West Germany at the beginning of the 1970s, the study of gay history was driven forward by a relatively small cadre of devoted historians. Some of them were academically trained, but most were admirably self-taught. An important landmark came in 1985, when Manfred Baumgardt, Manfred Herzer, Andreas Sternweiler, and Wolfgang Theis opened the Schwules Museum in Berlin. Since then, as one visitor noted, "the museum has produced fabulous exhibitions and publications of the highest aesthetic and intellectual quality, without ever neglecting witty and erotic content." Over the years the museum has nurtured scholars interested in German gay history both by providing a central location for pursuing and sharing ideas and by compiling a large archive and library. Berlin, not surprisingly, has been the center for much of the work, but scholars elsewhere have made their own invaluable contributions: Wolfgang Voigt and Hans-Georg Stümke in Hamburg, Rüdiger Lautmann at the University of Bremen, Rainer Hoffschildt in Hannover, Burkhard Jellonnek in Saarbrücken, and Günter Grau at the University of Bremen, to name but a few. Scholars from outside of Germany have also made significant contributions: U.S. historians James Steakley, Geoffrey Giles, and John Fout, for example, as well as Harry Oosterhuis from the Netherlands... Paper Titles (Excerpts Given): Racializing Sex: Same-Sex Relations, German Colonial Authority, and Deutschtum. - Colonial Intimacy: The Rechenberg Scandal and Homosexuality in German East Africa. - Male Sexuality and Psychological Trauma: Soldiers and Sexual Disorder in World War I and Weimar Germany. - The Rites of Artgenossen: Contesting Homosexual Political Culture in Weimar Germany. - Queer Eyes and Wagnerian Guys: Homoeroticism in the Art of the Third Reich.

Books: - Days of Masquerade: Life Stories of Lesbians During the Third Reich - 1996 - by Claudia Schoppmann (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: Pioneer of the Modern Gay Movement - 2001, 2005 - by Hubert Kennedy (Review) (Related). - The Homosexual Emancipation Movement in Germany - 1975 - by James D. Steakley (Review). - The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals - 1986 - by Richard Plant (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Franklin, Robert (2011). Warm Brothers in the Boomtowns of Hell: The Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany. Hohonu: a Journal of Academic Writing, 9. PDF Download.  ...from the late nineteenth century Germany had been one of the leaders in the homosexual rights movement, and homosexuals were an established, although still controversial part of German culture. However, during the Nazi regime the homosexual fight for equality and any gains that were made vanished and replaced with an attitude that was both brutal and dehumanizing to those accused of homosexual behavior. After World War II ended homosexuals experienced continued legal and social discrimination on a far greater scale than other victims of Nazi brutality. The newly formed German state exercised the Anti-homosexual sentiment that existed by drafting Paragraph 1751 in the German penal code of 1871. Paragraph 175 (or P175) effectively criminalized sodomy, stating that “A male who indulges in criminally indecent activities with another male… will be punished with jail.”2 The text does not mention women; in fact lesbianism was never criminalized in Germany.

Johnson MW (2002). Homosexuality: The Essence of Nazism (Part I). The Geopolitical Stategists, 28(3). PDF Download. Concepts to be considered??? The blatant homosexuality of the SA did not occur in a vacuum. German homosexual subculture throughout Hitler's rise to power "was probably unique and unparalleled in the ,world in terms of governmental liberalisn1 and opportunities for homosexual life.....,,70 By 1932 in Berlin there were 300 cafes and bars exclusively for homosexuals.7! Nor were German youth forgotten. By 1923, the "male-oriented and selfconsciously masculine" Bundische Youth displaced the Wandervoge1.72 [Wyneken's] "revolutionary pathos, hatred of bourgeois liberalism, and romantic utopianism [homosexuality] became fundamentals of Bundische ideology.,,73 - See also: Lively, Scott (1997). The Poisoned Stream: “Gay” Influence in Human History: Volume One: Germany 1890-1945. PDF Download.

Dennis, David Brandon (2005). Coming out into socialism: the emergence of a political Schwulsein in the German Democratic Republic. Master's Dissertation, Ohio State University. PDF Download. Download Page. During the last half of the 1980s the "regimented" public sphere in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) began to advocate tolerance and acceptance for lesbian and gay East Germans. The public discussion about the place of gays and lesbians in East German socialism culminated in 1989 with Heiner Carow's DEFA film, Coming Out. Models of total state control over public life in socialist dictatorships fail to adequately explain this public discussion and the production of Coming Out. The explanation lies, rather, in the historical development of a gay movement in the GDR and the East German state's reaction to that movement. Historical evidence suggests that the East German state responded to the disaffection of its lesbian and gay citizens with multiple and often conflicting voices rather than a uniform and consistent one. The overwhelmingly positive representation of homosexuality in the GDR's imperfectly regimented public sphere contrasts with the Politburo's silence on the subject and the Stasi's suspicion and repression. These divergent reactions indicate that different parts of the state apparatus responded differently to the activism of an indigenous East German gay movement, a movement that originated in the Lutheran Churches and, increasingly, spread to "official" sites of cultural production in the GDR.

Lybeck, Marti M (2008). Gender, Sexuality, and Belonging: Female Homosexuality In Germany, 1890-1933. 2008 Fritz Stern Dissertation Prize Winner, University Of Wisconsin La Crosse. PDF Download. Narrowing the focus even further to homosexuality was uniquely possible in the German context. The German homosexual movement had long roots among men in the second half of the nineteenth century and was then the most organized and publicly visible in the world.1 When women occupied their own specifi c corner of the developing homosexual public sphere in the late 1920s and early 1930s, they left a historical record that gave me an intriguing entry point for my inquiry. Women active in the German homosexual movement wrote articles, stories, autobiographical fragments, poetry, and letters to and for newspapers published for their community. 2 But telling the story of that one new public group, as important as it is, did not fully resolve my questions. By taking female homosexuality as a category—and a new one in public awareness—I could move out into discussions and representations of the intersection of gender and sexuality in many other contexts.

Brooks, Ross (2008). Vices Once Adopted': Theorising Male Homoeroticism in German-Language Legal and Forensic Discourses, 1752-1869. Reinvention: a journal of undergraduate research, 1(2). Full Text. Late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century legal and forensic tracts in vernacular German offer a prime opportunity to understand elite attitudes towards homoerotic desire and sexual activity in Central Europe prior to the hegemony of psychiatry as the arbiter of ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ eroticism. They demonstrate that changes in body concepts conveyed largely by the anti-masturbation crusade affected discourses of same-sex eroticism (pederasty, boy-defilement, or sodomy) in specific ways. Penetrative, as well as receptive, roles in male-male anal sex were described in terms of pathology with the boundaries between cause and effect ambiguous. Increasingly fanciful descriptions of the perceived consequences of such penetrative practices spread from the anal and genital regions to cover every conceivable aspect of a participant’s body, mind, and being. As the integrity of pederastic stigmata was inevitably questioned, classical readings were utilised to rejuvenate pathological epistemologies of homoeroticism. In particular, Julius Rosenbaum’s presentation of the ‘feminine disease’ of the Scythians and of the hereditary potential of acquired sexual nonconformity was absorbed by Prussia’s leading forensic physician, Johann Ludwig Casper, and subsequently aided the integration of homoeroticism into nascent psychiatric discourses.

Espinaco-Virseda, Angeles (2004). “I feel that I belong to you”: Subculture, Die Freundin and Lesbian Identities in Weimar Germany. spacesofidentity, 4(1):  83-113. PDF Download. Before World War I, Berlin was known for its large male homosexual subculture. After the war, however, the sudden emergence of a visible lesbian subculture was unprecedented and remarkable because, previously, lesbianism had been thought to be rare. The development of modern mass culture coincided with the rise of homosexual subculture, facilitating the formation of lesbian identities. However, as will be suggested first, these identities also had their roots in medical discourse and the homosexual emancipation movement, which looked to medical research to support its demands for homosexual rights. Also, lesbian clubs and nightclubs, as well as lesbian magazines, were closely linked to the homosexual emancipation movement, and they were the sites which brought women together and which facilitated lesbian identification. Therefore, this paper will explore the production of these identities by examining the subcultural network and, in particular, the lesbian magazine Die Freundin, as a mass cultural publication in which science, mass culture, and subculture intersected. This will highlight the constructed, unstable and ambiguous nature of Weimar lesbian identities, which were varied and overlapping.

Chrisinger, David (2011). “Homosexual and German: Identity and Survival by Subterfuge in Hitler’s Germany”. Paper presented at the 10th International Holocaust Studies Conference, October 19-22. Full Text. Indeed, there seems to be a consensus that most gay men who survived the brutality of theThird Reich were only able to do so because they withdrew from the public and abandonedrelationships with other gay men. Stefan Micheler, for example, has argued that the climate of fear created by the Nazis led gay men across Germany to “withdrawal, to increasing loneliness, tosuicide.” Similarly, Richard Plant has argued that the days and nights of gay men were “filledwith fear.” It was impossible, he contends, “to trust anyone, especially strangers. Even a casualcontact might prove to be an informer.” My aim today is to complicate this picture of compulsion from above. While gay menclearly experienced a number of discontinuities in the wake of Hitler’s seizure of power, it is thecontinuities that have, in some cases, been ignored and/or marginalized by scholars. Put simply,my main argument is twofold: First, the Nazis’ understanding of homosexuality covered only asmall range of homosexual identity-articulations. In fact, only a very small proportion of Germany’s “homosexuals” were actively persecuted, prosecuted, and imprisoned during the Third Reich due in part to the fact that, at that time, homosexuality was an extraordinarily fluid category,defined differently by different historical actors in either biological, cultural, or psychological terms. This lack of consensus helped to create a grey zone of sorts in which homosexuals wereable to maintain, with caution, spheres of relative autonomy. Second, there were several situations – the disorder caused by allied bombings, among others – and, what I term “disguises of homosexual practice” – military service, for one – that facilitated both homosexual life and, insome cases, survival in Nazi Germany. Even though survivors left few records behind, we knowthat many gay men, instead of isolating themselves from society, were in fact able to participate in“the scene,” albeit in much more discrete ways, while simultaneously assuming “normal” behavior, either cynically or not, as a public guise.


Sept siècles d'histoire de l'homosexualité en Suisse: 1291-2001 (Translation).


L'Homosexualité, ce douloureux problème: - A transcription of a 1971 French radio program addressing homosexuality issues with guests and audience participation. Gives a good perspective on ideas existing at the time in France, including in psychoanalysis (Translation).

Les Cahiers Gai Kitsch Camp: - A collection of French papers containing a wealth of historical information. Contents given. They are available in some of France's libraries and may also be ordered (Translation).

Resources from "Séminaire gai": Texte archivé sur le site (Translation): Thèses, Articles, Travaux divers... (Translation) - Thèses françaises de 3e cycle ou ancien régime relatives à l'homosexualité (ou contenant des références à l'homosexualité) (Translation) - Actualité des cours, séminaires (Courses) (Translation) - Droit (Law section) (Translation) - Archives (Translation) - Liens (Web links). (Note: L'objectif du Séminaire gai, site d'information, est d'améliorer la diffusion de l'information sur les études homosexuelles ou lesbiennes de langue francophone ou concernant les pays de la francophonie. The purpose of Séminaire gai , information site, is the improvement and diffusion of information concerning studies on homosexuality and lesbianism in the French language or concerning Francophone countries.)

Michel Foucault: problématique pour une histoire de l’homosexualité, Lawrence Olivier avec la collaboration de Roger Noël, Revue sexologique/ Sexological Review, Vol. 2, no 1, printemps 1994 Vol. 2 No. 1 Spring 1994 (PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download (Translation) - In HTML at Revue sexologique/ Sexological Review) (Translation) - Marc-André Raffalovitch, un pionnier de l'“homoliberté”, Patrick Cardon, déc. 89 (Translation). - Formes de résistances et d’expression lesbiennes dans les années cinquante et soixante en France, Claudie Lesselier, décembre 98 (Translation). - De l'émancipation des femmes dans la cité, lesbiennes et féministes au XXe siècle, Marie-Jo Bonnet, Les Temps Modernes, Paris, Mars-Avril 1998 (Translation). - Les relations amoureuses entre les femmes du XVIe au XXe siècle, Entretien avec Marie-Jo Bonnet, Revue h, été 1996 (Translation). (PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download) (Translation).

A French interview with  Marie-Jo Bonnet, author of  Relations amoureuses entre les femmes du xvie au xxe siècle. She formally studied the lesbian reality in France from the 16th to the 20th century (1997, Translation).  - Homosexuality in Modern France - 1996 - by J. Merrick and BT Ragan. - Histoire de l'HomosexualitéHistoire de l'Amour au masculin - textes (#1) (Translation) , Histoire de l'Amour au masculin - textes (#2) (Translation) . - Sentiment amoureux et homosexualité au XIIe siècle (2011, Translation).

Books: - Pederasts and Others: Urban Culture and Sexual Identity in Nineteenth-Century Paris - 2004 - by William A. Peniston (Review) (Review). - Homosexuality in French History and Culture - 2001 - edited by Jeffrey Merrick and Michael Sibalis (Google Books) (Review). - Gay Signatures: Gay and Lesbian Theory, Fiction and Film in France, 1945-1995 - 1998 - edited by Owen Heathcote, Alex Hughes, James S. Williams (Google Books). - Queer (Re)Readings in the French Renaisssance: Homosexuality, Gender, Culture - 2008 - by Gary Ferguson (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Elastic Closet: A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942-present - 2009 - by Scott Gunther (Sample Chapter) (Review) (Review) - Homosexualité et prostitution masculines à Paris: 1870-1918 - 2005 - by Régis Revenin (Google Books). - Homosexuality in Modern France: A Documentary Collection - 1996 - edited by Jeffrey Merrick and Bryant T. Ragan, Jr. (Google Books) (Review) (Review).- Figure of the Dandy in Barbey d'Aurevilly's "Le bonheur dans le crime" - 1993 - by Davina L. Eisenberg. - The Frail Social Body: Pornography, Homosexuality, and Other Fantasies in Interwar France - 2000 - by Carolyn J. Dean (Google Books). - Women Together/ Women Apart: Portraits of Lesbian Paris - 2005 - by Tirza True Latimer (Google Books) (Review).

Revenin, Régis (2006). L’émergence d’un monde homosexuel moderne dans le Paris de la Belle Époque. Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, 4 (53/54). Full Text. Translation.  Cet article se propose d’examiner les conditions d’émergence d’un monde homosexuel [1] contemporain et d’identités sexuelles nouvelles et spécifiques dans le Paris de la Belle Époque, paradigme de la modernité urbaine, à l’instar de Londres ou de New York [2] Comment est-on passé, à l’extrême fin du XIXe siècle, de subcultures secrètes à un embryon de communauté homosexuelle visible ? Comment les homosexuels se sont-ils appropriés l’espace urbain ? Quels rapports ont-ils alors entretenu avec les autres acteurs du territoire ?

Pastorello, Thierry (2009). Sodome à Paris : protohistoire de l’homosexualité masculine fin XVIIIème - milieu XIXème siècle [Sodom in Paris : protohistory of male homosexuality end XVIIIe - mid nineteenth century]. Thèse en vue de l’obtention du Doctorat d’histoire, Université Paris Diderot (Paris VII). PDF Download. Abstract: Over a period stretching from the latter part of the eighteenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century, a specific male homosexual identity was developing in cities such as Paris. This period saw a proliferation of writings about and views on sexual practices and same-sex relations between men, and the development of a subculture of sodomites. As the judicial sphere evolved between death sentences and an increasingly repressive attitude on the part of the police, male homosexuality was singled out as asocial behaviour. A new form of medical discourse emerged in order to support the police statements and legal judgments of the time. In order to clamp down on homosexuality, the authorities made widespread use of the charge of ‘affront to public decency, and of police raids. Yet homosexual subcultures thrived, and public condemnations of homosexuality had relatively little influence on people’s behaviour, as the numerous police records involving urban, working-class young men and older gentlemen demonstrate. Whilst this was a new moment in the social construction of homosexuality, it was profoundly anchored in traditional gender stereotypes..

