1. For a complete text of Symmachus' official correspondence as prefect, with translation and commentary, see R.H. Barrow, Prefect and Emperor (Oxford, 1973).




5. During his visit to Rome in 357 (see § 8 and n.6 below), Constantius ordered the removal of the Altar of Victory from the Senate Chambers, but his successor Julian restored it to its place.

6. For Constantius' visit to Rome, see Ammianus Marcellinus, 16.10. For discussion of the visit's impact on religious matters, see R.O. Edbrooke, "The Visit of Constantius II to Rome in 357 and its Effect on the Pagan Roman Senatorial Aristocracy," American Journal of Philology 97 (1976), 40-61.

7. A similar argument appears twenty years earlier at Themistius' Oration 5.70a: "God wants Syrians to be people of one type, Greeks to be people of a different sort, and Egyptians a third variety. Even the Syrians he does not want to be alike, but he has actually broken them down into small units." If, as is likely, Syrians are meant to represent Christianity, Themistius is hinting at Christianity's problems with heresy and implying that they could hardly impose their view when they hadn't been able to define it indisputably. The argument for variety appears to derive from Porphyry. I have discussed this in "The Background to Augustine's Denial of Religious Plurality," in Grace, Politics and Desire: Essays on Augustine, ed. H.A. Meynell (Calgary, 1990), 179-193, and Themistius and the Imperial Court. Oratory, Civic Duty and Paideia from Constantius to Theodosius (Ann Arbor, 1995), 24-25, 148-153.

8. Quite frequently in literature, Roma enters to intercede on her own behalf. For another occasion, see Claudian, De Sexto Consulatu Honorii, 356-425, and for an analysis of the technique, with reference to other examples and other treatments, M.J. Dewar, Claudian. Panegyricus de Sexto Consulatu Honorii Augusti (Oxford, 1996), 264 ff.

9. For a similar view, see Themistius, Oration 5.68d-69a, and the works cited in n.7 above. More remarkably, perhaps, Augustine not long after his conversion expressed the same sentiment in his Soliloquies, but changed his view later: "Again, my statement, 'Union with wisdom in not achieved by a single road,' does not sound right, as if there were another way apart from Christ, who said, 'I am the way'" (Retractiones 1.4.3). See the paper cited in n.7 for the view that Neoplatonism influenced the early remark.