Sibalis, Michael (2010). L’arrivée de la libération gay en France. Le Front Homosexuel d’Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR) [Gay Liberation Comes to France : The Front Homosexuel d’Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR)]. Genre, sexualité & société , n°3, Printemps/Spring. Full Text. Translation Le Front homosexuel d’action révolutionnaire (FHAR), fondé à Paris en mars 1971 par un noyau de lesbiennes et d’homosexuels masculins, marqua une nouvelle direction pour le militantisme homosexuel en France, en rompant avec la discrétion et la respectabilité prônées par Arcadie, le mouvement « homophile » créé par André Baudry en 1954. Les nouveaux militants homosexuels qui adhéraient au FHAR puisaient leur rhétorique révolutionnaire chez les gauchistes de Mai 68 ; ils dénonçaient « la sexualité dominante, hétérosexuelle et capitaliste » et menaient des actions délibérément provocatrices. Les réunions hebdomadaires à l’École des Beaux Arts à Paris, qui continuèrent malgré tout pendant trois ans, devinrent un « bordel » chaotique, voire une orgie gigantesque, et les lesbiennes les abandonnèrent. Le FHAR se montrait incapable de lutter efficacement pour les droits des homosexuels et il disparut en février 1974. Les associations gays qui lui succédaient dans les années 1970-1980 revendiquaient une démarche plus pragmatique.


Brief History of the Italian GLBT Movement. - History of Italian gay life. - A canon, a choirboy, and homosexuality in late sixteenth-century Italy: a case study (1991).

Lo sconcertante sito di Giovanni Dall'Orto su omosessualità e cultura... Storia e omosessualità: saggi (Translation).

Ross, Charlotte (2011). Italian ‘lesbian’ literature: tribades, flames and sapphists. Presentation at the Shout festival of Queer Culture, Birmingham, UK.
PDF Download. This talk comes out of a research project I am working on, exploring cultural representations of lesbian identities in Italy, from the 1870s to today. I’m focussing on literature, but in order to provide the context in which this literature was written, I’m also looking at some journals, newspapers, diaries, political manifestos, film and tv. It’s a big project. It was inspired by my interest in how lesbians and female same sex desire are represented in novels, and by an urge to challenge the general view that nothing much has been written in Italian about desire between women. I have already discovered that there is quite a lot out there. And I think it is important to talk about it because cultural visibility, or invisibility, can have such a big impact on social attitudes towards sexuality, particularly in a country like Italy.

Andits, Eszter (2010). "Sore on the Nation's Body": Repression of Homosexuals Under Italian Facism. Master's of Arts Dissertation, History Department, Central European University. PDF Download. This thesis is written about Italian Fascism and its repression of homosexuality, drawing on primary sources of Italian legislation, archival data, and on the few existent (and in most of the cases fragmentary) secondary literatures on this puzzling and relatively under-represented topic. Despite the absence of proper criminal laws against homosexuality, the Fascist regime provided its authorities with the powers to realize their prejudices against homosexuals in action, which resulted in sending more hundreds of "pederasts" to political or common confinement. Homosexuality which, during the Ventennio shifted from being "only" immoral to being a real danger to the grandness of the race, was incompatible with the totalitarian Fascist plans of executing an "anthropological revolution"of the Italian population. Even if the homosexual repression grew simultaneously with the growing Italian sympathy towards Nazi Germany, this increased intolerance can not attributed only to the German influence. I would argue instead,that before the advent of Fascism, Italy had been the cradle of racist and homophobic ideas which gained prominence mainly by the theories of Cesare Lombroso and other scientists of the positivist school. The positivist credo in preventive/punitive seclusion resuscitated institutional practices as diffida, ammonizione and domicilio coatto during the Fascist era, and deployed them as means to repress any phenomenon which did not conform to the regime's standards.

Brown, Judith C (1984). Lesbian Sexuality in Renaissance Italy: The Case of Sister Benedetta Carlini. Signs, 9: 751-758. PDF Download. Related. The discovery of the fascinating and richly documented story of Sister Benedetta Carlini, Abbess of the Convent of the Mother of God, by Judith C. Brown was an event of major historical importance. Not only is the story revealed in Immodest Acts that of the rise and fall of a powerful woman in a church community and a record of the life of a religious visionary, it is also the earliest documentation of lesbianism in modern Western history. Born of well-to-do parents, Benedetta Carlini entered the convent at the age of nine. At twenty-three, she began to have visions of both a religious and erotic nature. Benedetta was elected abbess due largely to these visions, but later aroused suspicions by claiming to have had supernatural contacts with Christ. During the course of an investigation, church authorities not only found that she had faked her visions and stigmata, but uncovered evidence of a lesbian affair with another nun, Bartolomeo. The story of the relationship between the two nuns and of Benedetta's fall from an abbess to an outcast is revealed in surprisingly candid archival documents and retold here with a fine sense of drama.

Books: - Immodest Acts: The Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy - 1986 - by Judith C. Brown (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Enemy of the New Man: Homosexuality in Fascist Italy - 2012 - by Lorenzo Benadusi (Review). - Reading And Writing Italian Homosexuality: A Case of Possible Difference - 2005 - by Derek Duncan (Google Books) (Review). - Queer Italia: Same-Sex Desire in Italian Literature and Film - 2002 - edited by Gary P. Cestaro (Google Books). - L'Omo Delinquente: Scandali e delitti gay dall'Unità a Giolitti - 2006 - by Enrico Oliari (Abstract / Contents - Translation) (Google Books) (Review, Translation) (Review, Translation).

The Netherlands

LGBT history in the Netherlands (Wikipedia). - Gay Amsterdam: History, Fairness and a Beautiful Monument (2009).

The Amsterdam Bar Culture And Changing Gay/Lesbian Identities [from 1930 to 1970]. - Homosexuality in the Netherlands in the 20th Century. - Dutch gay emancipation history (1911-1986) (1987). - A research into homosexuality in The Netherlands (1987). - LGBT History: Dutch Priests Castrated Gay Men In The 1950's (2012). - Dutch Parliament Reviews Alleged Castrations Ordered by Catholic Church Officials (2012).

Davis, Evan (2003). "A Full and Exact Relation": Sodomy, Authenticity, and Publication in the Narrative of the Marooned Dutchman. The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation, 44(2/3): 257-277. PDF Download. In May 1725, a Dutch sailor named Jan Svilt, having been caught kissing a cabin boy, was subjected to the water torture until he confessed to sodomitical acts. After his captain, Dirk van Kloop, along with a council of the ship's officers, condemned him to be marooned on Ascension Island, Svilt began to compose a journal in which he described his diet of birds and turtles, his search for water, his regret for his lustful desires, and the hellish apparitions that appeared to him during the night. Because much of the current knowledge about eighteenth-century homosexuality is derived from court transcripts or hearsay about scandals, if the journal is factual, it would be a valuable eighteenth-century artifact, a rare record of the dying months of a man convicted of sodomy.


Ganimedes en el Renacimiento: la homosexualidad en el arte y en la sociedad (Translation). - El Amigo Ideal: Las relaciones desiguales en la literatura homosexual (Translation). - La homosexualidad o sodomía en la Sevilla del XVI (Translation).

Article from the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, ed. Wayne Dynes (New York: Garland, 1990): Spain. Spain is one of the countries with the richest homosexual history. An appreciation of same-sex love, along with a cult of beauty and poetry, has been present during many periods of Spain’s history.

Social stereotypes and masculine homosexualities: The Spanish case (2011): The Spanish democracy has brought about important transformations in the cultural construction of homosexual masculinities. Leaving behind the classical southern Mediterranean stereotypical images — structured around the binary opposition between ‘top’ and ‘bottom’ sexualities — a new model has emerged where the idea of ‘gayness’ replaces old ways of thinking about male homosexuality. These changes have shaped both the hegemonic view of homosexuals in society and perceptions by homosexuals themselves. Slowly, Spanish homosexuals have created new narratives dissociated from strategies of adaptation to the homophobic contexts of the Francoist regime. Spanish homosexuals no longer mechanically reproduce social prejudices about male homosexuality. They have also developed new frameworks to think about themselves. These new narratives help Spanish society enrich its own view of homosexual identity by incorporating variables such as social class and age. This article explores these transformations from a socio-historical perspective and delineates key historical moments: pre-gay, gay and hyper-gay.

Adams-Thies, Brian L (2007). Perimeters, performances and perversity: The creation and success of a gay community in Madrid, Spain. PhD Dissertation, University of Arizona. Abstract. PDF Download. This dissertation, a product of over two years of living and researching in Chueca, Madrid, Spain, is informed by themes of: globalization of sexual identity; the relationships between sexual identity, consumption and popular culture; the use and sometimes abuse of urban space for the fomentation of sexual identity in personal lives, politics and public awareness; and, of course, the problems facing a 'native' and yet, foreign anthropologist in a globalized Western European city. Overall, the study addresses how the urban space of Chueca is understood, utilized, and taken advantage of by the gay community in Madrid; and the repercussions, and consequences evident from 1975, the time of Spain's transition to democracy (La Transición) to one year after the 2005 legalization of gay marriage in Spain.

Sanchez, Jelena (2006). The Transvestite Woman: A Paradigm of Feminized Masculinity and. Society in Tirso de Molina's Don Gil de las calzas verdes (1615). Inicio, 2(1). Full Text. ... In this respect, the polymorphic transvestite woman, popularized in the comedia de capa y espada, articulates significantly deeper insights into the creation of the Self than has originally been noted, due to its variant socio-historical inscriptions. This study aims to reach a more sophisticated analysis of both women and men, through the exploration of this seminal role, during a period of acute political, religious, and social change in Spain. After considering poignant social discourses of the period, the cross-dressing protagonist in Don Gil de las calzas verdes will be shown to derive from men’s anxiety over effeminacy and homosexuality, rooted in the traditional fear of women. These phobias paradoxically materialize and lead to a feminization of society and a subjectivization of women masterfully illustrated in the play.

Perez-Sanchez, Gema (2000). Franco’s Spain, Queer Nation? University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 33(3): 359-402. PDF Download. This Article discusses how, through its juridical apparatus, the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco sought to define and to contain homosexuality, followed by examples of how underground queer activism contested homophobic laws. The Article concludes by analyzing a literary work to illustrate the social impact of Francoism's homophobic law against homosexuality. A revised, expanded version of this Article is included in a forthcoming book by the author entitled, “Queer Transitions in Contemporary Spanish Culture: From Franco to la Movida” (State University of New York Press, Series on Latin American and Iberian Thought and Culture, forthcoming 2005).

Homosexuality: Published in Encyclopedia of Medieval Iberia, ed. MichaelGerli (New York: Routledge, 2003), 398–399. PDF Download. Homosexuality was a key symbolic issue throughout the Iberian middle ages. As was customaryeverywhere until the nineteenth century, homosexuality was not viewed as a congenital disposition or “identity”; the focus was on non-procreative sexualpractices, of whichsodomy was the most controversial. Female homosexual behavior was ignored, and almost nothing is known about it. In al-Andalus, homosexual pleasures were much indulged in by the intellectual and political elite. Evidence includes the behavior of rulers, such as Abd ar-Rahman III, al-Hakem II, Hisham II, and al-Mutamid, who openly kept male harems; the memoirs of Badis, last Zirid king of Granada; references to homosexual prostitutes, who charged higher fees, and had a higher class of clientele, than did female prostitutes; the repeated criticisms of Christians; and especially the abundant poetry. Bothpederasty and love between adult males are found. Although homosexual practices were never officially condoned, prohibitions against themwere rarely enforced, and usually there was not even a pretense of doing so.

Eisenberg, Daniel (2006). Homosexuality in the Spanish Renaissance. (To be published in Siting Queer Masculinities, 1550-1800, ed. Katherine O’Donnell and Michael O’Rourke.) - - Queer Masculinities, 1550-1800: Siting Same-Sex Desire in the Early Modern World - 2006 - edited by Katherine O'Donnell, Michael O'Rourke. PDF Download.  It is worth suggesting that the homosexuality attributed to Spanish Muslims and Spanish Jews as well was to some degree a projection of and a creation of Christian Spain. The history has been only partially reconstructed, but in the better-documented, more recent periods, the evidence is there. Sixteenth-century Algiers, for example, is relatively well known to us. It was a place where homosexual behavior of all sorts could be practiced openly, where men and their (usually young) male lovers could circulate freely, where the ruler could have a male harem, and where homosexual sex in public was not only not condemned or punished, but applauded, according to the outraged testimony of European visitors. Yet this homosex-positive culture was not something native to Algiers; it was overwhelmingly something brought there and maintained there by those born Christian. Ruler after ruler in Algiers were “renegades”— those who denied (re-negar) their religion and converted to Islam. They were former Christians who, fleeing from the police or for some other reason, moved to North Africa, converted, and set out to enjoy themselves. Furthermore, the preferred sexual partners, both male and female, were not the native Muslims, but captured and enslaved Christians. In a sense, Algiers was Europe’s gay ghetto.

Eisenberg. Daniel (1999). “La Escondida Senda”: Homosexuality in Spanish History and Culture. Published without the title as the Introduction to Spanish Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes. A Bio-Critical Sourcebook, ed. David William Foster (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999), pp. 1-21. PDF DownloadPrehistory. Roman Spain. Visigoths. Al-Andalus. Sephardic Homosexuality. Medieval Christian Spain. Early Modern Spain. Modern Spain. Franco’s Spain.

A Depiction of Male Same-Sex Seduction in Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s Effects of Bad Government Fresco (2012). - Charlotte Wolff’s Contribution to Bisexual History and to (Sexuality) Theory and Research: A Reappraisal for Queer Times (2012).

Books: - 'Los Invisibles': A History of Male Homosexuality in Spain, 1850-1940 - 2007 - by Richard Cleminson, Francisco Vazquez Garcia (Google Books) (Free ebook Download) (University of Chicago Press).
- Queer Transitions in Contemporary Spanish Culture: From Franco to La Movida - 2008 - by Gema Pérez-Sánchez (Google Books) (Review). - Lesbians in Early Modern Spain - 2011 - by Sherry Velasco (Google Books). - Lesbianism and Homosexuality in Early Modern Spain - 2000 - edited by María José Delgado, co-edited by Alain Saint-Saëns (Google Books) (Preface, French, Translation) (Prefacio y Introducción, Spanish, Translation) (Contents). - Butterflies will burn : prosecuting sodomites in early modern Spain and Mexico - 2003 - by Federico Garza Carvajal (Review). - Queer Iberia: Sexualities, Cultures, and Crossings from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance - 1999 - edited by Josiah Blackmore, Gregory S. Hutcheson (Google Books) (Review) (Book Chapter: Juan Ruiz’s Heterosexual “Good Love” by Daniel Eisenberg). - The Lieutenant Nun: Transgenderism, Lesbian Desire, and Catalina de Erauso - 2000 - by Sherry Velasco (Google Books).


Gunnora Hallakarva: The Vikings and Homosexuality. -

: - Odd Couples: A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia - 2011 - by Jens Rydström (Google Books) (Review) (Free Online ebook). - Criminally queer: homosexuality and criminal law in Scandinavia, 1842-1999 - 2007 edited by Jens Rydstr̈öm and Kati Mustola (Review) (Review, Danish, Translation) (Free Online ebook). - Sinners and Citizens: Bestiality and Homosexuality in Sweden, 1880-1950 - 2003 - by Jens Rydstrom (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Scandinavian Homosexualities: Essays on Gay and Lesbian Studies - 1998 - by Jan Lofstrom (Google Books) (Review) (Review).


Russian Gay History. - Russian Gay History - 2. - Queer History of Russia and Eastern Europe by Geordie Jones, Indiana University.

Russian Gay History: Introduction. - 1600-1861: Traditional Masculinities And Love Between Men. - 1861-1917: The Appearance of a Homosexual Subculture. - 1917-1991: Carving Privacy From Communal Space. - Adelphopoiia - The Rite of Spiritual Brotherhood.

Russia's Other Heroes: The Gay Voices of 1812 (2012): Proponents of the new anti-gay laws in Russia claim to be upholding "traditional Russian values," yet there was a time when everyone, it seems, from tsars to tavern singers was at least sexually ambiguous, enough to constitute a tradition. Russia has had its cultural icons who were gay: Tchaikovsky, Gogol, Mussorgsky, Diaghilev, Eisenstein, to name a few. St. Petersburg must be the campest 19th-century capital, with its Hollywood stage-set smirk and tutti-frutti church domes. Nevsky Prospekt, the city's principal drag, offered prime cruising for peacocked boys in fetching hussar stripes and tight, white breeches. Typically, plenty of evidence survives for man-on-man action but precious little about women, although Durova's autobiography offers a glimpse at a marvelous hinterland. In the 1820s, poet Mikhail Lermontov described gay sexual shenanigans in a notorious poem called Ode to the Lavatory, the scene of nightly encounters between fellow military cadets: "... here the shirt is lifted, revealing a silky ass and thighs... 'hold me! I am melting! I'm on fire!'" At about the same time the writer, Philip Vigel, was so "out" Alexander Pushkin once tried to entice him to visit Odessa with the promise of his pick of a trio of handsome young brothers -- "what they get up to really makes the whole place shake." - GLBTQ: Russian Literature.

Books: - The Sexual Revolution in Russia: From the Age of the Czars to Today - 1995 - by Igor S. Kon (Abstract). Out of the Blue: Russia's Hidden Gay Literature - 1997 - edited by Kevin Moss (Google Books) (Contents) (Excerpt) (Review). Cracks in the Iron Closet: Travels in Gay & Lesbian Russia  - 1996 - by David Tuller (Contents/Excerpts) (Review) (Review). - Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent - 2001 - by Dan Healey (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). 

Middle East / Central Asia / North Africa

Pederasty in the Middle East & Central Asia (Wikipedia). - Language and identity: Homosexuality in the Arab history (2012). - Homosexuality and Islamic History with a Focus on Modern Day Afghanistan (2011)

Lagrange, Frédéric (2000). Male Homosexuality in Modern Arabic Literature. In: Ghoussoub, Mai and Emma Sinclair-Webb, Eds. Imagined Masculinities: Male Identity and Culture in the Modern Middle East, pp. 169-198. PDF Download.

Crompton, Louis (1997). Male Love and Islamic Law in Arab Spain. Chapter 8, Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature - 1997 - edited by Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe. A unique flowering of homoerotic poetry took place in Iberia after the Arab conquest in 71 L The efflorescence there repeated a phenomenon of the Islamic world generally, paralleling the erotic lyrics of Iraq, Persia, Afghanistan, Mughal India, Turkey, and the North African states of Egypt, Tunis, and Morocco. The anthologies of medieval Islamic poetry, whether compiled in Baghdad, Damascus, Isfahan, Delhi, Kabul, Istanbul, Cairo, Kairouan, or Fez reveal, with astonishing consistency over a period of a millennium, the same strain of passionate homoeroticism we find in love poems from Cordoba, Seville, and Granada.

Amer, Sahar  (2009). Medieval Arab Lesbians and Lesbian-Like Women. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 18(2): 215-236. PDF Download. If the absence of specific terminology to denote lesbianism in medieval Europe seems to have compromised the production of scholarship about same-sex love and desire among women, the existence of the label sahq and sihaqa, musahaqat al-nisa’, or sahiqa (Arabic words for “lesbianism” and “lesbian,” respectively) in medieval Arabic writings did not result in a richer critical production. In fact, if relatively little research has been conducted on female same-sex desire in medieval Europe, even less has been produced on homosexuality in the medieval Arabic literary or Islamicate tradition, and almost no research at all has been done on medieval Arab Islamicate lesbianism. This state of scholarship into alternative sexual practices in the Arab Islamicate world is especially astonishing considering the survival of a noteworthy body of primary texts dealing precisely with this topic. Furthermore, if one broadens the category of medieval Arab lesbian to include women who were “lesbian-like,” as Judith Bennett has invited us to do in our construction of the history of Western female homosexuality, we uncover additional expressions of medieval Arab lesbian presence. For indeed, the cultural and social life of some women in certain medieval Arab courts, including their work and lifestyle, may well unveil unsuspected spaces in which same-sex activities might have occurred. If it is not always clear that these practices could be dubbed lesbian, they may well be considered lesbian-like.

Čvorović, Jelena (2006). Islamic homosexuality. Antropologija 1: 85-103. PDF Download. This paper will discuss the customary practice of male same-sex behavior in Islamic cultures. In polygynous societies females are put at premium, and virtually all marry. Homosexual relations are especially likely to happen in a single-sex setting, where contact with members of the opposite sex is entirely cut off, or when females are segregated and guarded, as in most Muslim societies. Polygyny reflects the natural desire of men of all ages for young females, but only powerful men can fulfill this allmale desire. The existence of young males available for sexual penetration protects women by providing a sexual outlet for many single men.

Sexual Politics in Modern Iran - 2009 - by Janet Afary. Review: The impacts of modernization and the project of normalizing heterosexuality led to drastic changes in the norms of intergenerational homoeroticism. In the late 19th, romantic and sexual attachments between adolescent boys and men, and sometimes between adult male couples, appear to have been the norm. - Review: Iran`s Hidden Homosexual History. - Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature - 1997 - edited by J.W.Wright Jr. and Everett K. Rowson (Review). - Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500-1800 - 2005 - by Khaled El-rouayheb (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Female Homosexuality in the Middle East: Histories and Representations - 2009 - by Samar Habib (Google Books) (Review).- Crossing Borders: Love Between Women in Medieval French and Arabic Literatures - 2008 - by Sahar Amer (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Desiring Arabs - 2007 - by Joseph A. Massad (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Full Text: 1-190). - Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature - 1997 - edited by Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe (Google Books) (Review) (Review). 

South Asia

Homosexuality in Ancient India. - Homosexuality and Theravada Buddhism. - Homosexuality and Sikhism. - Homosexuality and Sikhism. - Homosexuality and Sikhism. - Homosexuality in India: A Literary History (2012). - Homosexuality and our forefathers. - Sexuality in Ancient India: A Study Based on the Pali Vinayapi.taka. - Pandit Nehru's Homosexuality. (Alternate Link) - India's Slow Descent Into Homophobia (Alternate Link). - Homophobia within India. - The developing world's homophobia is a legacy of colonial rule. - Homosexuality in India: To begin with, India's colourful history is rife with examples of homosexuality in different forms... Therefore, it is a great irony that at a time when the West has begun to come to terms with this controversial lifestyle, India is still governed by laws made by Westerners in a different age altogether... In today's urban India, cases of homosexuality have an undeniable presence. However for a vast majority of them, secrecy is not just preferable but necessary... - LGBT themes in Hindu mythology (Wikipedia). - Homosexuality in India: Past and Present (2002).

Dasgupta, Rohit K (2011). Queer Sexuality: A Cultural Narrative of India’s Historical Archive. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 3(4): 651-670. PDF Download. This article is a brief historical overview of the Queer archive in India. The precolonial and colonial archive provides several possibilities for ‘authenticating’ the queer identity and claiming some of the history that modern nationalist homophobia seeks to wipe out. Identities are complex to begin with and become more complicated when relating them to the nation and sexuality. Contemporary Indian sexual identities are constructed out of the multiplicitious effects and perceptions of tradition, modernity, colonisation and globalisation that are more often than not in conflict with each other. This article is a literature review of several contemporary queer writing in India and creates a starting point for discussions on India’s queer sexuality.

Books: - Same Sex Love in India: Readings from Literature and History - 2001 - edited by Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai (Google Books) (Review by Ashok Row Kavi) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview) (Author Interview).  - Same Sex Love in India: Readings from Literature and History - 2001 - edited by Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai (Google Books) (Review by Ashok Row Kavi) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview) (Author Interview). - Sakhiyani: Lesbian Desire in Ancient and Modern India - 1996 - by Giti Thadani (Google Books) (Review) (Interview with Thandani). - Love and Lust: An Anthology of Erotic Literature from Ancient and Medieval India - 2004 - edited by Pavan K. Varma and Sandhya Mulchandan (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Man Who Was a Woman and Other Queer Tales of Hindu Lore - 2001 - by Devdutt Pattanaik (Compiler) - Interview with Author: Mythologist from Mumbai: Devdutt Pattanaik queers Hindu Lore. - Dr. Devdutt Pattanaik's homepage. Review. - Excerpts. - The Man Who Was a Woman and Other Queer Tales of Hindu Lore - 2001 - by Devdutt Pattanaik (Compiler) - Interview with Author: Mythologist from Mumbai: Devdutt Pattanaik queers Hindu Lore. - Dr. Devdutt Pattanaik's homepage. Review. - Excerpts.

Southeast Asia

LGBT history in Singapore (Wikipedia). - 'I'm saving Thailand's gay history' (2007).

Garcia, J Neil C (2004). Male Homosexuality in the Philippines: a short history. IIAS Newsletter # 35, 12-13.  PDF Download. More specifically, we need to disarticulate the presentist and commonsensical connection between gender transitive behaviors and the identities of bakla, bayot, agi, and bantut1 on the one hand and the discourse and reality of homosexuality as typically ‘gay’ same-sex orientation and/or identity on the other. The history of the former stretches into the oral past not only of the Philippines, but the whole of Southeast Asia. The latter is a more recent development, a performative instance and discursive effect of the largely American-sponsored biomedicalization of local Filipino cultures.

'Imagining Gay Paradise': The history of gays in Southeast Asia (2012): In "Imagining Gay Paradise: Bali, Bangkok and Cyber-Singpore," Gary L. Atkins traces the history of Southeast Asia as a haven — or hell — for homosexuals over the past century. Atkins will discuss his book June 23 at Elliott Bay Books. - Imagining Gay Paradise: Bali, Bangkok, and Cyber-Singapore - 2012 - by Gary L. Atkins (Google Books) (Book Website) (Review) (Review)

East Asia

Japan's Gay History- Japan's Gay History. - Japanese History For Gay Men. - Homosexuality in the Japanese Buddhist Tradition by Dharmachari Jñanavira.

History of Homosexuality In China [revised edition]. - Hidden in History: Female Homoeroticism and Women of a "Third Nature" in the South Asian Past from the Journal of the History of Sexuality (2001). - History of Homosexuality in China (2006).

Homosexuality in the Korean Historical Record. - The history of gays and lesbians in Taiwan after 1986. - Singapore gay history (Wikipedia).

Interview with author of "History of Homosexuality In China." - Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China, by Bret Hinsch (University of California Press 1990). - History of Homosexuality: China.

Books: - Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature - 1996 - edited by Stephen Miller (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan - 1995 - by Gary P. Leupp (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).  - Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China by Bret Hinsch (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - In The Company of Men: Representations of Male-Male Sexuality in Meiji Literature - 2006 - by Jim Reichert (Google Books) (Chapter 1) (Review) (Review). - Writing the Love of Boys: Origins of Bishōnen Culture in Modernist Japanese Literature - 2011 - by Jeffrey Angles (Google Books) (Review). - Queer Japan from the Pacific War to the Internet Age - 2005 - by Mark Mclelland (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Bao, Hongwei (2010). The Word That Dares Not Speak Its Name: Sexuality, Space and the Chinese Other. PDF Download. Other Articles / Papers. Common understandings with regard to homosexuality in China diverge: while some regard homosexuality as imported from the West, others attribute it to China’s own history and tradition.3 In this article, through a brief overview of the history of homoerotism in the People’s Republic of China, I suggest that LGBTQ identities in contemporary China are as much Chinese as they are transnational.4 In fact, same-sex desire in China has been the result of the interplay of the local, the national, the regional and the global, and is subject to various political, economic and cultural discourses. It is, therefore, hardly possible to pin down whether or not it is “Chinese.” And exactly because of this, the question of whether there is a uniquely “Chinese” LGBTQ politics becomes complicated: contemporary Chinese LGBTQ politics do not follow the Euro-American model because of its cultural embeddedness; this is not to say that it is not influenced by, and therefore a part of, the transnational LGBTQ movement. Perhaps it is more useful to ask: what does homosexuality in China tell us about China’s historical and social change, and about LGBTQ identity and politics in a transnational context?

Matsugu, Miho  (2010). That Early Morning Fog: William F. Sibley’s Minakata Kumakusu. Paper presented at the William Sibley Memorial Symposium, International House, The University of Chicago, May 8, 2010.  PDF Download. In his Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950, Gregory M. Pflugfelder cites both Minakata’s and Iwata’s works more than a few times, suggesting that it is impossible to write a history of Japanese male-male sexuality in Japan without relying on the scholarship of these two male intellectuals. I can’t emphasize enough the significance of Bill’s translation of these letters as primary sources in allowing us to examine how Japanese intellectuals talked about homosexuality in the semi-private sphere of letter writing. It’s not just his rendering of words in one language into another; it’s also his choice of what to translate. I brought a copy of the Japanese letter where I marked the parts Bill cut. I think the original was about twice as long as the English version. Please take a look at it.

Schneider, Jeffrey L (2002). Secret Sins of the Orient: Creating a (Homo)Textual Context for Reading Byron's "The Giaour". College English, 65(1): 81-95. PDF Download. In defining "homotextuality," Rudi C. Bleys notes that it "manifests itself more often in rhetorical style than in content. A document becomes 'of homosexual interest' by its use of carefully chosen adjectives, by the adoption of particular 'signifying' images, names or terms, or by its connection to an Orientalist or Primitivist trope" (11). In using the term "homotextuality" to form my notion of a (homo)textual universe, I focus first on the way the sexual excesses inscribed in eighteenth- and nineteenth- century Oriental discourses served to open up "queer" spaces in Romantic literature, while analyzing the degree to which the master narrative of British colonial domination was in part dependent on narratives of the sexual degeneracy of the Other. More specifically, I concentrate on Lord Byron's "Oriental Tale" The Giaour as a case study both to illustrate the workings of homotextuality and to examine the degree to which Byron in his use of these tropes implicates himself in the British imperial project.

North America

Wouldn’t a Boy Do?”: Placing Early-Twentieth-Century Male Youth Sex Work into Histories of Sexuality (2009): From the 1880s through the 1910s urban U.S. reformers and police only infrequently sought out male youth sex work, but they still found it. They happened upon it while attempting to intervene into immigrant families, prevent juvenile delinquency, temper child labor, or suppress female prostitution. From the 1910s through the 1930s in Chicago social investigators, psychologists, and sociologists found male youth sex work when they examined the “individual delinquent,” the social world of hobos, the lives of boys in street trades or gangs, and the deviancies of homosexuals, whom they largely conceived of as adult men. The “discoveries” of male youth sex work that occurred while such experts looked for something else provoked a mixture of alarm and indifference. - Pre-Colonial Homosexuality: Native American Gender Roles.

The Impact of Colonization on the Role of the Nontraditional Native American Woman (1996, by Caitlin Howell): The following paper is an analysis of the impact of Western European culture on Native American culture as it relates to social and sexual roles of Native American women. Specifically, I would like to examine the impact of the introduction of Western European society, which is characterized by a patriarchal power structure, on the status of female homosexuals and females who existed in male gender roles(cross-gender roles) in Native American tribes. What emerged as I examined sources for this paper was that, first, pre-colonial Native American society was a society which gave relatively equal status to males and females. Because of the equal distribution of power, it did not upset the power structure for women to identify with what Western European society defined as men's sexual or social roles, nor was it a threat for men to identify with women's social or sexual roles. After being conquered by patriarchal Western European-America, Native American culture exhibited somewhat predictable results. In a male dominated power structure, a woman who adopts a man's social or sexual role may be perceived as demanding the power normally given to a man. On the other hand, a man who adopts a woman's social or sexual role is perceived as voluntarily and foolishly giving up the power associated with the man's role. Any of these four lifestyle choices, which are incongruous with Western European social roles at the time of colonization, were perceived as threatening to the patriarchal power structure of Western European society. In the period following colonization, cross-culture and homosexual Native Americans became less valuable within their own cultures, and nearly disappeared. Today, in the post-civil rights era, Native American societies struggle with centuries of sexism inherited from European America, and homosexual Native Americans attempt to reclaim their traditionally accepted status.

Hemmilä, Anita (2005). Ancestors of Two-Spirits: Representations Of Native American Third-Gender Males In Historical Documentation: A Critical Discourse Analysis in Anthropology. Graduate Dissertation, University of Jyväskylä. PDF Download. Download Page.  The words hermaphrodite and berdache are some of the many terms that have been used in reference to certain kinds of North American natives who can be characterized as Native American third-genders. Nowadays, these kinds of natives call themselves two-spirits. In their own cultures, third-genders were, and to some extent still are, regarded as being outside the male and female genders, as if occupying a third-gender position in their society. In the past, these individuals had a visible and socially recognized position in their culture, and many Native American languages had special terms for them. These terms could be applied to real hermaphrodites and/or to those whose inner character contained the essence of both female and male characters. In the traditional native way of thinking, this gave them a unique spiritual power, supported by the ancient religious belief systems of their peoples. Nowadays, many of these Native American terms have either disappeared from use or do not have the same definition or connotations they once had. Many European and American terms applied to third-gender have fallen out of use as well. For example, the oldest one of these, hermaphrodite, was laterrealized to be a misnaming...

Medicine B (2002). Directions in gender research in American Indian societies: Two spirits and other categories. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 3, Chapter 2). PDF Download. Indigenous social role categories that represent third and fourth gender characteristics, such as the Lakota (Sioux) winkte and the Dino (Navajo) n<dleeh and other Native terms, mark the status of these individuals. However, they are often blanketed by the term, berdache, in social science literature. Contextualization in an ethnographic frame is essential to greater comprehension of these roles. A critical review of contemporary research and the writings of the Native occupants of these categories has resulted in an all encompassing term: "Two Spirits." Coterminously, Native terms for lesbians are also emerging. However, all Native gay males and lesbians have not accepted the term. This article discusses the concerns of indigenous researchers and others or non-indigenous researchers in this discourse...

Books: - Two-Spirit People Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality - 1997 - edited by Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang (Google Books) (Amazon). - The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture - 1992 - by Walter L. Williams (Abstract) (Author Website) (Excerpts) (Amazon) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books) - Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America - 1998 - by Will Rosco. (Review) (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books). - The Zuni Man-Woman - 1991 -by Will Rosco (Review). (Alternate Link) (Summary (Summary) (Review) (Amazon) (Google Books) (The Zuni Man-Woman: A Documentary Drama by Will Rosco, 1998). - Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology - 1988, 1998 - edited by Will Rosco. - Many Faces of Gender: Roles and Relationships Through Time in Indigenous Northern Communities (Northern Lights, Calgary, Alta.), V. 2. - 2002 - edited by Lisa Frink, Shepard Rita S., Gregory A. Reinhardt (Review).

Becoming Two-Spirit: Gay Identity and Social Acceptance in Indian Country - 2006 - by Brian Joseph Gilley. - Two Spirits: A Story of Life With the Navajo - 2005 - by Walter L. Williams and Toby Johnson (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - Men as Women, Women as Men: Changing Gender in Native American Cultures - 1998 - by Sabine Lang, translated by John L. Vantine (Review) (Google Books). - Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture - 2005 - by Michael J. Horswell (Excerpt) (Google Books). - Queer Indigenous Studies: Critical Interventions in Theory, Politics, and Literature - 2011 - edited by Q-L. Driscoll. B Gilley, S. Morgenson, C. Finley. University of Arizona Press. - Becoming Two-Spirit: The Search for Self and Social Acceptance in Indian Country - 2006 - by Brian Gilley, University of Nebraska Press (Google Books). - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Myths from the Arapaho to the Zuñi: An Anthology - 2002 - edited by Jim Elledge (Abstract) (Review, Must Scroll).

Books: - Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas  - 1999 - by Richard C. Trexler: "His book is doubtless not only the best study of the American berdache, but also a significant contribution to the understanding of the development of power and authority in human society." (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). Powers, Karen Vieira (2002). Conquering Discourses of "Sexual Conquest": Of Women, Language, and Mestizaje. Colonial Latin American Review, 11(2) PDF Download N/A. Excerpt. "Finally, Richard Trexler’s book Sex and Conquest: Gendered Violence, Political Order, and the European Conquest of the Americas (1995) turns our attention away from the sexual violence suffered by indigenous women and toward that of equally abused men—European, Native American and otherwise. His main subjects of investigation are male rape, homosexual passives, and the berdache (transvestized men raised as women in some Native American cultures to serve other, more powerful men in all things, including sex). Trexler’s most important insight is that the sexual abuse of men was merely another form of using sexuality and gender to establish hierarchy, but among same-sex groups. Even outside their dominant position vis-a`-vis women, some European and Native American men sought to dominate other men through sexual penetration, thereby creating a male hierarchy by turning less powerful men into women. If, as Trexler states, male rape (or “to be turned into a woman”) was the ultimate punishment and humiliation for a man, then it is clear that this practice and the discursive formations that grew out of it were deeply embedded in misogynist ideologies. Hence, the underlying principles of Trexler’s analysis about men are intimately tied to the gender discourses of power relations that began, first and foremost, with the subordination and even abhorrence of women, regardless ofrace or class, by the men of the period."

The United States

Gay Studies Profs Unite to Rewrite History in Chicago (2000).  - The Sexual Abuse of Black Men under American Slavery (2011). - A Busman’s Holiday in the Not-So-Lonely Crowd: Business Culture, Epistolary Networks, and Itinerant Homosexuality in Mid-Twentieth-Century America (2012). - Early glbt mov't: 100 years before Stonewall. - The History of Gay Bathhouses. - Greenwich Village: A Gay History. - Chocolate to Rainbow City: the dialectics of black and gay community formation in postwar Washington, D.C., 1946-1978 (2011). - Behind the Mask of Respectability: Reconsidering the Mattachine Society and Male Homophile Practice, 1950s and 1960s (2001). - Brief History of the GLBT Movement in the US. - Stonewall National Museum & Archives Stores America's LGBT History (2012): A museum in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., has something the Smithsonian in Washington wants: a gavel. Sitting in a glass case at the Stonewall National Museum & Archives is the very gavel that House Speaker Nancy Pelosi used to mark the end of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" in 2010. It was donated to the Stonewall by Rep. Barney Frank (D-Mass.), who received it from Pelosi. - Bosom Buddies: A Photo History of Male Affection (2012). - History of The Rainbow Flag.

Smithsonian explores impact of gays on art history (2010): The Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery is decoding such history from abstract paintings and portraits in the first major museum exhibit to show how sexual orientation and gender identity have shaped American art. The installation, “Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture,” opened Saturday and is on view through Feb. 13. “There’s been an entire history hiding in plain sight,” said Portrait Gallery historian and curator David C. Ward. “Telling the history of art without the history of gay people is like telling the history of slavery without mentioning black people.” - Gay Rumors In History: Celebrities And U.S. Presidents Who May Have Been LGBT (2012). - Seven LGBT African-Americans Who Changed The Face Of The Gay Community (2012). - Seeing the Future From Our Past; Black and Gay in History (2012).

Colonial America: The Age of Sodomitical Sin: 1607-1776. - ‘Wickedness Breaks Forth’: The Crime Of Sodomy In Colonial New England (1999/2000). - A chronology of U.S. lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender history (2003). - A Visual History of the Gay-Rights Movement - Photo Essays - TIME (2012). - The American Gay Rights Movement: A Timeline: 1924-2012. - Gay rights: five activists reflect on the history of the movement in the US (2012). - History of violence against LGBT people in the United States (Wikipedia).

Homo Sex in Colonial America (2009): "Jamestown was initially an all-male settlement. subsequent years...male colonists outnumbered women by roughly six to one in the 1620's and four to one in later decades... It is difficult to believe that a group of young and notoriously unbridled men remained celibate for an extended period of time. It seems likely that some male settlers deprived of female companionship would have turned to each other instead. "Settlers in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake often paired off to form all-male households, living and working together. would be truly remarkable if all the male-only partnerships lacked a sexual ingredient... IT SEEMS REASONABLE TO ASSUME, [my caps and bold], that much of the sex that took place... was sodomitical." These words are from Sexual Revolution in Early America, by Richard Godbeer an associate professor at UC Riverside and published by Johns Hopkins. My own research for my book, The American People, has revealed that not only were male-only partnerships quite in evidence, but services were often conducted to join the partners "under God," and that, of equal interest, was their adoption of Indian children to raise as their own. I hope it will not be too much longer before scholars will be able to deal with the fact that Jamestown was in fact not only America's first colony but its first homosexual community.

From Subversion to Obscenity: The FBI's Investigations of the Early Homophile Movement in the United States, 1953-1958 (2010). - The Homosexual in America (Time, 1966). - The homepage of the Committee on Lesbian and Gay History (CLGH), an affiliated society of the American Historical Association. - LGBTQ History Dissertations.

Private Pain, Public Purges: A History of Homosexuality at Brigham Young University: A History of Homosexuality at Brigham Young University, 1940-1980 (1997, Archive Link). - Lesbian Mormon History. - Gay Mormon History. - Vassar's Queer History (2003). - University of Virginia Queer Hsitory. - Queer History at Earlham College.

Jehovah's Witnesses speak out (1999): If so, it might explain why he seemed to protect Percy Chapman, the alleged one-time lover of GB member Leo Greenlees. In 1959, under hint of homosexual scandal, Knorr went to Canada to replace Chapman, who was the Canadian Branch overseer. Knorr demoted Chapman to janitor, but let him remain at Toronto Bethel--on condition he marry. According to Larry D., a gay Toronto former JW, "Percy ... was totally anti-marriage and he made sure that none of the "Bethel boys" even contemplated the subject ...." Larry described the Bethel boys of the 1950s. "They were all young and handsome, hand-picked by Percy Chapman; there was even an elite group known as 'Percy's boys' who would accompany him to expensive restaurants and bars ... at the time, Bethel was on Irwin Avenue in the center of the gay district of Toronto. There was even a Kingdom Hall above 'The Parkside,' one of Toronto's few gay bars in the fifties and sixties." - History of Unitarian Universalist Involvement in and Support of Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Issues.

Gay & Lesbian History in the USA Snapshot of the 20th Century. - Urbanization and Social Change in the Gay South: - The Experience in North and South Carolina, 1971 - 1991 (Abstract & Full Text). (Alternate Link) - Southern [American] History  and Resources - Generations Galleries and Archives.

Coming to terms: from passionate friendship to gay liberation at Stanford (1891-1974) N/A. - The Oberlin College LGBT Community History Project. - Oberlin College LGBT Community History Project » Into the Pink.

GLBT History Month: - Quentin Crisp's life was performance art. - Kate Bornstein, your guide to living outside gender lines. - Activist Grethe Cammermeyer reflects on her family values.

Stonewall Riot: - The Stonewall Riot/Uprising of 1969: Advocate Article, 1987. - From Our Archives: The 1969 Advocate Article on the Stonewall Riots. - Stonewall Rebellion (2009, NYT). - Stonewall Riots of 1969: Some Memories About, and By, Those Who Were There. - Photo Gallery: Stonewall Uprising Images. - The Stonewall Riots, 43 Years Later: Reflections of One of the Oldest Surviving Veterans of the Seminal Uprising (2012). - Stonewall Rebellion veteran recalls the rebellion and its effects (2012).

Queer World Making: Annamarie Jagose interviews Michael Warner. - Performing the Closet: Grids and Suits in the Early Art of Gilbert and George.

Gay and Lesbian Regional History. - THE 80'S IN REVIEW: The Washington Blade 12/29/89 (U.S.)  - Flashback: Anita Bryant. - The brief history of gay athletes. - Brief history of gay athletes and events.

Northwest Lesbian and Gay History Museum Project.

The Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History:  An affiliated society of the American Historical Association. The Committee on Lesbian and Gay History was founded in 1979 to promote the study of homosexuality in the past and present by facilitating communication among scholars in a variety of disciplines working on a variety of cultures. The name of the committee was changed to Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in January 2009. Since 1982, the Committee has been officially recognized as an affiliate of the American Historical Association and meets annually in conjunction with the AHA conference, where we sponsor sessions on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer history. One need not be a member of the AHA to join the Committee.

ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives: the oldest active Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning (LGBTQ) organization in the United States and the largest repository of LGBTQ materials in the world. Founded in 1952, ONE Archives currently houses over two million archival items including periodicals, books, film, video and audio recordings, photographs, artworks, organizational records and personal papers. The collections at ONE Archives are a part of the University of Southern California Libraries.

PBS Online - Out Of The Past: 400 Years of Lesbian & Gay History In America. "From the beginning of American history, homosexuality and love between people of the same sex have been part of the social and political landscape."

Books: - Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America - 2007 - edited by Thomas A. Foster (Google Books) (Contents, Introduction, Excerpts) (Review). - A Queer History of the United States - 2011 - by Michael Bronski (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Interview With Author). - Walt Whitman : A Gay Life - 1997 - by Gary Schmidgall (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Walt Whitman: Wikipedia). - Queer Cowboys: And Other Erotic Male Friendships in Nineteenth-Century American Literature - 2005 - by Chris Packard (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Male-Male Intimacy in Early America: Beyond Romantic Friendships - 2006 - by William Benemann (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Queer America: A People's GLBT History of the United States - 2011 - by Vicki L. Eaklor (Google Books) (Review). - Growing Up Before Stonewall: Life Stories Of Some Gay Men - 1994 - by Peter Nardi (Google Books). - The Other Side of  Silence : Men's Lives and Gay Identities in Modern America: A Twentieth-Century History   1998 -by John Loughery (Review) (Review). - The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality and the Movies - 1987 - by Vito Russo (Google Books) (Review) (Related film & Review) (Vito Russo Beginnings Celluloid Closet, Video) (Related Film: The Celluloid Closet  100 years of homosexuality in mainstream movies).  

Books: - Behind the Mask of the Mattachine: The Hal Call Chronicles and the Early Movement for Homosexual Emancipation -2006 - by James Thomas Sears (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).- Making History : The Struggle for Gay and Lesbian Equal Rights: 1945-1990 : An Oral History by Eric Marcus. - Making Gay History: The Half Century Fight for Lesbian and Gay Equal Rights - 2002 - by Eric Marcus (Google Books) (Review). - No Bath But Plenty of Bubbles: An Oral History of the Gay Liberation Front, 1970-73 -1995 - by Lisa Power (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Unspeakable: the Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Press in America - 1995 - by Rodger Streitmatter  (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview). - The Accidental Activist: A Personal and Political Memoir - 1996 - by Candice Gingrich with Chris Bull (Review). - Modern American Queer History - 2001 - edited by Allida M. Black (Excerpt: Chapter 1, Download Page) (Google Books).- Harvard's Secret Court: The Savage 1920 Purge of Campus Homosexuals - 2005 - by William Wright (Google Books) (Review). - The Heart of Whiteness: Normal Sexuality and Race in America, 1880–1940 - 2007 - by Julian B. Carter (Review) (Review).

Books: - Lonely Hunters: An Oral History of Lesbian and Gay Southern Life, 1948-1968 - 1997 - by James T. Sears (Contents/Excerpts) (Google Books) (Review). - Men Like That: A Southern Queer History - 2001 - by John Howard  (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Queer Man on Campus: A History of Non-Heterosexual College Men, 1945-2000 - 2002 - by Patrick Dilley (Google Books) (Review). Rebel: The Life and Legend of James Dean - 1996 - by Donald Spoto (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Trouble With Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement - 1990 - by Stuart Timmons (Google Books) (Updated 2012 Edition) (Excerpt) (Review) (Review) (Queer Theory: Harry Hay). Radically Gay: Gay Liberation in the Words of its Founder, Harry Hay - 1996 - edited by Will Roscoe (Review) (Review) (Podcast: Radically Gay: Harry Hay, LGBT Pioneer). - Same-Sex Affairs: Constructing and Controlling Homosexuality in the Pacific Northwest - 2003 - by Peter G. Boag (Google Books) (Review)

Coming Out Under Fire - 1990 - by Alan Berube (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (A related documentary: Preview). - Speaking Out: Writings on Sex, Law, Politics, and Society, 1954-1995 - 1997 - by Antony Grey (Google Books). - Rough News, Daring Views: 1950’s Pioneer Gay Press Journalism - 1998 - by Jim Kepner (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Historical documentary highlights 'Angels in America'. - Approaching the Millennium : Essays on Angels in America (Theater - Text/Theory Performance Series). - Angels in America - site dedicated to the play, its author, and productions. - Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States: A Documentary History - 2003 - edited by Walter L. Williams, Yolanda Retter (Abstract). - The Literature of Lesbianism: A Historical Anthology From Ariosto To Stonewall - 2005 - by Terry Castle (Google Books) (Review). - Young Man from the Provinces: A Gay Life Before Stonewall - 1996 - by Alan Helms (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Books: - To Believe in Women: What Lesbians Have Done For America - A History by Lilian Faderman (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America - 1991 by Lilian Faderman (Google Books) (Review). - Gay Old Girls - 1998 - by Zsa Zsa Gershick (Review). - Secret Service: Untold Stories of Lesbians in the Military - 2005 - by Zsa Zsa Gershick (Google Books) (Review). - Putting Your Daughters on the Stage: Lesbian Theatre from the 1970s to the 1990s - 1997 - by Sandra Freeman (Google Books) (Review).  - What is She Like? Lesbian Identities from the 1950s to the 1990s - 1995 - by Rosa Ainley (Google Books). - Inventing Lesbian Cultures in America - 1997 - edited by Ellen Lewin (Google Books) (Review). - Outlaw Marriages: The Hidden Histories of Fifteen Extraordinary -Same-Sex Couples - 2012 - by Rodger Streitmatter (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Books: - Gay Artists in Modern American Culture: An Imagined Conspiracy - 2007 - by Michael S. Sherry (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885-1940 - 2009 - by Chad Heap (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Interview With Author). - Secret Historian: The Life and Times of Samuel Steward, Professor, Tattoo Artist, and Sexual Renegade - 2010 by Justin Spring (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Book Website). - Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category - 2007 - by David Valentine (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - American Psychiatry and Homosexuality: An Oral History - 007 - edited by Jack Drescher, Joseph P. Merlino (Review) (Review) (Review). - Gay American history: lesbians and gay men in the U.S.A., a documentary - 1976 - by Jonathan Ned Katz. - Queer Images: A History of Gay and Lesbian Film in America - 2005 - by Harry M. Benshoff, Sean Griffin (Google Books).

The Golden Age of Promiscuity - 1996 - by Brad Gooch (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Author Website). - American Homo: Community and Peversity by Jeffrey Escoffier (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Bigger Than Life: The History of Gay Porn Cinema from Beefcake to Hardcore - 2009 - by Jeffrey Escoffier (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Farm Boys: Lives of Gay Men from the Rural Midwest - 1996 - edited by Will Fellows (Google Books) (Review). -  The Stonewall Experiment: A Gay Psychohistory - 1995 - by Ian Young (Review)- Contacts Desired: Gay and Lesbian Communications and Community, 1940s-1970s - 2006 - by Martin Meeker (Review). - Sex and Sensibility: Stories of a Lesbian Generation - 1997 - by Arlene Stein (Google Books) (Review). - History of Gay People in Alcoholics Anonymous: From the Beginning - 2006 - by Audrey Borden (Google Books).

Books: - The Rise and Fall of Gay Culture - 1997 - by Daniel Harris (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Gay Hegemony/ Latino Homsexualites - 2005 - by Manolo Guzmán (Google Books) (Review, Translation) (Review). - Making Trouble: Essays on Gay History, Politics, and the University by John D'Emilio (Google Books) (2009 Author Interview). - The World Turned: Essays on Gay History, Politics, and Culture - 2002 - by John D'Emilio (Google Books) (Review) (Preface & Part 1 Introduction) (Review). - American psychiatry and homosexuality; an oral history - 2007 - edited by Jack Drescher and Joseph P. Merlino. - Uncovered: Rare Vintage Male Nudes - 2009 - by Reed Massengill. - And They Were Wonderful Teachers: Florida's Purge of Gay and Lesbian Teachers - 2009 - by Karen L. Graves (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Hansen B (2002). Public careers and private sexuality: some gay and lesbian lives in the history of medicine and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 92(1):36-44. Abstract. PDF Download. This study explores the careers of 5 physicians active in public health and medicine during the first half of the 20th century to illustrate interactions between private and professional life. An examination of these individuals, who might today be variously designated as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or queer, suggests how historical understanding can be enriched by a greater willingness to investigate intimacy and sexual life as potentially relevant to career and achievements. Further, the narratives support a plea for all historians to provide readers with a more frank acknowledgment of the possible relevance of personal life to intellectual work, even in the sciences. Additionally, this historical exploration of ways that careers and achievements may have been affected by a person's homosexuality (even when the person did not publicly embrace a gay identity) opens up a new area of research through biographical sketches based on historical sources combined with generalizations that are intentionally provisional. Included are the stories of Sara Josephine Baker, Harry Stack Sullivan, Ethel Collins Dunham, Martha May Eliot, and Alan L. Hart.

Eskridge Jr., William N (1993). A History of Same Sex Marriage. Virginia Law Review, 79(7): 1419-1513. Download Page. PDF Download.The stories of We'wha, Ifeyinwa Olinke, and Sergius and Bacchus resonate strangely in modern American ears. Culturally, most twentieth- century Americans consider marriage to be an institution that intrinsically involves different- rather than same-sex partners. Although some Americans are willing to tolerate same-sex relationships, and even to give them some euphemistic sanction, few consider them to be "real" marriages. The law reflects these cultural attitudes. For example, the most recent edition of Black's Law Dictionary defines "marriage" as the "legal status, condition, or relation of one man and one woman united in law for life, or until divorced, for the discharge to each other and the community of the duties legally incumbent on those whose association is founded on the distinction of sex."

Loftin, Craig M (2007). Unacceptable Mannerisms: Gender Anxieties, Homosexual Activism, and Swish in the United States, 1945-1965. Journal of Social History, 40(3): 577-596. Full Text. This article analyzes gender anxieties in the post-World War II McCarthy-era gay rights movement known as the "homophile movement" in the United States. Using survey data gathered by these pioneering gay rights organizations as well as letters written to ONE magazine (the first gay magazine in the U.S., 1953-1967), "Unacceptable Mannerisms" demonstrates that homophile movement leaders worried about the negative social impact of stereotypical iconic representations of effeminate male homosexuals while rank-and-file homophiles worried about specific threats to their livelihoods caused by the visibility of effeminate male homosexuals. The homophile movement thus boldly challenged prevailing conceptualizations about sexuality during the 1950s yet simultaneously reinforced the hegemonic masculinity characteristic of broader postwar American gender patterns. Homophile anxieties regarding "swishy" behavior underscore a paradox about homosexual visibility in the 1950s. The homophile movement sought to create a positive collective homosexual image modeled on an idealized middle-class white-collar worker. At the same time, the movement discouraged individual visible markers of homosexual identity such as effeminacy. This paradox is partly explained by the increasingly middle-class character of gay identity after World War II; this trend reflects a broader shift toward middle-class identity in American society during these years.

Johnson, David K (2010). Physique Pioneers: The Politics of 1960s Gay Consumer Culture. Journal of Social History, 43(4): 867-892. Abstract. PDF Download. While growing up in a small town in Missouri in the 1950s, Bill Kelley learned from reading the best-selling paperback Washington Confidential that the nation’s capital was teeming not only with prostitutes, gamblers, Communists, and drug dealers, but also “fairies and Fair Dealers.” Like millions of Americans who read tabloid journalist Jack Lait and Lee Mortimer’s exposé, he learned that police efforts to eliminate the moral degenerates from the city focused on Lafayette Park. The reporters alleged that so many gay men congregated in this “garden of pansies” that it created “a constant soprano symphony of homosexual twittering.” Lait and Mortimer had hoped to warn their readers of the dangers in Washington, D.C., but Kelley was more intrigued than repulsed. While on a high school trip to the nation’s capital for the National Spelling Bee, Kelley made a surreptitious visit to Lafayette Park. He had only a limited time away from his chaperones, and as he later recalled, “I wasn’t taking any chances of being misunderstood.” In order to identify himself to other gay men, he went to a nearby newsstand, bought a copy of a physique magazine, and carried it with him as he walked around the park.1 Bill Kelley’s Lafayette Park story has been used to illustrate the ways in which cold war era anti-gay propaganda functioned as a virtual tour guide to the gay subculture. And because he would later move to Chicago and become involved in the early homosexual rights movement as a member of the Chicago chapter of the Mattachine Society, one of the first gay political and social service organizations, Kelley has appeared in a number of histories of the gay rights movement. But one aspect of the story has been overlooked: For a young man like Kelley from middle-America at mid-century, the purchase of a consumer item acted as means of sexual self-identification and served as an entryway into the gay community.

Foote, Learned (2011). Homosexual Democracy in America: Political Ideology and Organization in the Mattachine, 1950-1954. Honors Dissertation, Columbia University. PDF Download. Download Page. The political principles of the organization shifted considerably over its lifetime. Harry Hay, a Communist Party member from 1934-1951, hosted the first meetings in 1950 with a small group of mostly leftist gay men, which consisted of Rudi Gernreich, Chuck Rowland, Bob Hull, and Dale Jennings. These five founders, known as the Fifth Order, structured a secret society and organized separate discussion groups, each limited to a few dozen members. The rank-and-file members of the organization did not know of the other chapters’ existence, but the Fifth Order directed the entire structure, maintaining secrecy and anonymity reminiscent of Freemasonry or the Communist Party. The purpose of the organization was to mobilize and unify a distinct and potentially militant 2 homosexual minority, which would follow a new code of ethics to distinguish itself from the dominant heterosexual majority. Recruitment numbers remained low for the first few months, but the Mattachine began to develop organizationally in 1952. These developments shifted the Mattachine from its ideological foundations and split the consensus of the Fifth Order. The process began that summer when Dale Jennings pled innocent after being accused of lewd conduct by a police officer. Emboldened by their success after the jury sided with Jennings and the district attorney dismissed the case, the Mattachine leadership sought a visible position in society by attempting to officially incorporate as the Mattachine Foundation. Three female relatives were the figureheads of the organization, but the Fifth Order operated the organization and recruited professionals—including a minister and a doctor—to lend the Mattachine Foundation credibility. In the autumn of 1952, one of the discussion groups decided to found a publication on homosexuality, and ONE Magazine emerged, assembled by individuals who held leadership positions within the Mattachine, but tended to hold more conservative political views. The Dale Jennings trial, the Mattachine Foundation and ONE Magazine encouraged participation from many individuals who disagreed with Hay’s thesis of a separate homosexual minority and prescribed a different path towards social integration.

Davidson GR (2001). Liberation, Commodity Culture and Community in 'the Golden Age of Promiscuity'. Australian Humanities Review, (23). Full Text. My account of liberationist discourse centres on the 1970s writings of Altman; I focus on him because his work is both representative of liberationist ideology and one of the most elaborated responses from a gay liberationist perspective to the changing political and cultural climate of the decade. My account of the fictional representation of the new urban gay world concentrates on Larry Kramer's 1978 novel, Faggots, a satirical anatomy of the New York gay ghetto. The juxtaposition of Altman and Kramer is not meant to suggest a straightforward repudiation of consumer culture on the one hand and an endorsement on the other: while Altman remains dubious about the effects of the commercial gay world, his writings are characterised by an increasing ambivalence toward this world, an increasing tendency to register its attractions and the meanings of those attractions; and far from endorsing the post-Stonewall lifestyle, Kramer's novel was, and perhaps even still is, notorious for its savage representation of the denizens and pleasures of gay Manhattan. I will argue, however, that in Kramer's novel, as well as in other examples of gay fiction from this period, the depiction of what has been named from the ironic and nostalgic perspective of post-AIDS gay culture "the golden age of promiscuity"1 frequently gestures toward the utopian dimensions of consumption, in ways contrary to the general perspective of liberationist ideology. 


- The Boulder Queer History Archive. - History of the Gay/ Lesbian/ Bisexual/ Transgender Community in Milwaukee and all of Wisconsin. - The Unspoken Past: Atlanta Lesbian and Gay History (2007). - The Unspoken Past: Atlanta Lesbian and Gay History (2006).
San Francisco

A History of the GLBT Movement in San Francisco. - “The most profoundly revolutionary act a homosexual can engage in”: Drag and the Politics of Gender Presentation in the San Francisco Gay Liberation Movement, 1964–1972 (2011). - Gay and Lesbian Culture of San Francisco: 1960's - 1990s (2002). - The GLBT History Museum. - SF gay history museum finds home, identity (2011).

Books: - Folsom Street Blues: A Memoir of 1970s Soma and Leatherfolk in Gay San Francisco - 2011 - by Jim Stewart (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review).
- Gay by the Bay: A History of Queer Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area - 1996 - by Susan Stryker and Jim Van Buskirk (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Erotic City: Sexual Revolutions and the Making of Modern San Francisco - 2009 - by Josh Sides (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Wide-Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965 - 2005 - by Nan Alamilla Boyd (Google Books) (Review) (Review).

Los Angeles

Gay history of L.A. - Containing "Perversion": African Americans and Same-Sex Desire in Cold War Los Angeles (2011). - Lesbian (Feminist) Los Angeles, 1970-1990: An Exploratory Ethnohistory (1995). - L.A. Gay Time Machine: Historic Sites in Gay Los Angeles (2008). - Queer history exhibit opens at Doheny Library (2012): Queer Worldmaking, one of three exhibits of Cruising the Archive: Queer Art and Culture in Los Angeles, 1945-1980, opened Tuesday in the Treasure Room on the first floor of Doheny Memorial Library. The exhibition is the largest collaboration between USC Libraries and the ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives since the archives became part of USC in 2010. It is the Libraries’ first collaboration with the Getty’s Pacific Standard Time art initiative.

Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, And Lipstick Lesbians - 2006 - by Lillian Faderman, Stuart Timmons (Google Books) (Excerpt: The Woman's Story) (Review).

New York

LGBT history in New York (Wikipedia). - New York City: a gay history N/A?: (To 1999) "This website is here to document some of what I call, the gay history of New York City." - Art Films Trace Gay History Around New York (2012). A gay newsletter/magazine is born at City University of New York - a little before Stonewall. Many articles: Homepage of Homosexuals Intransigent!. - History of Homosexuals Intransigent! and of the term "Gay Pride".

New York City Gay Biographies. - Timeline of Harlem Gay History. - Timeline of Chelsea Gay History. - New York City Gay History Timelines. - Great Moments in Gay New York City Theater History. - Books about New York City's Gay History.

Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 - 1994 - by George Chauncey (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Excerpts) (George Chauncey: Wikipedia). - Cherry Grove, Fire Island: Sixty Years in America's First Gay and Lesbian Town - 1993 - by Esther Newton (Google Books) (Review) (Cherry Grove: Wikipedia) (How did Fire Island become so Gay?). The Gay Metropolis: 1940-1996 - 1997 -  by Charles Kaiser (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Author Interview). - Between You and Me: Queer Disclosures in the New York Art World, 1948–1963 - 2005 - by Gavin Butt (Google Books) (Review) (Interview With Author).

One of the Children Gay Black Men in Harlem - 1997 - edited by Alex W. Costley (Google Books) (Free ebook). - The Scene of Harlem Cabaret: Race, Sexuality, Performance - 2009 - by Shane Vogel (Google Books) (Review) (Review).


Chicago Gay History. - Looking back in history: Pink Angels take it to the Streets (2011). - Chicago's Stonewall: The Trip Raid in 1968 (2008, Alternate Link). - AIDS: The plague years; Windy City Times Special Series in partnership with the AIDS Foundation of Chicago (2011). - The Gay Rights Movement In Illinois: A History (2010).

Exploring Chicago's Gay History (2011): The Chicago History Museum is planning an expansive exhibit on the city's LGBT-related milestones — possibly the first gay history project produced by an urban museum. The "Out in Chicago" exhibit opens May 21 and will include pictures and stories of gay life in the Windy City, including the rise of gay voters as a political force. Chicago has long been a magnet for LGBT Americans, even in the 19th century — the city enacted an ordinance in 1851 prohibiting cross-dressing, which bureaucrats viewed as a growing problem. - Chicago History Museum To Open GLBT Exhibit In May (2011). - Cruising Through History: Exploring Chicago's LGBT Past (2011).

The Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame: is both a historic event and an exhibit. Through the Hall of Fame, residents of Chicago and the world are made aware of the contributions of Chicago's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities and the communities' efforts to eradicate homophobic bias and discrimination. With the support of the City of Chicago Commission on Human Relations, the Advisory Council on Gay and Lesbian Issues (now the Advisory Council on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues) established the Chicago Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame in June 1991. The inaugural induction ceremony took place during Gay and Lesbian Pride Week at City Hall, hosted by Mayor Richard M. Daley. This was the first event of its kind in the country.

Are We There Yet? A Continuing History of Lavender Woman: A Chicago Lesbian Newspaper 1971-1976 - 1985 - by Michal Brody (Google Books) (Abstract). - Out and Proud in Chicago: An Overview of the City's Gay Movement - 2008 - edited by Tracy Baim (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Book Launch). - Jim Flint: The Boy From Peoria - 2011 - by Tracy Baim, Owen Keehnen (Review) (Review). - Leatherman: The Legend of Chuck Renslow - 2011 - by Tracy Baim, Owen Keehnen (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).


Seattle, WA: Queen City Comes Out: Exploring Seattle's Lesbian and Gay History. - History of the LGBT community in Seattle (Wikipedia).

Queer History in Seattle, Part 1: to 1967. - Queer History in Seattle, Part 2: After Stonewall.

Claiming Space: Seattle's Lesbian and Gay Historical Geography - 2004 - by Northwest Lesbian and Gay History Museum Project. - Mosaic1: Life Stories - 2002 - by Northwest Lesbian and Gay History Museum Project. - Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging - 2003 - by Gary Atkins (Google Books) (University of Washington Press) (Review) (Review) (Review).


Pennsylvania Lesbian and Gay Task Force Retrospective: 1978-2000.

Books: - City of Sisterly and Brotherly Loves: Lesbian and Gay Philadelphia, 1945-1972 - 2004 - by Marc Stein (Google Books) (Chapter 1) (Philadelphia LGBT History Project, 1945-1972) (Introduction to the Philadelphia LGBT History Project).

New Orleans

Thompson, Jelisa (2011). You Make Me Feel: A Study of the Gay Rights Movement in New Orleans. Honors Dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi. PDF Download. Pieces of society that have a history of going against status quo and causing a number of people from the “straight-laced” realm of society to question it seemed to have always been welcome in New Orleans. An example of this is the city’s well-known gay community. With their own night-life district in the French Quarter and a strong presence in Mardi Gras celebrations, the gay community in New Orleans is well accepted and has successfully created its own space in New Orleans. However, this was not always the case. The New Orleans’s gay community was often targeted by the New Orleans Police and by members of the New Orleans heterosexual community. As in many cities throughout the country during the 1950s, members of the homosexual community in New Orleans were often victims of violence and were often arrested because of their sexuality. As a result, as in many cities 2 in the South, the city’s gay community opted to try and stay hidden; only taking the chance to socialize at night when a majority of the bars would be open. Similar to many cities throughout the country, the New Orleans gay community emerged in its own way.


Timeline of LGBT history in Canada (Wikipedia). - History of the Gay Liberation Movement in Canada (1970s and 1980s). - The 1981 Toronto bathhouse riots (2011). - Edmonton’s gay history tour sheds light on gossip, old wounds and achievements (2012). - The first gay protest in Canada: 1971. - New Canadian exhibition looks at gay maritime life of the post-war years (2011): A new exhibition has opened at The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Canada, looking into the gay and lesbian subcultures that flourished at sea on passenger cruise ships, naval vessels and freighters from the 1950s onwards.

Histoire de l'homosexualité au Canada (Wikipedia, Translation). - Projet Memoire: Histoires de Fiertés (Translation). -

In the 1960s, Ottawa targeted gays and lesbians as the enemy within (2001). - Simon Frazer University Queer History. - Who wants to help start Queer History Month in Canada? (2012): When Black History Month started in Canada in the mid-'90s, students began learning about fascinating people who were not in their history books. For black students it instilled a sense of pride. So why is there no Queer History Month in Canada? (It may surprise you to learn that October is LGBT History Month in the United States and it's February in the UK.).

History of Gay Toronto and birth of Queer West (2012). - Out and Proud: How students, faculty, staff and alumni brought queer activism to the University of Toronto and changed the campus forever (2009).

Manitoba Gay and Lesbian Archives: The formation of the Manitoba Gay and Lesbian Archives is a symbolic culmination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-spirited, and Queer individuals and organizations recording people’s history. Through this active approach to preservation and self-awareness, an outstanding body of knowledge exists today on the life, literature, art, philosophy and history of the Winnipeg LGBTTQ community dating back to the 1920s.

The Gay Spirit - A Vancouver Canada Gay/Lesbian History Slideshow (1979-2010) (2011, YouTube).

Gay Liberation in Canada: A Socialist Perspective: Published in 1977 by Vanguard Publications, the publishing arm of the League for Socialist Action / Ligue Socialiste Ouvriere. We are reproducing the entire text here. In the original pamphlet, the LSA’s 1976 resolution ("The Socialist Perspective for Gay Liberation") appeared ahead of the 1971 report ("The Gay Movement 1971: A Tentative Assessment"). We have reversed them, so the documents appear in chronological order. We have also corrected obvious typographical errors, and made some minor stylistic changes in the interests of simplifying reading online.

Some of Toronto's more recent GLB history by Rick Bébout: Home Page - On the Origin of The Body Politic - Promiscuous Affections A Life in The Bar, 1969 - 2000 (Table of Contents) - Gay "journalism": What for?

The Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives. - Les Archives gaies du Québec (A.G.Q.) (Translation): Un organisme communautaire à but non lucratif qui a le mandat de recevoir, conserver et préserver tout document manuscrit, imprimé, visuel, sonore, et tout objet témoignant de l'histoire des gais et lesbiennes du Québec (CANADA). - Pink Triangle Press, History.

Newsletter of the Canadian Gay Archives No. 1, May 1977: The Canadian Gay Archives is now in its fourth year. It literally grew out of the files of The Body Politic, a national gay liberation journal founded in Toronto in 1971. The newspaper was the recipient of a wide variety of material relating to gay men and lesbians in Canada and beyond its borders. While the paper had no further use for much of the material, its historic value was early recognised. The idea of an "archives" was first suggested by Jearld Moldenhauer, a member of the newspaper collective. Files were gathered together, and the Canadian Gay Liberation Movement Archives was launched. Its formation was announced at the first national gay conference in Quebec City on October 6, 1973, and through an editorial in the Fall 1973 issue of The Body Politic. The archives was first organised by Ron Dayman, who contacted gay groups across the country seeking additional material. Later, Edward Jackson took on the task. Continued expansion of the archives, however, indicated the need for a more formal organisation to ensure its success. In 1975, a collective of six people, separate from The Body Politic Collective, was formed. This marked the beginning of a new kind of autonomy for the archives, which continued to locate at the office of the paper, for reasons of economy and convenience. A statement of purpose was drawn up by the new collective in December, and guidelines for the arrangement of the archives were decided upon. The name was changed to the Canadian Gay Archives, which seemed to better represent what the archives was attempting to do; to gather and preserve the history of gay men and lesbians in Canada, in addition to the gay liberation movement which had its beginnings in this country in 1969.

Books: - The Regulation of Desire: Homo and Hetero Sexualities by Gary Kinsman (Google Books) (Review). - Never Going Back: A History of Queer Activism in Canada - 2002 - by Tom Warner (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - The Canadian War on Queers: National Security as Sexual Regulation - 2010 - by Gary Kinsman, Patrizia Gentile (First 26 Pages) (Review) (Review). - Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada: A Selected Annotated Chronology, 1964-1975 - 1996 - by Donald W. McLeod (Google Books) (Order Book). - A Brief History of Gay: Canada's First Gay Tabloid, 1964-1966 - 2003 - by Donald Wilfred McLeod (Google Books) (Summary) (Review). - One of the Boys: Homosexuality in the Military During World War II - 2004 - by Paul Jackson (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review).

Duder, Karen (2001). The Spreading Depths: Lesbian and Bisexual Women in English Canada, 1910-1965. PhD Dissertation, Department of History, University of Victoria. PDF Download. Download Page.  This dissertation also suggests that women in same-sex relationships before the allegedly more liberal decades of the late twentieth century may actually have had slightly better relationships with families of origin than would later be the case. Greater adherence to notions of duty and obligation, fewer economic opportunities enabling women to live independently of family, the lack of a publicly available discourse of pathology with which families could define and reject their wayward daughters, and the lack of later notions of “alternative” lesbian families and community meant that many remained rather closer to their families than would lesbians after 1965.

Maynard, Steven (2004). "Hell Witches in Toronto" Notes on Lesbian Visibility in Early-Twentieth-Century Canada. Left History,  9(2): 191-205. PDF Download. These rich sources reveal the inner thoughts and feelings of women attracted to other women, and they give us glimpses into the early-twentieth-century bohemian milieux and professional ranks that could nourish same-sex relations among well-educated and well-travelled white women.' Still, those interested in recovering the lesbian past often lament the lack of sources like the legal records relied upon by gay historians to reconstruct the history of gay male identities and subcultures. Karen Duder, one of the few to explore the terrain of lesbian history in Canada prior to World War Two, explains that "the dearth of information is hardly surprising given the limited availability of lesbians' personal records and the equally limited purview of the state in the area of lesbian ~exuality."B~u t personal papers and state-generated documents are only two possible sources. In the following research report, I want to draw attention to a small but significant cache of articles from the early tabloid press that not only signals the potential of print media in lesbian historical research but also calls into question some of our assumptions about lesbian history in pre-World War Two Canada.

Chamberland L, Garneau C (2008). Entrevue avec Ross Higgins, anthropologue et cofondateur des Archives gaies du Québec. Bulletin d’histoire politique, 16(3). Full Text. Translation. Tu as cofondé les Archives gaies du Québec avec Jacques Prince en 1983. Peux-tu nous rappeler le contexte? D’abord, c’était pour concurrencer Toronto, qui avait déjà ses Archives. Quelqu’un avait proposé d’y envoyer les documents du collectif de la librairie L’Androgyne où je travaillais[1]. Je ne voyais pas l’intérêt pour les Montréalais, qui auraient dû aller jusqu’à Toronto pour les consulter. J’avais déjà commencé à parler de la nécessité de créer des Archives ici, notamment avec Jacques Prince, qui voulait se former en bibliothéconomie. Il a trouvé l’idée bonne... Les gais et lesbiennes sont-ils plus sensibilisés à la nécessité de préserver la mémoire ou le contraire, vu que la société valorise tellement le présent? Il y a une détérioration, les gens sont moins conscients de ce qui a été. Je suis bien là… pourquoi regarder un passé plein de troubles? ... Comment vois-tu le développement de l’historiographie gaie maintenant? Y a-t-il une relève? Je ne suis pas sûr de savoir tout ce qui se fait, mais j’ai l’impression qu’il y en a très peu, en histoire, en sociologie. Il y a du matériel qui existe, il y a des questions intéressantes. Ce qui est urgent, selon moi, c’est de faire des entrevues, parce que ce qui est sur papier n’est pas ce qu’on vit, ça ne le reflète pas. Dans une société axée sur l’instant, on pense que tout est enregistré, on est tellement bien documenté sur ce qu’on vit, mais on va perdre complètement la finesse de l’expérience que seuls des gens peuvent raconter.

Gentile P, Kinsman G (2008). «Fiabilité», «Risque» et «Résistance»: surveillance au Canada des homosexuels durant la guerre froide. Bulletin d’histoire politique, 16(3). Full Text. Translation. À la fin des années 1950 et au début des années 1960, l’approche en matière de classifications d’emploi des services de sécurité publique visait à perturber la vie quotidienne de centaines de lesbiennes et de gays[2] au pays. Parmi ceux-ci, nombreux ont perdu leur emploi au sein de la fonction publique ou de l’armée tandis que d’autres ont subi une rétrogradation ou ont dû accepter des postes dont les tâches comportaient un caractère moins confidentiel. Dans le contexte de la guerre froide, on attribuait une moralité douteuse aux gays et aux lesbiennes, ce qui les rendaient supposément plus vulnérables au chantage et à la subversion de la part d’agents soviétiques[3]. La GRC a recensé les noms de milliers de personnes qui étaient soupçonnées d’être homosexuelles. Le gouvernement a également financé et encouragé la recherche afin de trouver des moyens de déterminer l’orientation sexuelle d’une personne donnée. Cet article évoque les principaux aspects de notre enquête plus approfondie sur les campagnes de sécurité nationale visant les homosexuels au cours de la période couvrant les années 1950 jusqu’à la fin des années 1980. Nous nous sommes basé sur des renseignements de première main qui nous ont été directement transmis par des personnes ayant été congédiées et sur les textes officiels qui régissaient ces mesures[4].

Chenier, Elise (2004). Hidden from Historians: Preserving Lesbian Oral History in Canada. Archivaria 68: 247-269. PDF Download. Download Page. Lesbian history is an important part of Canada’s past but some of the most valuable research material we have is in danger of disappearing. Over the past twenty years Canadian activists and researchers have conducted many oral history interviews with lesbians in Canada, yet only a handful have donated their research material to an archive. Drawing on the findings of a research questionnaire distributed to oral historians, this article shows that a lack of training, an absence of financial resources, and a failure to put in place a plan to donate research material to an archive are three of the most important barriers to preserving lesbian oral history in Canada. The article also describes the Archive of Lesbian Oral History, an international digital archive founded by the author.

Chenier, Elise (2004). Rethinking Class in Lesbian Bar Culture. Living 'The Gay Life' in Toronto, 1955-1965. Left History,  9(2): 85-118. PDF Download. Download Page. When Joji Hazel came to Toronto in the early 1960s, her search for a gay women's bar landed her at the Continental Hotel, a public house long considered home to local bar-going lesbians... Had Hazel never read about lesbian bars, she probably would have been struck by the tough masculine demeanour of many of the women inside. She might have been put off by the constant stream of sex trade workers and johns moving in and out of the ladies' and escorts' room. But after three hours of careful observation, what took her by surprise was how the gay women inside were segregated into two distinct groups... Butch and fem "roles" have long been regarded as a definitive feature of post-World War I1 working-class lesbian culture, but as Hazel discovered, sociability within Toronto's lesbian subculture was tied to a much more complex set of friendship networks that divided women as much as they united them... In contrast, downtowners lived "the gay life." They were a constant presence in the back room of the Continental Hotel's public house, and their daily activities were deeply enmeshed with most every aspect of the social and economic activities of the beer parlour and its surrounding neighbourhood. From the early 1950s until the mid-1960s, to live the 'gay life' was to live in tandem and in tension with the sex and drug trades, local Chinese residents, the police, the courts, and the prison system. Those who did so gave clear expression to their particular location within the community through their rough and ready style. Butch and fem downtowners were identifiable to insiders and outsiders alike: more assertive in staking their claim on physical and social spaces, more willing to challenge conventions concerning sex and gender comportment, and more sexually explicit in their verbal and physical interactions, they comprised a distinct social group of sexual outsiders. Of course, the line that divided the two groups was not immutable. Most downtowners arrived as uptowners, and some women dated and socialized across the "line." However, as "kiki" was to butch and fem, lesbians who sought out and enjoyed the friendship and trust of both groups were the exception to the rule. For the purposes of this article, downtowners can be distinguished as a unique and relatively stable social category. Similar class distinctions among bar-going lesbians were made in other Canadian and American cities as well.

Korinek, Valerie (2010). A Queer-eye view of the prairies: reorienting Western Canadian histories. In: The West and Beyond: New Perspectives on an Imagined Region - 2010 - edited by Alvin Finkel, Sarah Carter, and Peter Fortna (Google Books), pp. 278-296. PDF Download. From author webpage: "Based on papers presented at the conference: The West and Beyond: Historians Past, Present and Future, held at the University of Alberta, 19-21 June, 2008. Here Valerie mentions her book-in-progress, Prairie Fairies.  Conceived as a topic firmly situated in the North American histories of sexuality and gender history literature, it became apparent that the setting, the Prairies, would become a third focal point of the study. Thus, in my essay, I want to offer three individual case studies that illuminate how employing a queer-eye view of the Prairies forces a confrontation with a number of key issues for contemporary Prairie scholars and in so doing, raise some substantial questions about how we imagine, historicize, and mythologize the Prairie West. This research is part of a growing international historiography that implicitly seeks to compare and contrast the diverse experiences of gays and lesbians in international gay metropoles—London, New York, San Francisco, Toronto, and Vancouver—with their counterparts in cities not initially associated with gay and lesbian enclaves and cultural, commercial, or activist activity.4 To date, excellent work has been completed on cities as diverse as Buffalo, Philadelphia, Chicago, Memphis, Portland, Jackson, Mississippi, and Deadwood, South Dakota. 5 While primarily a sexual and cultural history of the Canadian Prairies, this research has benefitted from an international literature concerned with “mapping desire,” to borrow David Bell and Gill Valentine’s term.6 Increasingly, larger coteries of cultural, social, and feminist geographers have theorized extensively about the complexities of writing what Kath Weston calls “the great gay migration of the seventies and eighties.”7 Like studies of lesbians in Grand Rapids, Michigan, or gay people in Minot, North Dakota, my research about Prairie gay and lesbian communities uncovers both urban spaces and communities that few outside of those communities knew existed.

Burton E, Harding B (2011). Hello Sailor! Canadian Edition Oral History Project: A Research Report for the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Halifax, Nova Scotia: Final Report. PDF Download. This brief essay reviews the literatures pertaining to the experiences of gay seafarers in the Canadian historical context. It focuses on three particular bodies of historical literature. First, it reviews treatments of gay seafarers and homosexuality within the broader historiography of North Atlantic seafaring. Second, it reveals the lack of scholarly attention to gay seafarers within Canadian gay and lesbian studies. Third, it examines how gay seafarers and homosexual culture at sea have been addressed within the American historiographical context. This essay also highlights how oral research enables scholars to more fully illuminate the experiences of gay sailors and the nature homosexual culture at sea. The essay demonstrates that while homosexuality has been addressed within the general historiography on North Atlantic seafaring, it remains a largely unexplored topic within the Canadian historiographical tradition. However, pioneering studies in the American context offer useful conceptual and methodological models for incorporating the history of gay seafaring culture into the Canadian narratives of seafaring as well as gay and lesbian history. 


Chronology: Mexican Gay History (2002, Alternate Link). - "Vestidas, Locas, Mayates" and "Machos": History and Homosexuality in Mexican Cinema (2005). - Breve historia de la homosexualidad en México hasta fines del siglo XIX (2012, Translation). - “Homosexualidad, dilema, realidad e historia en México“, por Ernesto Zenteno Pineda (2011, Translation). - Historia del movimiento LGBTTTI en México (2012, Translation). - De sométicos y nefandos, una historia de homosexualidad en el México colonial (2010, Translation).

Homosexuality in ancient Mexico (2010). - Transgresiones sexuales en el México antiguo (Translation): Las transgresiones sexuales ocurrieron en el tiempo mítico y en el cotidiano. Dioses y seres humanos infringieron la norma sexual con prácticas incestuosas, adúlteras, homosexuales, entre otras. Las transgresiones en ambos espacios fueron un componente funcional del cosmos. - Historia de la homosexualidad en la Cd. de México (

Los 41 y la aparición de la homosexualidad en el imaginario colectivo de México (2010, Translation): Los 41 maricones, muy chulos y coquetones. Esta frase aparece en una ilustración de José Guadalupe Posada sobre un episodio de la historia del país que no es tan popular ni ha sido registrado en los libros de texto, pero que vale la pena recordar a propósito de las celebraciones del centenario de la Revolución Mexicana: el baile de los 41. El 18 de noviembre de 1901, la policía de la Ciudad de México llevó a cabo una redada en una residencia de la Calle de la Paz, en la colonia Tabacalera. En ella se celebraba una fiesta a la que asistieron 42 hombres, la mitad de ellos vestidos de mujeres. Cenaban, bebían, bailaban, y fueron detenidos por “dañar las buenas costumbres”. Fueron enviados a Oaxaca y Yucatán donde los condenaron a realizar trabajos forzados.

Birds of a Feather: Pollos and the Nineteenth-Century Prehistory of Mexican Homosexuality by Christopher Conway (2009): Carlos Monsivais has attributed the invention of homosexuality to a 1901 police raid on a Mexico City ball in which forty-one men, many of whom were dressed as women, were arrested for indecency. The sensational press that these arrests provoked, including broadsides by the popular engraver and lithographer José Guadalupe Posada, publicly disclosed and disseminated the concept of the abject, effeminate invert. The Forty-One represented a break with the past because Mexican print culture had never before disclosed, acknowledged, or disseminated such transparent images of sexually deviant, effeminate men. Instead, the nineteenth-century print media circulated several ambiguous yet non-sexual stereotypes of effeminate masculinity that were continuous with centuries-old, etymological geneaologies of male effeminacy in Spanish and European culture. In Mexico, such men had many names, including Dandy, Currutaco, and Petimetre, but one of the most prevalent and local labels at mid-century was that of Pollo (Chicken), a type that foreshadowed important aspects of the sensationalist stereotypes of the Joto and Marica that burst into print literature in 1901.

Stephen, Lynn (2002). Sexualities and Genders in Zapotec Oaxaca. Latin American Perspectives, Issue 123, 29(2): 41-59. PDF Download. Extract.  The southern Mexican state of Oaxaca provides a cross-section of the multiple gender relations and sexual behaviors and roles that coexist in modern Mexico.Looking at contemporary gender and sexuality in two Zapotec towns highlights the importance of historical continuities and discontinuities in systems of gender and their relationship to class, ethnicity (earlier coded as race), and sexuality.The various sexual roles, relationships, and identities that characterize contemporary rural Oaxaca suggest that instead of trying to look historically for the roots of “homosexuality,” “heterosexuality,” or even the concept of “sexuality,” we should look at how different indigenous systems of gender interacted with shifting discourses of Spanish colonialism, nationalism, and popular culture to redefine gendered spaces and the sexual behavior within them.Clear differences between elites and those on the margins of Mexican society underscore the importance of divisions by class and status. 

Books: - Sobre Sexualidad y homosexualidad en el México Prehispánico (2010, Translation). - Butterflies will burn : prosecuting sodomites in early modern Spain and Mexico - 2003 - by Federico Garza Carvajal (Review).
- Mexico se escribe con J: Una historia de la cultura gay - 2010 - by Miguel Capistrain (Review, Translation).

Latin America

Latina Lesbian Literary Herstory (2001): Latina Lesbian Literary Herstory: From Sor Juana to Days of Awe. - Against Nature: Sodomy and Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America (2012). - Historia de la homosexualidad en la Argentina. De la Conquista de America al siglo XXI - 2006 - by Osvaldo Bazan (Contents) (Review, Translation). - Raro, una historia gay de Chile - 2011 - by Óscar Contardo (Review, Translation).

Books: - Infamous Desire: Male Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America - 2003 - edited by Peter Herman Sigal (Google Books) (University of Chicago Press). [About the Author: The relationships between gender, sexuality, and colonialism have intrigued me since I began my first book on Maya sexuality. I recently completed a study on the interaction of writing and sexual representation in sixteenth and seventeenth-century Nahua societies--The Flower and the Scorpion: Sexuality and Ritual in Early Nahua Culture (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011); I am currently co-editing with Neil Whitehead a volume on “ethnopornography,” the relationship between the colonial and ethnographic gaze and sexuality throughout the world; and engaging in research on the position of the hyper-masculinized Aztec warrior in early modern literature from Europe and the Americas. I have moved from studying sexual desires in indigenous communities to examining the early modern cultural processes that created global concepts of modern sexuality, gender, masculinity, and femininity.]

Australia / New Zealand

Queer history to be heard in Brisbane (2012): This year’s HomoHistories Conference to be held in Brisbane early next month will feature the likes of New Zealand author Chris Bricknell as well as Monash University academic, Professor Dennis Altman, who will join a special panel to reflect upon the 40th anniversary of his groundbreaking text Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation. The annual conference, which this year is jointly-organised by the Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives and Griffith University academic Yorick Smaal will be held at the South Bank campus of Griffith University during the Queen’s Birthday weekend on June 8-9. Two dozen papers will be presented over the course of the two days, with topics to include the AIDS narratives of Gary Dunne, the gay press, gay liberation, the police and homophobia in South Australia, lesbians (not) in Australian film as well as the queer geography of Sydney and turn-of-the-century Queensland and Melbourne. - Graham Willett on queer history as public history (Audio). - The hidden history of homosexual Australia (2004, Film).

A chronology of homosexuality in New Zealand- The Hidden History of Homosexual Australia (2005).  - Civil disobedience by the gay and lesbian movements: Paper to second Australian Homosexual Histories conference, Melbourne, November 1999 (Available for Download). Also: Social impact assessment of gay hallmark events: the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. Paper to International Association for Impact Assessment conference, Glasgow, June 1999. - Queer History Links (New Zealand). - Lesbians in 1900 Brisbane. - Queer History New Zealand: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender New Zealand History.

A Little Australian History of Homosexuality. -  History of the Australian Bisexual Network and the Bisexual Movement in Australia. - Sydney Gay & Lesbian History Walk Radio Series: It features a virtual audio walk around gay and lesbian Sydney historical sites, broadcast on radio recently in Australia. - A Sydney gaze, the making of gay liberation 25 years of radical writings 1973-1998. - Australian Lesbian and Gay History: Bibliography. - Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives: History Bites

Queen City of the South - Melbourne Queer History Radio Series: "This webpage brings you a series of recordings, broadcast on radio in Australia, taking you on a historical tour of gay & lesbian Melbourne. The tour is led by the Australian Lesbian & Gay Archives, who weave their way through the streets of Melbourne, recounting tales of our gay and lesbian forebears. The series, produced by Barry McKay, was first broadcast on JOY FM, Melbourne. The series (23 parts) was put together with information from the Australian Lesbian & Gay Archives, Melbourne.

Willet, Graham (2002). From Camp to Gay: The Homosexual History of the University of Melbourne, 1960 - 1976. Working Paper No. 6, The History of the University Unit, University of Melbourne. PDF Download. It has not always been like this, of course. It was not until the 1960s that homosexuality was discussed in the pages of Farrago and it was not until 1970 that homosexuals began to speak openly for themselves. In this paper, I want to look at the emergence of homosexuality onto the public agenda of the university and at the early years of gay and lesbian activism.1 This is not to suggest, of course, that there is no history of homosexuality as a lived experience to be told. On the contrary. Many of those who I have interviewed, some of whose stories are drawn upon here, had active homosexual lives at the University before the rise of gay activism – and there are many more of these people to be found. But for the most part, the history of homosexuality on campus is a secret history, revealed in brief flashes, as in this letter, for example, to Farrago in 1968...

Moore C, Jamison B (2007). Making the modern Australian homosexual male: Queensland’s criminal justice system and homosexual offences, 1860-1954. Crime, Histoire et Societes, 11(1): 27-54. Full Text. The evidence indicates that the police carefully chose the possible range of charges to ensure convictions, targeted various age groups, manipulated the evidence, and tried to control the emerging gay subculture.  However, the sentences, although still severe were lenient within the possible range, and show that the judges were aware that male homosexuality was not such an “abominable crime”.  During the twentieth century, the legal system attempted to understand homosexuality and moderated sentences accordingly.  The findings help locate the timing of the emergence of the modern Australian male homosexual, when erotic categories are reorganized, gender and gender roles loose significance for categorizing sexual acts, and sexual object choice becomes detached from gender identity, allowing men to be homosexual while maintaining normative behaviour patterns. 

Bibliography -of writings about the history of same-sex desire and activity in Australia (1999).

Books: - Homophobia: An Australian History - 2008 - by Shirleene Robinson (Google Books) (Review) (Book  Launch Information) (Review). - Mates & Lovers: A History of Gay New Zealand - 2008 - by Chris Brickell (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Related Play, Theatre Review, Theatre Review) (YouTube, 2012). - Living out Loud: A History of Gay and Lesbian Activism in Australia - 2000 - by Graham Willett (Google Books) (Review) (Review). - Closets Are For Clothes: A History of Gay Australia - 2010 - by Rachel Cook (Google Books) (Review)

Books: - Out Here: Gay and Lesbian Perspectives VI - 2011 - edited by Yorick Smaal, Graham Willett (Free ebook). History related chapters: ‘We Blew Our Trumpets and…’ The ACT Homosexual Law Reform Society. - It’s Time: The Duncan Case and the Decriminalisation of Homosexual Acts in South Australia, 1972. - The Okayness of Gayness: Don Dunstan’s Record in Homosexual Law Reform. - Even More Hidden from History? Male Homosexuality and Medicine in Turn-of-the-Century Australia. - Australian Lesbian Artists of the Early Twentieth Century. - Friends and Lovers: Social Networks and Homosexual Life in War-time Queensland, 1938–1948. -  '… And the Theatre was Full of Poofs, and I Thought it was Fantastic': Researching the History of Gay Men and the Movies.


Homosexuality in Ancient Africa (2010). - The Truth About Homosexuality in Africa (2009, Part 1): Parts 2, 3, 4, 5. - Homosexuality in Pre-Colonial and Ancient Africa. - Homosexuality in Prehistoric Africa. - Afrique: Quand l'homosexualité était rituelle (2010, Translation): Un sociologue explique comment, avant la colonisation, la sodomie était pratiquée dans les rites de passage de certaines ethnies. - Une histoire de l'homosexualité en Afrique est-elle possible ? (Translation). - Mapping Our Histories: A Visual History of Black Lesbians in Post-Apartheid South Africa (2009).

Ugandan Documentary Eplores Pre-Colonial Gays (2012): It also explores the traditional covenants, referred to as ‘okutta omukago’ (making covenants), made by same-sex couples to cement their relationships. The film notes that most of gay pre-colonial history in Africa has been lost and what was recorded was done so by European colonisers and missionaries.

Thanks to the efforts of a group of Norwegian researchers…: "... homosexual behaviour amongst members of a tribe in the north of Namibia, a tribe that has not been influenced by Christianity. In the same vein, the American  psychologist Marc Carlson unearthed powerful evidence pointing towards similar practices amongst no less than 48 tribes in Zimbabwe. Not to mention the ubiquitous mineworker’s marriages, or the liberated sexual behaviour prevalent amongst followers of gang leader Nongoloza at the beginning of this century, or the traditionally sanctioned Venda system of female marriages, or the caresses that the young shepherds of the Botswana bushveld heap on each other….You see! - African Art: Traditional. - L’homosexualité au Buganda, une acculturation peut en cacher une autre (1999, Translation). - Timeline of LGBT history in South Africa (Wikipedia, 1960s to Present).

Homosexuality in pre-colonial Kenya (2010). - Homosexual History in Africa - Zande Warriors (2011): These warriors were featured on a show on Spike-TV in 2010 “Deadliest Warrior: Aztec Jaguar vs Zande Warrior”.  It showcased their ferocity, weaponry and fighting skills (clip is below).  Of course what they may not have known is that in the not so distant past, these warriors not only practiced homosexuality and bi-sexuality but actually married boys or young men. Warriors would select a boy between the ages of 12-20 years of age and go to his parents and request the boys hand in marriage.  The warrior would have to pay a bride price for the boy which would be in the form of spears (which are still valuable today) and other goods.  Once married the warrior referred to the boy’s parents as gbiore and negbiore…”father-in-law and mother-in-law”.  He and the boy addressed one another as badiare “my love or my lover”.  The boy took on house hold responsibilities that included fetching water, building a fire and holding the warrior shield when traveling.  The two slept together at night and the warrior would satisfy his sexual desires between the boy’s thighs.  It was the duty of the warrior husband to give his boy-wife a spear and shield when he became of age.  He was then trained to become a warrior and joined the warrior company.  Once a warrior, he then took on a boy-wife of his own.  This was all documented and later published by English anthropologist E.E. Evans-Pritchard in early 20th century.

Books: - Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities - 1998 - edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (Amazon) (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Review). - The Spirit of Intimacy: Ancient African Teachings in the Ways of Relationships - 2000 - by Sobonfu Somé (Related esssay: Homosexuality: The Gatekeepers  in The Spirit of Intimacy: Ancient Teachings in the Ways of Relationships). - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa.

Consultancy Africa Intelligence (2010). Colonial Sodomy: Homophobic threat within common law. Full Text. The majority of countries around the world that still criminalise homosexuality are former British colonies or territories. Sodomy laws are a common feature in 16 of the 18 African Commonwealth nations.(2) Almost all anti-sodomy laws date back to the British colonial era penal codes. These have never been repealed and are still in effect in almost all of the common law countries in Africa. Caselaw and customary practice have redefined these pieces of legislation, reshaping them as laws that criminalise any aspect of homosexual conduct and facilitate extreme homophobic policies in a number of countries. In recent months, some Governments have sought to radically increase the penalties for individuals convicted under anti-sodomy laws, a worrying development from a human rights perspective...

Blackwood, Evelyn (2004). Conference Report: The Women’s Same-Sex Forum and African Women’s Life History Project of Sex and Secrecy: The 4th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Sexuality, Culture, and Society. Johannesburg, South Africa, June 22-25. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(1): 104-107. PDF Download. In addition to the many excellent presentations on these topics, two forums specifically addressed lesbian sexualities, the Women’s Same-Sex Forum and the African Women’s Life History Project. Since the 1st international meeting of IASSCS, Saskia Wieringa, a Dutch anthropologist, feminist, and activist - and the new president of IASSCS - initiated and organized a women’s same-sex forum to ensure that lesbian voices are represented in the association and at the conferences. The forum consists of a set of panels oriented to topics addressing lesbian identities, sexualities, and health practices. Papers presented in the women’s same-sex forum in Melbourne, Australia (2001) specifically focused on lesbian and female transgender practices in Asia. With the addition of relevant papers from the Johannesburg forum, these papers will be published in a volume edited by Saskia Wieringa, Abha Bhaiya, and Evelyn Blackwood.

Epprecht, Marc (2008). Resources for Uncovering the History of Same-Sex Sexualities in Africa South Of the Sahara. SEPHIS e-magazine, 4(3). PDF Download. This paper challenges the dominant perception that lgbti issues are hidden or insignificant in Africa south of the Sahara in relation to the pressing health, economic, and political concerns of the majority population. It examines the rich body of scholarship, art, and activist writing by and about African lgbti people that is readily available for researchers and teachers, arguing that transnational queer and feminist scholarship, teaching, and activism could benefit from listening to these African voices... The history of same-sex sexualities in Africa south of the Sahara has been substantively documented and analysed. Yet this history continues to be marginalised in scholarship and activism around gender and sexuality, particularly as they pertain to HIV and AIDS. That disease, after all, "is based on heterosexual transmission" in Africa, as Susser and Stein would flatly proclaim in line with mainstream AIDS discourse, even in hip South Africa. Issues of specific concern to women who have sex with women (wsw), or women who may be infected with HIV by men, who have sex with men (msm), are almost totally invisible in this discourse. The presumption, sometimes made explicit, is that research and open debate about same-sex sexuality are taboo or "dangerous" in Africa on account of deep-seated, pervasive and violent homophobia throughout the continent.

Field of Sexuality Studies: What Is It? (2004): Categories such as ‘heterosexual’ or ‘homosexual’ or ‘bisexual’ as defined in Western societies do not necessarily carry the same meaning elsewhere... With all these questions in mind, we were reminded of pre-colonial practices such as that of the Azande of Sudan, whose un-married warriors were once expected to take ‘boy wives’ from age-grades lower than themselves. How could we explain the ‘yan dandu cross-dressers amongst the Nigerian Hausa who have sex with men, or the seemingly bisexual gordjiguene, well known amongst the Wolof of Senegal? What about the practice of bukhontxana on the mines in South Africa or kunyenga amongst contemporary street-boys in Tanzania, are there no historical or cultural antecedents? As is the case throughout the world, increasing research on sexuality in Africa is showing that Africans have had, and continue to have a very rich and diverse experience of human sexuality... Acknowledging the Western and Victorian-era roots of the study of sexuality is important for imagining the future direction of this growing field. The historic legacy still impacts on the way we conceptualise, interpret and write about sexuality around the world. A good example here is the study of sexual exchange practices sometimes called ‘transactional sex’. Reference to the western-derived notion of ‘prostitution’ has provided the most common starting point for our research on this topic during the past quarter century. Exchanges where cash or kind are given in return for sexual favours have been largely conceived within the narrow confines of Victorian-inspired assumptions that link sex to money to immorality to social pathology. Today the term ‘prostitution’ conjures up all those historic meanings. For scholars like myself who try to write about contemporary sexual exchanges, especially in the African context of women’s poverty and economic dependence on men, we are greatly hampered by limited and inappropriate vocabulary that is the product of Victorian-era sexology. Such dilemmas should serve to alert us to the need for Afro-centric conceptual frames for understanding sexuality, and to motivate us to develop more culturally sensitive ways of engaging with sexual phenomena...

Homosexualité en Afrique Noire 2 (Translation): De manière générale, les rapports sexuels entre les individus (femmes ou hommes) de même sexe ont un nom générique en dehors des pratiques spécifiques dans lesdits rapports. Cette réalité est ainsi désignée dans certaines langues locales par : dan kashili (haoussa), masu harka, mke-si-mume (kiswahili), kuswerana nk’imbwa, kunonoka (kirundi), quimbandas. Le rôle sexuel ambivalent que ce soit le rôle insertif ou réceptif à la fois où à tour de rôle est aussi connu, il est alors désigné dans d’autres langues omututa (wawihé). Les relations interfémorales ne sont pas en reste, otjizenja (wawihé). Cependant, tout cela ne permet toujours pas d’établir un lien entre ces termes et l’homosexualité identitaire. Dans une certaine mesure, il apparaît plutôt que ce sont les homosexualités qui sont plutôt désignés, plus précisément, la forme « entendido » espagnole... « Homosexualité » en Afrique : construction historique ... Pratiques homosexuelles à travers les classes d’âge : les jeux érotiques chez les jeunes garçons .... Les premières expériences homosexuelles se font parmi les garçons, parfois issus de la même famille, ce qui a pour but d’accroître la confiance au sein des parties prenantes ... « Homosexualité » dans les rites initiatiques ... « Homosexualité » en l’absence d’hommes et/ou de femmes ... - Homosexualité en Afrique Noire Mythe ou réalité ? (1) (Translation).Homosexualité en Afrique Noire (3) (Translation).

Essien K, Aderinto s (2009). "Cutting the Head of the Roaring Monster": Homosexuality and Repression in Africa. African Study Monographs, 30(3): 121-135. PDF Download. PDF Download.

African myths about homosexuality (2010): Further evidence for the existence of homosexuality is that pre-colonial African ethnic groups ascribed tribal classifications to gay people. While some of these categorisations had negative associations, many had neutral connotations. Certain tribes in pre-colonial Burkina Faso and South Africa regarded lesbians as astrologers and traditional healers. A number of tribal groups in Cameroon and Gabon believed homosexuality had a medicinal effect. In pre-colonial Benin, homosexuality was viewed as a boyhood phase that males passed through and eventually grew out of. Indeed, European contact altered some pre-colonial African attitudes towards homosexuality considerably. For instance, early colonial Portuguese penal codes criminalised homosexuality in Angola. Prior to Portuguese control, homosexual men called chibados had been free to exercise their sexuality. Portuguese colonial laws either gave rise to or intensified homophobia in Africa. Homophobia is more colonial than the practice of homosexuality in Africa. The contradiction could not be starker. - Heart of Lavender: In Search of Gay Africa (1995). - The politics of homosexuality in Africa (2007). - What traditional African homosexuality learned from West (2012): Citing historical records of homosexual practices in Africa, Awondo mentioned evidence of same-sex sexual relationships in Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Burkina Faso and Benin. It is helpful for Africans to know about ancient practices such as Mossi kings’ sexual relations with their pages and marriages between women in Dahomey, he said. “Knowing historical truths lets us avoid unhistorical lies,” he said...

Homosexuality in pre-colonial Africa (2010): But of course, as historians of Africa are beginning to learn, we now know that the basic assumptions underlying these African attitudes towards homosexuality are wrong and quite clearly ahistorical. At the very dawn of history in Southern Africa, when there was a transition from the hunting-gathering economy of the Khoisan to the cattle-based economy of Bantu-speaking people that brought more male control over the sexuality of women, dissident sexualities such as hungochani (homosexuality) began to emerge or were already known. The Shona of Zimbabwe, for example, like other societies, observed a culture of discretion around sexual matters, and actually recognized various forms of queer sexualities. Examples of pre-colonial gender variance and sexual inversion included ritual incest and celibacy, such as the mbonga, a female guardian whose celibacy protected the Shona chief, and the chibanda, a caste of male diviners possessed by female spirits and referred to in early European sources as “passive sodomites”. Among the Lovedu people, the gender inversion involved women. The “rain queen” kept her virginity but married girls. In the nineteenth century, Ndebele and Ngoni warriors introduced the practice of ritual male-male sexuality as part of war preparations.

Dakar from Africa's gay capital to centre of homophobia: The old Wolof name for homosexual men is gor-digen, or men-women. Armand Marie Corre, a French navy doctor stationed in Senegal in the 1870s, writes how he met many locals "with feminine dress and demeanour, who he was told, made their living from prostitution." Dr Corre referred to the Wolofs' appetite for "morbid eroticism" in his critical report; the oldest known written records of homosexuality in Senegal. In the 1930s, European reports about the exotic gor-digen increase in numbers, reflecting their visibility in the streets of Dakar. Traveller Geoffrey Gorer reports the men-women are "a common sight" and that "they do their best to deserve the epithet by their mannerisms, their dress and their make-up; some even dress their hair like women." ... Mr Davidson reports about brothels and nightclubs dominated by the gor-digen. A suburban club "was full of adolescent Africans in drag. ... Most of them were indeed in girls' clothes: some in European, some wearing the elaborate headdress of the West African mode. ... They danced together. They camped around like a pride of prima donnas. They came to our table and drank lots of beer with us," he recalls. Raymond Schenkel was the first to present scientific research about the sexuality of the Senegalese in 1971. A non-random survey of Senegalese made by the researcher revealed that 17.6 percent of male respondents and even 44.4 percent of females said they had had homosexual experiences. The researcher also noted the big visibility of homosexuality in Dakar.

The Great Deception: The Myth of a Non-Homosexual Africa (2009): In the central African Zande culture, before European conquest, it was regarded "as very sensible for a man to sleep with boys when women are not available or are taboo." English anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard was told that in addition to times when women were not available for sex, some Azande men had sex with [young men] "just because they like them." Among the Fon, the predominant people in Dahomey (now Benin), Melville Herskovits in the 1930s reported that, after the age at which boys and girls may play together, "the sex drive finds satisfaction in close friendship between boys in the same group . . . . A boy may take the other ’as a woman.’ This was refered to as gaglgo - their term for homosexuality. Sometimes an affair of this sort persists during the entire life of the pair" (Murray) Among the Tswana (in addition to homosexuality among the men laboring in the mines), it was reported that back home "lesbian practices are apparently fairly common among the older girls and young women, without being regarded in any way reprehensible." Use of artificial penises was also reported among the Ila and Naman tribes of South Africa. (Murray) It is disappointing to see how complete the colonization of Africa has been, especially hearing what the apparently learned Archbishops have said. First of all, homosexuality is not alien to African culture. What is alien to Africa is Christianity. What is alien to Africa is homophobia and sexual repression.

South Africa: Apartheid Military Forced Gay Troops Into Sex-Change Operations (2001). -

Behind the Mask (Archive Link), a non-profit website magazine on gay and lesbian affairs in Africa, was launched at 8 May 2000. This independent project of the Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (GALA) is funded by the Humanist Institution for Development Co-operation (HIVOS), the Heinrich Boehl Foundation and the Netherlands Institute on Southern Africa.

Homosexuality in "Traditional" Sub-Saharan Africa and Contemporary South Africa: An overview by Stephen O. Murray (49 pages, PDF Download, or access web page for PDF Download, in 2 paper sizes.) - Boy-Wives and Female Husbands. (A review by Gert Hekma par Gert Hekma, Université d'Amsterdam, published in Thamyris) (Related Information)

GALA: Gay & Lesbian Memory in Action: We are a centre for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) culture and education in Africa. Our mission is, first and foremost, to act as a catalyst for the production, preservation and dissemination of knowledge on the history, culture and contemporary experiences of LGBTI people. - South Africa's Gay & Lesbian Archives (To 2007).

Books: - Heterosexual Africa?: The History of an Idea from the Age of Exploration to the Age of AIDS - 2008 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Introduction) (Review) (Review). - Moffies: gay life in Southern Africa - 2000 - by Bart Luirink (Review) (Abstract) (Amazon). - Boy Wives and Female Husbands: Studies of African Homosexualities - 1998 - edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (Google Books). (Review, Alternate Link) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Tommy Boys, Lesbian Men, and Ancestral Wives: Female Same-Sex Practices in Africa - 2006 - by Ruth Morgan, Saskia Wierenga (Google Books) (Related Information) (Review) (Book Launch). - African Masculinities: men in Africa from the late 19th century to the present - 2005 - edited by Lahoucine Ouzgane, Robert Morrell (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Unspoken Facts. A History of Homosexualities in Africa - 2008 - edited by Marc Epprecht (Review). - Hungochani: the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa - 2004 - by Marc Epprecht (Google Books) (Review) (Review) (Related Article: homosexuality taboo in africa.

The "SEARCH Section" For...
The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts...
And The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

Search Engines & Directories: - Google Scholar. - MSN Search.- Proteus Search. - Wikipedia Listing of Search Engines. - All GLBT Resource Directories. - Google's GLBT Directory. - Yahoo's Directory. - DMOZ: Open Directory. - BGLAD. - Wikipedia. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture.

Directories for Open Access Resources: - The Directory of  Open-Access Journals. - Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). - Yahoo Theses Access Directory. - Google Directory: Free Access Online Archives.

Open Access Collections From Multiple Sources: - Australian Research Online. - hal: articles en ligne (French / English Version). - Archive Ouverte INRIA. - Hispana. Directorio y recolector de recursos digitales. - Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal- Pacific Rim Library. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. - - OpenJ-Gate: Open Access. many free full text articles and papers. -

Search for Free Papers / Book Reviews: - All Papers are free at BioMed Cental (Open Access) & PubMed Central. - HighWire Press (Numerous Free Papers).  eScholarship Repository:  University of California, e-books, journals and peer-reviewed documents. - DSpace Eprints: Australian National University. - DSpace@MIT. - Virginia Tech: Digital Library / Archives. - eScholarship: U of California. - University of Southampton CiteBase. - Eprints: University of Nottingham. - T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries.  - NTUR, National Taiwan University- Allacademic: Some free papers to either read online or download as PDFs. -  UNESCO: Articles, Report, Dissertations, Films, etc. - Kyoto University Research Information Repository. - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki- E-LIS: eprints in Library & Information Services. - CogPrints: eprints. - RePEc: Research Papers in Economics. - DiVa: Scandinavian University Documents. - The International Gay & Lesbian Review (IGLR): Book Reviews & Abstracts. - InterAlia, a peer-edited scholarly journal for queer theory

Search for Free Articles, Papers or - The Free Library. - France Queer Resources Directory. - Séminaire gai. - The QRD. - GLBTQ: The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture. - Human Rights Campaign. - IGLHRC: The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. - ILGA: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. - ILGA-Europe: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association of Europe. - Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. - Kinsey Institute Staff Publications. - Sexual Policy Watch Working Papers. NAZ Foundation International: Primary aim is to improve the sexual health and human rights of marginalised males who have sex with males, their partners and families in South Asia and elsewhere.  The World Health Orgazization. - The Body: The complete HIV/AIDS Resource. - POZ Magazine: Archive dates back to 1994.

Search for Papers, with Abstract Available (Some May Be Free): The National Library of Medicine (Free papera are highlighted). Abstracts from searches are available at: ERIC: The Education Resources Information Center (Many Free Documents). - Informaworld. - Oxford Journals (Some Open Access Content). - Springer Journals (Some Open Access Content). - ScienceDirect Journals. - University of California Press Journals on Caliber. - IngentaConnect. - Project Muse. - JSTOR: The Scholarly Journal Archive. - Wiley Interscience. - Cambridge Journals Online: Follow Link. - Sage Journals. - Palgrave Macmillan Journals. - Emerald E-journals. - University of Chicago Journals. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Journals. - HeinOnline (Access Free Content, Law Papers). - SSRN: Social Science Research Network.

Search for Free Theses / Dissertations, May Include Papers: Library & Archives Canada, Electronic Free Theses Download. - Virginia Tech: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. - DSpace@MIT. - Electronic Theses & Dissertations BYU. - OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Center & Worldwide ETD Index. - Australasian Digital Theses Program (Abstracts Given & Free Downloads). - Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (Abstracts). - PQDTOpen Dissertations (Abstracts & Free Downloads: ProQuest). DART-Europe: Free Access to European Doctoral Theses. - The British Library's EThOS service (British Doctoral Theses Abstracts). - DORAS: Free Theses,  Ireland. - TEL (thèses-en-ligne). - DiVa: Scandinavian Theses / Other Documents. - BORA: Open Archive, University of Bergen, Norway.  - Doctoral dissertations and other publications from the University of Helsinki. - LUP: Lund University Publications. - National Cheng Kung University Institutional Repository. - HKU Scholars Hub. - Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertacoes (BDTD), Brazil. - OAIster: a union catalog of available digital resources. Free papers also available -

Full Text GLBTQ Papers / Articles by/at: - Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review. -  Archive of Sexology Full Text Papers. - Hawaii AIDS Education and Training Center: AIDS Education Project. - Arlene Istar Lev. - F. Kenneth Freedman. - Margaret Nichols & IPG Staff. - Michael Shernoff. - Gary Remafedi. - Susan Cochran & Vickie Mays (and Others). - Gregory M. Herek and others. - Esther Rothblum. - First International Conference of Asian Queer Studies: Index of Papers. (Related Book) - "Queer Space: Centres and Peripheries" Conference Papers. -  Sexualities: Bodies, Desires, Practices: Project Archives: 2nd Global Conference on Sex & Sexuality Papers,  2005,  3rd Conference, 2006: Probing the Problematics: Sex and Sexuality. Papers in one PDF + More Conferences. - Intersections: Gender & Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. - The Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review - Special Issue, 1996: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People and Education (Many Authors, abstracts, articles). - The International Journal of Transgenderism (Many Authors, Official Journal of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: HBIGDA). - Lesbigay SIGnals. - Self-Help Psychology Magazine. - Australian Humanities Review Archive Index. - Schools Out Document Resource. - All NGLTF Documents. - National Coalition for LGBT Health: Downloading Page For Full Text Papers and Reports.


  The development of these GLBT information web pages were made possible through the collaboration of Richard Ramsay (Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary) and Pierre Tremblay (independent researcher, writer, and GLBT children and youth advocate) who both recognize that often needed social changes occur as the result of knowledge availability and dissemination. Additional Information at: Warning, Acknowledgments, Authors.

These GLBTQ Info-Pages were located at the University of Southampton from 2000 to 2003, this being the result of a collaboration with Dr. Chris Bagley, Department of Social Work Studies, University of Southampton.

Graphics are compliments of Websight West. The Synergy Centre donated computer/Internet time to facilitate the construction of this GLBT information site. Both are owned by a Chris Hooymans, a friend, and former publisher of a gay & lesbian magazine in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Chris continues to offer his expertise whenever needed and he has supplied, free of charge, the hosting of the site - Youth Suicide Problems: A Gay / Bisexual Male Focus to 2011 - where a smaller - GLBTQ Education Section - and the Internet Resource Page for this subject ( is located.

Many thanks to Wendy Stephens from The Department of Communications Media, University of Calgary.  She communicated with publishers of many academic journals (an ongoing time-consuming process) for permission to reproduce abstracts from papers and studies on these GLBT information web pages.


The information made available on this web page does not represent all the relevant information available on the Internet, nor in professional journals and in other publications.

This web page was constructed to supply a spectrum of information for individuals seeking to understand one or more of the many gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender issues.

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